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Sample records for pentylenetetrazol ptz-induced seizures

  1. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish).

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G

    2015-07-14

    Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug. For assays of anticonvulsant activity, zebrafish were pretreated with: anti-epileptic drugs, valerenic acid, aqueous or ethanolic valerian extracts, or mixtures (phenytoin or clonazepam with valerenic acid or valerian extracts). Seizures were then induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). A behavioral scale was developed for scoring PTZ-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The seizure latency was evaluated for all pretreatments and control, untreated fish. Valerenic acid and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of valerian root were also evaluated for their ability to improve survival after pentylenetetrazole-challenge. The assay was validated by comparison with well-studied anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, clonazepam, gabapentin and valproate). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test was performed, using a p < 0.05 level of significance. All treatments were compared with the untreated animals and with the other pretreatments. After exposure to pentylenetetrazole, zebrafish exhibited a series of stereotypical behaviors prior to the appearance of clonic-like movements--convulsions. Both valerenic acid and valerian extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) significantly extended the latency period to the onset of seizure (convulsion) in adult zebrafish. The ethanolic valerian extract was a more potent anticonvulsant than the aqueous extract. Valerenic acid and both valerian extracts interacted synergistically with clonazepam to extended the

  2. Garcinol Upregulates GABAA and GAD65 Expression, Modulates BDNF-TrkB Pathway to Reduce Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Fang; Jia, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wan; Zhang, Ying-Rui; Liu, Xue-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is the most predominant neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy still is a challenge to treat, due to the associated adverse effects of the drugs. Previous investigations have shown critical roles of BDNF-TrkB signalling and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABAA in the brain during epilepsy. Thus, drugs that could modulate BDNF-TrkB signal and expression of GAD65 and GABAA could aid in therapy. Recent experimental data have focussed on plant-derived compounds in treatments. Garcinol (camboginol), is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derived from the fruit of Garcinia indica. We investigated the effects of garcinol in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic models. Material/Methods Seizure scores were measured in epilepsy kindled mice. Neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were assessed by Nissl staining, TUNEL assay, and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cleaved caspase-3 expressions. Expression of BDNF, TrkB, GABAA, GAD65, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax were determined by western blots. Results Significantly reduced seizure scores and mortality rates were observed with pretreatment with garcinol. Elevated expression of apoptotic proteins and caspase-3 in kindled mice were effectively downregulated by garcinol. Epileptogenic mice presented increased BDNF and TrkB with considerably decreased GABAA and GAD65 expression. Garcinol significantly enhanced GABAA and GAD65 while it suppressed BDNF and TrkB. Garcinol enhanced the performance of mice in Morris water maze tests. Conclusions Garcinol exerts neuroprotective effects via supressing apoptosis and modulating BDNF-TrkB signalling and GAD65/GABAA expressions and also enhanced cognition and memory of the mice. PMID:27855137

  3. Protective effect of naringin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling; possible mechanisms of antikindling, memory improvement, and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Kola, Phani Kumar; Akula, Annapurna; NissankaraRao, Lakshmi Sudeepthi; Danduga, R Ch Sekhara Reddy

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Naringin on seizure severity, progress of kindling, memory impairment, oxidative stress, neurochemicals, and neural damage in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling. Alternate intra-peritoneal injections of PTZ induced kindling at 22 injections of PTZ. In comparison with the PTZ group, pretreatment with Naringin 30 min prior to PTZ administration and on a PTZ-free day was found to lead to a decreased seizure score, a mitigated progress of kindling, decreased transfer latency, and increased total number of arm entries, % alternation behavior in Y maze, and % conditioned avoidance response in a pole climbing apparatus. Biochemical analysis of the frontal and temporal cortexes and the hippocampus of the brain showed that Naringin attenuated the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and augmented the reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total thiol results in decreased oxidative stress compared with the PTZ group and control group. Investigation of neurochemicals revealed a minute change in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine, and decreased AChE in the three regions. Increased CA1 neuronal density in the hippocampus and increased cell density in the frontal and temporal regions indicate the potential of naringin to act against PTZ-induced kindling, memory impairment, oxidative stress, neurochemical changes, and histological aberrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/μL/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/μL/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility.

  5. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-03

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiapoptotic and neuroprotective role of Curcumin in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model in rat.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Kumari, Sweta; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyojyoti

    2016-02-01

    Kindling, a sub threshold chemical or electrical stimulation, increases seizure duration and enhances accompanied behavior until it reaches a sort of equilibrium state. The present study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in PTZ kindled rats and its role in apoptosis and neuronal damage. In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were administrated orally one hour before the PTZ injections on alternate day during the whole kindling days. The following parameters were compared between control and experimental groups: the course of kindling, stages of seizures, Histopathological scoring of hippocampus, antioxidant parameters in the hippocampus, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in hippocampus, and neuron-specific enolase in the blood. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis and Fischer's Exact test were used for statistical analyses. PTZ, 30 mg/kg, induced kindling in rats after 32.0 ± 1.4 days. Curcumin showed dose-dependent anti-seizure effect. Curcumin (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. PTZ kindling induced a significant neuronal injury, oxidative stress and apoptosis which were reversed by pretreatment with curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential antiepileptogenic effect on kindling-induced epileptogenesis.

  7. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures with respect to cholinergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Visweswari, Gopalreddygari; Prasad, Kanchi Siva; Chetan, Pandanaboina Sahitya; Lokanatha, Valluru; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2010-03-01

    The study described here was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica with respect to cholinergic activity on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups of six rats each: nonepileptic rats treated with saline; PTZ (60 mg/kg, IP)-induced seizure rats treated with saline; PTZ-induced seizure rats pretreated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of C. asiatica; and PTZ-induced seizure rats pretreated with diazepam (2mg/kg body wt). The seized rats pretreated with different extracts were administered a dose of 200mg/kg body wt orally for 1 week before induction of epilepsy. Increased acetylcholine content and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity were recorded in different brain regions during PTZ-induced seizures. Pretreatment with C. asiatica extracts caused recovery of the levels of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. These findings suggest that C. asiatica causes perceptible changes in the cholinergic system as one of the facets of its anticonvulsant activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of bee products on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zárraga-Galindo, N; Vergara-Aragón, P; Rosales-Meléndez, S; Ibarra-Guerrero, P; Domínguez-Marrufo, L E; Oviedo-García, R E; Hernández-Ramírez, H; Hernández-Téllez, B; López-Martínez, I E; Sánchez-Cervantes, I; Vázquez-García, M; Santiago, J

    2011-01-01

    Bee products (BP) have been used for centuries as a diet complement with claimed curative properties. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral administration of BP prevented behavioral, histological, and biochemical alterations, caused by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in rats. Male Wistar rats were employed to evaluate seizure latency, number and duration, performance in the open field test, histological alterations and mortality following BP administration. Oral administration of BP at two doses, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day, significantly lengthened latency of both clonic and tonic PTZ-induced seizures, decreased the duration and frequency of seizures and reduced mortality. In the Open Field test, BP treated groups showed increases in the number of crossed squares and rearing counts, and on optimal dose, decreases in fecal boli. Histological analysis showed in PTZ (50 and 80 mg/kg) kindling rats, lungs with inflammatory peribronchiolar, and perialveolar infiltrates. In the liver, mild losses of trabeculae, multi-vesiculated hepatocytes (steatosis) and inflammatory infiltrates in hepatic parenchyma were observed. Interestingly, in the heart, fibers were markedly separated. In testis, stratified epithelium of seminal tubules lost its normal structure, tubules had epithelium loss, spermatids were absent, and spermatogonia and Leydig cells diminished. In PTZ kindling rats treated with BP, the lungs had no inflammatory infiltrates, although the heart showed some inflammatory infiltrates. Remaining structures had normal characteristics. These results, suggest that BP can protect rats from effects of PTZ-induced kindling.

  9. vGLUT2 heterozygous mice show more susceptibility to clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Anneleen; Massie, Ann; Loyens, Ellen; Moechars, Diederik; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is well known to be implicated in epileptic seizures. Therefore, impairments in glutamate transport could have an involvement in the mechanism of epileptogenesis. The uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUTs). There are three known vGLUT isoforms, vGLUT1-3. In this study, we are particularly interested in the vGLUT2 isoform. We investigated the possible role of vGLUT2 in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure generation. Seizure threshold of PTZ was compared in vGLUT2 heterozygous knock out (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. In comparison with their WT littermates a lower dose of PTZ was needed in the vGLUT2 HET mice until the onset of the first myoclonic jerk. The threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizure activity was also lower in the vGLUT2 HET mice. These results indicate, for the first time, that vGLUT2 is likely involved in the epileptogenesis of generalized seizures.

  10. Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Besio, W G; Makeyev, O; Medvedev, A; Gale, K

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) on the electrographic and behavioral activity from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. The TCREs were attached to the rat scalp. PTZ was administered and, after the first myoclonic jerk was observed, TFS was applied to the TFS treated group. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral activity were recorded and studied. In the case of the TFS treated group, after TFS, there was a significant (p=0.001) decrease in power compared to the control group in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands. The number of myoclonic jerks was significantly different (p=0.002) with median of 22 and 4.5 for the control group and the TFS treated groups, respectively. The duration of myoclonic activity was also significantly different (p=0.031) with median of 17.56 min for the control group versus 8.63 min for the TFS treated group. At the same time there was no significant difference in seizure onset latency and maximal behavioral seizure activity score between control and TFS treated groups. TFS via TCREs interrupted PTZ-induced seizures and electrographic activity was reduced toward the "baseline." The significantly reduced electrographic power, number of myoclonic jerks, and duration of myoclonic activity of PTZ-induced seizures suggests that TFS may have an anticonvulsant effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Besio, W.G.; Makeyev, O.; Medvedev, A.; Gale, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) on the electrographic and behavioral activity from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Methods The TCREs were attached to the rat scalp. PTZ was administered and, after the first myoclonic jerk was observed, TFS was applied to the TFS treated group. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral activity were recorded and studied. Results In the case of the TFS treated group, after TFS, there was a significant (p = 0.001) decrease in power compared to the control group in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands. The number of myoclonic jerks was significantly different (p = 0.002) with median of 22 and 4.5 for the control group and the TFS treated groups, respectively. The duration of myoclonic activity was also significantly different (p= 0.031) with median of 17.56 min for the control group versus 8.63 min for the TFS treated group. At the same time there was no significant difference in seizure onset latency and maximal behavioral seizure activity score between control and TFS treated groups. Conclusions TFS via TCREs interrupted PTZ-induced seizures and electrographic activity was reduced towards the “baseline.” The significantly reduced electrographic power, number of myoclonic jerks, and duration of myoclonic activity of PTZ-induced seizures suggests that TFS may have an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:23290195

  12. Effect of the Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rakotosaona, Rianasoambolanoro; Randrianarivo, Emmanuel; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-10-01

    In the Malagasy traditional practices, the smoke from burning leaves of Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy is inhaled to treat brain disorders such as dementia, epilepsy, and headache. In the present work, we have evaluated the in vivo anticonvulsant effects of the essential oil from leaves of C. madagascariensis (CMEO). CMEO was isolated by steam distillation. The anticonvulsant activity of CMEO (0.4 and 0.8 ml/kg bw) administered subcutaneously was evaluated on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats; diazepam was used as positive control. Linalool, limonene, and myrcene were the major CMEO constituents. At the dose of 0.8 ml/kg, CMEO completely arrested the PTZ-induced convulsions with moderate sedative effects. The traditional anticonvulsant use of C. madagascariensis was confirmed allowing us to candidate molecules from CMEO as potential drugs to treat convulsions associated with strong agitation. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Indomethacin treatment prior to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures downregulates the expression of il1b and cox2 and decreases seizure-like behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Patrícia Gonçalves; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Maurer-Morelli, Claudia Vianna

    2016-03-09

    It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization. Furthermore, we exposed the fish to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin prior to PTZ, and we measured its effect on seizure latency, number of seizure behaviors, and mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. We used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2a, cox2b, and c-fos, and visual inspection was used to monitor seizure latency and the number of seizure-like behaviors. We found a short-term upregulation of il1b, and we revealed that cox2b, but not cox2a, was induced after seizures. Indomethacin treatment prior to PTZ-induced seizures downregulated the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. Moreover, we observed that in larvae exposed to indomethacin, seizure latency increased and the number of seizure-like behaviors decreased. This is the first study showing that il1b and cox-2 transcripts are upregulated following PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrated the anticonvulsant effect of indomethacin based on (1) the inhibition of PTZ-induced c-fos transcription, (2) increase in seizure latency, and (3) decrease in the number of seizure-like behaviors. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin is clearly demonstrated by the downregulation of the mRNA expression of il1b and cox2b. Our results

  14. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.

  15. The effect of sertraline and 8-OH-DPAT on the PTZ_induced seizure threshold: Role of the nitrergic system.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Azhdar; Davoudi, Shima

    2017-02-01

    Serotonin is a key regulatory neurotransmitter in the CNS which plays an important role in seizure through different receptors, especially the 5HT 1A subtype. The role of sertraline through the 5HT 1A receptor and nitric oxide interaction on the PTZ-induced seizure threshold was investigated in this study. In this study, 70 white male mice were randomly divided into 10 groups including intact control, sham-control and eight experimental groups which received sertraline, 8-OH-DPAT, WAY100635, WAY100635+sertraline, WAY100635+8-OH-DPAT, L-NAME, L-NAME+sertraline and L-NAME+8-OH-DPAT. After 14days of treatment in different groups, the PTZ-induced seizure threshold was assessed and the measurement of nitric oxide metabolites in the brain tissue was done with the Greiss method. The seizure threshold was significantly increased in the sertraline and 8OH-DPAT receiving groups compared to the sham group (P<0.001). In the presence of WAY100635, the effect of both sertraline and 8-OH-DPAT in raising the seizure threshold was more prominent (P<0.001) but on the other hand, in the presence of L-NAME, an increase in the anticonvulsant effect of 8-OH-DPAT was observed, while L-NAME alone had no effect on the seizure threshold (P<0.001). The NO X concentration was significantly decreased in the 8-OH-DPAT_treated group (P<0.01), while the WAY100657 reversed it and the combination of 8-OH-DPAT with L-NAME reduced the NO X levels (P<0.001). These findings support the anticonvulsant effect of SSRIs and selective 5HT 1A receptors, although serotonin receptors other than 5HT 1A subtype may be involved and also it is probable that some anticonvulsant effects of the sertraline and 8-OH-DPAT are through the modulation of nitrergic system. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

  17. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2013-06-01

    There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure.

  18. Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR α or PPAR γ raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPAR-α) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

  19. Effects of JIP3 on epileptic seizures: Evidence from temporal lobe epilepsy patients, kainic-induced acute seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced kindled seizures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Chen, Y; Lü, Y; Chen, X; Cheng, L; Mi, X; Xu, X; Deng, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, N; Li, J; Li, Y; Wang, X

    2015-08-06

    JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), also known as JNK stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1), is a scaffold protein mainly involved in the regulation of the pro-apoptotic signaling cascade mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Overexpression of JIP3 in neurons in vitro has been reported to lead to accelerated activation of JNK and enhanced apoptosis response to cellular stress. However, the occurrence and the functional significance of stress-induced modulations of JIP3 levels in vivo remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression of JIP3 in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse model of epileptic seizures, and determined whether down-regulation of JIP3 can decrease susceptibility to seizures and neuron damage induced by KA. We found that JIP3 was markedly increased in TLE patients and a mouse model of epileptic seizures; mice underexpressing JIP3 through lentivirus bearing LV-Letm1-RNAi showed decreased susceptibility, delayed first seizure and decreased seizure duration response to the epileptogenic properties of KA. Subsequently, a decreased activation of JNK following seizure induction was observed in mice underexpressing JIP3, which also exhibited less neuronal apoptosis in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, as assessed three days after KA administration. We also found that mice underexpressing JIP3 exhibited a delayed pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling seizure process. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly selective SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduces seizure activity in pentylenetetrazol-induced murine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Mumin Alper; Yusuf, Dimas; Christy, Joanna; Solmaz, Volkan; Erdogan, Arife; Taskiran, Emin; Erbas, Oytun

    2018-06-07

    Worldwide, over 10 million individuals suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy. New therapeutic strategies are needed to address this debilitating disease. Inhibition of sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs), which are variably expressed in the brain, has been demonstrated to reduce seizure activity in murine models of epilepsy. Here we investigated the effects of dapagliflozin, a highly competitive SGLT2 inhibitor currently used as a drug for diabetes mellitus, on seizure activity in rats with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures. Laboratory rats (n = 48) were evenly randomized into two experiments, each with four study arms: (1) a vehicle-treated (placebo) arm infused with saline; (2) a control arm infused with PTZ; (3) a treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 75 mg/kg, and (4) another treatment arm with PTZ and dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg. Study subjects were assessed for seizures either via EEG as measured by spike wave percentage (SWP), or clinically via Racine's scales scores (RSS) and time to first myoclonic jerk (TFMJ). Rats treated with dapagliflozin had lower mean SWP on EEG (20.4% versus 75.3% for untreated rats). Behaviorally, treatment with dapagliflozin improved means RSS (2.33 versus 5.5) and mean TFMJ (68.3 versus 196.7 s). All of these findings were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.0001. There was a trend towards even better seizure control with the higher dose of dapagliflozin at 150 mg/kg, however this was not consistently statistically significant. Dapagliflozin decreased seizure activity in rats with PTZ-induced seizures. This may be explained by the anti-seizure effects of decreased glucose availability and a reduction in sodium transport across neuronal membranes which can confer a stabilizing effect against excitability and unwanted depolarization. The potential clinical role of dapagliflozin and other SGLT2 inhibitors as anti-seizure medications should be further explored.

  1. Feasibility of recording high frequency oscillations with tripolar concentric ring electrodes during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Liling; Zhu, Zhenghan; Taveras, Aristides; Troiano, Derek; Medvedev, Andrei V; Besio, Walter G

    2012-01-01

    As epilepsy remains a refractory condition in about 30% of patients with complex partial seizures, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Previously, we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We developed a close-loop system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated its effect on the electrographic activity recorded by TCREs in rats. In our previous work the detectors of seizure onset were based on seizure-induced changes in signal power in the frequency range up to 100 Hz, while in this preliminary study we assess the feasibility of recording high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the range up to 300 Hz noninvasively with scalp TCREs during PTZ-induced seizures. Grand average power spectral density estimate and generalized likelihood ratio tests were used to compare power of electrographic activity at different stages of seizure development in a group of rats (n= 8). The results suggest that TCREs have the ability to record HFOs from the scalp as well as that scalp-recorded HFOs can potentially be used as features for seizure onset detection.

  2. The effect of dorsal hippocampal administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic ligands on pentylenetetrazol-induced generalized seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Morteza; Saboory, Ehsan; Zare, Samad; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hajizadeh-Moghaddam, Akbar

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of intrahippocampal injections of cholinergic ligands on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures were investigated in rats. The rats were assigned to 1 of the following 9 groups: saline, nicotine (0.5 or 1 μg), atropine (0.25 or 1 μg), oxotremorine-M (0.1 or 1 μg), or mecamylamine (2 or 8 μg). Cholinergic ligands were administered via intrahippocampal infusion 30 min before seizure induction (intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg PTZ). Results show that antagonists caused nonsignificant increases in the latency of tonic-clonic seizures, significant decreases in the duration of tonic-clonic seizures, significant decreases in the latency of death, and increases in mortality rate. Agonists led to increases in the duration of tonic-clonic seizures, decreases in the latency of death, and decreases in mortality rate. These results provide compelling evidence that cholinergic ligands show modulatory effects on a PTZ model of acute seizure in the rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tianeptine on onset time of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: possible role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun I; Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in epileptic patients. Thus, it is important that an antidepressant agent has anticonvulsant activity. This study was organized to investigate the effects of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. A possible contribution of adenosine receptors was also evaluated. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (25-35 g) were subjects. PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to mice 30 min after tianeptine (2.5-80 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline administration. The onset times of 'first myoclonic jerk' (FMJ) and 'generalized clonic seizures' (GCS) were recorded. Duration of 600 s was taken as a cutoff time in calculation of the onset time of the seizures. To evaluate the contribution of adenosine receptors in the effect of tianeptine, a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a specific A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or their vehicles were administered to the mice 15 min before tianeptine (80 mg/kg) or saline treatments. Tianeptine (40 and 80 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly delayed the onset time of FMJ and GCS. Caffeine (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently blocked the retarding effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on the onset times of FMJ and GCS. DPCPX (20 mg/kg) but not CSC (1-8 mg/kg) blocked the effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on FMJ. Our results suggest that tianeptine delayed the onset time of PTZ-induced seizures via adenosine A1 receptors in mice. Thus, this drug may be a useful choice for epileptic patients with depression.

  4. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Bimalendu; Bhattamisra, Subrat K.; Das, Mangala C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-convulsant potential of aqueous and ethanol e xtract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (AEGG and EEGG) and its action on markers of oxidant stress in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p.) on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01) by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01) only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg), whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01), whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01) in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg) decreased (P < 0.01) the MDA and increased (P < 0.01) both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure. PMID:23543836

  5. Isobolographic characterization of the anticonvulsant interaction profiles of levetiracetam in combination with clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model.

    PubMed

    Dudra-Jastrzebska, Monika; Andres-Mach, Marta M; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed so as to characterize the interactions between levetiracetam (LEV) and the conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice by use of type II isobolographic analysis. Adverse-effect profiles of the drugs in combination were determined and brain AED concentrations were measured. The combinations of VPA and ETS with LEV at the fixed-ratio of 1:2, CZP with LEV (1:20,000), and PB with LEV (1:20) were supra-additive (synergistic) in suppressing seizures. In contrast, VPA and ETS with LEV (1:1, 2:1, and 4:1), CZP with LEV (1:1000, 1:5000, and 1:10,000), and PB with LEV (1:1, 1:5, and 1:10) were additive. No adverse effects were observed. ETS significantly reduced brain LEV concentrations but no other pharmacokinetic changes were observed. The combinations of CZP with LEV (1:20,000); VPA and ETS with LEV (1:2); and PB with LEV (1:20) appear to be favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interactions in suppressing PTZ-induced seizures.

  6. Agmatine reduces extracellular glutamate during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rat brain: A potential mechanism for the anticonvulsive effects

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yangzheng; LeBlanc, Michael H.; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the initiation and spread of seizure activity. Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is an antagonist of NMDA receptors and has anticonvulsive effects. Whether agmatine regulate glutamate release, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, is not known. In this study, we used pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model to determine the effect of agmatine on extracellular glutamate in rat brain. We also determined the time course and the amount of agmatine that reached brain after peripheral injection. After i.p. injection of agmatine (50 mg/kg), increase of agmatine in rat cortex and hippocampus was observed in 15 min with levels returning to baseline in one hour. Rats, naïve and implanted with microdialysis cannula into the cortex, were administered PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) with prior injection of agmatine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Seizure grades were recorded and microdialysis samples were collected every 15 min for 75 min. Agmatine pre-treatment significantly reduced the seizure grade and increased the onset time. The levels of extracellular glutamate in frontal cortex rose two- to three-fold after PTZ injection and agmatine significantly inhibited this increase. In conclusion, the present data suggest that the anticonvulsant activity of agmatine, in part, could be related to the inhibition glutamate release. PMID:16125317

  7. l-Carnitine Modulates Epileptic Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Rats via Suppression of Apoptosis and Autophagy and Upregulation of Hsp70.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdelaziz M; Adel, Mohamed; El-Mesery, Mohamed; Abbas, Khaled M; Ali, Amr N; Abulseoud, Osama A

    2018-03-14

    l-Carnitine is a unique nutritional supplement for athletes that has been recently studied as a potential treatment for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its efficacy in seizure control has not been investigated. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either saline (Sal) (negative control) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 40 mg/kg i.p. × 3 times/week × 3 weeks. The PTZ group was further subdivided into two groups, the first received oral l-carnitine (l-Car) (100 mg/kg/day × 4 weeks) (PTZ + l-Car), while the second group received saline (PTZ + Sal). Daily identification and quantification of seizure scores, time to the first seizure and the duration of seizures were performed in each animal. Molecular oxidative markers were examined in the animal brains. l-Car treatment was associated with marked reduction in seizure score ( p = 0.0002) that was indicated as early as Day 2 of treatment and continued throughout treatment duration. Furthermore, l-Car significantly prolonged the time to the first seizure ( p < 0.0001) and shortened seizure duration ( p = 0.028). In addition, l-Car administration for four weeks attenuated PTZ-induced increase in the level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) ( p < 0.0001) and reduced the activity of catalase enzyme ( p = 0.0006) and increased antioxidant GSH activity ( p < 0.0001). Moreover, l-Car significantly reduced PTZ-induced elevation in protein expression of caspase-3 ( p < 0.0001) and β-catenin ( p < 0.0001). Overall, our results suggest a potential therapeutic role of l-Car in seizure control and call for testing these preclinical results in a proof of concept pilot clinical study.

  8. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Karami, Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg). The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  9. Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) or ginger, which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints (myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase) was recorded. The results showed that the ginger extract has anticonvulsant effects in all the experimental treatment groups of seizure tested as it significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100mg/kg (p<0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (p<0.01) seizure 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ compared with control group. Based on the results the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory system, antioxidant mechanisms, oxidative stress and calcium channel inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and genotoxic evaluation of rosmarinic and caffeic acid in acute seizure models induced by pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine in mice.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vanessa Rodrigues; Vieira, Caroline Gonçalves; de Souza, Luana Pereira; da Silva, Lucas Lima; Pflüger, Pricila; Regner, Gabriela Gregory; Papke, Débora Kuck Mausolff; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA) in the acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine (PIL) seizure models. We also evaluated the effect of RA and CA on the diazepam (DZP)-induced sleeping time test and its possible neuroprotective effect against the genotoxic damage induced by PTZ and PIL. Mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline, RA (2 or 4 mg/kg), or CA (4 or 8 mg/kg) alone or associated to low-dose DZP. After, mice received a single dose of PTZ (88 mg/kg) or PIL (250 mg/kg) and were monitored for the percentage of seizures and the latency to first seizure (LFS) >3 s. Vigabatrin and DZP were used as positive controls. In the DZP-induced sleeping time test, mice were treated with RA and CA and 30 min after receiving DZP (25 mg/kg, i.p.). The alkaline comet assay was performed after acute seizure tests to evaluate the antigenotoxic profiles of RA and CA. The doses of RA and CA tested alone did not reduce the occurrence of seizures induced by PTZ or PIL. The association of 4 mg/kg RA + low-dose DZP was shown to increase LFS in the PTZ model, compared to the group that received only the DZP. In the DZP-induced sleeping time test, the latency to sleep was reduced by 4 mg/kg RA and 8 mg/kg CA. The PTZ-induced genotoxic damage was not prevented by RA or CA, but the PIL-induced genotoxic damage was decreased by pretreatment with 4 mg/kg RA (in cortex) and 4 mg/kg CA (in hippocampus). In conclusion, RA and CA presented neuroprotective effect against PIL-induced genotoxic damage and reduced the latency to DZP-induced sleep. Of the rosmarinic acid, 4 mg/kg enhanced the DZP effect in the increase of latency to clonic PTZ-induced seizures.

  11. Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gersner, R; Ekstein, D; Dhamne, S C; Schachter, S C; Rotenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. While HupA is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its full pharmacologic profile is incompletely described. Since previous works suggested a capacity for HupA to prophylax against seizures, we tested the HupA antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat epilepsy model and explored its mechanism of action by spectral EEG analysis and by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS), a measure of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition. We tested whether HupA suppresses seizures in the rat PTZ acute seizure model, and quantified latency to first myoclonus and to generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and spike frequency on EEG. Additionally, we measured power in the EEG gamma frequency band which is associated with GABAergic cortical interneuron activation. Then, as a step toward further examining the HupA antiepileptic mechanism of action, we tested long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using ppTMS coupled with electromyography to assess whether HupA augments GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential. We also tested whether the HupA effect on paired-pulse inhibition was central or peripheral by comparison of outcomes following administration of HupA or the peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine. We also tested whether the HupA effect was dependent on central muscarinic or GABAA receptors by co-administration of HupA and atropine or PTZ, respectively. In tests of antiepileptic potential, HupA suppressed seizures and epileptic spikes on EEG. Spectral EEG analysis also revealed enhanced gamma frequency band power with HupA treatment. By ppTMS we found that HupA increases intracortical inhibition and blocks PTZ-induced cortical excitation. Atropine co-administration with HupA did not alter HupA-induced intracortical inhibition suggesting independent of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mechanism in this model

  12. Interactive effects of prenatal exposure to restraint stress and alcohol on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Paria; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Soltanineghad, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress or alcohol increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in neurobehavioral development and programs susceptibility to seizure. To examine how prenatal alcohol interferes with stress-sensitive seizures, corticosterone (COS) blood levels and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure behaviors were investigated in rat pups, prenatally exposed to stress, alcohol, or both. Pregnant rats were exposed to stress and saline/alcohol on 17, 18, and 19 days of pregnancy and divided into four groups of control-saline (CS), control-alcohol (CA), restraint stress-saline (RS), and restraint stress-alcohol (RA). In CS/CA groups, rats received saline/alcohol (20%, 2 g/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]). In RS/RA groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress by being held immobile in a Plexiglas ® tube (twice/day, 1 h/session), and received saline/alcohol, simultaneously. After parturition, on postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 & P15), blood samples were collected from the pups to determine COS level. On P15 and P25, PTZ (45 mg/kg) was injected into the rest of the pups and seizure behaviors were then recorded. COS levels increased in pups of the RS group but not in pups of the RA group. Both focal and tonic-clonic seizures were prevalent and severe in pups of the RS group, whereas only focal seizures were prominent in pups of the CA group. However, pups prenatally exposed to co-administration of alcohol and stress, unexpectedly, did not show additive epileptic effects. The failure of pups prenatally exposed to alcohol to show progressive or facilitatory epileptic responses to stressors, indicates decreased plasticity and adaptability, which may negatively affect HPA-axis performance or hippocampal structure/function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by chronic administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in male mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2015-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), daily for 1 week before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints, e.g., myoclonic, generalized clonic, and tonic extension phase, was recorded. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100 mg/kg (55.33 ± 1.91 versus 24.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (74.64 ± 3.52 versus 47.72 ± 2.31 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (102.6 ± 5.39 versus 71.82 ± 7.82 mg/kg, p < 0.01) seizure induced by PTZ compared with the control group. Based on the results, the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory systems, antioxidant mechanisms, and oxidative stress inhibition.

  14. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  15. Recording the adult zebrafish cerebral field potential during pentylenetetrazole seizures

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Hall, Charles W.

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is increasingly used as a model organism to study epilepsy, no standard electrophysiological technique for recording electrographic seizures in adult fish exists. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a readily implementable technique for recording pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish. We find that we can consistently record a high quality field potential over the zebrafish cerebrum using an amplification of 5000 V/V and bandpass filtering at corner frequencies of 1.6 and 16 Hz. The cerebral field potential recordings show consistent features in the baseline, pre-seizure, seizure and post-seizure time periods that can be easily recognized by visual inspection as is the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the field potential at the time of seizure onset reveals an increase in the total power, bandwidth and peak frequency in the power spectrum, as is also the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. The techniques presented herein stand to advance the utility of the adult zebrafish in the study of epilepsy by affording an equivalent to the electroencephalogram used in mammalian models and human patients. PMID:21689682

  16. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Karami, Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg). Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects. PMID:27222836

  17. Anticonvulsant effect of minocycline on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice: involvement of nitric oxide and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Shirzadian, Armin; Hasanvand, Amin; Balali-Dehkordi, Shima; Hassanipoor, Mahsa; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2018-03-20

    Anticonvulsant effects of minocycline have been explored recently. This study was designed to examine the anticonvulsant effect of acute administration of minocycline on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mouse considering the possible role of nitric oxide (NO)/NMDA pathway. We induced seizure using intravenous administration of PTZ. Our results showed that acute administration of minocycline increased the seizure threshold. Furthermore, co-administration of sub-effective doses of the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) and the neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (40 mg/kg) enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of sub-effective dose of minocycline (40 mg/kg). We found that inducible NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg), had no effect on the anti-seizure effect of minocycline. Moreover, L-arginine (60 mg/kg), as a NOS substrate, reduced the anticonvulsant effect of minocycline. We also demonstrated that pretreatment with NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) increased the anticonvulsant effect of sub-effective dose of minocycline. Results showed that minocycline significantly decreased the hippocampal nitrite level. Furthermore, co-administration of nNOS inhibitor like NMDA receptor antagonists augmented the effect of minocycline on the hippocampal nitrite level. In conclusion, we revealed that anticonvulsant effect of minocycline might be, at least in part, due to decline in constitutive hippocampal nitric oxide activity as well as inhibition of NMDA receptors.

  18. Cellular responses to recurrent pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in the adult zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Duy, Phan Q; Berberoglu, Michael A; Beattie, Christine E; Hall, Charles W

    2017-01-01

    A seizure is a sustained increase in brain electrical activity that can result in loss of consciousness and injury. Understanding how the brain responds to seizures is important for development of new treatment strategies for epilepsy, a neurological condition characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Pharmacological induction of seizures in rodent models results in a myriad of cellular alterations, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and adult neurogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular responses to recurrent pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish brain. We subjected zebrafish to five once daily pentylenetetrazole induced seizures and characterized the cellular consequences of these seizures. In response to recurrent seizures, we found histologic evidence of vasodilatation, perivascular leukocyte egress and leukocyte proliferation suggesting seizure-induced acute CNS inflammation. We also found evidence of increased proliferation, neurogenesis, and reactive gliosis. Collectively, our results suggest that the cellular responses to seizures in the adult zebrafish brain are similar to those observed in mammalian brains. PMID:28238851

  19. Anticonvulsant Effect of the Aqueous Extract and Essential Oil of Carum Carvi L. Seeds in a Pentylenetetrazol Model of Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Oftadegan, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carum carvi L. (caraway), known as black zeera in Iran, has been indicated for the treatment of epilepsy in Iranian folk medicine. This study evaluated whether the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway seeds have anticonvulsant effects in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant effects of the aqueous extract (200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 mg/kg, i.p.) and essential oil (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) of caraway were assessed using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 95 mg/kg i.p.) induced convulsions. Diazepam (3 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic convulsions and the percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of caraway on neuromuscular coordination was evaluated using the rotarod performance test. Results: The extract and essential oil dose-dependently increased the latency time to the onset of myoclonic (ED50, 1257 and 62.2 mg/kg, respectively) and clonic (ED50, 929 and 42.3 mg/kg, respectively) seizures. The extract and essential oil of caraway prevented the animals from tonic seizure with ED50s of 2142.4 and 97.6 mg/kg, respectively. The extract and essential oil of caraway protected 28.6 and 71.4% of the animals from PTZ-induced death, respectively, and had no significant effect on neuromuscular coordination. Conclusion: This study showed that the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway had anticonvulsant properties. However, the essential oil was more potent and effective than was the aqueous extract as an anticonvulsant. Additionally, the anticonvulsant effect of caraway was not due to a muscle relaxant activity. These findings support the acclaimed antiepileptic effect of caraway in folk medicine and propose its potential use in petit mal seizure in humans. PMID:27217604

  20. Naringin ameliorates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cognitive impairment in rats: possible mechanisms of neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Bhatia, Jagriti; Chaudhry, Uma; Saluja, Daman; Arya, Dharmveer Singh

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and cognitive impairment are associated with PTZ-induced convulsions. Naringin is a bioflavonoid present in the grapefruit. It is a potent antioxidant, and we evaluated its effect on PTZ-induced convulsions. Rats were pretreated with normal saline, naringin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, i.p.), or diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the administration of PTZ. The administration of PTZ induced myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTSs). We observed that naringin significantly prolonged the induction of myoclonic jerks dose-dependently. Naringin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment protected all rats, and this protective effect was annulled by the GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil. In addition, naringin reduced brain MDA and TNF-α levels and conserved GSH. The pretreatment also enhanced the performance of rats in the passive avoidance task. Our observations highlight the antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticonvulsant potential of naringin. Also, naringin modulates the GABAA receptor to produce anticonvulsant effects and to ameliorate cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes lessens behavioral seizure activity of recurrent pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Liu, Xiang; Besio, Walter G

    2013-05-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We have been developing a noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation with our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. In this study we demonstrate the effect of focal stimulation on behavioral seizure activity induced by two successive pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats. Seizure onset latency, time of the first behavioral change, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score were studied and compared for focal stimulation treated (n = 9) and control groups (n = 10). First, we demonstrate that no significant difference was found in behavioral activity for focal stimulation treated and control groups after the first pentylenetetrazole administration. Next, comparing first and second pentylenetetrazole administrations, we demonstrate there was a significant change in behavioral activity (time of the first behavioral change) in both groups that was not related to focal stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate focal stimulation provoking a significant change in seizure onset latency, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score. We believe that these results, combined with our previous reports, suggest that transcranial focal stimulation may have an anticonvulsant effect.

  3. Noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes lessens behavioral seizure activity of recurrent pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Liu, Xiang; Besio, Walter G.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We have been developing a noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation with our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. In this study we demonstrate the effect of focal stimulation on behavioral seizure activity induced by two successive pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats. Seizure onset latency, time of the first behavioral change, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score were studied and compared for focal stimulation treated (n = 9) and control groups (n = 10). First, we demonstrate that no significant difference was found in behavioral activity for focal stimulation treated and control groups after the first pentylenetetrazole administration. Next, comparing first and second pentylenetetrazole administrations, we demonstrate there was a significant change in behavioral activity (time of the first behavioral change) in both groups that was not related to focal stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate focal stimulation provoking a significant change in seizure onset latency, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score. We believe that these results, combined with our previous reports, suggest that transcranial focal stimulation may have an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:22692938

  4. Sensor integration of multiple tripolar concentric ring electrodes improves pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure onset detection in rats.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2012-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Previously, we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole. We developed a system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated the system on the electrographic activity from rats. In this preliminary study we propose and validate a novel seizure onset detection algorithm based on exponentially embedded family. Unlike the previously proposed approach it integrates the data from multiple electrodes allowing an improvement of the detector performance.

  5. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitric oxide mediates the anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Bahremand, Arash; Gholizadeh, Ramtin; Berijani, Sina; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, Mohammad; Aminizade, Mehdi; Sarreshte-Dari, Ali; Dianati, Vahid; Amanlou, Massoud; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-01

    Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which was initially used as a sedative medication but withdrawn from the market due to the high incidence of teratogenicity. Recently, it has reemerged because of its potential for counteracting number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Other than the antiemetic and hypnotic aspects, thalidomide exerts some anticonvulsant properties in experimental settings. However, the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide actions are not fully realized yet. Some investigations revealed that thalidomide could elicit immunomodulatory or neuromodulatory properties by affecting different targets, including cytokines (such as TNF α), neurotransmitters, and nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide is affected through modulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway or not. Injection of a single effective dose of thalidomide (10 mg/kg, i.p. or higher) significantly increased the seizure threshold (P<0.05). On the one hand, pretreatment with low and per se noneffective dose of l-arginine [NO precursor] (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) prevented the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide. On the other hand, NOS inhibitors [l-NAME and 7-NI] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a subeffective dose of thalidomide (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at relatively low doses. Meanwhile, several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide significantly. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway can be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of thalidomide, and the role of constitutive nNOS is prominent in the reported neuroprotective feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Adenosinergic Modulation on Cytokine Levels in a Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure Model.

    PubMed

    Dede, Fazilet; Karadenizli, Sabriye; Özsoy, Özgür Doğa; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Şahin, Deniz; Ateş, Nurbay

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adenosinergic system and cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Although the role of the adenosinergic system in the modulation of seizure activity is well known, the mechanism of this modulation needs to be described in detail. We performed this study to determine the contribution of the proinflammatory cytokines to the generalized seizure activity during adenosine and caffeine treatment. We induced generalized tonic-clonic seizures with the administration of 60 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male Wistar Albino rats. Adenosine (500 mg/kg) or caffeine (5 mg/kg) was administered before PTZ injection. We monitored seizure activity and then determined the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the cortical and thalamic brain regions of rats by ELISA. Adenosine pretreatment significantly extended seizure latency (p < 0.05), but did not affect seizure duration and entry time to stage 4 seizure. Caffeine pretreatment did not change seizure latency and seizure duration. PTZ treatment did not change brain cytokine levels significantly (p > 0.05) compared to the control group. Whereas adenosine pretreatment decreased brain TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly (p < 0.05), caffeine pretreatment reduced brain cytokine levels slightly but nonsignificantly (p > 0.05). Our results show that there is a clear relation between adenosinergic system and brain tissue cytokine levels. Our findings indicated that TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 participate in the pathogenesis of generalized seizures, and the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 with adenosinergic modulation may decrease seizure severity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Antiseizure Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures Induced with Pentylenetetrazole, 4-Aminopyridine and Strychnine in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sanya, E O; Soladoye, A O; Desalu, O O; Kolo, P M; Olatunji, L A; Olarinoye, J K

    2017-03-06

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a cheap and effective alternative therapy for most epilepsy. There are paucity of experimental data in Nigeria on the usefulness of KD in epilepsy models. This is likely to be responsible for the poor clinical acceptability of the diet in the country. This study therefore aimed at providing experimental data on usefulness of KD on seizure models.  The study used 64 Wistar rats that were divided into two dietary groups [normal diet (ND) and ketogenic diet (KD)]. Animal in each group were fed for 35days. Medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCT-KD) was used and it consisted of 15% carbohydrate in normal rat chow long with 5ml sunflower oil (25% (v/w). The normal diet was the usual rat chow. Seizures were induced with one of Pentelyntetrazole (PTZ), 4-Aminopyridine (AP) and Strychnine (STR). Fasting glucose, ketosis level and serum chemistry were determined and seizure parameters recorded. Serum ketosis was significantly higher in MCT-KD-fed rats (12.7 ±2.6) than ND-fed (5.17±0.86) rats. Fasting blood glucose was higher in ND-fed rats (5.3±0.9mMol/l) than in MCT-KD fed rats (5.1±0.5mMol/l) with p=0.9. Seizure latency was significantly prolonged in ND-fed compared with MCT-KD fed rats after PTZ-induced seizures (61±9sec vs 570±34sec) and AP-induced seizures (49±11sec vs 483±41sec). The difference after Str-induced seizure (51±7 vs 62±8 sec) was not significan. The differences in seizure duration between ND-fed and MCT-KD fed rats with PTZ (4296±77sec vs 366±46sec) and with AP (5238±102sec vs 480±67sec) were significant (p<0.05), but not with STR (3841±94sec vs 3510±89sec) respectively. The mean serum Na+ was significantly higher in MCT-KD fed (141.7±2.1mMol/l) than ND-fed rats (137±2.3mMol/l). There was no significant difference in mean values of other serum electrolytes between the MCT-KD fed and ND-fed animals. MCT-KD caused increase resistance to PTZ-and AP-induced seizures, but has no effect on STR-induced seizures

  9. Transcranial focal stimulation via concentric ring electrodes reduced power of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in rat electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Liu, Xiang; Koka, Kanthaiah; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2011-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. In this study we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation (TFS) via concentric ring electrodes on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to assess the effect of TFS on the electrographic activity. Grand average power spectral densities were calculated to compare different stages of seizure development. They showed a significant difference between the TFS treated group and the control group. In case of the TFS treated group, after TFS, the power spectral density was reduced further towards a pre-seizure "baseline" than it was for the control group. The difference is the most drastic in delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Application of general likelihood ratio test showed that TFS significantly (p<0.001) reduced the power of electrographic seizure activity in the TFS treated group compared to controls in more than 86% of the cases. These results suggest that TFS may have an anticonvulsant effect.

  10. Differential effects of NMDA antagonists microinjections into the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, J; Alvarado, R; Camacho-Arroyo, I

    2001-07-01

    It has been shown that NMDA antagonists block the tonic but not the clonic component of seizures when they are injected in the oral region of the rat pontine reticular formation (PRF). The participation of the caudal PRF in the effects of NMDA antagonists upon the tonic and the clonic components of generalized seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of unilateral microinjections of competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists, 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP-7) and dizocilpine (MK-801), respectively, into the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis of the rat PRF upon seizures induced by PTZ (70 mg/kg i.p.). MK-801 induced a dose-related decrease both in the incidence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and in the presence of spikes in the EEG. MK-801 also increased GTCS latency. On the contrary, AP-7 did not have effects on GTCS. Interestingly, it induced ipsilateral circling behavior. These results suggest that in the caudal region of the rat PRF only non-competitive NMDA antagonists should block the generation of tonic and clonic components of generalized seizures.

  11. Intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid for 14days increases serum unesterified DHA and seizure latency in the maximal pentylenetetrazol model.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lim, Joonbum; Lai, Terence K Y; Cho, Hye Jin; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Taha, Ameer Y; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) which has been shown to raise seizure thresholds following acute administration in rats. The aims of the present experiment were the following: 1) to test whether subchronic DHA administration raises seizure threshold in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model 24h following the last injection and 2) to determine whether the increase in seizure threshold is correlated with an increase in serum and/or brain DHA. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 50mg/kg of DHA, DHA ethyl ester (DHA EE), or volume-matched vehicle (albumin/saline) for 14days. On day 15, one subset of animals was seizure tested in the maximal PTZ model (Experiment 1). In a separate (non-seizure tested) subset of animals, blood was collected, and brains were excised following high-energy, head-focused microwave fixation. Lipid analysis was performed on serum and brain (Experiment 2). For data analysis, the DHA and DHA EE groups were combined since they did not differ significantly from each other. In the maximal PTZ model, DHA significantly increased seizure latency by approximately 3-fold as compared to vehicle-injected animals. This increase in seizure latency was associated with an increase in serum unesterified DHA. Total brain DHA and brain unesterified DHA concentrations, however, did not differ significantly in the treatment and control groups. An increase in serum unesterified DHA concentration reflecting increased flux of DHA to the brain appears to explain changes in seizure threshold, independent of changes in brain DHA concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 7-Nitroindazole, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, enhances the anticonvulsive action of ethosuximide and clonazepam against pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions.

    PubMed

    Borowicz, K K; Luszczki, J; Kleinrok, Z; Czuczwar, S J

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, with the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures was tested in mice. Alone, 7-nitroindazole (up to 50mg/kg) was ineffective in this model of experimental epilepsy. However, it potentiated the anticonvulsive activity of ethosuximide and clonazepam, significantly reducing their ED50S against PTZ-induced convulsions (from 144 to 76 mg/kg, and from 0.05 to 0.016 mg/kg, respectively). Conversely, the protective actions of valproate and phenobarbital were not affected by the NOS inhibitor. Since the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, did not reverse the action of 7-NI on ethosuximide or clonazepam, an involvement of central NO does not seem probable. Neither ethosuximide nor clonazepam, administered at their ED50S (144 and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively), produced significant adverse effects as regards motor coordination (chimney test) and long-term memory (passive avoidance task). Also 7-NI (50 mg/kg) and its combinations with ethosuximide and clonazepam (providing a 50% protection against PTZ-evoked seizures) did not disturb motor and mnemonic performance in mice. The interaction at the pharmacokinetic level does not seem probable, at least in the case of ethosuximide, because the NOS inhibitor did not interfere with its plasma or brain concentrations.

  13. The cannabinoid anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure is potentiated by ultra-low dose naltrexone in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2008-09-01

    Cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to G(i/o) proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. Thus, concerning the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether the ultra-low dose opioid antagonist naltrexone influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a combination of ACEA and naltrexone doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic injection of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (1pg/kg to 1ng/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA (1mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the very low dose of naltrexone (500pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (10 and 100microg/kg). A similar potentiation by naltrexone (500pg/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (1mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data indicate that the interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems extends to ultra-low dose levels and ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonist in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility.

  14. The anti-epileptogenic and cognition enhancing effect of novel 1-[4-(4-benzo [1, 3] dioxol-5-ylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-3-phenyl-urea (BPPU) in pentylenetetrazole induced chronic rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Kumari, Shikha; Siraj, Fouzia; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumari, Sweta; Tiwari, Ankit Kumar; Tiwari, Manisha

    2018-06-05

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder which affects 65 million worldwide population and characterized by recurrent seizure in epileptic patients. Recently, we reported a novel piperonylpiperazine derivative, BPPU "1-[4-(4-benzo [1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)- phenyl]-3-phenyl-urea'' as a potent anticonvulsant agent. BPPU has shown excellent anticonvulsant activity in various in-vivo seizure models along with good anti-depressant activity. In this report, we have deeply examined the anti-epileptogenic potential of BPPU in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model and BPPU effectively reduced seizure episodes in kindled animals upto 35 days. Further, neuroprotective potential of BPPU against PTZ induced neurodegeneration has also been evaluated in hippocampus as well as cortex region by histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic patients generally suffer from a range of cognitive impairments. Therefore, the cognition enhancing effect of BPPU was also measured by using well known social recognition test, novel object recognition test, light/dark test and open field test in kindled rat model as well as scopolamine induced memory deficit mice model. Results indicated that BPPU successfully improved cognition deficits in both models. Thus, BPPU appeared as a potent anti-epileptic agent which has also capability to improve cognition decline associated with epilepsy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa

    2013-06-21

    Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana and Flavonoids Constituents in the Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; González-Trujano, María Eva; Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Ruíz-García, Matilde; Sampieri, Aristides; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Tilia genus is commonly used around the world for its central nervous system properties; it is prepared as tea and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences and leaves was investigated by evaluating organic and aqueous extracts (100, 300, and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) and some flavonoids in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Moreover, antioxidant effect of these extracts and flavonoids was examined in an in vitro study by using spectrophotometric technique. Significant activity was observed in the methanol extract from inflorescences. An HPLC analysis of the methanol extract from inflorescences and leaves of Tilia allowed demonstrating the respective presence of some partial responsible flavonoid constituents: quercetin (20.09 ± 1.20 μg/mg and 3.39 ± 0.10 μg/mg), rutin (3.52 ± 0.21 μg/mg and 8.94 ± 0.45 μg/mg), and isoquercitrin (1.74 ± 0.01 μg/mg and 1.24 ± 0.13 μg/mg). In addition, significant but different antioxidant properties were obtained among the flavonoids and the extracts investigated. Our results provide evidence of the anticonvulsant activity of Tilia reinforcing its utility for central nervous system diseases whose mechanism of action might involve partial antioxidant effects due to the presence of flavonoids. PMID:25197430

  17. Comparative studies on the effects of clinically used anticonvulsants on the oxidative stress biomarkers in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Faizan; Malhi, Saima M; Simjee, Shabana U

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and contributes in underlying epileptogenesis process. Anticonvulsant drugs targeting the oxidative stress domain of epileptogenesis may provide better control of seizure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and oxidative stress markers in mice. Six mechanistically heterogeneous anticonvulsants: phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, and felbamate were selected and their redox profiles were determined. Diazepam was used as a drug control for comparison. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate days until seizure score 5 was evoked in the control kindled group. Anticonvulsants were administered daily. Following PTZ kindling, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in homogenized whole brain samples and estimated for the levels of nitric oxide, peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, and activities of nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species with a parallel decrease in endogenous anti-oxidants in PTZ-kindled control animals. Daily treatment with levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score as well as the levels of nitric oxide (p<0.001), nitric oxide synthase activity (p<0.05), peroxide levels (p<0.05), and malondialdehyde (p<0.05). Levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased lipid and protein peroxidation whereas topiramate was found to reduce lipid peroxidation only. An AED that produces anticonvulsant effect by the diversified mechanism of action such as levetiracetam, felbamate, and topiramate exhibited superior anti-oxidative stress activity in addition to their anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Zareie, Parisa; Sadegh, Mehdi; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Moradi-Chameh, Homeira

    2018-06-01

    2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways. Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by an injection of Pentylenetetrazol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male Wistar rats. Delay and duration for the seizure stages were considered for analysis. Monoacylglycerol lipase blocker (JJKK048; 1 mg/kg) or alpha/beta hydroxylase domain 6 blocker (WWL70; 5 mg/kg) were administrated alone or with 2-AG to evaluate the anticonvulsive potential of these enzymes. To determine the CB1 receptor involvement, its blocker (MJ15; 3 mg/kg) was administrated associated with JJKK048 or WWL70. To assess anandamide anticonvulsive effect, anandamide membrane transporter blocker (LY21813240; 2.5 mg/kg) was used alone or associated with MJ15. Also, fatty acid amide hydrolase blocker (URB597; 1 mg/kg; to prevent intracellular anandamide hydrolysis) were used alone or with AMG21629 (transient receptor potential vanilloid; TRPV1 antagonist; 3 mg/kg). All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and injected i.p., before the Pentylenetetrazol. Both JJKK048 and WWL70 revealed anticonvulsive effect. Anticonvulsive effect of JJKK048 but not WWL70 was CB1 receptor dependent. LY2183240 showed CB1 receptor dependent anticonvulsive effect. However, URB597 revealed a TRPV1 dependent proconvulsive effect. It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1.

  19. Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Effects of Pitavastatin Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Nastaran; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg). PTZ kindling seizures were induced by repetitive intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (65 mg/kg) every 48 hours till day twenty-one. Animals received daily oral pitavastatin for twenty-one days. Latency, score and duration of the seizures were recorded. The activities of catalase (CAT) ad superoxide dismutase (SOD), and likewise the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrate were assessed in the brains of all rats. Results: There was a progressive reduction in latency of the kindled rats in the next injections of PTZ. Pitavastatin reduced this value (latency) particularly at higher dose. Seizures duration and score also decreased in treatment groups. SOD and CAT activities significantly decreased in PTZ-kindling group by 62% and 64%, respectively, but pitavastatin did not significantly change the SOD and CAT activities. Brain MDA and nitrate significantly increased in PTZ-kindling group by 53% and 30%, respectively. Pitavastatin at higher dose significantly decreased the MDA and nitrate contents of PTZ-kindling rats by 45% and 32%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that pitavastatin can improve the behavioral expression of the PTZ-kindling rats and attenuate the seizure-induced oxidative/nitrosative damage.

  20. Agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effect of lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Khodadad, Tina Kabiri; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hedayat, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-07-01

    After nearly 60years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition to its antimanic and antidepressant effects, lithium also has anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine plays a protective role in the central nervous system against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This study was designed to investigate: (1) whether agmatine and lithium exert a synergistic effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and (2) whether or not this synergistic effect is mediated through inhibition of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In our study, acute administration of a single potent dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg ip) increased seizure threshold, whereas pretreatment with a low and independently noneffective dose of agmatine (3mg/kg) potentiated a subeffective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 1 and 5mg/kg and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 15 and 30mg/kg augmented the anticonvulsant effect of the noneffective combination of lithium (10mg/kg ip) and agmatine (1mg/kg), whereas several doses (20 and 40mg/kg) of aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) failed to alter the seizure threshold of the same combination. Furthermore, pretreatment with independently noneffective doses (30 and 60mg/kg) of L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase) inhibited the potentiating effect of agmatine (3mg/kg) on lithium (10mg/kg). Our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride have synergistic anticonvulsant properties that may be mediated through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase versus inducible nitric oxide synthase is prominent in this phenomenon

  1. Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Baxendale, Sarah; Holdsworth, Celia J.; Meza Santoscoy, Paola L.; Harrison, Michael R. M.; Fox, James; Parkin, Caroline A.; Ingham, Philip W.; Cunliffe, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The availability of animal models of epileptic seizures provides opportunities to identify novel anticonvulsants for the treatment of people with epilepsy. We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca2+) flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. We then screened a library of ∼2000 known bioactive small molecules and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf) zebrafish embryos. Further analysis of a subset of these compounds, which included compounds with known and newly identified anticonvulsant properties, revealed that they exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both locomotor activity and PTZ-induced fos transcription, confirming their anticonvulsant characteristics. We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. Moreover, our results demonstrate that suppression of PTZ-induced fos expression provides a sensitive means of identifying compounds with anticonvulsant activities. PMID:22730455

  2. Seizure-mediated neuronal activation induces DREAM gene expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Matsu-ura, Toru; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Naranjo, Jose R; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Tamura, Taka-aki

    2002-12-30

    Various transcriptional activators are induced in neurons concomitantly with long-lasting neural activity, whereas only a few transcription factors are known to act as neural activity-inducible transcription repressors. In this study, mRNA of DREAM (DRE-antagonizing modulator), a Ca(2+)-modulated transcriptional repressor, was demonstrated to accumulate in the mouse brain after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Accumulation in the mouse hippocampus reached maximal level in the late phase (at 7-8 h) after PTZ injection. Kainic acid induced the same response. Interestingly, the late induction of DREAM expression required new protein synthesis and was blocked by MK801 suggesting that Ca(2+)-influx via NMDA receptors is necessary for the PTZ-mediated DREAM expression. In situ hybridization revealed that PTZ-induced DREAM mRNA accumulation was observed particularly in the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, and piriform cortex. The results of the present study demonstrate that DREAM is a neural activity-stimulated late gene and suggest its involvement in adaptation to long-lasting neuronal activity.

  3. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Rebound increase in seizure susceptibility but not isolation-induced calls after single administration of clonazepam and Ro 19-8022 in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Mikulecká, A; Mareš, P; Kubová, H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether a single administration of anticonvulsant doses of two ligands of benzodiazepine receptors, clonazepam and Ro 19-8022, leads to development of rebound phenomena in immature 12-day-old rats. Three tests were used: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, and motor performance. Susceptibility to the convulsant effects of PTZ decreased 24 hours, but increased 48 hours, after clonazepam administration. Ultrasonic vocalizations were completely suppressed 30 minutes and 3 hours after clonazepam; a moderate inhibitory effect persisted even at 48 hours. Motor abilities were slightly compromised up to 3 hours. Similar effects of Ro 19-8022 on PTZ-induced seizures and ultrasonic vocalizations were observed 24 and 48 hours after administration; motor performance was not affected. Rebound proconvulsant effects followed different time courses after administration of the two benzodiazepine receptor ligands in developing animals. Anxiolytic-like effects of these drugs were still present at the time when animals exhibited rebound proconvulsant effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of α₂-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Khezrian, Mina; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Meibodi, Maryam Aghaei; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2011-09-01

    After 60 years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders and widely used in clinic. In addition to its mood stabilizer effects, lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine also plays a protective role in the CNS against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on α(2)-adrenoceptors. So, we designed this study: 1) to investigate whether agmatine and lithium show an additive effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole; 2) to assess whether this additive effect is mediated through the α(2)-adrenoceptor or not. In our study, acute administration of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the seizure threshold. Pre-treatment with low and, per se, non-effective doses of agmatine (1 and 3mg/kg) potentiated a sub-effective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). Interestingly, the anticonvulsant effects of these effective combinations of lithium and agmatine were prevented by pre-treatment with low and non-effective doses of yohimbine [α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist] (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). On the other hand, clonidine [α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective combination of lithium (5mg/kg i.p.) and agmatine (1mg/kg) at relatively low doses (0.1 and 0.25mg/kg). In summary, our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride exhibit additive anticonvulsant properties which seem to be mediated through α(2)-adrenoceptor. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Search for New Screening Models of Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy: Is Induction of Acute Seizures in Epileptic Rodents a Suitable Approach?

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy, a prevalent neurological disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), is often refractory to treatment with anti-seizure drugs (ASDs), so that more effective ASDs are urgently needed. For this purpose, it would be important to develop, validate, and implement new animal models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy into drug discovery. Several chronic animal models with difficult-to-treat SRS do exist; however, most of these models are not suited for drug screening, because drug testing on SRS necessitates laborious video-EEG seizure monitoring. More recently, it was proposed that, instead of monitoring SRS, chemical or electrical induction of acute seizures in epileptic rodents may be used as a surrogate for testing the efficacy of novel ASDs against refractory SRS. Indeed, several ASDs were shown to lose their efficacy on acute seizures, when such seizures were induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in epileptic rather than nonepileptic rats, whereas this was not observed when using the maximal electroshock seizure test. Subsequent studies confirmed the loss of anti-seizure efficacy of valproate against PTZ-induced seizures in epileptic mice, but several other ASDs were more potent against PTZ in epileptic than nonepileptic mice. This was also observed when using the 6-Hz model of partial seizures in epileptic mice, in which the potency of levetiracetam, in particular, was markedly increased compared to nonepileptic animals. Overall, these observations suggest that performing acute seizure tests in epileptic rodents provides valuable information on the pharmacological profile of ASDs, in particular those with mechanisms inherent to disease-induced brain alterations. However, it appears that further work is needed to define optimal approaches for acute seizure induction and generation of epileptic/drug refractory animals that would permit reliable screening of new ASDs with improved potential to provide seizure control in patients with

  8. Reduced estradiol synthesis by letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is protective against development of pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Davood; Panda, B P; Vohora, Divya

    2015-11-01

    Neurosteroids, such as testosterone and their metabolites, are known to modulate neuronal excitability. The enzymes regulating the metabolism of these neurosteroids, thus, may be targeted as a noval strategy for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. The present work targeted two such enzymes i,e aromatase and 5α-reductase in order to explore the potential of letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and the ability of finasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor) to modulate any such effects. PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p.), when administered once every two days (for a total of 24 doses) induced kindling in Swiss albino mice. Letrozole (1 mg/kg, p.o.), administered prior to PTZ, significantly reduced the % incidence of kindling, delayed mean onset time of seizures and reduced seizure severity score. Letrozole reduced the levels of plasma 17β-estradiol after induction of kindling. The concurrent administration of finasteride and letrozole produced effects similar to letrozole on PTZ-kindling and on estradiol levels. This implies that the ability of letrozole to redirect the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstanediol from testosterone doesn't appear to play a significant role in the protective effects of letrozole against PTZ kindling. Letrozole, however, increased the levels of 5α-DHT in mice plasma. The aromatase inhibitors, thus, may be exploited for inhibiting the synthesis of proconvulsant (17β-estradiol) and/or redirecting the synthesis of anticonvulsant (DHT and 5α-androstanediol) neurosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V.; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M.; Savić, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24 h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2 mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5 mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  10. Epileptogenic effects of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 in the rat pentylenetetrazole kindling model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Akif Hakan; Bosnak, Mehmet; Inan, Salim Yalcın; Celik, Ahmet; Uremis, Muhammed Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1) has been demonstrated in several parts of the brain and may play an important role in estrogen downstream signaling pathway. However, the effects of this receptor on epileptic seizure are not clearly known. Therefore, the effects of GPER-1 agonist, G-1, GPER-1 antagonist, G-15 and the main estrogenic hormone, 17β-estradiol were investigated on seizures and brain tissue oxidative damages induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. In this study, 30 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. Due to intraperitoneal (ip) injections of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35mg/kg) which was repeated 12 times every 48h, chemical kindling occurred and kindling seizure was recorded for 30min. The rats were injected with 17β-estradiol (5μg/kg, ip) or G-1 (5μg/kg, ip), G-15 (5μg/kg, ip), Saline, Ethanol and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 30min before each dose of PTZ. Observed seizures were classified between the phase 0-5. Thirty minutes later when the last 12. PTZ administration, all rats were sacrificed and the brain cortex, hippocampus sections were removed and the tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels on these tissues were studied. GPER1 agonist, G-1 and estrogenic hormone, 17β-estradiol significantly increased the development of PTZ kindling the seizures. However, GPER1 antagonist, G-15 did not change the development of PTZ kindling the seizures. In the cortex and hippocampus homogenates, the NO levels after G-1 administration had significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the PTZ groups but SOD activities and MDA levels demonstrated no difference between the groups. This is the first study that explores that GPER-1 receptors have epileptogenic effect on PTZ-induced kindling rat. GPER1 may mediate the epileptogenic effect of estrogens by changing the oxidative or anti-oxidative parameters in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences

  11. EGAR, A Food Protein-Derived Tetrapeptide, Reduces Seizure Activity in Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Epilepsy Models Through α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazole Propionate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Song; Ling, Chuwen; Lu, Jun; Duan, Songwei; Wang, Yingzhao; Zhu, Huining; Lin, Ruibang; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xingchang; Cai, Muyi; Gu, Huaiyu

    2017-01-01

    A primary pathogeny of epilepsy is excessive activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs). To find potential molecules to inhibit AMPARs, high-throughput screening was performed in a library of tetrapeptides in silico. Computational results suggest that some tetrapeptides bind stably to the AMPAR. We aligned these sequences of tetrapeptide candidates with those from in vitro digestion of the trout skin protein. Among salmon-derived products, Glu-Gly-Ala-Arg (EGAR) showed a high biological affinity toward AMPAR when tested in silico. Accordingly, natural EGAR was hypothesized to have anticonvulsant activity, and in vitro experiments showed that EGAR selectively inhibited AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission without affecting the electrophysiological properties of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, EGAR reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Moreover, the ability of EGAR to reduce seizures was evaluated in a rodent epilepsy model. Briefer and less severe seizures versus controls were shown after mice were treated with EGAR. In conclusion, the promising experimental results suggest that EGAR inhibitor against AMPARs may be a target for antiepilepsy pharmaceuticals. Epilepsy is a common brain disorder characterized by the occurrence of recurring, unprovoked seizures. Twenty to 30 % of persons with epilepsy do not achieve adequate seizure control with any drug. Here we provide a possibility in which a natural and edible tetrapeptide, EGAR, can act as an antiepileptic agent. We have combined computation with in vitro experiments to show how EGAR modulates epilepsy. We also used an animal model of epilepsy to prove that EGAR can inhibit seizures in vivo. This study suggests EGAR as a potential pharmaceutical for the treatment of epilepsy.

  12. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child Has a Seizure Print en español Crisis convulsivas (convulsiones) Seizures are caused by a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain. A seizure usually affects how a person looks or acts for a ...

  13. Involvement of over-expressed BMP4 in pentylenetetrazol kindling-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Jinbo; Ma Yuxin; Yin Qing

    2007-03-30

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is one of a few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. Proliferation of neural precursors in the granule cell layer of the DG has been identified in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling epilepsy model, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism. We previously reported that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins-4 (BMP4) mRNA in the hippocampus was developmentally regulated and mainly localized in the DG of the adult. To explore the role of BMP4 in epileptic activity, we detected BMP4 expression in the DG during PTZ kindling process andmore » explore its correlation with cell proliferation combined with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique. We found that dynamic changes in BMP4 level and BrdU labeled cells dependent on the kindling stage of PTZ induced seizure-prone state. The number of BMP4 mRNA-positive cells and BrdU labeled cells reached the top level 1 day after PTZ kindled, then declined to base level 2 months later. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between increased BMP4 mRNA expression and increased number of BrdU labeled cells. After effectively blocked expression of BMP4 with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ASODN), the BrdU labeled cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone(DG-SGZ) and hilus were significantly decreased 16d after First PTZ injection and 1, 3, 7, 14d after kindled respectively. These findings suggest that increased proliferation in the DG of the hippocampus resulted from kindling epilepsy elicited by PTZ maybe be modulated by BMP4 over-expression.« less

  14. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The antiepileptic and neuroprotective effect of the Buxus hyrcana Pojark hydroethanolic extract against the pentylentetrazol induced model of the seizures in the male rats.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Vahid; Allahyari, Farzin; Hosseini, Abdolkarim

    2018-03-06

    The genus Buxus grows up widespread in Europe and Western Asia. It is an important traditional plant that has been used in the treatment of many illnesses. In the present study, the effect of hydroethanolic extract of Buxus hyrcana Pojark (BHP) on the animal model of seizure was studied. In this experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly selected and were divided into experimental and control groups (six rats per group). The experimental groups were treated by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) single injection of 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 mg kg -1 of hydroalcoholic extracts of BHP. The control negative group received normal saline (0.9%) and the control positive group received phenobarbital (30 mg kg -1 , i.p.) pre-treatment. Thirty minutes after the treatments, the seizure behaviors were evaluated by the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (70 mg kg -1 , i.p.) challenge. In addition, after the experiment, the rats were put to death and their brains were removed for the histological study. The ANOVA demonstrated that compared to the control group, all the BHP doses delayed the initiation and duration of the tonic, colonic and tonic-colonic seizures and significantly reduced the tonic and colonic seizures (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the administration of all five doses of the extract significantly prevented the production of the dark neurons (p < 0.001) in different areas of the hippocampus compared to PTZ group. We can conclude that the BHP extract has beneficial effects for the prevention of the PTZ induced seizure.

  16. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... wake up between them. Seizures can have many causes, including medicines, high fevers, head injuries and certain diseases. People who have recurring seizures due to a brain disorder have epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  17. Mild overexpression of Mecp2 in mice causes a higher susceptibility toward seizures.

    PubMed

    Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Tantra, Martesa; Mollajew, Rustam; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga P; Laccone, Franco A; Can, Karolina; Rosenberger, Albert; Mironov, Sergej L; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Mannan, Ashraf U

    2013-07-01

    An intriguing finding about the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is that the loss-of-function mutations cause Rett syndrome and duplication (gain-of-function) of MECP2 leads to another neurological disorder termed MECP2 duplication syndrome. To ensure proper neurodevelopment, a precise regulation of MeCP2 expression is critical, and any gain or loss of MeCP2 over a narrow threshold level may lead to postnatal neurological impairment. To evaluate MeCP2 dosage effects, we generated Mecp2(WT_EGFP) transgenic (TG) mouse in which MeCP2 (endogenous plus TG) is mildly overexpressed (approximately 1.5×). The TG MeCP2(WT_EGFP) fusion protein is functionally active, as cross breeding of these mice with Mecp2 knockout mice led to alleviation of major phenotypes in the null mutant mice, including premature lethality. To characterize the Mecp2(WT_EGFP) mouse model, we performed an extensive battery of behavioral tests, which revealed that these mice manifest increased aggressiveness and higher pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure propensity. Evaluation of neuronal parameters revealed a reduction in the number of tertiary branching sites and increased spine density in Mecp2(WT_EGFP) transgenic (TG) neurons. Treatment of TG neurons with epileptogenic compound-PTZ led to a marked increase in amplitude and frequency of calcium spikes. Based on our ex vivo and in vivo data, we conclude that epileptic seizures are manifested as the first symptom when MeCP2 is mildly overexpressed in mice. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of seizures. Some have mild symptoms without shaking. Considerations It may be hard to tell if someone ... Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children ) Head injury Heart disease Heat illness ( heat intolerance ) High fever Phenylketonuria ( PKU ), ...

  19. Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rahn, J J; Bestman, J E; Josey, B J; Inks, E S; Stackley, K D; Rogers, C E; Chou, C J; Chan, S S L

    2014-02-14

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world's population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, 2-benzamido-1 4-naphthoquinone (NQN1), significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of valproic acid, 2-n-propylpentanoic acid (VPA). We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogs. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6Hz) and corneal-kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the

  20. Intracellularly applied anti-P70 antibody blocks the induction of abnormal membrane properties by pentylenetetrazole in identified Euhadra neurons.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, M; Watanabe, K

    1996-04-15

    Using the voltage-clamp technique combined with pressure injection, we have studied the action of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on identified Euhadra neurons by examining how the PTZ-induced changes in membrane properties are affected by an antibody against P70, a protein found in the experimentally-induced epileptogenic cortex of rats. Intracellular injection of anti-P70 antibody blocked the induction by PTZ; bursting activity with both of development of negative slope resistance region in the steady state 1-V curve and a reduction in the delayed outward potassium current. These results suggest a novel mechanism of action for PTZ, involving intracellular protein(s) which react with anti-P70 antibody.

  1. The effect of leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide-Y on serum Tnf-Α, Il-1β, Il-6, Fgf-2, galanin levels and oxidative stress in an experimental generalized convulsive seizure model.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Berrin; Sahin, Deniz; Kir, Hale; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Musul, Mert; Kuskay, Sevinç; Ates, Nurbay

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained. Seizure activity was scored by observing seizure behavior, and the onset time, latency, and seizure duration were determined according to the EEG records. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained in all groups to assess the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, FGF-2, galanin, nitric oxide (NOֹ), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The electrophysiological and biochemical findings (p<0.05) of this study show that all three peptides have anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic convulsive seizure model. The reduction of the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 caused by leptin, ghrelin, and NPY shows that these peptides may have anti-inflammatory effects in epileptic seizures. Also, leptin significantly increases the serum levels of the endogenous anticonvulsive agent galanin. The fact that each one of these endogenous peptides reduces the levels of MDA and increases the serum levels of GSH leads to the belief that they may have protective effects against oxidative damage that is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Our study contributes to the clarification of the role of these peptides in the brain in seizure-induced oxidative stress and immune system physiology and also presents new approaches to the etiology and treatment of tendency to epileptic seizures. Copyright

  2. Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice.

    PubMed

    Minami, E; Shibata, H; Nomoto, M; Fukuda, T

    2000-03-01

    This study measured the effects of Shitei-To (STT), a traditional Chinese Medicine, which is a mixture of extracts from three medicinal herbs, Shitei (SI, Kaki Calyx; calyx of Diospyros kaki L. f.), Shokyo (SK, Zingiberis Rhizoma; rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Choji (CJ, Caryophylli flos; flowerbud of Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merrill et. Perry), has long been used for the treatment of hiccups in Japan and China, against fully pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizures and on the development of pentylenetetrazol kindling in mice. Repeated administration of STT (3.0 g/kg p.o.) mildly retards the development of pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. STT also decreased the number of tonic-clonic convulsions resulting from progression kindling. On the other hand, STT had no effect on convulsions in fully pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice. These findings suggest that STT protects against the development of convulsions, and that STT may have therapeutic effects in the prevention of secondarily generalized seizures.

  3. The involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in antiepileptic action of alpha-asarone on pentylenetetrazol molding rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Zhu, Wenting; Liu, Jing; Yin, Jian; Qin, Wei; Jiang, Changbin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to research the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of alpha (α)-asarone effect at the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptiform discharge in rat. α-Asarone that was injected intraperitoneally twenty minutes before PTZ injection suppressed the clonic discharge effectively and the significant actions lasted for 30 min with no change of clonic amplitude. Administration of α-asarone did not influence interictal discharge. Four kinds of NO regulators were administered, including non-selective NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) and NO substrate, L-arginine (ARG) and their influence on the actions of α-asarone were studied, and all of the regulators were administered fifteen minutes before α-asarone injection. L-NAME and 7-NI reversed the anticlonic activity of α-asarone, and a significant increase of clonic activity was induced by L-NAME later in L-NAME +.α-asarone + PTZ group. There were no significant differences between AG + α-asarone + PTZ and α-asarone + PTZ group. L-ARG played a dual role in this study. It aggravated clonic discharge in the early stage but relieved interictal discharge in the late stage compared with PTZ group alone, and the beneficial effect of α-asarone was also reversed. All the above results suggest that nNOS/NO pathway mediates the anticonvulsant effect of α-asarone, and NO played a biphasic role in PTZ modeling process, while iNOS was unrelated to the inhibition effect of α-asarone on PTZ induced epileptiform activity.

  4. [Combined blockade of AMPA- and NMDA-receptors has maximum effect to eliminate development of pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rats].

    PubMed

    Serdiuk, S E; Gmiro, V E; Veselkina, O S

    2013-05-01

    Peroral chronic administration the standard antiepileptic drug sodium valproate in a dose of 200 mg/kg eliminates development of generalized clonic-tonic pentylenetetrazol kindling seizures in 100% of rats, but only in 57% of rats this treatment prevents clonic kindling seizures. In the specified dose sodium valproate decreases in 1.7 times average severity of pentylenetetrazol kindling seizures compare with control. IEM-2121, causing combined blockade of NMDA- and AMPA-glutamate receptors, as well as IEM-1676, which also blocks AMPA-, NMDA- and N-cholinoreceptors, both after peroral chronic administration in a doses 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg accordingly, possess higher, than sodium valproate, anticonvulsant activity because reduce average severity of pentylenetetrazol kindling seizures in 2.4-2.7 times in comparison with control and prevents clonic kindling seizures in 87% of rats. Combined blockade of AMPA- and NMDA-receptors and perhars N-cholinoreceptors has maximum effect to eliminate epileptogenesis both clonic, and clonic-tonic pentylenetetrazol kindling seizures.

  5. Curcumin-loaded chitosan-alginate-STPP nanoparticles ameliorate memory deficits and reduce glial activation in pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Mona; Anissian, Diana; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Akbari, Atefeh; Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Shahram; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimpour, Anahita

    2017-10-03

    Despite several beneficial effects of curcumin, its medical application has been hampered due to low water solubility. To improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin, it has been loaded on chitosan (CS)-alginate (ALG) - sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) nanoparticles (NPs). Then, the effect of curcumin NPs on memory improvement and glial activation was investigated in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling model. Male NMRI mice have received the daily injection of curcumin NPs at dose of 12.5 or 25mg/kg. All interventions were injected intraperitoneally (i.p), 10days before PTZ administration and the injections were continued until 1h before each PTZ injection. Spatial learning and memory was evaluated using Morris water maze test after the 7th PTZ injection. Animals have received 10 injections of PTZ and then, brain tissues were removed for histological evaluation. Nissl staining was used to determine the level of cell death in hippocampus and immunostaining method was performed against NeuN and GFAP/Iba1 for assessment of neuronal density and glial activation respectively. Behavioral results showed that curcumin NPs exhibit anticonvulsant activity and prevent cognitive impairment in fully kindled animals. The level of cell death and glial activation reduced in animals which have received curcumin NPs compared to those received free curcumin. To conclude, these findings suggest that curcumin NPs effectively ameliorate memory impairment and attenuate the level of activated glial cells in a mice model of chronic epilepsy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Glutamate receptor 1 phosphorylation at Serine 831 and 845 modulates seizure susceptibility and hippocampal hyperexcitability following early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rakhade, S.N.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Klein, P.M.; Zhou, C.; Sun, H; Huganir, R.L.; Jensen, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal seizures can lead to later life epilepsy and neurobehavioral deficits, and there are no treatments to prevent these sequelae. We previously showed that hypoxia-induced seizures in a neonatal rat model induce rapid phosphorylation of S831 and S845 sites of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit and later neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy, suggesting that seizure-induced post-translational modifications may represent a novel therapeutic target. To unambiguously assess the contribution of these sites, we examined seizure susceptibility in wild type mice versus transgenic knock-in mice with deficits in GluR1 S831 and S845 phosphorylation (GluR1 double phosphomutant (GluR1DPM) mice). Phosphorylation of the GluR1 S831 and S845 sites was significantly increased in the hippocampus and cortex following a single episode of pentyleneterazol (PTZ) induced seizures in postnatal day 9 (P9) wild type mouse pups, and that transgenic knock-in mice have a higher threshold and longer latencies to seizures. Like the rat, hypoxic seizures in P9 C57BL/6N wild type mice resulted in transient increases in GluR1 S831 and GluR1 S845 phosphorylation in cortex, and were associated with enhanced seizure susceptibility to later-life kainic acid induced seizures. In contrast, later-life seizure susceptibility following hypoxia-induced seizures was attenuated in GluR1 DPM mice, supporting a role for post-translational modifications in seizure-induced network excitability. Finally, human hippocampal samples from neonatal seizure autopsy cases also showed an increase in GluR1 S831 and S845, supporting the validation of this potential therapeutic target in human tissue. PMID:23223299

  7. The effect of acute aripiprazole treatment on chemically and electrically induced seizures in mice: The role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Shafaroodi, Hamed; Oveisi, Simin; Hosseini, Mahsa; Niknahad, Hossein; Moezi, Leila

    2015-07-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic drug which acts through dopamine and serotonin receptors. Aripiprazole was noted to have antiseizure effects in a study on mice, while it induced seizures in a few human case reports. Dopaminergic and serotonergic systems relate to nitric oxide, and aripiprazole also has effects on dopamine and serotonin receptors. This study investigated the effects of aripiprazole on seizures and the potential role of nitric oxide in the process. The following three models were examined to explore the role of aripiprazole on seizures in mice: 1 - pentylenetetrazole administered intravenously, 2 - pentylenetetrazole administered intraperitoneally, and 3 - electroshock. Aripiprazole administration delayed clonic seizure in intravenous and intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole models. In the electroshock-induced seizure model, tonic seizure and mortality protection percent were increased after aripiprazole administration. In intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole, aripiprazole effects on clonic seizure latency were significantly decreased when l-NAME - a nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole - a selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor, or aminoguanidine - a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor was injected before aripiprazole administration. In the intravenous pentylenetetrazole method, administration of l-NAME or aminoguanidine inhibited aripiprazole effects on clonic seizure threshold. Aminoguanidine or l-NAME administration decreased aripiprazole-induced protection against tonic seizures and death in the electroshock model. In both intravenous and intraperitoneal seizure models, aripiprazole and l-arginine coadministration delayed the onset of clonic seizures. Moreover, it increased protection against tonic seizures and death in intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole and electroshock models. In conclusion, the release of nitric oxide via iNOS or nNOS may be involved in anticonvulsant properties of

  8. Real-time Seizure Detection System Using Multiple Single-Neuron Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    electrodes were implanted bilaterally into the temporal lobe of each rat. The rats were anesthetized with nebutal (50mg/kg). Small craniotomies were...1997. [9] Fanselow, E.E., Reid, A.P., Nicolelis, M.A.L., Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered

  9. High dosage of cannabidiol (CBD) alleviates pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy in rats by exerting an anticonvulsive effect

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ke; You, Chao; Lei, Ding; Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats with chronic epilepsy. The chronic epilepsy rat model was prepared by intraperitoneally injecting pentylenetetrazole to the rats pre-treated with CBD (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Behavioral measurements of convulsion following pentylenetetrazole treatment and morphological changes of the hippocampal neurons with hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to observe the epileptic behaviour. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits (NR1 and NR2B) was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed a significant decrease in the daily average grade of epileptic seizures on treatment with CBD (50 mg/kg). The neuronal loss and astrocyte hyperplasia in the hippocampal area were also decreased. CBD treatment did not affect the expression of iNOS in the hippocampus; however, the expression of NR1 was decreased significantly. Thus, CBD administration inhibited the effect of pentylenetetrazole in rats, decreased the astrocytic hyperplasia, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus caused by seizures and selectively reduced the expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA. Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy. PMID:26309534

  10. High dosage of cannabidiol (CBD) alleviates pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy in rats by exerting an anticonvulsive effect.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ke; You, Chao; Lei, Ding; Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats with chronic epilepsy. The chronic epilepsy rat model was prepared by intraperitoneally injecting pentylenetetrazole to the rats pre-treated with CBD (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Behavioral measurements of convulsion following pentylenetetrazole treatment and morphological changes of the hippocampal neurons with hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to observe the epileptic behaviour. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits (NR1 and NR2B) was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed a significant decrease in the daily average grade of epileptic seizures on treatment with CBD (50 mg/kg). The neuronal loss and astrocyte hyperplasia in the hippocampal area were also decreased. CBD treatment did not affect the expression of iNOS in the hippocampus; however, the expression of NR1 was decreased significantly. Thus, CBD administration inhibited the effect of pentylenetetrazole in rats, decreased the astrocytic hyperplasia, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus caused by seizures and selectively reduced the expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA. Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.

  11. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  12. Role of oxidative stress in epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Won-Ki; Ko, Kwang-Ho; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from excessive free-radical release is likely implicated in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Therefore, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress have received considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. However, much evidence suggests that oxidative stress does not always have the same pattern in all seizures models. Thus, this review provides an overview aimed at achieving a better understanding of this issue. We summarize work regarding seizure models (i.e., genetically epilepsy-prone rats, kainic acid, pilocarpine, pentylenetetrazol, and trimethyltin), oxidative stress as an etiologic factor in epileptic seizures (i.e., impairment of antioxidant systems, mitochondrial dysfunction, involvement of redox-active metals, arachidonic acid pathway activation, and aging), and antioxidant strategies for seizure treatment. Combined, this review highlights pharmacological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress in epileptic seizures and the potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy that targets oxidative stress and is supported by effective antioxidant treatment. PMID:21672578

  13. Acute exposure to caffeine decreases the anticonvulsant action of ethosuximide, but not that of clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Zuchora, Marek; Sawicka, Katarzyna M; Kozińska, Justyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effect of acute administration of caffeine sodium benzoate (CAF) on the anticonvulsant action of four conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: clonazepam - CZP, ethosuximide - ETS, phenobarbital - PB and valproate - VPA) against pentetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice. The results indicate that CAF at a dose of 92.4 mg/kg significantly reduced the threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice from 69.5 to 51.7 mg/kg (p<0.05), being ineffective at lower doses of 69.3 and 46.2 mg/kg. Moreover, CAF at doses of and 92.4 mg/kg attenuated the protective action of ETS against PTZ-induced seizures, by increasing its median effective dose (ED50) from 127.7 to 182.3 (p<0.05), and 198.3 mg/kg (p<0.01), respectively. In this case, no pharmacokinetic changes in total brain ETS concentrations after systemic ip administration of CAF (at 92.4 mg/kg) were observed, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between ETS and CAF in the PTZ-test in mice. In contrast, CAF (at a dose of 92.4 mg/kg reducing the threshold for PTZ-induced seizures) combined with other AEDs (CZP, PB and VPA) did not affect their anticonvulsant action in the PTZ test in mice. Moreover, CAF (92.4 mg/kg) did not alter significantly total brain concentrations of the remaining AEDs (CZP, PB and VPA). The evaluation of potential acute adverse effects produced by AEDs in combination with CAF revealed that neither CAF (up to 92.4 mg/kg) administered alone nor combined with the studied drugs (at doses corresponding to their ED(50) values in the PTZ-test) affected motor performance of animals in the chimney test. In conclusion, the acute exposure to CAF may diminish the antiseizure protection offered by ETS in epileptic patients. Therefore, patients treated with ETS should avoid CAF.

  14. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of mefloquine on generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models in rats.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    Mefloquine can cross the blood-brain barrier and block the gap junction intercellular communication in the brain. Enhanced electrical coupling mediated by gap junctions is an underlying mechanism involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the systemic administration of mefloquine on tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models such as pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. All the control rats presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the administration of pentylenetetrazole. However, the incidence of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole significantly decreased in the groups administered systematically with 40 and 80 mg/kg of mefloquine. In the control group, none of the rats survived after the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, but survival was improved by mefloquine. Besides, mefloquine significantly modified the total spectral power as well as the duration, amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazole. For the maximal electroshock model, mefloquine did not change the occurrence of tonic hindlimb extension. However, this gap junction blocker significantly decreased the duration of the tonic hindlimb extension induced by the acute electroshock. These data suggest that mefloquine at low doses might be eliciting some anticonvulsant effects when is systemically administered to rats.

  16. [The ability of NMDA glutamate receptor blockers to prevent a pentylenetetrazole kindling in mice and morphological changes in the hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, D S; Tumanova, N L; Lavrent'eva, V V; Starshinova, L A; Zhabko, E P; Lukomskaia, N Ia; Zhuravin, I A; Magazanik, L G

    2013-09-01

    We investigated in mice the relationship between convulsions and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons that arise in the development of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling. The kindling was caused by of 35 mg/kg PTZ i.p. 3 times a week for a month. By the end of this period, 70% of the mice responded to the injections of PTZ with pronounced clonic or tonic-clonic seizures. The hippocampal slices (layer stratum pyramidale, CA1, Nissl's stain) obtained from mice exhibiting seizures revealed a large number of modified cells (24.7 +/- 2.1%). These hyperchromic neurons have been characterized by a decrease of the size cell body, there was a loss of turgor, the body cells shrink, and dendritic spines curl. Part of the cells took the shape of elongated neck. Such modified the dark type of neurons contained only 2.3 +/- 2.3% in the hippocampus of intact mice, and 30% of the mice resistant to the convulsive action ofPTZ during the period of observation. The expression of protein NeuN (Fox3) in hippocamal neuron including the hyperchromic once suggests that neurons on the whole did not die and were relatively viable. Preventive administration of NMDA receptor blockers (0.5 mg/kg, memantine 0.1 mg/kg or IEM-1958 1 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 minutes prior to PTZ reduced the proportion of mice which exhibited PTZ kindling from 70% to 40%. The modified neurons were observed in which the PTZ kindling due to the blocker presence did not develop, i.e., the same as in intact mice. Contrary, 24.0 +/- 5.6% of hyperchromic neurons were found in the hippocampal slices from mice manifested seizures, despite the co-administration of NMDA blockers. The data obtained indicate that modified neurons are the result of seizures suffered by the animals in the course of PTZ kindling, and that the blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors can suppress manifestations of seizures and the accompanying morphological changes of hippocampal neurons.

  17. Optogenetic activation of superior colliculus neurons suppresses seizures originating in diverse brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Colin; Wicker, Evan; Kulick, Catherine V.; N’Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Because sites of seizure origin may be unknown or multifocal, identifying targets from which activation can suppress seizures originating in diverse networks is essential. We evaluated the ability of optogenetic activation of the deep/intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) to fill this role. Optogenetic activation of DLSC suppressed behavioral and electrographic seizures in the pentylenetetrazole (forebrain+brainstem seizures) and Area Tempestas (forebrain/complex partial seizures) models; this effect was specific to activation of DLSC, and not neighboring structures. DLSC activation likewise attenuated seizures evoked by gamma butyrolactone (thalamocortical/absence seizures), or acoustic stimulation of genetically epilepsy prone rates (brainstem seizures). Anticonvulsant effects were seen with stimulation frequencies as low as 5 Hz. Unlike previous applications of optogenetics for the control of seizures, activation of DLSC exerted broad-spectrum anticonvulsant actions, attenuating seizures originating in diverse and distal brain networks. These data indicate that DLSC is a promising target for optogenetic control of epilepsy. PMID:26721319

  18. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  19. Seizure clustering.

    PubMed

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2006-02-01

    Seizure clusters, also known as repetitive or serial seizures, occur commonly in epilepsy. Clustering implies that the occurrence of one seizure may influence the probability of a subsequent seizure; thus, the investigation of the clustering phenomenon yields insights into both specific mechanisms of seizure clustering and more general concepts of seizure occurrence. Seizure clustering has been defined clinically as a number of seizures per unit time and, statistically, as a deviation from a random distribution, or interseizure interval dependence. This review explores the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical implications of clustering, as well as other periodic patterns of seizure occurrence. Risk factors for experiencing clusters and potential precipitants of clustering are also addressed.

  20. Synergistic anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin and amlodipine on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Itefaq Hussain; Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Status epilepticus is a life threatening neurological medical emergency. It may cause serious damage to the brain and even death in many cases if not treated properly. There is limited choice of drugs for the short term and long term management of status epilepticus and the dugs recommended for status epilepticus possess various side effects. The present study was designed to investigate synergistic anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin with amlodipine on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice. Pentylenetetrazole was used to induce acute seizures which mimic status epilepticus. Pregabalin and amlodipine were used in combination to evaluate synergistic anti-seizure effects on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice. Diazepam and valproate were used as reference dugs. The acute anti-convulsive activity of pregabalin with amlodipine was evaluated in vivo by the chemical induced seizures and their anti-seizure effects were compared with pentylenetetrazole, reference drugs and to their individual effects. The anti-seizure effects of tested drugs were recorded in seconds on seizure characteristics such as latency of onset of threshold seizures, rearing and fallings and Hind limbs tonic extensions. The seizure protection and mortality to the animals exhibited by the drugs were recorded in percentage. Combination regimen of pregabalin with amlodipine exhibited dose dependent significant synergistic anticonvulsant effects on acute seizures which were superior to their individual effects and equivalent to reference drugs.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of jobelyn(®) on chemoconvulsants-induced seizure in mice.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, Solomon; Omogbiya, Itivere Adrian; Eduviere, Anthony Taghogho

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common central nervous system (CNS) disorder characterized by seizures resulting from episodic neuronal discharges. The incidence of toxicity and refractoriness has compromised the clinical efficacy of the drugs currently used for the treatment of convulsions. Thus, there is a need to search for new medicines from plant origin that are readily available and safer for the control of seizures. Jobelyn(®) (JB) is a unique African polyherbal preparation used by the natives to treat seizures in children. This investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-seizure property in mice. The animals received JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o) 30 min before induction of convulsions with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of picotoxin (6 mg/kg), strychnine (2 mg/kg) and pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg) respectively. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference drug. Anti-seizure activities were assessed based on the ability of test drugs to prevent convulsions, death or to delay the onset of seizures in mice. JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o) could only delay the onset of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. However, it did not did not offer any protection against seizure episodes, as it failed to prevent the animals, from exhibiting tonic-clonic convulsions caused by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.), strychnine (2 mg/kg) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.), offered 100% protection against convulsive seizures, induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.). However, it failed to prevent seizures produced by strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results suggest that JB could not prevent the examined chemoconvulsants-induced convulsions. However, its ability to delay the latency to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole suggests that JB might be effective in the control of the seizure spread in epileptic brains.

  2. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... seizures in infants and children, doctors sometimes perform tests to be sure that the seizures are not caused by an underlying or more serious health condition. For example, meningitis, an infection of the membranes surrounding the ...

  3. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... proper care. Occasionally, a provider will prescribe a medicine called diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no drug is completely effective in preventing febrile seizures. Alternative Names Seizure - fever induced; Febrile convulsions Patient Instructions ...

  4. Genetic deletion of the norepinephrine transporter decreases vulnerability to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Rafal M.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Witkin, Jeffrey M.; Rocha, Beatriz A.

    2005-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) has been reported to modulate neuronal excitability and act as endogenous anticonvulsant. In the present study we used NE transporter knock-out mice (NET-KO), which are characterized by high levels of extracellular NE, to investigate the role of endogenous NE in seizure susceptibility. Seizure thresholds for cocaine (i.p.), pentylenetetrazol (i.v.) and kainic acid (i.v.) were compared in NET-KO, heterozygous (NET-HT) and wild type (NET-WT) female mice. The dose-response curve for cocaine-induced convulsions was significantly shifted to the right in NET-KO mice, indicating higher seizure thresholds. The threshold doses of pentylenetetrazol that induced clonic and tonic seizures were also significantly higher in NET-KO when compared to NET-WT mice. Similarly, NET-KO mice displayed higher resistance to convulsions engendered by kainic acid. For all drugs tested, the response of NET-HT mice was always intermediate. These data provide further support for a role of endogenous NE in the control of seizure susceptibility. PMID:15911120

  5. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ce; Fan, Qing; Chen, Shu-Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT) sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP) overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg) for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control); verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control); and G. biloba (30 mg/kg). Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p < 0.05). P-GP expression in the brain more significantly decreased in the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p < 0.05). Compared with the saline-treated control group, the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p < 0.05). Furthermore, caspase-3 expression in the brain tissue of the G. biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p < 0.05); this finding demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of G. biloba. Therefore, this

  6. Absence Seizure (Petit Mal Seizure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people have many episodes daily, which interfere with school or daily activities. A child may have absence seizures for some time before an adult notices the seizures, because they're so brief. A decline in a child's learning ability may be the first sign of this ...

  7. Dopey's seizure.

    PubMed

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Copyright 1999 BEA Trading Ltd.

  8. Effect of Tadalafil on Seizure Threshold and Activity of Antiepileptic Drugs in Three Acute Seizure Tests in Mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wyska, Elżbieta; Szafarz, Małgorzata; Doboszewska, Urszula; Wlaź, Piotr

    2018-02-09

    Tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is a long-acting oral agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction of multiple etiologies. Although generalized tonic-clonic seizures were reported in a healthy man after taking tadalafil, the influence of tadalafil on seizure susceptibility has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tadalafil on seizure threshold as well as on the activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in three acute seizure tests in mice. The obtained results showed that tadalafil, at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg), significantly decreased the threshold for the first myoclonic twitch in the intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure test. It did not affect the threshold for generalized clonic seizure and forelimb tonus in the i.v. PTZ, for tonic hindlimb extension in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test, and for psychomotor seizure in the 6-Hz-induced seizure threshold test. Tadalafil did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of any of the studied antiepileptic drugs in electrically induced seizure tests. Interestingly, tadalafil potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of clonazepam and decreased the anticonvulsant activity of oxcarbazepine in the i.v. PTZ test. These interactions were pharmacodynamic in nature, as tadalafil did not alter clonazepam and oxcarbazepine concentrations both in serum and brain tissue. Furthermore, neither tadalafil alone nor its combinations with the studied antiepileptic drugs produced any significant impairment of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test), muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test), and long-term memory (assessed in the passive avoidance task). In conclusion, tadalafil may increase the risk of myoclonic seizure and decrease the anticonvulsant efficacy of oxcarbazepine. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the safety of tadalafil usage in patients with

  9. [(18)F]FDG PET Neuroimaging Predicts Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) Kindling Outcome in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bascuñana, Pablo; Javela, Julián; Delgado, Mercedes; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Shiha, Ahmed Anis; García-García, Luis; Pozo, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Epileptogenesis, i.e., development of epilepsy, involves a number of processes that alter the brain function in the way that triggers spontaneous seizures. Kindling is one of the most used animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and epileptogenesis, although chemical kindling suffers from high inter-assay success unpredictability. This study was aimed to analyze the eventual regional brain metabolic changes during epileptogenesis in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in order to obtain a predictive kindling outcome parameter. In vivo longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) along the PTZ kindling protocol (35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), 18 sessions) in adult male rats were performed in order to evaluate the regional brain metabolism. The half of the PTZ-injected rats reached the kindled state. In addition, a significant decrease of [(18)F]FDG uptake at the end of the protocol in most of the brain structures of kindled animals was found, reflecting the characteristic epilepsy-associated hypometabolism. However, PTZ-injected animals but not reaching the kindled state did not show this widespread brain hypometabolism. Retrospective analysis of the data revealed that hippocampal [(18)F]FDG uptake normalized to pons turned out to be a predictive index of the kindling outcome. Thus, a 19.06 % reduction (p = 0.008) of the above parameter was found in positively kindled rats compared to non-kindled ones just after the fifth PTZ session. Non-invasive PET neuroimaging was a useful tool for discerning epileptogenesis progression in this animal model. Particularly, the [(18)F]FDG uptake of the hippocampus proved to be an early predictive parameter to differentiate resistant and non-resistant animals to the PTZ kindling.

  10. Localization of cortical tissue optical changes during seizure activity in vivo with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Melissa M.; Hsu, Mike S.; Rodriguez, Carissa L.; Szu, Jenny I.; Oliveira, Michael C.; Binder, Devin K.; Park, B. Hyle

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution, minimally invasive imaging technique, which can produce depth-resolved cross-sectional images. In this study, OCT was used to detect changes in the optical properties of cortical tissue in vivo in mice during the induction of global (pentylenetetrazol) and focal (4-aminopyridine) seizures. Through the use of a confidence interval statistical method on depth-resolved volumes of attenuation coefficient, we demonstrated localization of regions exhibiting both significant positive and negative changes in attenuation coefficient, as well as differentiating between global and focal seizure propagation. PMID:26137382

  11. Intra-hippocampal microinjection of oxytocin produced antiepileptic effect on the pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanparast, Amir; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Henareh-Chareh, Farzin

    2017-08-01

    In addition to its role as a circulating hormone, oxytocin can also act as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator within the brain. In this study, we investigated the intra-hippocampal effect of oxytocin on an experimental seizure model induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. We also used atosiban (oxytocin antagonist), diazepam and flumazenil (gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA-benzodiazepine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively) to clarify the involved mechanism. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Epileptic behaviors were induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of PTZ (60mg/kg), and the latency time to onset of first myoclonic jerk, and the duration of epileptic seizures were determined for 30min. Intra-hippocampal microinjections of oxytocin at doses of 10 and 20ng/site, diazepam (100 and 200ng/site) and co-administration of their ineffective doses significantly (p<0.01) increased the onset of first myoclonic jerk and decreased duration of epileptic seizure. Antiepileptic effects of oxytocin (20ng/site) were inhibited by atosiban (20 and 40ng/site) and flumazenil (100 and 200ng/site) pretreatments. On the other hand, prior administration of flumazenil (100 and 200ng/site) and atosiban (20 and 40ng/site) prevented the antiepileptic effects induced by diazepam (100 and 200ng/site). The results of the present study showed that at the level of the hippocampus oxytocin suppressed the severity of epileptic behaviors. A hippocampal GABA-benzodiazepine receptor mechanism may be involved in antiepileptic effect of oxytocin. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect on phenytoin-induced cognition deficit in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice: A repertoire of Glycyrrhiza glabra flavonoid antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Damanpreet; Goel, Rajesh K

    2016-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Febaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine and scientifically explored for its anticonvulsant and memory improving potential. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of flavonoid rich fraction of G. glabra root extract against phenytoin-induced cognition deficit in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindled mice. The ethyl acetate fraction was initially screened in different in vitro free radical scavenging assays. For in vivo studies, the kindled mice in different groups were given 15 d post-treatment with phenytoin (25 mg/kg; p.o.) per se or in combination with varying doses of the fraction (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg; p.o.). Seizure severity score and cognitive functions were accessed using Racine's scale and passive shock avoidance paradigm, respectively on every 5th d after a PTZ challenge dose (35 mg/kg; i.p.). At the end of study, the animals were scarified for cerebral biochemistry. The fraction showed marked antioxidant activity indicated by low IC50 values in DPPH (20.9 µg/mL), nitric oxide radical scavenging (195.2 µg/mL), and capacity of hydrogen peroxide scavenging (3.4 µg/mL) assays. Treatment with phenytoin per se and along with the flavonoid rich fraction showed significant reduction in seizure severity score as compared to vehicle control. The combined-treated groups also showed improved cognitive functions indicated by reduced number of mistakes and increased step-down latency in passive shock avoidance paradigm. From the results, it can be concluded that the flavonoid rich fraction in combination with phenytoin reduces seizure severity and improve cognitive functions in PTZ-kindled mice.

  13. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  14. Post-traumatic seizure susceptibility is attenuated by hypothermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Coleen M.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Lotocki, George; Sanchez-Molano, Juliana; Kang, Yuan; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Sick, Thomas J.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bramlett, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for the subsequent development of epilepsy. Currently, chronic seizures after brain injury are often poorly controlled by available anti-epileptic drugs. Hypothermia treatment, a modest reduction in brain temperature, reduces inflammation, activates pro-survival signaling pathways, and improves cognitive outcome after TBI. Given the well-known effect of therapeutic hypothermia to ameliorate pathological changes in the brain after TBI, we hypothesized that hypothermia therapy may attenuate the development of post-traumatic epilepsy and some of the pathomechanisms that underlie seizure formation. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury, and then were maintained at normothermic or moderate hypothermic temperatures for 4 hr. At 12 weeks after recovery, seizure susceptibility was assessed by challenging the animals with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a GABAA receptor antagonist. PTZ elicited a significant increase in seizure frequency in TBI normothermic animals as compared to sham surgery animals and this was significantly reduced in TBI hypothermic animals. Early hypothermia treatment did not rescue chronic dentate hilar neuronal loss, nor did it improve loss of doublecortin-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus post-seizure. However, mossy fiber sprouting was significantly attenuated by hypothermia therapy. These findings demonstrate that reductions in seizure susceptibility after TBI are improved with post-traumatic hypothermia and provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:21044182

  15. Rapamycin down-regulates KCC2 expression and increases seizure susceptibility to convulsants in immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxing; McMahon, John; Yang, Jun; Shin, Damian; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seizure susceptibility to neurological insults, including chemical convulsants, is age-dependent and most likely reflective of overall differences in brain excitability. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying development-dependent seizure susceptibility remain to be fully understood. Because the mTOR pathway regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and cell survival, thereby influencing brain development, we tested if exposure of the immature brain to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin changes seizure susceptibility to neurological insults. We found that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin in immature rats (3 to 4 weeks old) increases the severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine, including lengthening the total seizure duration and reducing the latency to the onset of seizures. Rapamycin also reduces the minimal dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) necessary to induce clonic seizures. However, in mature rats, rapamycin does not significantly change the seizure sensitivity to pilocarpine and PTZ. Likewise, kainate sensitivity was not significantly affected by rapamycin treatment in either mature or immature rats. Additionally, rapamycin treatment down-regulates the expression of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in the thalamus and to a lesser degree in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of thalamic mTOR or KCC2 increases susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizure in immature rats. Thus, our study suggests a role for the mTOR pathway in age-dependent seizure susceptibility. PMID:22613737

  16. Optogenetic activation of superior colliculus neurons suppresses seizures originating in diverse brain networks.

    PubMed

    Soper, Colin; Wicker, Evan; Kulick, Catherine V; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-03-01

    Because sites of seizure origin may be unknown or multifocal, identifying targets from which activation can suppress seizures originating in diverse networks is essential. We evaluated the ability of optogenetic activation of the deep/intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) to fill this role. Optogenetic activation of DLSC suppressed behavioral and electrographic seizures in the pentylenetetrazole (forebrain+brainstem seizures) and Area Tempestas (forebrain/complex partial seizures) models; this effect was specific to activation of DLSC, and not neighboring structures. DLSC activation likewise attenuated seizures evoked by gamma butyrolactone (thalamocortical/absence seizures), or acoustic stimulation of genetically epilepsy prone rates (brainstem seizures). Anticonvulsant effects were seen with stimulation frequencies as low as 5 Hz. Unlike previous applications of optogenetics for the control of seizures, activation of DLSC exerted broad-spectrum anticonvulsant actions, attenuating seizures originating in diverse and distal brain networks. These data indicate that DLSC is a promising target for optogenetic control of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  18. Pregestational stress attenuated fertility rate in dams and increased seizure susceptibility in offspring.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodkhani, Maryam; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Azizi, Negar; Karimipour, Mojtaba; Rasmi, Yosef; Gholinejad, Zafar

    2018-02-01

    Many studies have found that stress during pregnancy is linked to an increased incidence of epileptic behaviors and reproductive disorders. However, few works have investigated the effect of pregestational stress on seizure susceptibility in the offspring. We investigated the effect of pregestational stress on epileptic behaviors in the offspring as well as fertility rate in dams. The male and female rats were randomly divided into four groups to form a combination of control and stressed groups for each sex. The rats were subjected to predatory stress (exposed to a cat) twice per day for 50 (male) and 15 (female) consecutive days. At the end of the stress procedure, the rats were coupled as follows: both male and female control (M C -F C ), male stressed/female control (M S -F C ), male control/female stressed (M C -F S ), and both male and female stressed (M S -F S ). Then, the puppies born from these groups were counted and evaluated for pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure. There was no significant difference between the male and female pups in each identical group in terms of litter size and epileptic behaviors, except duration of tail rigidity and duration of immobility. The total score of seizure increased in all the stressed groups, but more severely in the M S -F S group. However, the onset of the first epileptic behavior and tonic-clonic seizure significantly decreased in the stressed groups. Moreover, fertility rate significantly decreased in the stressed groups compared with the control group, but there was no significant difference in terms of litter size between the groups. These data revealed the impact of pregestational stress during spermatogenesis and oogenesis on fertility rate in dams and epileptic behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of central muscarinic receptors on passive-avoidance learning deficits induced by prenatal pentylenetetrazol kindling in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pourmotabbed, A; Mahmoodi, G; Mahmoodi, S; Mohammadi-Farani, A; Nedaei, S E; Pourmotabbed, T; Pourmotabbed, T

    2014-10-24

    Occurrence of the epileptic seizures during gestation might affect the neurodevelopment of the fetus resulting in cognitive problems for the child later in life. We have previously reported that prenatal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling induces learning and memory deficits in the children born to kindled mothers, later in life but the mechanisms involved in this processes are unknown. The cholinergic system plays a major role in learning and memory. The present study was performed to investigate the possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors on learning and memory deficits induced by prenatal PTZ-kindling in male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were kindled by repetitive i.p. injection of 25mg/kg of PTZ on day 13 of their pregnancy. The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of scopolamine and pilocarpine, muscarinic cholinergic receptors antagonist and agonist, respectively on passive-avoidance learning of pups were tested at 12weeks of age using shuttle-box apparatus. Our data showed that the retention latencies of pups that received scopolamine (2 or 3μg) were significantly reduced compared to those received normal saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, post training ICV administration of pilocarpine (2μg) retrieved pups' memory deficits (p<0.001). These results demonstrate for the first time, the importance of the central muscarinic cholinergic receptors in learning and memory deficits in pups born to kindled dams and suggest a central mechanism for the cognitive and memory dysfunction, associated with seizures during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Neurotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus impair the elaboration of postictal antinociception.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Bazaglia-de-Sousa, Guilherme; Khan, Asmat Ullah; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2018-05-12

    Generalised tonic-clonic seizures, generated by abnormal neuronal hyper-activity, cause a significant and long-lasting increase in the nociceptive threshold. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) plays a crucial role in the regulation of seizures as well as the modulation of pain, but its role in postictal antinociceptive processes remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of PPTN neurons in the postictal antinociception. Wistar rats had their tail-flick baseline recorded and were injected with ibotenic acid (1.0 μg/0.2 μL) into the PPTN, aiming to promote a local neurotoxic lesion. Five days after the neuronal damage, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 64 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to induce tonic-clonic seizures. The tail-withdrawal latency was measured immediately after the seizures (0 min) and subsequently at 10-min intervals until 130 min after the seizures were induced pharmacologically. Ibotenic acid microinjected into the PPTN did not reduce the PTZ-induced seizure duration and severity, but it diminished the postictal antinociception from 0 to 130 min after the end of the PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures. These results suggest that the postictal antinociception depends on the PPTN neuronal cells integrity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000128.htm Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  2. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD 50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67mg/kg, while the TD 50 value - at 191.58mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10-200mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150-300mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150-300mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200-300mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250-300mg/kg), and deaths (at 200-300mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected with sulforaphane at 200

  3. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Socała, Katarzyna, E-mail: ksocala@op.pl

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. Inmore » addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD{sub 50} value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD{sub 50} value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed

  4. Toward a noninvasive automatic seizure control system in rats with transcranial focal stimulations via tripolar concentric ring electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Liu, Xiang; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Mucio-Ramirez, Samuel; Liu, Yuhong; Sun, Yan L.; Kay, Steven M.; Besio, Walter G.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We are developing a noninvasive, or minimally invasive, transcranial focal electrical stimulation system through our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes to control seizures. In this study we demonstrate feasibility of an automatic seizure control system in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures through single and multiple stimulations. These stimulations are automatically triggered by a real-time electrographic seizure activity detector based on a disjunctive combination of detections from a cumulative sum algorithm and a generalized likelihood ratio test. An average seizure onset detection accuracy of 76.14% was obtained for the test set (n = 13). Detection of electrographic seizure activity was accomplished in advance of the early behavioral seizure activity in 76.92% of the cases. Automatically triggered stimulation significantly (p = 0.001) reduced the electrographic seizure activity power in the once stimulated group compared to controls in 70% of the cases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first closed-loop automatic seizure control system based on noninvasive electrical brain stimulation using tripolar concentric ring electrode electrographic seizure activity as feedback. PMID:22772373

  5. Toward a noninvasive automatic seizure control system in rats with transcranial focal stimulations via tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Liu, Xiang; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Mucio-Ramirez, Samuel; Liu, Yuhong; Sun, Yan L; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2012-07-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We are developing a noninvasive, or minimally invasive, transcranial focal electrical stimulation system through our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes to control seizures. In this study, we demonstrate feasibility of an automatic seizure control system in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures through single and multiple stimulations. These stimulations are automatically triggered by a real-time electrographic seizure activity detector based on a disjunctive combination of detections from a cumulative sum algorithm and a generalized likelihood ratio test. An average seizure onset detection accuracy of 76.14% was obtained for the test set (n = 13). Detection of electrographic seizure activity was accomplished in advance of the early behavioral seizure activity in 76.92% of the cases. Automatically triggered stimulation significantly (p = 0.001) reduced the electrographic seizure activity power in the once stimulated group compared to controls in 70% of the cases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first closed-loop automatic seizure control system based on noninvasive electrical brain stimulation using tripolar concentric ring electrode electrographic seizure activity as feedback.

  6. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  7. Ventral pallidum deep brain stimulation attenuates acute partial, generalized and tonic-clonic seizures in two rat models.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Emily C; Zeng, Andrew; Yu, Wilson; Rowe, Mackenzie; Sahai, Siddhartha; Feustel, Paul J; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Pilitsis, Julie G; Shin, Damian S

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 30% of individuals with epilepsy are refractory to antiepileptic drugs and currently approved neuromodulatory approaches fall short of providing seizure freedom for many individuals with limited utility for generalized seizures. Here, we expand on previous findings and investigate whether ventral pallidum deep brain stimulation (VP-DBS) can be efficacious for various acute seizure phenotypes. For rats administered pilocarpine, we found that VP-DBS (50 Hz) decreased generalized stage 4/5 seizure median frequency from 9 to 6 and total duration from 1667 to 264 s even after generalized seizures emerged. The transition to brainstem seizures was prevented in almost all animals. VP-DBS immediately after rats exhibited their first partial forebrain stage 3 seizure did not affect the frequency of partial seizures but reduced median partial seizure duration from 271 to 54 s. Stimulation after partial seizures also reduced the occurrence and duration of secondarily generalized stage 4/5 seizures. VP-DBS prior to pilocarpine administration prevented the appearance of partial seizures in almost all animals. Lastly, VP-DBS delayed the onset of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 111 to 823 s in rats administered another chemoconvulsant, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 90 mg/kg). In this particular rat seizure model, stimulating electrodes placed more laterally in both VP hemispheres and more posterior in the left VP hemisphere provided greatest efficacy for GTCSs. In conclusion, our findings posit that VP-DBS can serve as an effective novel neuromodulatory approach for a variety of acute seizure phenotypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  9. Assessment of the Anticonvulsant Potency of Ursolic Acid in Seizure Threshold Tests in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nieoczym, Dorota; Socała, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a plant derived compound which is also a component of the standard human diet. It possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Moreover, influence of UA on central nervous system-related processes, i.e., pain, anxiety and depression, was proved in experimental studies. UA also revealed anticonvulsant properties in animal models of epilepsy and seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of UA on seizure thresholds in three acute seizure models in mice, i.e., the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure threshold test, the maximal electroshock threshold (MEST) test and the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole (iv PTZ) infusion test. We also examined its effect on the muscular strength (assessed in the grip strength test) and motor coordination (estimated in the chimney test) in mice. UA at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased the seizure thresholds in the 6 Hz and MEST tests. The studied compound did not influence the seizure thresholds in the iv PTZ test. Moreover, UA did not affect the motor coordination and muscular strength in mice. UA displays only a weak anticonvulsant potential which is dependent on the used seizure model.

  10. The seizure, not electricity, is essential in convulsive therapy: the flurothyl experience.

    PubMed

    Fink, Max

    2014-06-01

    For more than 50 years, research in convulsive therapy has been focused on the impact of electricity and seizures on memory and not on brain chemistry or neurophysiology. Brief pulse and ultra-brief pulse currents replaced sinusoidal currents. Electrode placements were varied, energy dosing was altered, and electricity was replaced by magnetic currents. The published experiences and archival records of seizures induced by camphor, pentylenetetrazol, and flurothyl are reviewed and compared with the changes induced by electricity. The clinical efficacy of chemically induced seizures is equal to that of electrical inductions. Seizure durations are longer, and impairment of cognition and memory is less. Electroconvulsive therapy replaced chemical treatments for ease of use, not for greater efficacy or safety. The brain seizure, not the method of induction, is the essential element in the efficacy of convulsive therapy. Seizure induction with chemicals avoids the direct effects of electricity on brain functions with lesser effects on cognition. Reexamination of chemical inductions of seizures as replacements for electricity is encouraged.

  11. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reduces seizure-induced respiratory arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Haiting; Feng, Hua-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication, and no effective preventive strategies are currently available for this fatal disorder. Clinical and animal studies of SUDEP demonstrate that seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) is the primary event leading to death after generalized seizures in many cases. Enhancing brain levels of serotonin reduces S-IRA in animal models relevant to SUDEP, including the DBA/1 mouse. Given that serotonin in the brain plays an important role in modulating respiration and arousal, these findings suggest that deficits in respiration and/or arousal may contribute to S-IRA. It is well known that norepinephrine is an important neurotransmitter that modulates respiration and arousal in the brain as well. Therefore, we hypothesized that enhancing noradrenergic neurotransmission suppresses S-IRA. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), on S-IRA evoked by either acoustic stimulation or pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. We report the original observation that atomoxetine specifically suppresses S-IRA without altering the susceptibility to seizures evoked by acoustic stimulation, and atomoxetine also reduces S-IRA evoked by pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. Our data suggest that the noradrenergic signaling is importantly involved in S-IRA, and that atomoxetine, a medication widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is potentially useful to prevent SUDEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A minimum of 3 months of dietary fish oil supplementation is required to raise amygdaloid afterdischarge seizure thresholds in rats--implications for treating complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ameer Y; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Ciobanu, Flaviu A; Taha, Nadeen M; Ahmed, Muaz; Zeng, Qiudi; Cheuk, Waiyin I; Ip, Bryan; Filo, Elvis; Scott, Brian W; Burnham, W M; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-04-01

    Complex partial seizures, which typically originate in limbic structures such as the amygdala, are often resistant to antiseizure medications. Our goal was to investigate the effects of chronic dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil on seizure thresholds in the amygdala, as well as on blood and brain PUFA levels. The acute effects of injected n-3 PUFAs--eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--were also tested in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure model. In amygdala-implanted subjects, fish oil supplementation significantly increased amygdaloid afterdischarge thresholds, as compared with controls at 3, 5, and 7 months after the start of supplementation. Fish oil supplementation also increased serum EPA and DHA concentrations. DHA concentration in the pyriform-amygdala area increased in the fish-oil treated group by 17-34%, but this effect did not reach statistical significance (P=0.065). DHA significantly increased the latency to seizure onset in the PTZ seizure model, whereas EPA had no significant effect. These observations suggest that chronic dietary fish oil supplementation can raise focal amygdaloid seizure thresholds and that this effect is likely mediated by DHA rather than by EPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and nootropic effect of ondansetron in mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Agarwal, N B; Mediratta, P K; Sharma, K K

    2012-09-01

    The role of serotonin receptors have been implicated in various types of experimentally induced seizures. Ondansetron is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-, and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of ondansetron on electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and cognitive functions in mice. Ondansetron was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg (single dose) to observe its effect on the increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test and PTZ-induced seizure test. In addition, a chronic study (21 days) was also performed to assess the effects of ondansetron on electroshock-induced convulsions and cognitive functions. The effect on cognition was assessed by elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigms. Phenytoin (25 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug and piracetam (200 mg/kg) was administered as a standard nootropic drug. The results were compared with an acute study, wherein it was found that the administration of ondansetron (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) significantly raised the seizure-threshold current as compared to control group in the ICES test. Similar results were observed after chronic administration of ondansetron. In PTZ test, ondansetron in all the three tested doses failed to show protective effect against PTZ-induced seizure test. Administration of ondansetron for 21 days significantly decreased the transfer latency (TL) and prolonged the step-down latency (SDL). The results of present study suggest the anticonvulsant and memory-enhancing effect of ondansetron in mice.

  14. The convulsive and electroencephalographic changes produced by nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists in rats: comparison with pentylenetetrazol.

    PubMed

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Woods, James H

    2006-06-01

    delta-Opioid agonists produce convulsions and antidepressant-like effects in rats. It has been suggested that the antidepressant-like effects are produced through a convulsant mechanism of action either through overt convulsions or nonconvulsive seizures. This study evaluated the convulsive and seizurogenic effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists at doses that previously were reported to produce antidepressant-like effects. In addition, delta-opioid agonist-induced electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral changes were compared with those produced by the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). For these studies, EEG changes were recorded using a telemetry system before and after injections of the delta-opioid agonists [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenz (SNC80) and [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide [(+)-BW373U86]. Acute administration of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists produced bilateral ictal and paroxysmal spike and/or sharp wave discharges. delta-Opioid agonists produced brief changes in EEG recordings, and tolerance rapidly developed to these effects; however, PTZ produced longer-lasting EEG changes that were exacerbated after repeated administration. Studies with antiepileptic drugs demonstrated that compounds used to treat absence epilepsy blocked the convulsive effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists. Overall, these data suggest that delta-opioid agonist-induced EEG changes are not required for the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and that neural circuitry involved in absence epilepsy may be related to delta-opioid agonist-induced convulsions. In terms of therapeutic development, these data suggest that it may be possible to develop delta-opioid agonists devoid of convulsive properties.

  15. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  16. Creatine Revealed Anticonvulsant Properties on Chemically and Electrically Induced Seizures in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shafaroodi, Hamed; Shahbek, Farnaz; Faizi, Mehrdad; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Moezi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Creatine exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies in which energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. Creatine supplements have shown beneficial effects on neurological disorders including Parkinson׳s disease, Huntington›s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as Alzheimer›s disease and stroke. However, the potential benefits of creatine for patients with convulsive disorders remain poorly defined. While some authors did not suggest any anti- or pro-convulsant roles for creatine treatment, others suggest that creatine may be an anticonvulsant agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of creatine on seizures in mice. Three models were used to explore the role of creatine on seizures in mice including intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), intraperitoneal PTZ, and electroshock models. Acute creatine treatment (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/Kg) significantly increased the clonic seizure threshold in the intravenous PTZ model. Sub-chronic administration of creatine (10 and 20 mg/Kg) revealed a significant anticonvulsant effect in intravenous PTZ model. Acute creatine administration (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg) significantly decreased the frequency of clonic seizures in the intraperitoneal PTZ model. Besides, acute creatine (40 and 80 mg/Kg) decreased the incidence of tonic seizures after electroshock. In conclusion, creatine exerts anticonvulsant effects in three seizure models; therefore, it may act as a potential drug to help patients with convulsions. However, further investigations should be done to clarify these results more.

  17. Creatine Revealed Anticonvulsant Properties on Chemically and Electrically Induced Seizures in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Hamed; Shahbek, Farnaz; Faizi, Mehrdad; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Moezi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Creatine exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies in which energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. Creatine supplements have shown beneficial effects on neurological disorders including Parkinson׳s disease, Huntington›s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as Alzheimer›s disease and stroke. However, the potential benefits of creatine for patients with convulsive disorders remain poorly defined. While some authors did not suggest any anti- or pro-convulsant roles for creatine treatment, others suggest that creatine may be an anticonvulsant agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of creatine on seizures in mice. Three models were used to explore the role of creatine on seizures in mice including intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), intraperitoneal PTZ, and electroshock models. Acute creatine treatment (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/Kg) significantly increased the clonic seizure threshold in the intravenous PTZ model. Sub-chronic administration of creatine (10 and 20 mg/Kg) revealed a significant anticonvulsant effect in intravenous PTZ model. Acute creatine administration (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg) significantly decreased the frequency of clonic seizures in the intraperitoneal PTZ model. Besides, acute creatine (40 and 80 mg/Kg) decreased the incidence of tonic seizures after electroshock. In conclusion, creatine exerts anticonvulsant effects in three seizure models; therefore, it may act as a potential drug to help patients with convulsions. However, further investigations should be done to clarify these results more. PMID:28243281

  18. Menthone aryl acid hydrazones: a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jainendra; Kumar, Y; Sinha, Reema; Kumar, Rajeev; Stables, James

    2011-01-01

    A series of ten compounds (Compounds J(1)-J(10)) of (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone was synthesized and characterized by thin layer chromatography and spectral analysis. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity after intraperitoneal (i.p) administration to mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure method and minimal clonic seizure test. Minimal motor impairment was also determined for these compounds. Results obtained showed that four compounds out of ten afforded significant protection in the minimal clonic seizure screen at 6 Hz. Compound J(6), 4-Chloro-N-(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexylidene) benzohydrazide was found to be the most active compound with MES ED(50) of 16.1 mg/kg and protective index (pI) of greater than 20, indicating that (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone possesses better and safer anticonvulsant properties than other reported menthone derivatives viz. menthone Schiff bases, menthone semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides.

  19. Acute seizure suppression by transcranial direct current stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Ekstein, Dana; Zhuo, Zhihong; Gersner, Roman; Zurakowski, David; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jensen, Frances E; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a focal neuromodulation technique that suppresses cortical excitability by low-amplitude constant electrical current, and may have an antiepileptic effect. Yet, tDCS has not been tested in status epilepticus (SE). Furthermore, a combined tDCS and pharmacotherapy antiseizure approach is unexplored. We therefore examined in the rat pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) SE model whether cathodal tDCS (1) suppresses seizures, (2) augments lorazepam (LZP) efficacy, and (3) enhances GABAergic cortical inhibition. Methods Experiment 1 aimed to identify an effective cathodal tDCS intensity. Rats received intraperitoneal PTZ followed by tDCS (sham, cathodal 1 mA, or cathodal 0.1 mA; for 20 min), and then a second PTZ challenge. In Experiment 2, two additional animal groups received a subtherapeutic LZP dose after PTZ, and then verum or sham tDCS. Clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) epileptic activity were compared between all groups. In Experiment 3, we measured GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in rats that received PTZ or saline, and either verum or sham tDCS. Results Cathodal 1 mA tDCS (1) reduced EEG spike bursts, and suppressed clinical seizures after the second PTZ challenge, (2) in combination with LZP was more effective in seizure suppression and improved the clinical seizure outcomes compared to either tDCS or LZP alone, and (3) prevented the loss of ppTMS motor cortex inhibition that accompanied PTZ injection. Interpretation These results suggest that cathodal 1 mA tDCS alone and in combination with LZP can suppress seizures by augmenting GABAergic cortical inhibition. PMID:26339678

  20. Treatment with lacosamide impedes generalized seizures in a rodent model of cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Ashley D; O'Dwyer, Rebecca; Najm, Imad M; Ying, Zhong; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Alexopoulos, Andreas V

    2017-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder resulting in spontaneous, recurrent seizures. About 30-40% of patients are not responsive to pharmacologic therapies. This may be due to the differences between individual patients such as etiology, underlying pathophysiology, and seizure focus, and it highlights the importance of new drug discovery and testing in this field. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of lacosamide (LCM), a drug approved for the treatment of focal seizures, in a model of generalized epilepsy with cortical dysplasia (CD). We sought to compare LCM to levetiracetam (LEV), a drug that is currently used for the treatment of both partial and generalized epilepsy and to test its proficiency. Pregnant rats were irradiated to produce pups with malformed cortices in a model of CD, which will be referred to as the "first hit." Adult animals, developed normally (NL) and irradiated (XRT), were surgically implanted with electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes. Baseline EEG was recorded on all rats prior to pretreatments with either LCM, LEV, or placebo (PBO). After 30 min, all rats were injected with a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA A ) antagonist used to provoke generalized seizures as a "second hit." LCM and LEV were both effective against seizures induced by PTZ. XRT rats had a higher seizure incidence with longer and more severe seizures than NL rats. Seizure duration was decreased with both LCM and LEV in all animals. In XRT rats, there was a significant reduction in acute seizure incidence and severity with both LCM and LEV after PTZ injection. Our results suggest that LCM could be used as a potential treatment option for generalized epilepsy with CD as the underlying pathology. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors elicits anti-seizure activities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Chen, Yanke; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Guanghui; Friedman, Eitan; Zhang, Ao; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-08-01

    Application of orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonists as anti-seizure drugs has been hindered by questionable efficacy and potential adverse effects. Here, we have investigated the anti-seizure effects of the novel and potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors, SKF83959 and its derivative SOMCL-668 (3-methyl-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-7-ol). The anti-seizure effects of SKF83959 were investigated in three mouse models, maximal electroshock seizures, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and kainic acid-induced 'status epilepticus'. Also, in rats, the cortical epileptiform activity induced by topical application of picrotoxin was recorded in electrocorticograms. In rat hippocampal brain slices, effects of the drugs on the high potassium-evoked epileptiform local field potentials were studied. Anti-seizure activities of SOMCL-668, a newly developed sigma-1 receptor selective allosteric modulator, were also investigated. SKF83959 (20, 40 mg·kg(-1) ) exhibited anti -seizure actitity in the three mouse models and reduced the cortical epileptiform activity without alteration of spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination. These effects were blocked by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047, but not the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. SKF83959 alone did not directly inhibit the epileptiform firing of CA3 neurons induced by high potassium in hippocampal slices, but did potentiate inhibition by the orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonist SKF10047. Lastly, a selective sigma-1 receptor allosteric modulator SOMCL-668, which does not bind to dopamine receptors, exerted similar anti-seizure activities. SKF83959 and SOMCL-668 displayed anti-seizure activities, indicating that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors may provide a novel approach for discovering new anti-seizure drugs. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Acute anticonvulsant effects of capric acid in seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Wlaź, Piotr; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Żarnowski, Tomasz; Żarnowska, Iwona; Czuczwar, Stanisław J; Gasior, Maciej

    2015-03-03

    Capric acid (CA10) is a 10-carbon medium-chain fatty acid abundant in the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCT KD). The purpose of this study was to characterize acute anticonvulsant effects of CA10 across several seizure tests in mice. Anticonvulsant effects of orally (p.o.) administered CA10 were assessed in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST), 6-Hz seizure threshold, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests in mice. Acute effects of CA10 on motor coordination were assessed in the grip and chimney tests. Plasma and brain concentrations of CA10 were measured. Co-administration studies with CA10 and another abundant medium-chain fatty acid, caprylic acid (CA8) were performed. CA10 showed significant and dose-dependent anticonvulsant properties by increasing seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz and MEST seizure tests; it was ineffective in the i.v. PTZ seizure test. At higher doses than those effective in the 6-Hz and MEST seizure tests, CA10 impaired motor performance in the grip and chimney tests. An enhanced anticonvulsant response in the 6-Hz seizure test was produced when CA8 and CA10 were co-administered. An acute p.o. administration of CA10 resulted in dose-proportional increases in its plasma and brain concentrations. CA10 exerted acute anticonvulsant effects at doses that produce plasma exposures comparable to those reported in epileptic patients on the MCT KD. An enhanced anticonvulsant effect is observed when CA10 and the other main constituent of the MCT KD, CA8, were co-administered. Thus, acute anticonvulsant properties of CA10 and CA8 may influence the overall clinical efficacy of the MCT KD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Seizure development after stroke.

    PubMed

    Misirli, H; Ozge, A; Somay, G; Erdoğan, N; Erkal, H; Erenoğlu, N Y

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been many studies on seizures following stroke, there is still much we do not know about them. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of seizures in stroke patients. There were 2267 patients with a first-ever stroke, and after excluding 387 patients, 1880 were available for analysis. Of these 1880 patients, we evaluated 200 patients with seizures and 400 patients without seizures. We investigated the seizures according to age, gender, stroke type, the aetiology of ischaemic stroke and the localisation of the lesion. The seizures were classified as early onset and late onset and the seizure type as partial, generalised or secondarily generalised. Seizures occurred in 200 (10.6%) of 1880 strokes. The number of patients with seizures were 138 (10.6%) in ischaemic stroke group and 62 (10.7%) in haemorrhagic stroke group. Patients with ischaemic strokes had 41 embolic (29.7%) and 97 thrombotic (70.3%) origin, and these were not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Cortical involvement for the development of seizures was the most important risk factor (odds ratios = 4.25, p < 0.01). It was concluded that embolic strokes, being younger than 65 years old, and cortical localisation of stroke were important risks for developing seizures.

  4. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  5. The anti-seizure drugs vinpocetine and carbamazepine, but not valproic acid, reduce inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Carlos D; Buijs, Rudolf M; Sitges, María

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of the two classical anti-epileptic drugs, carbamazepine and valproic acid, and the non-classical anti-seizure drug vinpocetine were investigated on the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in the hippocampus of rats by PCR or western blot after the administration of one or seven doses. Next, the effects of the anti-seizure drugs were investigated on the rise in cytokine expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inoculation in vivo. To validate our methods, the changes induced by the pro-convulsive agents 4-aminopyridine, pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine were also tested. Finally, the effect of the anti-seizure drugs on seizures and on the concomitant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by 4-aminopyridine was explored. Results show that vinpocetine and carbamazepine reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α from basal conditions, and the increase in both pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. In contrast, valproic acid failed to reduce both the expression of the cytokines from basal conditions and the rise in IL-1β and TNF-α expression induced by LPS. Tonic-clonic seizures induced either by 4-aminopyridine, pentylenetetrazole or pilocarpine increased the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α markedly. 4-aminopyridine-induced changes were reduced by all the tested anti-seizure drugs, although valproic acid was less effective. We conclude that the anti-seizure drugs, vinpocetine and carbamazepine, whose mechanisms of action involve a decrease in ion channels permeability, also reduce cerebral inflammation. The mechanism of action of anti-seizure drugs like vinpocetine and carbamazepine involves a decrease in Na(+) channels permeability. We here propose that this mechanism of action also involves a decrease in cerebral inflammation. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Resistance to excitotoxin-induced seizures and neuronal death in mice lacking the preprotachykinin A gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Cao, Y; Basbaum, A I; Mazarati, A M; Sankar, R; Wasterlain, C G

    1999-10-12

    Epileptic seizures are associated with increases in hippocampal excitability, but the mechanisms that render the hippocampus hyperexcitable chronically (in epilepsy) or acutely (in status epilepticus) are poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that substance P (SP), a peptide that has been implicated in cardiovascular function, inflammatory responses, and nociception, also contributes to hippocampal excitability and status epilepticus, in part by enhancing glutamate release. Here we report that mice with disruption of the preprotachykinin A gene, which encodes SP and neurokinin A, are resistant to kainate excitoxicity. The mice show a reduction in the duration and severity of seizures induced by kainate or pentylenetetrazole, and both necrosis and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons are prevented. Although kainate induced the expression of bax and caspase 3 in the hippocampus of wild-type mice, these critical intracellular mediators of cell death pathways were not altered by kainate injection in the mutant mice. These results indicate that the reduction of seizure activity and the neuroprotection observed in preprotachykinin A null mice are caused by the extinction of a SP/neurokinin A-mediated signaling pathway that is activated by seizures. They suggest that these neurokinins are critical to the control of hippocampal excitability, hippocampal seizures, and hippocampal vulnerability.

  7. Seizures induced by music.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, A O; Breen, H

    1993-01-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  8. Huperzine A Provides Robust and Sustained Protection against Induced Seizures in Scn1a Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Dutton, Stacey B. B.; Collins, Stephen D.; Schachter, Steven; Escayg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    De novo loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) SCN1A (encoding Nav1.1) are the main cause of Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic early-life encephalopathy associated with prolonged and recurrent early-life febrile seizures (FSs), refractory afebrile epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and a 15–20% mortality rate. SCN1A mutations also lead to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), which is an inherited disorder characterized by early-life FSs and the development of a range of adult epilepsy subtypes. Current antiepileptic drugs often fail to protect against the severe seizures and behavioral and cognitive deficits found in patients with SCN1A mutations. To address the need for more efficacious treatments for SCN1A-derived epilepsies, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A, a naturally occurring reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In CF1 mice, Hup A (0.56 or 1 mg/kg) was found to confer protection against 6 Hz-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. Robust protection against 6 Hz-, MES-, and hyperthermia-induced seizures was also achieved following Hup A administration in mouse models of DS (Scn1a+/−) and GEFS+ (Scn1aRH/+). Furthermore, Hup A-mediated seizure protection was sustained during 3 weeks of daily injections in Scn1aRH/+ mutants. Finally, we determined that muscarinic and GABAA receptors play a role in Hup A-mediated seizure protection. These findings indicate that Hup A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy. PMID:27799911

  9. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of some substituted 1,2,4-thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arun; Mishra, Pradeep; Pandeya, S N; Kashaw, Sushil K; Kashaw, Varsha; Stables, James P

    2009-03-01

    A series of new substituted 1,2,4-thiadiazoles were synthesized by appropriate route and screened for anticonvulsant, neurotoxic and sedative-hypnotic activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, (13)C NMR and elemental (nitrogen and sulphur) analysis. After i.p. injection of the compounds to mice or rate at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, body weights were examined in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ)-induced seizure models after 0.5 and 4 h. Rotorod method and phenobarbitone-induced hypnosis potentiation study were employed to examine neurotoxicity and sedative-hypnotic activity, respectively. All the compounds except 4g showed protection against MES screen after 0.5 h. Compounds 3a-c, 4a-c were active at 100 mg/kg dose i.p., whereas remaining compounds showed activity at 300 mg/kg. All 14 compounds except 3g showed neurotoxicity at 100 and 300 mg/kg after 0.5 h. Compounds 3b and 4b showed NT after 4 h. Two compounds 3b and 4g showed significant (p<0.05) percentage increase in sleeping time i.e. 67% and 59%, respectively. It may be concluded that the synthesized compounds were potent against MES-induced seizures than ScPTZ induced and showed low potency as sedative-hypnotic agent which is advantageous.

  10. Imidazole incorporated semicarbazone derivatives as a new class of anticonvulsants: design, synthesis and in-vivo screening.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohammad; Ali, Israr; Hassan, Mohd Zaheen

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel imidazole incorporated semicarbazones was synthesized using an appropriate synthetic route and characterized by spectral analysis (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized compounds was determined using doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg kg-1 against maximal electroshock seizure (MES), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure and minimal neurotoxicity test. Six compounds exhibited protection in both models and 2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene)-N-p-tolylsemicarbazone emerged as the most active compound of the series without any neurotoxicity and significant CNS depressant effect. Liver enzyme estimations (SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase) of the compound also showed no significant change in the enzymes levels. Moreover, it caused 80% elevation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in the whole mice brain, thus indicating that it could be a promising candidate in designing of a potent anticonvulsant drug.

  11. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

  13. Anticonvulsant effects of Senna spectabilis on seizures induced by chemicals and maximal electroshock.

    PubMed

    Nkamguie Nkantchoua, Gisele Claudine; Kameni Njapdounke, Jacqueline Stephanie; Jules Fifen, Jean; Sotoing Taiwe, Germain; Josiane Ojong, Lucie; Kavaye Kandeda, Antoine; Ngo Bum, Elisabeth

    2018-02-15

    Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Cameroon by traditional healers to treat epilepsy, constipation, insomnia, anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of Senna spectabilis decoction on seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine (PC) and its possible action mechanisms in animal models using flumazenil (FLU), methyl-ß-carboline-3-carboxylate (BC) and bicuculline (BIC). Senna spectabilis decoction (106.5 and 213.0mg/kg) antagonized completely tonic-clonic hind limbs of mice induced by MES. The lowest plant dose (42.6mg/kg) provided 100% of protection against seizures induced by PTZ (70mg/kg). Administration of different doses of the plant decoction antagonized seizures induced by PC up to 75%, causing a dose dependent protection and reduced significantly the mortality rate induced by this convulsant. Both FLU and BC antagonize strongly the anticonvulsant effects of this plant and are unable to reverse totally diazepam or the plant decoction effects on inhibiting seizures. The animals did not present any sign of acute toxicity even at higher doses of the plant decoction. In conclusion, Senna spectabilis possesses an anticonvulsant activity. We showed that its decoction protects significantly mice against seizures induced by chemicals and MES, delays the onset time and reduces mortality rate in seizures-induced. It also appears that the oral administration of the decoction of S. spectabilis is more active than the intraperitoneal administration of the ethanolic extract on inhibiting seizures induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the plant decoction could interact with GABA A complex receptor probably on the GABA and benzodiazepines sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Orthosiphon stamineus Leaf Extract Affects TNF-α and Seizures in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brandon Kar Meng; Kundap, Uday P.; Kumari, Yatinesh; Hue, Seow-Mun; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus, is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O. stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures in a zebrafish model; and the effects of the extract on the expression levels of several genes in the zebrafish brain which are associated with seizures. The results of this study indicate that O. stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures as it is pharmacologically active against seizures in a zebrafish model. The anti-convulsive effect of this extract is also comparable to that of diazepam at higher doses and can surpass diazepam in certain cases. Treatment with the extract also counteracts the upregulation of NF-κB, NPY and TNF-α as a result of a Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treated seizure. The anti-convulsive action for this extract could be at least partially due to its downregulation of TNF-α. Future work could include the discovery of the active anti-convulsive compound, as well as determine if the extract does not cause cognitive impairment in zebrafish. PMID:29527169

  15. Afebrile seizure subsequent to initial febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Razieh, Fallah; Akhavan Karbasi, Sedighah; Sedighah, Akhavan Karbasi; Golestan, Motahhareh; Motahhareh, Golestan

    2012-05-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common paediatric neurological problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of afebrile seizures subsequent to FS in children with initial FS and to evaluate its risk factors. A prospective study was conducted on all children (age 6 months to 6 years) referred with initial FS to the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, between August 2004 and March 2006, who were followed up for at least 15 months for the occurrence of subsequent afebrile seizures. 161 boys and 120 girls (mean age 2.12 ± 1.33 years) were followed up for 34.1 ± 7.8 months. 87 (31%) patients had complex FS and 19 (6.7%) patients had subsequent afebrile seizure, with a mean occurrence time of 10.6 ± 6.4 months. Univariate analysis using chi-square test showed that initial FS within one hour of developing fever (p = 0.0001), neurodevelopmental delay (p = 0.0001), family history of epilepsy (p = 0.0001), recurrent FS (p = 0.003) and focal FS (p = 0.04) were risk factors for subsequent afebrile seizure. On multivariate analysis, neurodevelopmental delay (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-3.4), initial FS within one hour of developing fever (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and family history of epilepsy (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) were significant factors. Special attention should be paid to children with FS during history-taking and developmental assessments to identify high-risk patients and those who might need prophylactic anticonvulsants.

  16. In silico Screening and Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Like Molecules in Experimental Models of Seizures.

    PubMed

    Gharibi Loron, Ali; Sardari, Soroush; Narenjkar, Jamshid; Sayyah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs and the intolerability in 20-30% of the patients raises demand for developing new drugs with improved efficacy and safety. Acceptable anticonvulsant activity, good tolerability, and inexpensiveness of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) make it as a good candidate for designing and development of the new anticonvulsant medications. Ten DHA-based molecules were screened based on in silico screening of DHA-like molecules by root-mean-square deviation of atomic positions, the biological activity score of Professional Association for SQL Server, and structural requirements suggested by pharmacophore design. Anticonvulsant activity was tested against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and tonic seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 50 Hz, 1 ms duration) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the screened compounds to mice. Among screened compounds, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, 4-Biphenylacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, and 2-Phenylbutyric acid showed significant protective activity in pentylenetetrazole test with ED50 values of 4, 5, 78, and 70 mM, respectively. In MES test, shikimic acid and 4-tert-Butylcyclo-hexanecarboxylic acid showed significant activity with ED50 values 29 and 637 mM, respectively. Effective compounds had no mortality in mice up to the maximum i.c.v. injectable dose of 1 mM. Common electrochemical features and three-dimensional spatial structures of the effective compounds suggest the involvement of the anticonvulsant mechanisms similar to the parent compound DHA.

  17. Dynamics of absence seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeba, Farah; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Robinson, Peter

    A neural field model of the corticothalamic system is used to investigate the dynamics of absence seizures in the presence of temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Variation of connection strength from cortex to thalamus drives the system into seizure once a threshold is passed and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the resulting seizures are explored as functions of maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and ramp rate. The results enable spectral and temporal characteristics of seizures to be related to underlying physiological variations via nonlinear dynamics and neural field theory. Notably, this analysis adds to neural field modeling of a wide variety of brain activity phenomena and measurements in recent years. Australian Research Council Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  18. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... period of confusion and difficulty speaking Inability to recall what occurred during the seizure Unawareness of having ... of the brain that's responsible for learning and memory (hippocampus) to shrink. Brain cell loss in this ...

  19. [Epilepsy and psychic seizures].

    PubMed

    Fukao, Kenjiro

    2006-01-01

    Various psychic symptoms as ictal manifestation have been found in epileptic patients. They are classified as psychic seizures within simple partial seizures, and subclassified into affective, cognitive, dysmnesic seizures and so on, although the subclassification is not yet satisfactory and almost nothing is known about their relationships with normal brain functions. In this presentation, the speaker picked ictal fear, déjà vu and out-of-body experience (OBE) from them and suggested that studies on these symptoms could uniquely contribute to the progress of cognitive neuroscience, presenting some results from the research and case study that he had been engaged in. Psychic seizures are prone to be missed or misdiagnosed unless psychiatrists with sufficient knowledge and experience on epilepsy care would not treat them, because they are subjective symptoms that are diverse and subtle, while they have some characteristics as ictal symptoms.

  20. Grand Mal Seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... trauma, a stroke, previous infection and other causes Sleep deprivation Medical problems that affect electrolyte balance Illicit drug ... drowning. Car accidents. A seizure that causes either loss of awareness or control can be dangerous if ...

  1. Fibromyalgia and seizures.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (p<0.05). Fibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described.

  2. Seizures presenting as apnoea.

    PubMed Central

    Navelet, Y; Wood, C; Robieux, I; Tardieu, M

    1989-01-01

    Between the ages of 3 and 6 months a baby boy presented with repeated, non-specific episodes of cyanosis, apnoea, bradycardia, and abnormal movements of the limbs. The episodes were severe and required resuscitation and several admissions to hospital. Initial investigations showed only signs of oesophagitis. Despite treatment of the oesophagitis the symptoms recurred, and electroencephalography and polygraphy eventually showed evidence of minor seizures. Severe epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures developed when he was 6 months old. PMID:2705798

  3. Intranasal nerve growth factor attenuating the seizure onset via p75R/Caspase pathway in the experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jing'an; Feng, Fang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Feng; Liu, Zhiguang; Lian, Lifei; Liang, Qiming; Zhang, Na; Wang, Furong

    2017-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) shows neuroprotection while it is hard to cross the blood-brain barrier due to its large molecular weight. Our study used intranasal delivery of NGF to treat the experimental epilepsy. The seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazol (40mg/kg) into the rat. Based on the behavior performance, the successful models were randomized into control and NGF groups, given medium or NGF intranasally, respectively. The onset and duration of seizure were recorded. The neuron loss was assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. The expressions of Caspase-3, p75R and TrkA were measured by western blotting. Intranasal NGF significantly reduced the seizure onset and shortened the seizure duration. Intranasal NGF alleviated the neuron loss in the epileptic brain. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the NGF group was less than that in the control group (P<0.05). Overexpression of Caspase-3 and activation of p75R induced by seizure were inhibited by intranasal NGF. Intranasal NGF protected neurons in the epileptic brain by inactivation of p75R/Caspase pathway. Intranasal NGF may be a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal Models of Seizures and Epilepsy: Past, Present, and Future Role for the Discovery of Antiseizure Drugs.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures. Over the last 30 years, a number of animal models have been developed that display varying degrees of pharmacoresistance, such as the phenytoin- or lamotrigine-resistant kindled rat, the 6-Hz mouse model of partial seizures, the intrahippocampal kainate model in mice, or rats in which spontaneous recurrent seizures develops after inducing status epilepticus by chemical or electrical stimulation. As such, these models can be used to study mechanisms of drug resistance and may provide a unique opportunity for identifying a truly novel antiseizure drug (ASD), but thus far clinical evidence for this hope is lacking. Although animal models of drug resistant seizures are now included in ASD discovery approaches such as the ETSP (epilepsy therapy screening program), it is important to note that no single model has been validated for use to identify potential compounds for as yet drug resistant seizures, but rather a battery of such models should be employed, thus enhancing the sensitivity to discover novel, highly effective ASDs. The present review describes the previous and current approaches used in the search for new ASDs and offers some insight into future directions incorporating new and emerging animal models of therapy resistance.

  5. Reduced susceptibility to induced seizures in the Neuroligin-3(R451C) mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Hill-Yardin, Elisa L; Argyropoulos, Andrew; Hosie, Suzanne; Rind, Gil; Anderson, Paul; Hannan, Anthony J; O'Brien, Terence J

    2015-03-04

    Epilepsy is a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and several gene mutations are associated with both of these disorders. In order to determine whether a point mutation in the gene for the synaptic protein, Neuroligin-3 (Nlgn3, R451C), identified in patients with ASD alters seizure susceptibility, we administered the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to adult male Neuroligin-3(R451C) (NL3(R451C)) and wild type (WT) mice. It has previously been reported that NL3(R451C) mice show altered inhibitory GABAergic activity in brain regions relevant to epilepsy, including the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. PTZ administration induces absence-seizures at low dose, and generalised convulsive seizures at higher dose. Susceptibility to absence seizures was examined by analysing the frequency and duration of spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) events and accompanying motor seizure activity induced by subcutaneous administration of low dosage (20 or 30mg/kg) PTZ. Susceptibility to generalised convulsive seizures was tested by measuring the response to high dosage (60mg/kg) PTZ using a modified Racine scale. There was no change in the number of SWD events exhibited by NL3(R451C) compared to WT mice following administration of both 20mg/kg PTZ (1.17±0.31 compared to 16.0±11.16 events/30min, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively) and 30mg/kg PTZ (7.5±6.54 compared with 27.8±19.9 events/30min, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively). NL3(R451C) mice were seizure resistant to generalised convulsive seizures induced by high dose PTZ compared to WT littermates (median latency to first >3s duration clonic seizure; 14.5min versus 7.25min, 95% CI: 1.625-2.375, p=0.0009, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively). These results indicate that the R451C mutation in the Nlgn3 gene, associated with ASD in humans, confers resistance to induced seizures, suggesting dysfunction of PTZ-sensitive GABAergic signalling in this mouse model of ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's leaf extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that 'avocado' leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  7. Photogenic partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  8. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  9. Helminthic parasites and seizures.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H; Modi, Manish

    2008-08-01

    A large number of helminthic parasites are known to involve the central nervous system (CNS) and produce neurologic symptoms including seizures and epilepsy. Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) is perhaps most widely prevalent and well known for its association with seizures and epilepsy. Many of the other helminthic disorders have fairly restricted geographic predilections and their occurrence in much of the remaining world is limited to rare cases among travelers and immigrants. Nonetheless, knowledge about the helminthic disorders, the life cycle of their causative agents, and their clinical manifestations and diagnostic features are important in order to recognize them.

  10. Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum on neuronal damages in pentylentetrazole-induced seizure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Homayoun, Mansour; Sadeghi, Saeed; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) as a medicinal plant has been pointed to have analgesic, hypnotic and anti-oxidant effects. In the current study, a possible preventive effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant on neuronal damages was examined in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into five main groups and treated by (1) saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg PTZ (i.p) and (3-5) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. sativum during seven consecutive days before PTZ injection. After electrocorticography (ECoG), the brains were removed to use for histological examination. Results: All doses of the extract reduced duration, frequency and amplitude of the burst discharges while prolonged the latency of the seizure attacks (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001). Administration of all 3 doses of the extract significantly prevented from production of dark neurons (p<0.01, and p<0.001) and apoptotic cells (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001) in different areas of the hippocampus compared to PTZ group. Conclusion: The results of this study allow us to conclude that C. sativum, because of its antioxidant properties, prevents from neuronal damages in PTZ rat model of seizure. PMID:28348967

  11. Wortmannin Attenuates Seizure-Induced Hyperactive PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling, Impaired Memory, and Spine Dysmorphology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Angela N.; Born, Heather A.; Levine, Amber T.; Dao, An T.; Zhao, Amanda J.; Lee, Wai L.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits, but less is known about the effects of one single generalized seizure. Recent studies demonstrate that a single, self-limited seizure can result in memory deficits and induces hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling. However, the effect of a single seizure on subcellular structures such as dendritic spines and the role of aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in these seizure-induced changes are unclear. Using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model, we induced a single generalized seizure in rats and: (1) further characterized short- and long-term hippocampal and amygdala-dependent memory deficits, (2) evaluated whether there are changes in dendritic spines, and (3) determined whether inhibiting hyperactive PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling rescued these alterations. Using the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (Wort), we partially rescued short- and long-term memory deficits and altered spine morphology. These studies provide evidence that pathological PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling plays a role in seizure-induced memory deficits as well as aberrant spine morphology. PMID:28612047

  12. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].

  13. Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roche Martínez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmartí Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morón, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Mercé

    2011-12-01

    Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures.

  14. Determination of minimal steady-state plasma level of diazepam causing seizure threshold elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Rogawski, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Diazepam, administered by the intravenous, oral, or rectal routes, is widely used for the management of acute seizures. Dosage forms for delivery of diazepam by other routes of administration, including intranasal, intramuscular, and transbuccal, are under investigation. In predicting what dosages are necessary to terminate seizures, the minimal exposure required to confer seizure protection must be known. Here we administered diazepam by continuous intravenous infusion to obtain near-steady-state levels, which allowed an assessment of the minimal levels that elevate seizure threshold. The thresholds for various behavioral seizure signs (myoclonic jerk, clonus, and tonus) were determined with the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold test in rats. Diazepam was administered to freely moving animals by continuous intravenous infusion via an indwelling jugular vein cannula. Blood samples for assay of plasma levels of diazepam and metabolites were recovered via an indwelling cannula in the contralateral jugular vein. The pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam following a single 80-μg/kg intravenous bolus injection were determined using a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. The derived parameters V d , CL, t 1/2α (distribution half-life) and t 1/2β (terminal half-life) for diazepam were, respectively, 608 mL, 22.1 mL/min, 13.7 minutes, and 76.8 minutes, respectively. Various doses of diazepam were continuously infused without or with an initial loading dose. At the end of the infusions, the thresholds for various behavioral seizure signs were determined. The minimal plasma diazepam concentration associated with threshold elevations was estimated at approximately 70 ng/mL. The active metabolites nordiazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam achieved levels that are expected to make only minor contributions to the threshold elevations. Diazepam elevates seizure threshold at steady-state plasma concentrations lower than previously recognized. The

  15. Anticonvulsant activity of DNS II fraction in the acute seizure models.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Liaquat; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana; Simjee, Shabana U

    2010-04-21

    Delphinium nordhagenii belongs to family Ranunculaceae, it is widely found in tropical areas of Pakistan. Other species of Delphinium are reported as anticonvulsant and are traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy. Delphinium nordhagenii is used by local healer in Pakistan but never used for scientific investigation as anticonvulsant. Thus, Delphinium nordhagenii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and the most active fraction, i.e. DNS II acetone was chosen for further testing in the acute seizure models of epilepsy to study the antiepileptic potential in male mice. Different doses (60, 65 and 70mg/kg, i.p.) of DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii was administered 30min prior the chemoconvulsant's injection in the male mice. Convulsive doses of chemoconvulsants (pentylenetetrazole 90mg/kg, s.c. and picrotoxin 3.15mg/kg, s.c.) were used. The mice were observed 45-90min for the presence of seizures. Moreover, four different doses of DNS II (60, 65, 70 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in the MES test. The DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii has exhibited the anticonvulsant actions by preventing the seizures against PTZ- and picrotoxin-induced seizure as well as 100% seizure protection in MES test. The results are comparable with standard AEDs (diazepam 7.5mg/kg, i.p. and phenytoin 20mg/kg, i.p.). These findings suggest that the Delphinium nordhagenii possesses the anticonvulsant activity. Further analysis is needed to confirm the structure and target the extended activity profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arnab; Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Ashish; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali . The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  17. Status Epilepticus Impairs Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Hippocampus and Is Followed by Changes in Expression of NMDA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Postnikova, T Y; Zubareva, O E; Kovalenko, A A; Kim, K K; Magazanik, L G; Zaitsev, A V

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive deficits and memory loss are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy are considered as a cellular substrate underlying memory processes. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus may undergo substantial changes after seizures. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear. In this study, we investigated the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices 24 h after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus. We found that the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 pyramidal cells is reduced compared to the control, while short-term facilitation is increased. The experimental results do not support the hypothesis that status epilepticus leads to background potentiation of hippocampal synapses and further LTP induction becomes weaker due to occlusion, as the dependence of synaptic responses on the strength of input stimulation was not different in the control and experimental animals. The decrease in LTP can be caused by impairment of molecular mechanisms of neuronal plasticity, including those associated with NMDA receptors and/or changes in their subunit composition. Real-time PCR demonstrated significant increases in the expression of GluN1 and GluN2A subunits 3 h after PTZ-induced status epilepticus. The overexpression of obligate GluN1 subunit suggests an increase in the total number of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. A 3-fold increase in the expression of the GluN2B subunit observed 24 h after PTZ-induced status epilepticus might be indicative of an increase in the proportion of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. Increased expression of the GluN2B subunit may be a cause for reducing the magnitude of LTP at hippocampal synapses after status epilepticus.

  18. The antiepileptic effect of Centella asiatica on the activities of Na+/K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-ATPases in rat brain during pentylenetetrazol–induced epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    G., Visweswari; K., Siva Prasad; V., Lokanatha; Rajendra, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To study the anticonvulsant effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica (CA) in male albino rats with reference to Na+/K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-ATPase activities. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (150±25 g b.w.) were divided into seven groups of six each i.e. (a) control rats treated with saline, (b) pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic group (60 mg/kg, i.p.), (c) epileptic group pretreated with n-hexane extract (n-HE), (d) epileptic group pretreated with chloroform extract (CE), (e) epileptic group pretreated with ethyl acetate extract (EAE), (f) epileptic group pretreated with n-butanol extract (n-BE), and (g) epileptic group pretreated with aqueous extract (AE). Results: The activities of three ATPases were decreased in different regions of brain during PTZ-induced epilepsy and were increased in epileptic rats pretreated with different extracts of CA except AE. Conclusion: The extracts of C. asiatica, except AE, possess anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity and thus can be used for effective management in treatment of epileptic seizures. PMID:20711371

  19. Zebrafish as a Model for Epilepsy-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction: A Pharmacological, Biochemical and Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kundap, Uday P.; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd. Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neuronal disorder allied with distinct neurological and behavioral alterations characterized by recurrent spontaneous epileptic seizures. Impairment of the cognitive performances such as learning and memory is frequently observed in epileptic patients. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are efficient to the majority of patients. However, 30% of this population seems to be refractory to the drug treatment. These patients are not seizure-free and frequently they show impaired cognitive functions. Unfortunately, as a side effect, some AEDs could contribute to such impairment. The major problem associated with conducting studies on epilepsy-related cognitive function is the lack of easy, rapid, specific and sensitive in vivo testing models. However, by using a number of different techniques and parameters in the zebrafish, we can incorporate the unique feature of specific disorder to study the molecular and behavior basis of this disease. In the view of current literature, the goal of the study was to develop a zebrafish model of epilepsy induced cognitive dysfunction. In this study, the effect of AEDs on locomotor activity and seizure-like behavior was tested against the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in zebrafish and epilepsy associated cognitive dysfunction was determined using T-maze test followed by neurotransmitter estimation and gene expression analysis. It was observed that all the AEDs significantly reversed PTZ induced seizure in zebrafish, but had a negative impact on cognitive functions of zebrafish. AEDs were found to modulate neurotransmitter levels, especially GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine and gene expression in the drug treated zebrafish brains. Therefore, combination of behavioral, neurochemical and genenetic information, makes this model a useful tool for future research and discovery of newer and safer AEDs. PMID:28824436

  20. Interleukin-1 Receptor in Seizure Susceptibility after Traumatic Injury to the Pediatric Brain

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Terence J.; Gimlin, Kayleen; Wright, David K.; Kim, Shi Eun; Casillas-Espinosa, Pablo M.; Webster, Kyria M.; Petrou, Steven; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle. Spontaneous and evoked seizures were evaluated from video-EEG recordings. Behavioral assays tested for functional outcomes, postmortem analyses assessed neuropathology, and brain atrophy was detected by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging. At 2 weeks and 3 months post-injury, TBI mice showed an elevated seizure response to the convulsant pentylenetetrazol compared with sham mice, associated with abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. A robust increase in IL-1β and IL-1 receptor were detected after TBI. IL-1Ra treatment reduced seizure susceptibility 2 weeks after TBI compared with vehicle, and a reduction in hippocampal astrogliosis. In a chronic study, IL-1Ra-TBI mice showed improved spatial memory at 4 months post-injury. At 5 months, most TBI mice exhibited spontaneous seizures during a 7 d video-EEG recording period. At 6 months, IL-1Ra-TBI mice had fewer evoked seizures compared with vehicle controls, coinciding with greater preservation of cortical tissue. Findings demonstrate this model's utility to delineate mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis after pediatric brain injury, and provide evidence of IL-1 signaling as a mediator of post-traumatic astrogliosis and seizure susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epilepsy is a common cause of morbidity after traumatic brain injury in early childhood. However, a limited understanding of how epilepsy develops, particularly in the immature brain, likely contributes to the lack of efficacious treatments

  1. Effects of Dorema ammoniacum Gum on Neuronal Epileptiform Activity-Induced by Pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Tamadon, Hanieh; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which disrupts the neuronal electrical activity. One-third of patients are resistant to treatment with available antiepileptic agents. The use of herbal medicine for treating several diseases including epilepsy is on the rise. Therefore, further investigation is required to verify the safety and effectiveness of Phytomedicine in treating diseases. The current study is an attempt to elucidate the electrophysiological mechanism of the effect of Dorema ammoniacum gum on a cellular model of epilepsy, using intracellular recording method. The gum was applied either after or before pentylenetetrazole, as an epileptic drug, in order to explore the possible therapeutic and preventive effects of gum. Treatment with D. ammoniacum gum alone increased the neuronal excitability and when applied before or after treatment with PTZ not only did not prevent or change the electrophysiological changes induced by PTZ but also re-enhanced the induction of hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity through depolarizing membrane potential, increasing the firing frequency and decreasing the AHP amplitude. However, phenobarbital, as a standard anti-epileptic agent, almost reversed the effect of PTZ and preserved the normal firing properties of F1 neurons. The possible candidate mechanism of the effect of gum on neuronal excitability could be suppressive effects of gum on voltage and/or Ca2+ dependent K+ channels currents underlying AHP. PMID:29881430

  2. Improving effect of mild foot electrical stimulation on pentylenetetrazole-induced impairment of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Abasi-Moghadam, Monir; Ghasemi-Dehno, Arefe; Sadegh, Mehdi; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza

    2018-05-10

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects learning and memory. Recently it has been shown that mild foot electrical stimulation (MFES) can increase learning and memory in normal rats. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling is a model of human epilepsy. As with human epilepsy, PTZ kindling impairs learning and memory in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect MFES on kindling-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. Forty-nine male Wistar rats weighting 200 to 250 g were divided into the following seven groups: PTZ only, phenytoin only, MFES only, PTZ plus phenytoin, PTZ plus MFES, phenytoin plus MFES, and saline (control), with the treatments administered for 26 days. Forty-eight hours after the last injection, the animals performed the Morris water maze (MWM) task, and spatial learning and memory were measured. The results indicated that although chronic administration of phenytoin inhibited the development of PTZ kindling, it did not exert a protective effect against kindling-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in rats. On the other hand, pretreatment of PTZ-kindled animals with MFES significantly improved spatial working and reference memory. The results point to potential novel beneficial effects of MFES on learning and memory impairment induced by PTZ kindling in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying seizure clusters in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Baird, Grayson L; Harlow, Lisa L; Machan, Jason T; Thomas, Dave; LaFrance, W C

    2017-08-01

    The present study explored how seizure clusters may be defined for those with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a topic for which there is a paucity of literature. The sample was drawn from a multisite randomized clinical trial for PNES; seizure data are from participants' seizure diaries. Three possible cluster definitions were examined: 1) common clinical definition, where ≥3 seizures in a day is considered a cluster, along with two novel statistical definitions, where ≥3 seizures in a day are considered a cluster if the observed number of seizures statistically exceeds what would be expected relative to a patient's: 1) average seizure rate prior to the trial, 2) observed seizure rate for the previous seven days. Prevalence of clusters was 62-68% depending on cluster definition used, and occurrence rate of clusters was 6-19% depending on cluster definition. Based on these data, clusters seem to be common in patients with PNES, and more research is needed to identify if clusters are related to triggers and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpressing wild-type γ2 subunits rescued the seizure phenotype in Gabrg2+/Q390X Dravet syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Zhou, Chengwen; Tian, Mengnan; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Shen, Wangzhen; Verdier, Kelienne; Pimenta, Aurea; MacDonald, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptor γ2(Q390X) subunit (Q351X in the mature peptide) has been associated with the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, and the epilepsy syndrome genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The mutation generates a premature stop codon that results in translation of a stable truncated and misfolded γ2 subunit that accumulates in neurons, forms intracellular aggregates, disrupts incorporation of γ2 subunits into GABA A receptors, and affects trafficking of partnering α and β subunits. Heterozygous Gabrg2 +/Q390X knock-in (KI) mice had reduced cortical inhibition, spike wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG), a lower seizure threshold to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In this proof-of-principal study, we attempted to rescue these deficits in KI mice using a γ2 subunit gene (GABRG2) replacement therapy. We introduced the GABRG2 allele by crossing Gabrg2 +/Q390X KI mice with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice overexpressing HA (hemagglutinin)-tagged human γ2 HA subunits, and compared GABA A receptor subunit expression by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining, seizure threshold by monitoring mouse behavior after PTZ-injection, and thalamocortical inhibition and network oscillation by slice recording. Compared to KI mice, adult mice carrying both mutant allele and transgene had increased wild-type γ2 and partnering α1 and β2/3 subunits, increased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) amplitudes recorded from layer VI cortical neurons, reduced thalamocortical network oscillations, and higher PTZ seizure threshold. Based on these results we suggest that seizures in a genetic epilepsy syndrome caused by epilepsy mutant γ2(Q390X) subunits with dominant negative effects could be rescued potentially by overexpression of wild-type γ2 subunits. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International

  5. Reversible MRI lesions after seizures.

    PubMed

    Aykut-Bingol, C; Tekin, S; Ince, D; Aktan, S

    1997-06-01

    After generalized or partial seizures, transient lesions may appear on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The mechanisms of MR changes might be a defect in cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain permeability. We report a patient with partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. After her first seizure which was generalized tonic-clonic in nature, we detected multiple high signal intensities over the frontal cortical area on proton density images which were enhanced with gadolinium on T1-weighted images. The first and repeated EEGs showed no abnormalities or epileptic discharges. We started carbamezapine (600 mg/d) and excluded systemic diseases like vasculitis, infections, aetiological factors causing cerebrovascular diseases. In the follow-up, she was seizure free under antiepileptic therapy and no other neurological deficit. Repeated MR scans after 24 months from her first seizure revealed no pathologic signal intensities. Although the pathophysiology is unknown, recognition of reversible lesions helps diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to abnormal MR findings after seizures.

  6. Seizures in hospitalized cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Choy-Kwong, M; Lipton, R B

    1989-03-01

    We reviewed the records of 283 cocaine abusers consecutively admitted to a municipal hospital, and identified eight patients (2.8%) who presented with seizures. Four (1.4%) had focal or generalized seizures temporally associated with cocaine use. Based on these four cases and five previous reports, we conclude that although seizures are relatively rare in hospitalized cocaine users, they are provoked by all major routes of administration, and may be partial or generalized.

  7. Termination of seizure clusters is related to the duration of focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Ferastraoaru, Victor; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Lipton, Richard B; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Legatt, Alan D; Blumberg, Julie; Haut, Sheryl R

    2016-06-01

    Clustered seizures are characterized by shorter than usual interseizure intervals and pose increased morbidity risk. This study examines the characteristics of seizures that cluster, with special attention to the final seizure in a cluster. This is a retrospective analysis of long-term inpatient monitoring data from the EPILEPSIAE project. Patients underwent presurgical evaluation from 2002 to 2009. Seizure clusters were defined by the occurrence of at least two consecutive seizures with interseizure intervals of <4 h. Other definitions of seizure clustering were examined in a sensitivity analysis. Seizures were classified into three contextually defined groups: isolated seizures (not meeting clustering criteria), terminal seizure (last seizure in a cluster), and intracluster seizures (any other seizures within a cluster). Seizure characteristics were compared among the three groups in terms of duration, type (focal seizures remaining restricted to one hemisphere vs. evolving bilaterally), seizure origin, and localization concordance among pairs of consecutive seizures. Among 92 subjects, 77 (83%) had at least one seizure cluster. The intracluster seizures were significantly shorter than the last seizure in a cluster (p = 0.011), whereas the last seizure in a cluster resembled the isolated seizures in terms of duration. Although focal only (unilateral), seizures were shorter than seizures that evolved bilaterally and there was no correlation between the seizure type and the seizure position in relation to a cluster (p = 0.762). Frontal and temporal lobe seizures were more likely to cluster compared with other localizations (p = 0.009). Seizure pairs that are part of a cluster were more likely to have a concordant origin than were isolated seizures. Results were similar for the 2 h definition of clustering, but not for the 8 h definition of clustering. We demonstrated that intracluster seizures are short relative to isolated seizures and terminal seizures. Frontal

  8. Do preclinical seizure models preselect certain adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Brian

    2002-06-01

    Classical screening tests (maximal electroshock, MES, and threshold pentylenetetrazol, PTZ) employ non-epileptic rodents and identify antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with mechanisms of action associated with significant CNS side effects. Thus MES identifies drugs acting on Na+ channels that produce cerebellar toxicity. It may be possible to produce novel AEDs more selectively targeted at voltage-sensitive (VS) ion channels. There is little specific evidence for the likely success of this strategy with subunit selective agents targeted at the different VS Na+ channels. Drugs targeted at specific VS Ca++ channels (T, N, P/Q types) may be useful in generalised seizures. There are many as yet unexplored possibilities relating to K+ channels. GABA related drugs acting on PTZ clonic seizures tend to induce sedation and muscle hypotonia. Studies in mice, particularly with knock-in mutations, but also with subunit selective agents acting via the GABA(A) benzodiazepine site, suggest that it is possible to produce agents which do or do not induce particular side effects (sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, amnesia, anaesthesia). Whether these findings transfer to man has yet to be established. Acquired epilepsy in rodents (e.g. kindling or spontaneous seizures following chemically- or electrically-induced status epilepticus) or acquired epilepsy in man (following prolonged febrile seizures or traumatic brain injury) is associated with multiple changes in the function and subunit composition of ion channels and receptor molecules. Optimal screening of novel AEDs, both for efficacy and side effects, requires models with receptor and ion channel changes similar to those in the target human syndrome.

  9. Seizure Prediction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iasemidis, Leon D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain’s normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brain’s electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  10. Neuropeptides and seizures.

    PubMed

    Snead, O C

    1986-11-01

    There are four lines of evidence for or against a role of neuropeptides in epilepsy: Administration of a variety of opiate agonists into the ventricles or brain of animals produces a constellation of electrical and behavioral changes, seemingly receptor-specific, both sensitive to the specific opiate antagonist naloxone as well as certain anticonvulsant drugs. The primary reservation concerning these data in terms of their relevance to epilepsy regards the fact that the peptides are exogenously administered in relatively high doses. Hence, these data may reflect neurotoxic effects of peptides rather than physiologic function. A variety of opiate agonists are anticonvulsant and naloxone shortens the postictal state in some experimental seizure models. One could attempt to reconcile these data with those in No. 1 by hypothesizing that the spikes and behavioral changes examined in the latter experimental parodynes represented a sort of isolated model of the postictal state. Naloxone has little effect in clinical epilepsy. These data are far from conclusive for two reasons. First, few patients have been studied. Second, because of the issue of opiate receptor heterogeneity and the high doses of naloxone needed experimentally to block non-mu opiate effects, the doses of naloxone used clinically to date are too low to rule out possible delta- or epsilon-mediated effects. The negative clinical data are illustrative of the dangers and difficulties of extrapolating data generated in animal models of seizures to the human condition. ACTH, a peptide that is derived from the same precursor molecule as beta-endorphin, is clearly an effective anticonvulsant in certain childhood seizure states. However, whether this is due to a direct or indirect (that is, cortisol) effect on brain is far from clear. Paradoxically, in contradistinction to other data concerning pro- and anticonvulsant properties of various opioid peptides, there is no animal model of infantile spasms to help

  11. Hypocalcemia-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Bradley J.; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemia’s role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvostek’s sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

  12. Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

  13. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  14. Seizure disorders in 43 cattle.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Bertone, I; Cagnotti, G; Iulini, B; Miniscalco, B; Casalone, C; Gianella, P; Cagnasso, A

    2015-01-01

    Large animals have a relatively high seizure threshold, and in most cases seizures are acquired. No published case series have described this syndrome in cattle. To describe clinical findings and outcomes in cattle referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Turin (Italy) because of seizures. Client-owned cattle with documented evidence of seizures. Medical records of cattle with episodes of seizures reported between January 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Evidence of seizures was identified based on the evaluation of seizure episodes by the referring veterinarian or 1 of the authors. Animals were recruited if physical and neurologic examinations were performed and if diagnostic laboratory test results were available. Forty-three of 49 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 8 months. Thirty-one animals were male and 12 were female. Piedmontese breed accounted for 39/43 (91%) animals. Seizures were etiologically classified as reactive in 30 patients (70%) and secondary or structural in 13 (30%). Thirty-six animals survived, 2 died naturally, and 5 were euthanized for reasons of animal welfare. The definitive cause of reactive seizures was diagnosed as hypomagnesemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 12), and hypomagnesemia-hypocalcemia (n = 16). The cause of structural seizures was diagnosed as cerebrocortical necrosis (n = 8), inflammatory diseases (n = 4), and lead (Pb) intoxication (n = 1). The study results indicate that seizures largely are reported in beef cattle and that the cause can be identified and successfully treated in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cannabis you can review. *New Terms for Seizure Classifications The International League Against Epilepsy has approved a ... seizures. This new system will make diagnosis and classification of seizures easier and more accurate. Learn more ...

  16. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  17. In silico Screening and Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Like Molecules in Experimental Models of Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Loron, Ali Gharibi; Sardari, Soroush; Narenjkar, Jamshid; Sayyah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Resistance to antiepileptic drugs and the intolerability in 20-30% of the patients raises demand for developing new drugs with improved efficacy and safety. Acceptable anticonvulsant activity, good tolerability, and inexpensiveness of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) make it as a good candidate for designing and development of the new anticonvulsant medications. Methods: Ten DHA-based molecules were screened based on in silico screening of DHA-like molecules by root-mean-square deviation of atomic positions, the biological activity score of Professional Association for SQL Server, and structural requirements suggested by pharmacophore design. Anticonvulsant activity was tested against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and tonic seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 50 Hz, 1 ms duration) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the screened compounds to mice. Results: Among screened compounds, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, 4-Biphenylacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, and 2-Phenylbutyric acid showed significant protective activity in pentylenetetrazole test with ED50 values of 4, 5, 78, and 70 mM, respectively. In MES test, shikimic acid and 4-tert-Butylcyclo-hexanecarboxylic acid showed significant activity with ED50 values 29 and 637 mM, respectively. Effective compounds had no mortality in mice up to the maximum i.c.v. injectable dose of 1 mM. Conclusion: Common electrochemical features and three-dimensional spatial structures of the effective compounds suggest the involvement of the anticonvulsant mechanisms similar to the parent compound DHA. PMID:27592363

  18. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... lasts for 1 hour or longer (called the post-ictal state) Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of 1 side of the body for a few minutes to a few hours following seizure (called Todd paralysis) Exams and Tests The doctor will perform a physical exam. This ...

  19. Seizure clusters: characteristics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2015-04-01

    Many patients with epilepsy experience 'clusters' or flurries of seizures, also termed acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Seizure clustering has a significant impact on health and quality of life. This review summarizes recent advances in the definition and neurophysiologic understanding of clustering, the epidemiology and risk factors for clustering and both inpatient and outpatient clinical implications. New treatments for seizure clustering/ARS are perhaps the area of greatest recent progress. Efforts have focused on creating a uniform definition of a seizure cluster. In neurophysiologic studies of refractory epilepsy, seizures within a cluster appear to be self-triggering. Clinical progress has been achieved towards a more precise prevalence of clustering, and consensus guidelines for epilepsy monitoring unit safety. The greatest recent advances are in the study of nonintravenous route of benzodiazepines as rescue medications for seizure clusters/ARS. Rectal benzodiazepines have been very effective but barriers to use exist. New data on buccal, intramuscular and intranasal preparations are anticipated to lead to a greater number of approved treatments. Progesterone may be effective for women who experience catamenial clusters. Seizure clustering is common, particularly in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. Clustering worsens health and quality of life, and the field requires greater focus on clarifying of definition and clinical implications. Progress towards the development of nonintravenous routes of benzodiazepines has the potential to improve care in this area.

  20. The effect of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold in the rat. Is dynorphin an endogenous anticonvulsant?

    PubMed

    Przewłocka, B; Stala, L; Lasoń, W; Przewłocki, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold after an intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazol were investigated in rats. The mu- and epsilon-receptor agonists, morphine (20-40 micrograms) and beta-endorphin (5-10 micrograms) show proconvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures. The delta-receptor agonist (D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin, DADL 5-40 micrograms) and alpha-neoendorphin (20-40 micrograms) show pro- and anticonvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures, respectively. Anticonvulsant properties of DADL are possibly due to its action on the spinal cord, since after the intrathecal injection this effect is still observed. Similarities between DADL and alpha-neoendorphin suggest that they may act through the same receptor. The kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin A (5-20 micrograms) and its degradation-resistant analogue D-Arg-dynorphin1-13 (10 micrograms) show significant anticonvulsant properties. Our present results suggest that the kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin may act physiologically as an endogenous anticonvulsant, in contrast to other opioid peptides.

  1. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  2. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  3. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  4. Intraoperative seizures and seizures outcome in patients underwent awake craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Peizhi, Zhou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shu, Jiang; Qing, Mao

    2016-11-25

    Awake craniotomies (AC) could reduce neurological deficits compared with patients under general anesthesia, however, intraoperative seizure is a major reason causing awake surgery failure. The purpose of the study was to give a comprehensive overview the published articles focused on seizure incidence in awake craniotomy. Bibliographic searches of the EMBASE, MEDLINE,were performed to identify articles and conference abstracts that investigated the intraoperative seizure frequency of patients underwent AC. Twenty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the 25 included studies, one was randomized controlled trials and 5 of them were comparable studies. The pooled data suggested the general intraoperative seizure(IOS) rate for patients with AC was 8%(fixed effect model), sub-group analysis identified IOS rate for glioma patients was 8% and low grade patients was 10%. The pooled data showed early seizure rates of AC patients was 11% and late seizure rates was 35%. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that awake craniotomy is a safe technique with relatively low intraoperative seizure occurrence. However, few RCTs were available, and the acquisition of further evidence through high-quality RCTs is highly recommended.

  5. Treating acute seizures with benzodiazepines: does seizure duration matter?

    PubMed

    Naylor, David E

    2014-10-01

    Several clinical trials have shown improved seizure control and outcome by early initiation of treatment with benzodiazepines, before arrival in the emergency department and before intravenous access can be established. Here, evidence is provided and reviewed for rapid treatment of acute seizures in order to avoid the development of benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the emergence of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Alterations in the physiology, pharmacology, and postsynaptic level of GABA-A receptors can develop within minutes to an hour and hinder the ability of synaptic inhibition to stop seizures while also impairing the efficacy of GABAergic agents, such as benzodiazepines, to boost impaired inhibition. In addition, heightened excitatory transmission further exacerbates the inhibitory/excitatory balance and makes seizure control even more resistant to treatment. The acute increase in the surface expression of NMDA receptors during prolonged seizures also may cause excitotoxic injury, cell death, and other pathological expressions and re-arrangements of receptor subunits that all contribute to long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment and chronic epilepsy. In conclusion, a short window of opportunity exists when seizures are maximally controlled by first-line benzodiazepine treatment. After that, multiple pathological mechanisms quickly become engaged that make seizures increasingly more difficult to control with high risk for long-term harm.

  6. Delayed seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rattani, Abbas; Anderson, Christopher D.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, Edip M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Late seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage occur after the initial acute haemorrhagic insult subsides, and represent one of its most feared long-term sequelae. Both susceptibility to late seizures and their functional impact remain poorly characterized. We sought to: (i) compare patients with new-onset late seizures (i.e. delayed seizures), with those who experienced a recurrent late seizure following an immediately post-haemorrhagic seizure; and (ii) investigate the effect of late seizures on long-term functional performance after intracerebral haemorrhage. We performed prospective longitudinal follow-up of consecutive intracerebral haemorrhage survivors presenting to a single tertiary care centre. We tested for association with seizures the following neuroimaging and genetic markers of cerebral small vessel disease: APOE variants ε2/ε4, computer tomography-defined white matter disease, magnetic resonance imaging-defined white matter hyperintensities volume and cerebral microbleeds. Cognitive performance was measured using the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and functional performance using structured questionnaires obtained every 6 months. We performed time-to-event analysis using separate Cox models for risk to develop delayed and recurrent seizures, as well as for functional decline risk (mortality, incident dementia, and loss of functional independence) after intracerebral haemorrhage. A total of 872 survivors of intracerebral haemorrhage were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.9 years. Early seizure developed in 86 patients, 42 of whom went on to experience recurrent seizures. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale, increasing haematoma volume and cortical involvement were associated with recurrent seizure risk (all P < 0.01). Recurrent seizures were not associated with long-term functional outcome (P = 0.67). Delayed seizures occurred in 37 patients, corresponding to an estimated incidence of 0.8% per year (95% confidence interval 0.5–1

  7. Decreased number of interneurons and increased seizures in neuropilin 2 deficient mice: Implications for autism and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gant, John C.; Thibault, Oliver; Blalock, Eric M.; Yang, Jun; Bachstetter, Adam; Kotick, James; Schauwecker, Paula E.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Smith, George M.; Mervis, Ron; Li, YanFang; Barnes, Gregory N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Clinically, perturbations in the semaphorin signaling system have been associated with autism and epilepsy. The semaphorins have been implicated in guidance, migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. The semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) ligand and its receptor, neuropilin 2 (NPN2) are highly expressed within limbic areas. NPN2 signaling may intimately direct the apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic locations, facilitating the development and maturity of hippocampal synaptic function. To further understand the role of NPN2 signaling in central nevous system (CNS) plasticity, structural and functional alterations were assessed in NPN2 deficient mice. Methods In NPN2 deficient mice, we measured seizure susceptibility after kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol, neuronal excitability and synaptic throughput in slice preparations, principal and interneuron cell counts with immunocytochemical protocols, synaptosomal protein levels with immunoblots, and dendritic morphology with Golgi-staining. Results NPN2 deficient mice had shorter seizure latencies, increased vulnerability to seizure-related death, were more likely to develop spontaneous recurrent seizure activity after chemical challenge, and had an increased slope on input/output curves. Principal cell counts were unchanged, but GABA, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y interneuron cell counts were significantly reduced. Synaptosomal NPN2 protein levels and total number of GABAergic synapses were decreased in a gene dose-dependent fashion. CA1 pyramidal cells showed reduced dendritic length and complexity, as well as an increased number of dendritic spines. Discussion These data suggest the novel hypothesis that the Sema 3F signaling system's role in appropriate placement of subsets of hippocampal interneurons has critical downstream consequences for hippocampal function, resulting in a more seizure susceptible phenotype. PMID:18657176

  8. Efficacy of 3,5-dibromo-L-phenylalanine in rat models of stroke, seizures and sensorimotor gating deficit

    PubMed Central

    Cao, W; Shah, HP; Glushakov, AV; Mecca, AP; Shi, P; Sumners, C; Seubert, CN; Martynyuk, AE

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Abnormal glutamatergic activity is implicated in neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective glutamate receptor antagonists were highly effective in animal models of stroke and seizures but failed in further clinical development because of serious side effects, including an almost complete set of symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the novel polyvalent glutamatergic agent 3,5-dibromo-L-phenylalanine (3,5-DBr-L-Phe) was studied in rat models of stroke, seizures and sensorimotor gating deficit. Experimental approach: 3,5-DBr-L-Phe was administered intraperitoneally as three boluses after intracerebral injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) adjacent to the middle cerebral artery to cause brain injury (a model of stroke). 3,5-DBr-L-Phe was also given as a single bolus prior to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injection to induce seizures or prior to the administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) to cause disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle (sensorimotor gating deficit). Key results: Brain damage caused by ET-1 was reduced by 52%, which is comparable with the effects of MK-801 in this model as reported by others. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe significantly reduced seizures induced by PTZ without the significant effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate normally caused by NMDA antagonists. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe prevented the disruption of PPI measured 3 days after the administration of ET-1. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe also eliminated sensorimotor gating deficit caused by MK-801. Conclusion and implications: The pharmacological profile of 3,5-DBr-L-Phe might be beneficial not only for developing a therapy for the neurological and cognitive symptoms of stroke and seizures but also for some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20050189

  9. Efficacy of 3,5-dibromo-L-phenylalanine in rat models of stroke, seizures and sensorimotor gating deficit.

    PubMed

    Cao, W; Shah, H P; Glushakov, A V; Mecca, A P; Shi, P; Sumners, C; Seubert, C N; Martynyuk, A E

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal glutamatergic activity is implicated in neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective glutamate receptor antagonists were highly effective in animal models of stroke and seizures but failed in further clinical development because of serious side effects, including an almost complete set of symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the novel polyvalent glutamatergic agent 3,5-dibromo-L-phenylalanine (3,5-DBr-L-Phe) was studied in rat models of stroke, seizures and sensorimotor gating deficit. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe was administered intraperitoneally as three boluses after intracerebral injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) adjacent to the middle cerebral artery to cause brain injury (a model of stroke). 3,5-DBr-L-Phe was also given as a single bolus prior to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injection to induce seizures or prior to the administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) to cause disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle (sensorimotor gating deficit). Brain damage caused by ET-1 was reduced by 52%, which is comparable with the effects of MK-801 in this model as reported by others. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe significantly reduced seizures induced by PTZ without the significant effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate normally caused by NMDA antagonists. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe prevented the disruption of PPI measured 3 days after the administration of ET-1. 3,5-DBr-L-Phe also eliminated sensorimotor gating deficit caused by MK-801. The pharmacological profile of 3,5-DBr-L-Phe might be beneficial not only for developing a therapy for the neurological and cognitive symptoms of stroke and seizures but also for some neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. DDT exposure of zebrafish embryos enhances seizure susceptibility: relationship to fetal p,p'-DDE burden and domoic acid exposure of California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2009-01-01

    California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acid-induced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to either o,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acid-induced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p'-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p'-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity.

  11. Seizures in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the…

  12. Short-term fasting, seizure control and brain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yudkoff, Marc; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Horyn, Oksana; Luhovyy, Bogdan; Lazarow, Adam; Nissim, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for seizures, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It is uncertain whether the anti-epileptic effect presupposes ketosis, or whether the restriction of calories and/or carbohydrate might be sufficient. We found that a relatively brief (24 h) period of low glucose and low calorie intake significantly attenuated the severity of seizures in young Sprague-Dawley rats (50-70 gms) in whom convulsions were induced by administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The blood glucose concentration was lower in animals that received less dietary glucose, but the brain glucose level did not differ from control blood [3-OH-butyrate] tended to be higher in blood, but not in brain, of animals on a low-glucose intake. The concentration in brain of glutamine increased and that of alanine declined significantly with low-glucose intake. The blood alanine level fell more than that of brain alanine, resulting in a marked increase ( approximately 50%) in the brain:blood ratio for alanine. In contrast, the brain:blood ratio for leucine declined by about 35% in the low-glucose group. When animals received [1-(13)C]glucose, a metabolic precursor of alanine, the appearance of (13)C in alanine and glutamine increased significantly relative to control. The brain:blood ratio for [(13)C]alanine exceeded 1, indicating that the alanine must have been formed in brain and not transported from blood. The elevated brain(alanine):blood(alanine) could mean that a component of the anti-epileptic effect of low carbohydrate intake is release of alanine from brain-to-blood, in the process abetting the disposal of glutamate, excess levels of which in the synaptic cleft would contribute to the development of seizures.

  13. Telemetry video-electroencephalography (EEG) in rats, dogs and non-human primates: methods in follow-up safety pharmacology seizure liability assessments.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Leanne; Troncy, Eric; Pouliot, Mylene; Paquette, Dominique; Ascah, Alexis; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Non-clinical seizure liability studies typically aim to: 1) confirm the nature of EEG activity during abnormal clinical signs, 2) identify premonitory clinical signs, 3) measure plasma levels at seizure onset, 4) demonstrate that drug-induced seizures are self-limiting, 5) confirm that conventional drugs (e.g. diazepam) can treat drug-induced seizures and 6) confirm the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) at EEG. Our aim was to originally characterize several of these items in a three species comparative study. Cynomolgus monkey, Beagle dog and Sprague-Dawley rat with EEG telemetry transmitters were used to obtain EEG using the 10-20 system. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used to determine seizure threshold or as a positive seizurogenic agent. Clinical signs were recorded and premonitory signs were evaluated. In complement, other pharmacological agents were used to illustrate various safety testing strategies. Intravenous PTZ doses required to induce clonic convulsions were 36.1 (3.8), 56.1 (12.7) and 49.4 (11.7) mg/kg, in Beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. Premonitory clinical signs typically included decreased physical activity, enhanced physiological tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, emesis (except in rats) and myoclonus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, amphetamine (PO) increased high (approximately 40-120Hz), and decreased low (1-14Hz) frequencies. In cynomolgus monkeys, caffeine (IM) increased power in high (14-127Hz), and attenuated power in low (1-13Hz) frequencies. In the rat PTZ infusion seizure threshold model, yohimbine (SC and IV) and phenobarbital (IP) confirmed to be reliable positive controls as pro- and anticonvulsants, respectively. Telemetry video-EEG for seizure liability investigations was characterized in three species. Rats represent a first-line model in seizure liability assessments. Beagle dogs are often associated with overt susceptibility to seizure and are typically used in seizure liability studies only if

  14. Age-dependent long-term structural and functional effects of early life seizures: evidence for a hippocampal critical period influencing plasticity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Meyerand, M.E.; Sutula, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity promotes circuit formation in developing systems and during critical periods permanently modifies circuit organization and functional properties. These observations suggest that excessive neural activity, as occurs during seizures, might influence developing neural circuitry with long-term outcomes that depend on age at the time of seizures. We systematically examined long-term structural and functional consequences of seizures induced in rats by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and hyperthermia across postnatal ages from birth through postnatal day 90 in adulthood (P90). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electrophysiological methods at ≥P95 following seizures induced from P1 to P90 demonstrated consistent patterns of gross atrophy, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum and hippocampus, and functional alterations in hippocampal circuitry at ≥P95 that were independent of the method of seizure induction and varied systematically as a function of age at the time of seizures. Three distinct epochs were observed in which seizures resulted in distinct long-term structural and functional outcomes at ≥P95. Seizures prior to P20 resulted in DTI abnormalities in corpus callosum and hippocampus in the absence of gross cerebral atrophy, and increased paired pulse inhibition (PPI) in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. Seizures after P30 induced a different pattern of DTI abnormalities in the fimbria and hippocampus accompanied by gross cerebral atrophy with increases in lateral ventricular volume, as well as increased PPI in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. In contrast, seizures between P20-P30 did not result in cerebral atrophy or significant imaging abnormalities in the hippocampus or white matter, but irreversibly decreased PPI in the dentate gyrus compared to normal adult controls. These age-specific long-term structural and functional outcomes identify P20-P30 as a potential critical period in hippocampal

  15. Dissociation of spontaneous seizures and brainstem seizure thresholds in mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Ferland, Russell J

    2017-03-01

    C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure remission and provide a new model of

  16. Maternal knowledge of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Nawal A; Bin Joubah, Mohammed A; Khan, Samar M; Jan, Mohammed M

    2015-10-01

    To study maternal knowledge -of, and behavior during acute seizures. A cross sectional study conducted from September 2013 to January 2014 included consecutive mothers presenting at the Pediatric Neurology Clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A structured 30-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, knowledge, and behavior on acute seizures. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed and 41% witnessed at least one acute seizure in their affected child (range 1-15 years, mean 4.5). Up to 26% felt not knowledgeable at all regarding the acute care and management of seizure. Mothers with higher education (college or university degree) were more likely to feel very knowledgeable (19% versus 11%, p=0.02). Only 10% were aware of an antiepileptic drug that could be used at home to stop prolonged seizures, and 35% mentioned that they would wait for 15 minutes before taking the child to the emergency department. Most mothers (93%) wanted more information. Those who felt strongly regarding that (66%), were more likely to be younger (<27 years) (p=0.01), and have at least 3 out of 7 mismanagement decisions (p=0.003). Maternal level of knowledge and behavior during acute seizures needs improvement. Many mothers have significant misinformation, negative behavior, and poor management practices. Increased awareness and educational programs are needed.

  17. Seizures in the alcoholic patient.

    PubMed

    Young, G P

    1990-11-01

    The First International Symposium on Alcohol and Seizures (September 1988, Washington, DC) convened experts from North America and Europe to discuss the basic and clinical research findings in this field. Most of the observations communicated at this symposium are included in this article. Emergency physicians are familiar with the alcoholic patient who presents during or after a seizure(s). This familiarity must not obscure the fact that a significant minority of these patients will have an underlying process that can cause morbidity or mortality if the unsuspecting physician does not have an organized and methodic approach to the evaluation and management of the seizing alcoholic patient. Status epilepticus should be evaluated and treated in a similar fashion, whether or not the patient is an alcoholic. Otherwise, almost without exception, there are nuances and controversies with respect to the evaluation and management of the alcoholic patient with a seizure(s), from the indications for CT scan, to the proper role of sedatives and anticonvulsants, and the need for admission. The emergency physician must remain a patient advocate. The great majority of alcoholic patients with seizures who require admission can be treated satisfactorily at the hospital of presentation.

  18. Epilepsy (generalised seizures).

    PubMed

    Cross, J Helen

    2015-04-17

    About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of additional treatments in people with drug-resistant epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found four studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety on the addition of the following interventions: lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, and zonisamide versus the addition of placebo.

  19. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation.

  20. Agmatine exerts anticonvulsant effect in mice: modulation by alpha 2-adrenoceptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Demehri, Shadpour; Homayoun, Houman; Honar, Hooman; Riazi, Kiarash; Vafaie, Kourosh; Roushanzamir, Farshad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2003-09-01

    The effect of agmatine, an endogenous polyamine metabolite, on seizure susceptibility was investigated in mice. Acute intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) had a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The peak of this anticonvulsant effect was 45 min after agmatine administration. We further investigated the possible involvement of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and L-arginine/NO pathway in this effect of agmatine. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg), induced a dose-dependent blockade of the anticonvulsant effect of agmatine. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate, L-arginine (60 mg/kg), inhibited the anticonvulsant property of agmatine and this effect was significantly reversed by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME, 30 mg/kg), implying an NO-dependent mechanism for L-arginine effect. We further examined a possible additive effect between agmatine (1 or 5 mg/kg) and L-NAME (10 mg/kg). The combination of L-NAME (10 mg/kg) with agmatine (5 but not 1 mg/kg) induced a significantly higher level of seizure protection as compared with each drug alone. Moreover, a combination of lower doses of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg) and L-arginine (30 mg/kg) also significantly decreased the anticonvulsant effect of agmatine. In conclusion, the present data suggest that agmatine may be of potential use in seizure treatment.

  1. Seizures and epilepsy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniel; Honig, Lawrence S; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are at increased risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. However, reported prevalence and incidence of seizures and relationship of seizures to disease measures such as severity, outcome, and progression vary widely between studies. We performed a literature review of the available clinical and epidemiological data on the topic of seizures in patients with AD. We review seizure rates and types, risk factors for seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, and treatment responses. Finally, we consider limitations and methodological issues. There is considerable variability in the reported prevalence and incidence of seizures in patients with AD-with reported lifetime prevalence rates of 1.5-64%. More recent, prospective, and larger studies in general report lower rates. Some, but not all, studies have noted increased seizure risk with increasing dementia severity or with younger age of AD onset. Generalized convulsive seizures are the most commonly reported type, but often historical information is the only basis used to determine seizure type and the manifestation of seizures may be difficult to distinguish from other behaviors common in demented patients. EEG has infrequently been performed and reported. Data on treatment of seizures in AD are extremely limited. Similarly, the relationship between seizures and cognitive impairment in AD is unclear. We conclude that the literature on seizures and epilepsy in AD, including diagnosis, risk factors, and response to treatment suffers from methodological limitations and gaps. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

  3. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits seizure activity and protects blood-brain barrier integrity in kindled rats with cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Orhan, Nurcan; Karabacak, Emrah; Bahceci, Metin Berkant; Arican, Nadir; Ahishali, Bulent; Kemikler, Gonul; Uslu, Atilla; Cevik, Aydin; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Kucuk, Mutlu; Gürses, Candan

    2013-03-12

    This study investigates the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on seizure severity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in kindled rats with cortical dysplasia (CD). Pregnant rats were exposed to 145 cGy of gamma-irradiation on day 17 of pregnancy. In offsprings, kindling was induced by giving subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazole. Left VNS was performed for 48 h at output currents of 0.5 or 1 mA. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to study the BBB permeability. Immunohistochemistry for occludin and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also performed. Kindled rats with CD exhibited seizures with mean Racine's scores of 3.57 ± 1.2 during video EEG recording. Kindled animals with CD receiving VNS at 0.5 and 1.0 mA did not exhibit either clinical or electrophysiological signs of seizure. Immunostaining for occludin, a tight junction protein, in hippocampus remained relatively intact in all groups. VNS-treated and -untreated kindled animals with CD revealed intense immunostaining for P-gp in hippocampal formation (P<0.01). Electron microscopic observations revealed frequent transport vesicles containing electron-dense HRP reaction products in the cytoplasm of brain capillary endothelial cells in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus of kindled animals with CD. Those which were exposed to 1 mA VNS were observed to have brain capillary endothelial cells largely devoid of HRP reaction products in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results of this study suggest that VNS therapy at 1 mA inhibits seizure activity and protects BBB integrity by limiting the enhancement of transcellular pathway in kindled animals with CD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of seizure recurrence after achieving initial seizure freedom on the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Taub, Katherine S; Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have examined the long-term sustainability of complete seizure freedom on the ketogenic diet (KD). The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of seizure recurrence in children who achieved at least 1 month of seizure freedom on the KD, and to assess clinical features associated with sustained seizure freedom. Records of patients initiated on the KD at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) from 1991 to 2009 were reviewed. Subjects who attained seizure freedom for at least 1 month within 2 years were included in the study. Seizure frequency was recorded based on caregiver-reported seizure diaries as unchanged, improved, or worse compared to baseline. Those patients with seizure freedom ≥1 year were compared to those with seizure freedom <1 year in terms of demographics, age of seizure onset, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prior to KD, and epilepsy classification. Of 276 patients initiated on the KD, 65 patients (24%) attained seizure freedom for a minimum of 1 month. The majority of these patients had daily seizures. The median time to seizure freedom after KD initiation was 1.5 months. Seizures recurred in 53 patients (82%), with a median time to seizure recurrence of 3 months. However, seizure frequency after initial recurrence remained far less than baseline. No clinical features were identified as risk factors for seizure recurrence. Seizure recurrence on the KD after 1 month of seizure freedom most often occurred as occasional breakthrough seizures and not a return to baseline seizure frequency. This study provides evidence to support the continued use of the KD in patients with initial seizure freedom even after breakthrough seizures. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. Hyponatraemia and seizures after ecstasy use

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, S.; Banerjee, A.; Alexander, W.

    1999-01-01

    A patient presented to our unit with seizures and profound hyponatraemia after ingestion of a single tablet of ecstasy. The seizures proved resistant to therapy and ventilation on the intensive care unit was required. Resolution of the seizures occurred on correction of the metabolic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of seizures and hyponatraemia after ecstasy use is discussed. Ecstasy use should be considered in any young patient presenting with unexplained seizures and attention should be directed towards electrolyte levels, particularly sodium.


Keywords: ecstasy; seizures; hyponatraemia PMID:10396584

  6. Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2,3-disubstituted benzofuran analogues of GABA as neurotropic agents.

    PubMed

    Coaviche-Yoval, Arturo; Luna, Hector; Tovar-Miranda, Ricardo; Soriano-Ursua, Marvin Antonio; Trujillo-Ferrara, Jose G

    2018-05-23

    Benzofurans are heterocyclic compounds with neurotropic activity. Some have been developed for the treatment of acute and degenerative neuronal injuries. To evaluate the in silico binding of some promising benzofurans on the GABA receptors, and the in vivo neurotropic activity of benzofuran analogues (BZF 6-10) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on a seizure model. The ligands with the best physicochemical attributes were docked on two GABA receptors (the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA-R and GBR1 subunit of GABAB-R). Selected benzofuran derivatives were synthesized by a multistep procedure and characterized. To examine the neurotropic effects, mice were pretreated with different concentrations of the compounds prior to PTZ- or 4-AP-induced seizures. We assessed acute toxicity, motor behavior, and the effects on seizures. The tested ligands that complied with Lipinski's rule of five were tested in silico with GABAA-R (ΔG = -5.51 to -5.84 kcal/mol) at the allosteric site for benzodiazepines. They bound to a similar cluster of residues as the reference compound (gaboxadol, ΔG = -5.51 kcal/mol). Synthesis was achieved with good overall yields (42-9.7%). Two compounds were selected for biological tests (BZF-7 and rac-BZF-10) on a mouse model of seizures, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). PTZ-induced seizures are associated with GABA receptors, and those 4-AP-induced with the blockage of the delayed rectifier-type potassium channel, which promotes the release of the NMDA-sensitive glutamatergic ionotropic receptor and other neurotransmitters. The biological assays demonstrated that BZF-7 and rac-BZF-10 do not protect against seizures. Indeed, BZF-7 increased the number of PTZ-induced seizures and decreased latency time. The 4-AP model apparently showed a potentiation of seizure effects after administration of the BZF-analogues, evidenced by the incidence and severity of the seizures and reduced latency time. The results suggest that the test

  9. Automated seizure detection systems and their effectiveness for each type of seizure.

    PubMed

    Ulate-Campos, A; Coughlin, F; Gaínza-Lein, M; Fernández, I Sánchez; Pearl, P L; Loddenkemper, T

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy affects almost 1% of the population and most of the approximately 20-30% of patients with refractory epilepsy have one or more seizures per month. Seizure detection devices allow an objective assessment of seizure frequency and a treatment tailored to the individual patient. A rapid recognition and treatment of seizures through closed-loop systems could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality in epilepsy. However, no single detection device can detect all seizure types. Therefore, the choice of a seizure detection device should consider the patient-specific seizure semiologies. This review of the literature evaluates seizure detection devices and their effectiveness for different seizure types. Our aim is to summarize current evidence, offer suggestions on how to select the most suitable seizure detection device for each patient and provide guidance to physicians, families and researchers when choosing or designing seizure detection devices. Further, this review will guide future prospective validation studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of pro-convulsant risk in the rat: spontaneous and provoked convulsions.

    PubMed

    Esneault, Elise; Peyon, Guillaume; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of different tests performed in the absence or presence of factors promoting seizures in order to evaluate the pro-convulsant effects of drugs. We studied the effects of theophylline in the rat since this is a well-known pro-convulsant substance in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous convulsions following administration of theophylline was evaluated by observation in the Irwin Test and by measuring brain activity using video-EEG recording in conscious telemetered animals. Theophylline was also tested in the electroconvulsive shock (ECS) threshold and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests, two commonly used models of provoked convulsions. In the Irwin test, theophylline induced convulsions in 1 out of 6 rats at 128 mg/kg. Paroxysmal/seizure activity was also observed by video-EEG recording in 4 out of the 12 animals tested at 128 mg/kg, in presence of clonic convulsions in 3 out of the 4 rats. Paroxysmal activity was observed in two rats in the absence of clear behavioral symptoms, indicating that some precursor signs can be detected using video-EEG. Clear pro-convulsant activity was shown over the dose-range 32-128 mg/kg in the ECS threshold and PTZ-induced convulsions tests. Evaluation of spontaneous convulsions provides information on the therapeutic window of a drug and the translational value of the approach is increased by the use of video-EEG. Tests based on provoked convulsions further complement the evaluation since they try to mimic high risk situations. Measurement of both spontaneous and provoked convulsions improves the evaluation of the pro-convulsant risk of novel pharmacological substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seeking potential anticonvulsant agents that target GABAA receptors using experimental and theoretical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia; Correa-Basurto, José; Matus, Myrna H.; Gasca-Pérez, Eloy; Bello, Martiniano; Cuevas-Hernández, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Trujillo-Ferrara, José; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify compounds that possess anticonvulsant activity by using a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model. Theoretical studies of a set of ligands, explored the binding affinities of the ligands for the GABAA receptor (GABAAR), including some benzodiazepines. The ligands satisfy the Lipinski rules and contain a pharmacophore core that has been previously reported to be a GABAAR activator. To select the ligands with the best physicochemical properties, all of the compounds were analyzed by quantum mechanics and the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were determined. Docking calculations between the ligands and the GABAAR were used to identify the complexes with the highest Gibbs binding energies. The identified compound D1 (dibenzo( b,f)(1,4)diazocine-6,11(5H,12H)-dione) was synthesized, experimentally tested, and the GABAAR-D1 complex was submitted to 12-ns-long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to corroborate the binding conformation obtained by docking techniques. MD simulations were also used to analyze the decomposition of the Gibbs binding energy of the residues involved in the stabilization of the complex. To validate our theoretical results, molecular docking and MD simulations were also performed for three reference compounds that are currently in commercial use: clonazepam (CLZ), zolpidem and eszopiclone. The theoretical results show that the GABAAR-D1, and GABAAR-CLZ complexes bind to the benzodiazepine binding site, share a similar map of binding residues, and have similar Gibbs binding energies and entropic components. Experimental studies using a PTZ-induced seizure model showed that D1 possesses similar activity to CLZ, which corroborates the predicted binding free energy identified by theoretical calculations.

  12. Intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Howe, John; Lu, Xiaoying; Thompson, Zoe; Peterson, Gordon W; Losey, Travis E

    2016-05-01

    An acute symptomatic seizure is a clinical seizure occurring at the time of or in close temporal association with a brain insult. We report an acute symptomatic seizure occurring during a surgical procedure in a patient who did not have a prior history of epilepsy and who did not have a lesion associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. To characterize the incidence and clinical features of intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia, we reviewed cases where continuous EEG was acquired during craniotomy. Records of 400 consecutive cases with propofol as general anesthesia during craniotomy were reviewed. Demographic data, indication for surgery, clinical history, history of prior seizures, duration of surgery and duration of burst suppression were recorded. Cases where seizures were observed were analyzed in detail. Two out of 400 patients experienced intraoperative seizures, including one patient who appeared to have an acute symptomatic seizure related to the surgical procedure itself and a second patient who experienced two seizures likely related to an underlying diagnosis of epilepsy. This is the first report of an acute symptomatic seizure secondary to a neurosurgical procedure. Overall, 0.5% of patients monitored experienced seizures, indicating that intraoperative seizures are rare, and EEG monitoring during craniotomies is of low yield in detecting seizures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    /kg) offered 40%, 100% and 0% protection against THLE, each respectively, while co-administration of cyproheptadine (4mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) as well as co-administration of cyproheptadine (4mg/kg) and phenytoin (20mg/kg) offered reduced protection of 20% and 50% each respectively. The extract at all doses reduced the severity of seizure episodes induced by PTZ-induced kindling. The results suggest that the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita possesses anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When a seizure is not a real seizure!

    PubMed

    Talebi, Soheila; Ghobadi, Farzaneh; Chaudhari, Sameer; Gracia, Ely; Olatunde, Ola; Pekler, Gerald; Visco, Ferdinand; Hassen, Getaw Worku

    2016-04-01

    We report here 2 cases of methadone induced Torsades de Pointes with a clinical presentation mimicking convulsive seizures in a substance abuser. These cases highlight the importance of being aware of methadone-induced Torsades de Pointes and the occasional atypical clinical presentations of this condition.

  15. Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... I do? When should I call the doctor? Alternative Names What to ask your doctor about febrile ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 593. Read More Epilepsy - overview Febrile seizures Fever Seizures Patient Instructions Epilepsy ...

  16. The temporal relation between seizure onset and arousal-awakening in temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Gumusyayla, Sadiye; Erdal, Abidin; Tezer, F Irsel; Saygi, Serap

    2016-07-01

    Our main aim was to determine the time interval between the seizure onsets and arousal-awakening related to these seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to discuss the role of lateralization on arousal-awakening mechanisms. Thirty-three TLE patients who underwent video-EEG monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography (PSG) and had recorded nocturnal seizures were retrospectively examined. These TLE patients had 64 seizures during sleep. The onsets of seizures and arousal-awakening related to these seizures were marked according to clinical and electrophysiological features. The time interval between the seizure onset and arousal-awakening related to the seizure was compared in patients with right- or left-sided temporal lobe seizures. In our TLE patients nocturnal seizures mostly followed arousal-awakening (64%). The time interval between the seizure onset and arousal-awakening related to the seizure was significantly shorter in patients with left-sided temporal lobe seizures (p=0.01). Video-EEG monitoring and PSG with scalp electrodes in our TLE patients showed that nocturnal seizures mostly followed arousal-awakening, and it was more pronounced in those with left-sided seizures. Arousal-awakening might be a signal for subsequent seizures in patients with TLE. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphine potentiates seizures induced by GABA antagonists and attenuates seizures induced by electroshock in the rat.

    PubMed

    Foote, F; Gale, K

    1983-11-25

    In a naloxone-reversible, dose-dependent manner, morphine (10-50 mg/kg i.p.) protected against seizures induced by maximal electroshock and increased the incidence and severity of seizures induced by bicuculline, in rats. Morphine also potentiated seizures induced by isoniazid and by picrotoxin. Thus, opiate activity influences the expression of seizures in contrasting ways depending upon the mode of seizure induction. Since morphine consistently potentiated seizures induced by interference with GABA transmission, it appears that GABAergic systems may be of particular significance for the elucidation of the varied effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility.

  18. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  19. An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

  20. A mouse model of DEPDC5-related epilepsy: Neuronal loss of Depdc5 causes dysplastic and ectopic neurons, increased mTOR signaling, and seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Jones, Brandon M; Wolfson, Rachel L; Super, Chloe E; Dhamne, Sameer C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Sabatini, David M; Sahin, Mustafa; Poduri, Annapurna

    2018-03-01

    DEPDC5 is a newly identified epilepsy-related gene implicated in focal epilepsy, brain malformations, and Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). In vitro, DEPDC5 negatively regulates amino acid sensing by the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, but the role of DEPDC5 in neurodevelopment and epilepsy has not been described. No animal model of DEPDC5-related epilepsy has recapitulated the neurological phenotypes seen in patients, and germline knockout rodent models are embryonic lethal. Here, we establish a neuron-specific Depdc5 conditional knockout mouse by cre-recombination under the Synapsin1 promotor. Depdc5 flox/flox -Syn1 Cre (Depdc5cc+) mice survive to adulthood with a progressive neurologic phenotype that includes motor abnormalities (i.e., hind limb clasping) and reduced survival compared to littermate control mice. Depdc5cc+ mice have larger brains with increased cortical neuron size and dysplastic neurons throughout the cortex, comparable to the abnormal neurons seen in human focal cortical dysplasia specimens. Depdc5 results in constitutive mTORC1 hyperactivation exclusively in neurons as measured by the increased phosphorylation of the downstream ribosomal protein S6. Despite a lack of increased mTORC1 signaling within astrocytes, Depdc5cc+ brains show reactive astrogliosis. We observed two Depdc5cc+ mice to have spontaneous seizures, including a terminal seizure. We demonstrate that as a group Depdc5cc+ mice have lowered seizure thresholds, as evidenced by decreased latency to seizures after chemoconvulsant injection and increased mortality from pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. In summary, our neuron-specific Depdc5 knockout mouse model recapitulates clinical, pathological, and biochemical features of human DEPDC5-related epilepsy and brain malformations. We thereby present an important model in which to study targeted therapeutic strategies for DEPDC5-related conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances hippocampal excitatory and seizure activity through IGF-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guohui; Wang, Wei; Cao, Qingqing; Gu, Juan; Mi, Xiujuan; Wang, Kewei; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to promote neurogenesis and survival. However, recent studies have suggested that IGF-1 regulates neuronal firing and excitatory neurotransmission. In the present study, focusing on temporal lobe epilepsy, we found that IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 receptor activation are increased in human epileptogenic tissues, and pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole-treated rat models. Using an acute model of seizures, we showed that lateral cerebroventricular infusion of IGF-1 elevates IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling before pilocarpine application had proconvulsant effects. In vivo electroencephalogram recordings and power spectrogram analysis of local field potential revealed that IGF-1 promotes epileptiform activities. This effect is diminished by co-application of an IGF-1R inhibitor. In an in vitro electrophysiological study, we demonstrated that IGF-1 enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents is inhibited by IGF-1R inhibitor. Finally, activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) in seizures in rats is increased by exogenous IGF-1 and diminished by picropodophyllin. A behavioural study reveals that the ERK1/2 or Akt inhibitor attenuates seizure activity. These results indicate that increased IGF-1 levels after recurrent hippocampal neuronal firings might, in turn, promote seizure activity via IGF-1R-dependent mechanisms. The present study presents a previously unappreciated role of IGF-1R in the development of seizure activity. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Zebrafish seizure model identifies p,p -DDE as the dominant contaminant of fetal California sea lions that accounts for synergistic activity with domoic acid.

    PubMed

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2010-04-01

    Fetal poisoning of California sea lions (CSLs; Zalophus californianus) has been associated with exposure to the algal toxin domoic acid. These same sea lions accumulate a mixture of persistent environmental contaminants including pesticides and industrial products such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Developmental exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its stable metabolite 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p -DDE) has been shown to enhance domoic acid-induced seizures in zebrafish; however, the contribution of other co-occurring contaminants is unknown. We formulated a mixture of contaminants to include PCBs, PBDEs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and chlordane at levels matching those reported for fetal CSL blubber to determine the impact of co-occurring persistent contaminants with p,p -DDE on chemically induced seizures in zebrafish as a model for the CSLs. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to p,p -DDE in the presence or absence of a defined contaminant mixture prior to neurodevelopment via either bath exposure or embryo yolk sac microinjection. After brain maturation (7 days postfertilization), fish were exposed to a chemical convulsant, either pentylenetetrazole or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was then monitored and analyzed for changes, using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Induced seizure behavior did not differ significantly between subjects with embryonic exposure to a contaminant mixture and those exposed to p,p -DDE only. These studies demonstrate that p,p -DDE--in the absence of PCBs, HCH, chlordane, and PBDEs that co-occur in fetal sea lions--accounts for the synergistic activity that leads to greater sensitivity to domoic acid seizures.

  3. The novel antiepileptic drug imepitoin compares favourably to other GABA-mimetic drugs in a seizure threshold model in mice and dogs.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Katrin; Twele, Friederike; Potschka, Heidrun; Töllner, Kathrin

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the imidazolinone derivative imepitoin has been approved for treatment of canine epilepsy. Imepitoin acts as a low-affinity partial agonist at the benzodiazepine (BZD) site of the GABAA receptor and is the first compound with such mechanism that has been developed as an antiepileptic drug (AED). This mechanism offers several advantages compared to full agonists, including less severe adverse effects and a lack of tolerance and dependence liability, which has been demonstrated in rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. In clinical trials in epileptic dogs, imepitoin was shown to be an effective and safe AED. Recently, seizures in dogs have been proposed as a translational platform for human therapeutic trials on new epilepsy treatments. In the present study, we compared the anticonvulsant efficacy of imepitoin, phenobarbital and the high-affinity partial BZD agonist abecarnil in the timed i.v. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold test in dogs and, for comparison, in mice. Furthermore, adverse effects of treatments were compared in both species. All drugs dose-dependently increased the PTZ threshold in both species, but anticonvulsant efficacy was higher in dogs than mice. At the doses selected for this study, imepitoin was slightly less potent than phenobarbital in increasing seizure threshold, but markedly more tolerable in both species. Effective doses of imepitoin in the PTZ seizure model were in the same range as those suppressing spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic dogs. The study demonstrates that low-affinity partial agonists at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, such as imepitoin, offer advantages as a new category of AEDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    We critically review the existing literature about the epidemiology (i.e., diagnosis, occurrence, age, gender, comorbidity with epilepsy, associated factors, prognosis, mortality, and cost) of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and provide suggestions for future research. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are commonly diagnosed at epilepsy centers. The diagnosis of PNES relies on a multidisciplinary evaluation and is usually based on different combinations of data. Recording a seizure, while under video-EEG monitoring, is the most reliable diagnostic test. However, not all patients present with seizures while under video-EEG monitoring. Furthermore, not all epileptic seizures produce visible changes in the scalp EEG. The incidence of PNES was estimated to be 1.4-4.9/100,000/year in three previous studies, and the prevalence was calculated to be between 2 to 33 per 100,000 in one study, making it a significant neuropsychiatric condition. However, there remains a scarcity of data about the epidemiology of PNES, and extant studies that assessed the epidemiological characteristics of PNES have significant limitations. For example, inconsistencies with regard to the age of patients studied and lack of standardization of the diagnostic criteria are some of the significant limitations among studies. In conclusion, PNES merit further epidemiological and pathophysiological investigation. A more precise definition and clear guidance on standards for the diagnosis might influence the direction of future research. Well-designed prospective population-based studies to clarify the epidemiology of PNES in various parts of the world, including an evaluation of the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in cross-cultural comparisons is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun-Jung; Kim, Gyu Sik; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Won-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction, such as hyperexcitation, irritability, and disturbance of consciousness, may occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis. There are also a few case reports of seizures attributed to thyrotoxicosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of seizures that appeared to be related to the thyrotoxic state in patients with thyrotoxicosis. We retrospectively determined the prevalence and clinical features of seizures in 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism. Among patients with seizures, we excluded those with other causes of seizures or a history of epilepsy. We did not exclude two patients in whom later work-up showed an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, as their seizures resolved after they became euthyroid. Among the 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism, there were seven patients (0.2%) with seizures who met our criteria. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in four patients (57%), complex partial seizures with secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in two patients (29%), and one patient had a focal seizure (14%). The initial electroencephalography (EEG) was normal in two patients (29%), had generalized slow activity in four patients (57%), and had diffuse generalized beta activity in one patient (14%). On magnetic resonance imaging, one patient had diffuse brain atrophy, and one had an old basal ganglia infarct. After the patients became euthyroid, the EEG was repeated and was normal in all patients. During follow-up periods ranging from 18 to 24 months, none of the patients had seizures. Hyperthyroidism is the precipitating cause of seizures in a small percentage of these patients. In these patients, the prognosis is good if they become euthyroid. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures reported here can be used in conjunction with the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis in the population to estimate the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures in populations.

  8. Synthesis, Biological Activity, and Docking Study of Novel Isatin Coupled Thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives as Anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Nikalje, Anna P; Ansari, Altamash; Bari, Sanjay; Ugale, Vinod

    2015-06-01

    A series of 2-(substituted-phenyl)-3-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)amino)-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives were designed and synthesized under microwave irradiation, using an eco-friendly, efficient, microwave-assisted synthetic protocol that involves cyclocondensation of 3-substituted benzylidine-hydrazono-indolin-2-one 3a-j with thioglycolic acid in dimethyl formamide (DMF) as solvent and anhydrous zinc chloride as a catalyst, keeping in view the structural requirement of the pharmacophore. The intermediate compounds 3a-j were obtained by condensation of the hydrazone of indoline-2,3-dione with aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for CNS depressant activity and anticonvulsant activity in mice using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (sc-PTZ) induced seizure tests. All the derivatives showed good CNS depressant activity and showed protection in the MES test, indicative of their ability to inhibit the seizure spread. A histopathological study was performed to evaluate liver toxicity caused by the synthesized compounds. The compounds were nontoxic. A computational study was performed, in which log P values were calculated experimentally. Virtual screening was performed by molecular docking of the designed compounds into the ATP binding sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors, to predict if these compounds have analogous binding modes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 1,2-ethane bis-1-amino-4-benzamidine is active against several brain insult and seizure challenges through anti-NMDA mechanisms targeting the 3H-TCP binding site and antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Vamecq, Joseph; Maurois, Pierre; Pages, Nicole; Bac, Pierre; Stables, James P; Gressens, Pierre; Stanicki, Dimitri; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Five bis-benzamidines were screened towards murine magnesium deficiency-dependent audiogenic seizures, unravelling two compounds with efficacious doses 50 (ED(50)) less than 10mg/kg. They were also screened against maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, and explored for superoxide -scavenging activity. 1,2-Ethane bis-1-amino-4-benzamidine (EBAB) was selected and evaluated in 6 Hz seizure test (ED(50)=49 mg/kg) and at 4 microg/kg in focal cerebral ibotenate poisoning in pups (sizes of both white and grey matter wounds were halved). EBAB was further tested on NMDA-induced seizures in mice (ED(50)=6 mg/kg) and on (3)H-TC -binding to a rodent cerebral preparation (IC(50)=1.4 microM). Taken as a whole, present data emphasise the suitability of bis-benzamidines as templates for designing brain protective compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal Seizures: Advances in Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Seizures occur in approximately 1–5 per 1,000 live births, and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke or hemorrhage. Conventional, prolonged, continuous video-electroencephalogram (cEEG) is the gold standard for detecting seizures, whereas amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a convenient and useful bedside tool. Evaluation of neonatal seizures involves a thorough search for the etiology of the seizures, and includes detailed clinical history, routine chemistries, neuroimaging (and preferably magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and specialized testing such as screening for inborn errors of metabolism if no structural cause is identified and seizures persist after correction of transient metabolic deficits. Expert opinion supports rapid medical treatment to abolish electrographic seizures, however the relative risk versus benefit for aggressive medical treatment of neonatal seizures is not known. While there is increasing evidence to support a harmful effect of seizures on the developing brain, there is also evidence that commonly used medications are potentially neurotoxic in animal models. Newer agents appear less harmful, but data are lacking regarding optimal dosing and efficacy. PMID:24524454

  11. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease inmore » the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.« less

  12. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  13. Electroencephalography after a single unprovoked seizure.

    PubMed

    Debicki, Derek B

    2017-07-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation of seizure disorders. In particular, EEG is used as an additional investigation for a single unprovoked seizure. Epileptiform abnormalities are related to seizure disorders and have been shown to predict recurrent unprovoked seizures (i.e., a clinical definition of epilepsy). Thus, the identification of epileptiform abnormalities after a single unprovoked seizure can inform treatment options. The current review addresses the relationship between EEG abnormalities and seizure recurrence. This review also addresses factors that are found to improve the yield of recording epileptiform abnormalities including timing of EEG relative to the new-onset seizure, use of repeat studies, use of sleep deprivation and prolonged recordings. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycolysis in energy metabolism during seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng; Wu, Jiongxing; Guo, Ren; Peng, Yufen; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Ding; Song, Zhi

    2013-05-15

    Studies have shown that glycolysis increases during seizures, and that the glycolytic metabolite lactic acid can be used as an energy source. However, how lactic acid provides energy for seizures and how it can participate in the termination of seizures remains unclear. We reviewed possible mechanisms of glycolysis involved in seizure onset. Results showed that lactic acid was involved in seizure onset and provided energy at early stages. As seizures progress, lactic acid reduces the pH of tissue and induces metabolic acidosis, which terminates the seizure. The specific mechanism of lactic acid-induced acidosis involves several aspects, which include lactic acid-induced inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme 6-diphosphate kinase-1, inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, activation of the acid-sensitive 1A ion channel, strengthening of the receptive mechanism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-minobutyric acid, and changes in the intra- and extracellular environment.

  15. Genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures includes features of both focal and generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiao; Gong, Pan; Yang, Haipo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Yuehua; Yang, Zhixian

    2018-04-19

    Clinically, some patients having genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures were difficult to be diagnosed. We aimed to discuss whether the genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures is a focal entity, a generalized entity or a continuum. Twenty-two patients with idiopathic epilepsies and photoconvulsive response (PCR) were retrospectively recruited. In the medical records, the seizure types included "generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS)" in 15, "partial secondarily GTCS (PGTCS)" in 3, partial seizures (PS) in 3, myoclonic seizures in 2, eyelid myoclonus in one, and only febrile seizures in one. Seizure types of PCR included GTCS (1/22), PGTCS (6/22), PS (9/22), electrical seizures (ES) (3/22) and GTCS/PGTCS (3/22). Combined the medical history with PCR results, they were diagnosed as: idiopathic (photosensitive) occipital lobe epilepsy (I(P)OE) in 12, genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy (GGE) in one, GGE/I(P)OE in 5, pure photosensitive seizure in one, and epilepsy with undetermined generalized or focal seizure in 3. So, the dichotomy between generalized and focal seizures might have been out of date regarding to pathophysiological advances in epileptology. To some extent, it would be better to recognize the idiopathic epilepsy with photosensitive seizures as a continuum between focal and generalized seizures.

  16. Effects of pentylenetetrazole and glutamate on metabolism of [U-(13)C]glucose in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Eloqayli, Haytham; Qu, Hong; Unsgård, Geirmund; Sletvold, Olav; Hadidi, Hakam; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2002-02-01

    This study was performed to analyze the effects of glutamate and the epileptogenic agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) on neuronal glucose metabolism. Cerebellar granule neurons were incubated for 2 h in medium containing 3 mM [U-(13)C]glucose, with and without 0.25 mM glutamate and/or 10 mM PTZ. In the presence of PTZ, decreased glucose consumption with unchanged lactate release was observed, indicating decreased glucose oxidation. PTZ also slowed down tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity as evidenced by the decreased amounts of labeled aspartate and [1,2-(13)C]glutamate. When glutamate was present, glucose consumption was also decreased. However, the amount of glutamate, derived from [U-(13)C]glucose via the first turn of the TCA cycle, was increased. The decreased amount of [1,2-(13)C]glutamate, derived from the second turn in the TCA cycle, and increased amount of aspartate indicated the dilution of label due to the entrance of unlabeled glutamate into TCA cycle. In the presence of glutamate plus PTZ, the effect of PTZ was enhanced by glutamate. Labeled alanine was detected only in the presence of glutamate plus PTZ, which indicated that oxaloacetate was a better amino acid acceptor than pyruvate. Furthermore, there was also evidence for intracellular compartmentation of oxaloacetate metabolism. Glutamate and PTZ caused similar metabolic changes, however, via different mechanisms. Glutamate substituted for glucose as energy substrate in the TCA cycle, whereas, PTZ appeared to decrease mitochondrial activity.

  17. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  18. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Controlled-release oxycodone-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Klein, Moti; Rudich, Zvia; Gurevich, Boris; Lifshitz, Matityahu; Brill, Silviu; Lottan, Michael; Weksler, Natan

    2005-11-01

    The use of the opioid oxycodone hydrochloride in the management of chronic pain is gaining popularity principally because of its tolerability. However, opioid-related seizure in patients with epilepsy or other conditions that may decrease seizure threshold has been described in the literature; in particular, oxycodone has been associated with seizure in a patient with acute renal failure. The aim of this article was to report a patient with a history of seizures but normal renal and hepatic function who developed seizure on 2 occasions after oxycodone ingestion. A 54-year-old male patient presented with a history of tonic-clonic seizures that developed immediately after intracranial surgery. Long-term treatment with carbamazepine 400 mg QD was started, and the patient was free of convulsions for approximately 7 years. The patient presented to us with severe headache that was nonresponsive to an NSAID and the opiate agonist tramadol. Treatment with controlled-release (CR) oxycodone and tramadol drops (50 mg QID if necessary) was started, and tonic-clonic seizures developed 3 days later. Based on laboratory analysis, the patient had normal renal and hepatic function. On discontinuation of oxycodone treatment, the seizures resolved. However, due to effective pain relief with oxycodone, the patient decided to continue treatment, and seizures recurred. Carbamazepine was then administered 4 hours before oxycodone dosing, which allowed continuation of treatment without seizure. A patient with a history of seizures controlled with long-term carbamazepine therapy developed seizures when he started treatment with oxycodone CR at recommended doses. Oxycodone CR should be used with extreme caution in patients with epilepsy or other conditions that may decrease seizure threshold.

  20. Antiepileptic activity of total triterpenes isolated from Poria cocos is mediated by suppression of aspartic and glutamic acids in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanqiong; Yan, Hua; Jin, Ruirui; Lei, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Triterpenes from Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) have been used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the antiepileptic effects and mechanism are not fully understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the antiepileptic properties of total triterpenes (TTP) from the whole P. cocos. The ethanol extract TTP was identified by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Male ICR mice were gavaged (i.g.) with TTP (5, 20, 80 or 160 mg/kg) or reference drugs twice a day for 7 d. Antiepileptic activities of TTP were evaluated by maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Locomotor activity and Rota-rod tests were performed for 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly) in convulsive mice were estimated. The chronic epileptic model of Wistar rats was built to measure expressions of glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABA A in rat brain after TTP treatment. The LC 50 of TTP (i.g.) was above 6 g/kg. TTP (5-160 mg/kg) protected mice against MES- and PTZ-induced convulsions at 65.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but have no effect on rota-rod treadmill; TTP (20-160 mg/kg) significantly reduced the locomotor activities, shortened the onset of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep; TTP decreased Glu and Asp levels in convulsive mice, but increased the GAD65 and GABA A expressions in chronic epileptic rats at doses usage. TTP extracted from P. cocos possessed potential antiepileptic properties and is a candidate for further antiepileptic drug development.

  1. A comparison of the ability of a 4:1 ketogenic diet and a 6.3:1 ketogenic diet to elevate seizure thresholds in adult and young rats.

    PubMed

    Nylen, Kirk; Likhodii, Sergei; Abdelmalik, Peter A; Clarke, Jasper; Burnham, W McIntyre

    2005-08-01

    The pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) infusion test was used to compare seizure thresholds in adult and young rats fed either a 4:1 ketogenic diet (KD) or a 6.3:1 KD. We hypothesized that both KDs would significantly elevate seizure thresholds and that the 4:1 KD would serve as a better model of the KD used clinically. Ninety adult rats and 75 young rats were placed on one of five experimental diets: (a) a 4:1 KD, (b) a control diet balanced to the 4:1 KD, (c) a 6.3:1 KD, (d) a standard control diet, or (e) an ad libitum standard control diet. All subjects were seizure tested by using the PTZ infusion test. Blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels were measured. Neither KD elevated absolute "latencies to seizure" in young or adult rats. Similarly, neither KD elevated "threshold doses" in adult rats. In young rats, the 6.3:1 KD, but not the 4:1 KD, significantly elevated threshold doses. The 6.3:1 KD group showed poorer weight gain than the 4:1 KD group when compared with respective controls. The most dramatic discrepancies were seen in young rats. "Threshold doses" and "latency to seizure" data provided conflicting measures of seizure threshold. This was likely due to the inflation of threshold doses calculated by using the much smaller body weights found in the 6.3:1 KD group. Ultimately, the PTZ infusion test in rats may not be a good preparation to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD seen clinically, especially when dietary treatments lead to significantly mismatched body weights between the groups.

  2. The new patient with a first seizure.

    PubMed

    King, Mark

    2003-04-01

    First seizures are common, with one in 20 people suffering a seizure at some time in their life. This article aims to outline the assessment of patients with a first seizure, including making an accurate diagnosis of both seizure type and an epilepsy syndrome, if present. Seizures are classified into generalised and partial (arising from a focal region in the brain) based on clinical and electroencephalogram findings. However, as a partial seizure may proceed to a tonic clonic phase, differentiation may be difficult. Inquiring directly about 'minor' epileptic symptoms before the episode such as absences, myoclonic jerks, visual or auditory hallucinations or feelings of déjà vu, is needed to attempt to make a epilepsy syndrome diagnosis, as this has practical implications for treatment, prognosis and genetic counselling. Generalised epilepsies should be treated initially with valproate, while partial epilepsies should be treated with carbamazepine and switched to newer agents if intolerance occurs.

  3. Epidemiology of early stages of epilepsy: Risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed; Ladino, Lady Diana; Hernandez-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2017-07-01

    A single unprovoked seizure is a frequent phenomenon in the general population and the rate of seizure recurrence can vary widely. Individual risk prognostication is crucial in predicting patient outcomes and guiding treatment decisions. In this article, we review the most important risk factors associated with an increased likelihood of seizure recurrence after a single unprovoked seizure. In summary, the presence of focal seizure, nocturnal seizure, history of prior brain injury, family history of epilepsy, abnormal neurological exam, epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography and neuroimaging abnormalities, portend increased risk of seizure recurrence. Elucidation of these risk factors in patient assessment will augment clinical decision-making and may help determine the appropriateness of instituting anti-epilepsy treatment. We also discuss the Canadian model of single seizure clinics and the potential use to assess these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Seizure Recognition and Observation: A Guide for Allied Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

    Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…

  5. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

  6. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a) General applicability. If it shall appear to any officer authorized to board conveyances and make seizures that there...

  7. 19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for seizures. (a) Seizures by Customs officers. Property may be seized, if available, by any...

  8. SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    PubMed Central

    Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

  9. Nicotine increases eclampsia-like seizure threshold and attenuates microglial activity in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Han, Xinjia; Bao, Junjie; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ye, Aihua; Thakur, Mukesh; Liu, Huishu

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that nicotine, a α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonist, can dampen immune response through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Evidence suggests that inflammation plays a critical role in eclampsia, which contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In the present study, possible anti-inflammation and neuro-protective effects of nicotine via α7-nAChRs have been investigated after inducing eclampsia-like seizures in rats. Rat eclampsia-like models were established by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in pregnant rats. Rats were given nicotine from gestation day (GD) 14-19. Then, clinical symptoms were detected. Seizure severity was recorded by behavioral tests, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays, microglia and astrocyte expressions were detected by immunofluorescence, and changes in neuronal number in the hippocampal CA1 region among different groups were detected by Nissl staining. Our results revealed that nicotine effectively improved fetal outcomes. Furthermore, it significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, and maternal serum levels of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12P70) and an IL-17 cytokine (IL-17A), and dramatically increased eclampsia-like seizure threshold. Moreover, this attenuated neuronal loss and decreased the expression of microglial activation markers of the hippocampal CA1 region in the eclampsia-like group. Additionally, pretreatment with α-bungarotoxin, a selective α7-nAChR antagonist could prevent the protective effects of nicotine in eclampsia-like model rats. Our findings indicate that the administration of nicotine may attenuate microglial activity and increase eclampsia-like seizure threshold in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenobarbitone, neonatal seizures, and video-EEG

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, G; Rennie, J; Pressler, R; Wilson, G; Morton, M; Binnie, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of phenobarbitone as an anticonvulsant in neonates. Methods: An observational study using video-EEG telemetry. Video-EEG was obtained before treatment was started, for an hour after treatment was given, two hours after treatment was given, and again between 12 and 24 hours after treatment was given. Patients were recruited from all babies who required phenobarbitone (20–40 mg/kg intravenously over 20 minutes) for suspected clinical seizures and had EEG monitoring one hour before and up to 24 hours after the initial dose. An EEG seizure discharge was defined as a sudden repetitive stereotyped discharge lasting for at least 10 seconds. Neonatal status epilepticus was defined as continuous seizure activity for at least 30 minutes. Seizures were categorised as EEG seizure discharges only (electrographic), or as EEG seizure discharges with accompanying clinical manifestations (electroclinical). Surviving babies were assessed at one year using the Griffiths neurodevelopmental score. Results: Fourteen babies were studied. Four responded to phenobarbitone; these had normal or moderately abnormal EEG background abnormalities and outcome was good. In the other 10 babies electrographic seizures increased after treatment, whereas electroclinical seizures reduced. Three babies were treated with second line anticonvulsants, of whom two responded. One of these had a normal neurodevelopmental score at one year, but the outcome for the remainder of the whole group was poor. Conclusion: Phenobarbitone is often ineffective as a first line anticonvulsant in neonates with seizures in whom the background EEG is significantly abnormal. PMID:11978746

  11. Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Ng, Marcus C; Westover, M Brandon; Cole, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a rational approach toward treatment. Coincidentally, our case is the first report of CJD in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

  12. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; p<0.001) and significantly more often lateralizing seizure phenomena pointing to bilateral seizure onset compared to patients with unilateral TLE (67% vs. 11%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of identical vs. different seizure semiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal seizures triple the risk of a remote seizure after perinatal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christine K; Glass, Hannah C; Sidney, Stephen; Smith, Sabrina E; Fullerton, Heather J

    2016-06-07

    To determine incidence rates and risk factors of remote seizure after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. We retrospectively identified a population-based cohort of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (presenting acutely or in a delayed fashion) from a large Northern Californian integrated health care system. We determined incidence and predictors of a remote seizure (unprovoked seizure after neonatal period, defined as 28 days of life) by survival analyses, and measured epilepsy severity in those with active epilepsy (≥1 remote seizure and maintenance anticonvulsant treatment) at last follow-up. Among 87 children with perinatal stroke, 40 (46%) had a seizure in the neonatal period. During a median follow-up of 7.1 years (interquartile range 3.2-10.5), 37 children had ≥1 remote seizure. Remote seizure risk was highest during the first year of life, with a 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13%-30%) cumulative incidence by 1 year of age, 46% (CI 35%-58%) by 5 years, and 54% (CI 41%-67%) by 10 years. Neonatal seizures increased the risk of a remote seizure (hazard ratio 2.8, CI 1.3-5.8). Children with neonatal seizures had a 69% (CI 48%-87%) cumulative incidence of remote seizure by age 10 years. Among the 24 children with active epilepsy at last follow-up, 8 (33%) were having monthly seizures despite an anticonvulsant and 7 (29%) were on more than one anticonvulsant. Remote seizures and epilepsy, including medically refractory epilepsy, are common after perinatal stroke. Neonatal seizures are associated with nearly 3-fold increased remote seizure risk. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. 15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of the seizure...

  15. Neuropharmacological and neuroprotective activities of some metabolites produced by cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana Linn.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Jorge; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Gutiérrez, María Del Carmen; Arellano-García, Jesús; León-Rivera, Ismael; Perea-Arango, Irene

    2017-10-01

    Waltheria americana is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat some nervous system disorders. The aims of the present study were to isolate and determine the neuropharmacological and neurprotective activities of metabolites produced by a cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana. Submerged cultivation of W. americana cells provided biomass. A methanol-soluble extract (WAsc) was obtained from biomass. WAsc was fractionated yielding the chromatographic fractions 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 . For the determination of anticonvulsant activity in vivo, seizures were induced in mice by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Neuropharmacological activities (release of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and neuroprotection) of chromatographic fractions were determined by in vitro histological analysis of brain sections of mice post mortem. Fraction 4WAsc-H 2 O (containing saccharides) did not produce neuronal damage, neurodegeneration, interstitial tissue edema, astrocytic activation, nor cell death. Pretreatment of animals with 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 from W. americana cell suspensions induced an increase in: GABA release, seizure latency, survival time, neuroprotection, and a decrease in the degree of severity of tonic/tonic-clonic convulsions, preventing PTZ-induced death of up to 100% of animals of study. Bioactive compounds produced in suspension cell culture of W. americana produce neuroprotective and neuropharmacological activities associated with the GABAergic neurotransmission system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Search and Seizure in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

  17. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States, without...

  18. Seizure Disorders: A Review for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Henry T.; Barrett, Rowland P.

    1995-01-01

    Recognizing possible seizure disorders, medication side-effects, behavioral and cognitive effects of seizures, and their treatments are important skills for school psychologists because they affect 500,000 United States school-aged children attending regular education. A knowledgeable school professional serves a critical role in integrating…

  19. A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

  20. Lacosamide monotherapy for partial onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Simona; Cagnetti, Claudia; Foschi, Nicoletta; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the 1-year efficacy and safety of oral lacosamide as conversion monotherapy in adult patients with partial onset seizures with or without generalization. We prospectively followed-up consecutive patients converted to lacosamide monotherapy after 1-year seizure freedom on lacosamide add-on therapy and withdrawal of the concurrent antiepileptic drug (AED). Seizure occurrence, treatment compliance and drug toxicity were assessed every 3 months up to 1 year. The study outcomes were the retention rate of lacosamide as single AED and the seizure freedom under lacosamide monotherapy at 1 year from withdrawal of background AED. The safety variable was the prevalence of lacosamide related adverse events (AEs). Among the 58 included patients, at 1 year from withdrawal of background medication, 37 (63.8%) retained lacosamide as single AED and 32 (55.2%) were free from seizure occurrence under lacosamide monotherapy throughout the entire follow-up. The history of less than three lifetime AEDs turned out to be significant predictor of seizure freedom (adjusted OR = 6.38, 95% CI 1.85-21.98, p = 0.003). Twelve (20.8%) subjects reported mild to moderate AEs, with the commonest being drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Conversion to lacosamide monotherapy could be effective and well tolerated in selected adults patients with partial onset seizures who had achieved seizure freedom during lacosamide add-on therapy. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Talathi, S. S.

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizuremore » detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.« less

  3. Estrogen increases latencies to seizures and levels of 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one in hippocampus of wild-type, but not 5α-reductase knockout, mice

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Danielle M.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroids can influence seizures. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4), and its metabolite, 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), in particular, have received much attention for exerting these effects. Typically, it is thought that E2 precipitates seizures, and progestogens, such as P4 and 3α,5α-THP, attenuate seizures. However, E2 may also have antiseizure effects, perhaps in part through its enhancement of the formation of 3α,5α-THP, which has GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor agonist-like actions. To test this hypothesis, male and female, castrated or ovariectomized, wild-type and 5α-reductase knockout mice were implanted with Silastic capsules of E2 or vehicle and then administered pentylenetetrazol (85 mg/kg, ip). Wild-type, but not 5α-reductase knockout, mice administered E2 had significantly longer latencies to myoclonus and increased levels of 3α,5α-THP in the hippocampus. Thus, some of the anticonvulsive effects of E2 may involve formation of 3α,5α-THP in the hippocampus. PMID:19782646

  4. Is slack an intrinsic seizure terminator?

    PubMed

    Igelström, Kajsa M

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how epileptic seizures are initiated and propagated across large brain networks is difficult, but an even greater mystery is what makes them stop. Failure of spontaneous seizure termination leads to status epilepticus-a state of uninterrupted seizure activity that can cause death or permanent brain damage. Global factors, like changes in neuromodulators and ion concentrations, are likely to play major roles in spontaneous seizure cessation, but individual neurons also have intrinsic active ion currents that may contribute. The recently discovered gene Slack encodes a sodium-activated potassium channel that mediates a major proportion of the outward current in many neurons. Although given little attention, the current flowing through this channel may have properties consistent with a role in seizure termination.

  5. Partial psychic seizures and brain organization.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Montañes, P; Bernal, B; Serpa, A; Ruiz, E

    1986-08-01

    This research was an attempt to determine the cerebral areas involved in focal epileptic seizures accompanied by psychic manifestations. Six types of partial seizures involving psychic symptomatology and phonatory seizures were included in the study. Sixty-one clinical records of focal epilepsy, which had been revealed by means of a CT-scan examination, were analyzed and a subsample of 25 patients with psychic symptoms was selected. The scans taken of the lesions were transferred to a six-level standard template built for this purpose. Subsequently, templates of patients with the same type of seizures were superimposed. The critical zones for the seven types of seizures studied are presented. A clear correlation was found between these results and our present knowledge of functional brain organization.

  6. Levetiracetam for Treatment of Neonatal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M.; Monk, Heather M.; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Clancy, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are often refractory to treatment with initial antiseizure medications. Consequently, clinicians turn to alternatives such as levetiracetam, despite the lack of published data regarding its safety, tolerability, or efficacy in the neonatal population. We report a retrospectively identified cohort of 23 neonates with electroencephalographically confirmed seizures who received levetiracetam. Levetiracetam was considered effective if administration was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction within 24 hours. Levetiracetam was initiated at a mean conceptional age of 41 weeks. The mean initial dose was 16 ± 6 mg/kg and the mean maximum dose was 45 ± 19 mg/kg/day. No respiratory or cardiovascular adverse effects were reported or detected. Levetiracetam was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction in 35% (8 of 23), including seizure termination in 7. Further study is warranted to determine optimal levetiracetam dosing in neonates and to compare efficacy with other antiseizure medications. PMID:21233461

  7. Role of nitric oxide in additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and morphine.

    PubMed

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Bahremand, Arash; Ebrahimi, Ali; Saadat, Seyedehpariya; Moghaddas, Peiman; Fadakar, Kaveh; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2013-06-13

    The anticonvulsant effects of agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and a metabolite of l-arginine, have been shown in various experimental seizure models. Agmatine also potentiates the anti-seizure activity of morphine. The present study aimed to investigate a possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the protection by agmatine and morphine co-administration against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. To this end, the thresholds for the clonic seizures induced by the intravenous administration of PTZ, a GABA antagonist, were assessed. Intraperitoneal administration of morphine at lower dose (1mg/kg) increased the seizure threshold. Also intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (5 and 10mg/kg) increased the seizure threshold significantly. Combination of subeffective doses of morphine and agmatine led to potent anticonvulsant effects. Non-effective doses of morphine (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) were able to induce anticonvulsant effects in mice pretreated with agmatine (3mg/kg). Concomitant administration of either the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (1, 5mg/kg, i.p.) or the selective NOS inhibitor 7-NI (15, 30mg/kg, i.p.), with an ineffective combination of morphine (0.1mg/kg) plus agmatine (1mg/kg) produced significant anticonvulsant impacts. Moreover, the NO precursor, l-arginine (30, 60mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited the anticonvulsant action of agmatine (3mg/kg) plus morphine (0.5mg/kg) co-administration. Our results indicate that pretreatment of animals with agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effects of morphine via a mechanism which may involve the NO pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (∼40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ∼3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ∼20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (∼80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (∼130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

  9. Treatment with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) differently affects survival, locomotor activity, and biochemical markers in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Soares, Deividi C S; Portela, José L R; Roos, Daniel H; Rodrigues, Nathane R; Gomes, Karen K; Macedo, Giulianna E; Posser, Thais; Franco, Jeferson L; Hassan, Waseem; Puntel, Robson L

    2018-05-01

    PTZ is a convulsive agent that acts via selective blockage of GABA A receptor channels, whereas 4-AP leads to a convulsive episode via blockage of K + channels. However, the mechanism(s) by which pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) cause toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster needs to be properly explored, once it will help in establishing an alternative model for development of proper therapeutic strategies and also to counteract the changes associated with exposure to both epileptic drugs. For the purpose, we investigated the effects of exposure (48 h) to PTZ (60 mM) and/or 4-AP (20 mM) on survival, locomotor performance, and biochemical markers in the body and/or head of flies. 4-AP-fed flies presented a higher incidence of mortality and a worse performance in the open field test as compared to non-treated flies. 4-AP also caused a significant increase in the reactive species (RS) and protein carbonyl (PC) content in the body and head. Also a significant increase in catalase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities was observed in the body. In the same vein, PTZ exposure resulted in a significant increase in RS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), PC content, and catalase activity in the body. PTZ exposure also caused a significant increase in AChE activity both in body and head. It is important to note that PTZ-treated flies also down-regulated the NRF 2 expression. Moreover, both 4AP- and PTZ-fed flies presented a significant decrease in MTT reduction, down-regulation, and inhibition of SOD in body. However, SOD was significantly more active in the head of both 4-AP and PTZ-treated flies. Our findings provide evidence regarding the toxicological potential of both PTZ and/or 4-AP to flies. This model will help in decoding the underlying toxicological mechanisms of the stated drugs. It will also help to properly investigate the therapeutic strategies and to counteract the drastic changes associated with both epileptogenic drugs.

  10. Setting the scene: definition of prolonged seizures, acute repetitive seizures, and status epilepticus. Do we know why seizures stop?

    PubMed

    Cross, J Helen

    2014-10-01

    Status epilepticus is recognised as an acute emergency requiring urgent intervention. The optimal timing of such an intervention during a prolonged seizure, and the reasons for such, have provided much discussion. For operational purposes, a definition of a prolonged seizure of ≥5 minutes requiring intervention appears justified. However, a definition of status epilepticus of ≥30 minutes should stand, with the proportion of seizures proceeding to this clinical state remaining small. The reasons for this may be inherent to an individual, but an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the predisposition may lead to improved management pathways in the future.

  11. Nonepileptic Seizures: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Perez, David L.; LaFrance, W. Curt

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are a Functional Neurological Disorder/ Conversion Disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of Neurology and Psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions and outcome studies. Epidemiology and health care utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES and should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations, and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600

  12. Do reflex seizures and spontaneous seizures form a continuum? - triggering factors and possible common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Irmen, Friederike; Wehner, Tim; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Recent changes in the understanding and classification of reflex seizures have fuelled a debate on triggering mechanisms of seizures and their conceptual organization. Previous studies and patient reports have listed extrinsic and intrinsic triggers, albeit their multifactorial and dynamic nature is poorly understood. This paper aims to review literature on extrinsic and intrinsic seizure triggers and to discuss common mechanisms among them. Among self-reported seizure triggers, emotional stress is most frequently named. Reflex seizures are typically associated with extrinsic sensory triggers; however, intrinsic cognitive or proprioceptive triggers have also been assessed. The identification of a trigger underlying a seizure may be more difficult if it is intrinsic and complex, and if triggering mechanisms are multifactorial. Therefore, since observability of triggers varies and triggers are also found in non-reflex seizures, the present concept of reflex seizures may be questioned. We suggest the possibility of a conceptual continuum between reflex and spontaneous seizures rather than a dichotomy and discuss evidence to the notion that to some extent most seizures might be triggered. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eight Flurothyl-Induced Generalized Seizures Lead to the Rapid Evolution of Spontaneous Seizures in Mice: A Model of Epileptogenesis with Seizure Remission.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Yannix, Joshua Q; Nalwalk, Julia W; Papandrea, Dominick; Beyer, Barbara S; Herron, Bruce J; Ferland, Russell J

    2016-07-13

    The occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is the hallmark of human epilepsy. Currently, only two-thirds of this patient population has adequate seizure control. New epilepsy models provide the potential for not only understanding the development of spontaneous seizures, but also for testing new strategies to treat this disorder. Here, we characterize a primary generalized seizure model of epilepsy following repeated exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist, flurothyl, in which mice develop spontaneous seizures that remit within 1 month. In this model, we expose C57BL/6J mice to flurothyl until they experience a generalized seizure. Each of these generalized seizures typically lasts <30 s. We induce one seizure per day for 8 d followed by 24 h video-electroencephalographic recordings. Within 1 d following the last of eight flurothyl-induced seizures, ∼50% of mice have spontaneous seizures. Ninety-five percent of mice tested have seizures within the first week of the recording period. Of the spontaneous seizures recorded, the majority are generalized clonic seizures, with the remaining 7-12% comprising generalized clonic seizures that transition into brainstem seizures. Over the course of an 8 week recording period, spontaneous seizure episodes remit after ∼4 weeks. Overall, the repeated flurothyl paradigm is a model of epileptogenesis with spontaneous seizures that remit. This model provides an additional tool in our armamentarium for understanding the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and may provide insights into why spontaneous seizures remit without anticonvulsant treatment. Elucidating these processes could lead to the development of new epilepsy therapeutics. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by the occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures in which the individual seizure-ictal events are self-limiting. Remission of recurrent, unprovoked seizures can be achieved in two-thirds of cases by treatment with anticonvulsant medication

  14. Improving staff response to seizures on the epilepsy monitoring unit with online EEG seizure detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Nicole; Geertsema, Evelien; Jansen Holleboom, Lisanne; Cox, Fieke; Visser, Gerhard

    2018-05-11

    User safety and the quality of diagnostics on the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depend on reaction to seizures. Online seizure detection might improve this. While good sensitivity and specificity is reported, the added value above staff response is unclear. We ascertained the added value of two electroencephalograph (EEG) seizure detection algorithms in terms of additional detected seizures or faster detection time. EEG-video seizure recordings of people admitted to an EMU over one year were included, with a maximum of two seizures per subject. All recordings were retrospectively analyzed using Encevis EpiScan and BESA Epilepsy. Detection sensitivity and latency of the algorithms were compared to staff responses. False positive rates were estimated on 30 uninterrupted recordings (roughly 24 h per subject) of consecutive subjects admitted to the EMU. EEG-video recordings used included 188 seizures. The response rate of staff was 67%, of Encevis 67%, and of BESA Epilepsy 65%. Of the 62 seizures missed by staff, 66% were recognized by Encevis and 39% by BESA Epilepsy. The median latency was 31 s (staff), 10 s (Encevis), and 14 s (BESA Epilepsy). After correcting for walking time from the observation room to the subject, both algorithms detected faster than staff in 65% of detected seizures. The full recordings included 617 h of EEG. Encevis had a median false positive rate of 4.9 per 24 h and BESA Epilepsy of 2.1 per 24 h. EEG-video seizure detection algorithms may improve reaction to seizures by improving the total number of seizures detected and the speed of detection. The false positive rate is feasible for use in a clinical situation. Implementation of these algorithms might result in faster diagnostic testing and better observation during seizures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Do oral contraceptives increase epileptic seizures?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy. The epilepsy birth control registry, which surveyed women with epilepsy, found that those using hormonal contraceptives self-reported 4.5 times more seizures than those that did not use such contraceptives. A preclinical study confirmed these outcomes wherein epileptic animals given ethinyl estradiol, the primary component of OCs, had more frequent seizures that are more likely to be resistant. Expert commentary: OC pills may increase seizures in women with epilepsy and such refractory seizures are more likely to cause neuronal damage in the brain. Thus, women of child bearing age with epilepsy should consider using non-hormonal forms of birth control to avoid risks from OC pills. Additional research into the mechanisms and prospective clinical investigation are needed.

  16. Epileptic Seizures Prediction Using Machine Learning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Usman, Syed Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures occur due to disorder in brain functionality which can affect patient's health. Prediction of epileptic seizures before the beginning of the onset is quite useful for preventing the seizure by medication. Machine learning techniques and computational methods are used for predicting epileptic seizures from Electroencephalograms (EEG) signals. However, preprocessing of EEG signals for noise removal and features extraction are two major issues that have an adverse effect on both anticipation time and true positive prediction rate. Therefore, we propose a model that provides reliable methods of both preprocessing and feature extraction. Our model predicts epileptic seizures' sufficient time before the onset of seizure starts and provides a better true positive rate. We have applied empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for preprocessing and have extracted time and frequency domain features for training a prediction model. The proposed model detects the start of the preictal state, which is the state that starts few minutes before the onset of the seizure, with a higher true positive rate compared to traditional methods, 92.23%, and maximum anticipation time of 33 minutes and average prediction time of 23.6 minutes on scalp EEG CHB-MIT dataset of 22 subjects. PMID:29410700

  17. Down-regulation of Homer1b/c protects against chemically induced seizures through inhibition of mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Lei, Hui; Di, Zheng-Li

    2015-01-01

    Homer is a family of post synaptic density proteins functionally and physically attached to target proteins at proline-rich sequences. Reducing Homer1b/c expression has been shown in previous studies to be protective against excitotoxic insults, implicating Homer1b/c in the physiological regulation of aberrant neuronal excitability. To test the efficacy of a Homer1b/c reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in mice, we used small interfere RNA (siRNA) to decrease endogenous Homer1b/c expression in mouse hippocampus. The baseline motor and cognitive behavior was measured by sensorimotor tests, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks. The anti-epileptic effects of Homer1b/c knockdown were determined in two chemically induced seizure models induced by Picrotoxin (PTX) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) administration. The results of sensorimotor tests, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks showed that Homer1b/c reduction had no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced Homerb/c protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total Homer1b/c protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of Homer1b/c. In addition, the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target protein S6 was significantly inhibited in Homer1b/c down-regulated mice. Homer1b/c knockdown-induced inhibition of mTOR pathway was partially ablated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) agonist CHPG. Our results demonstrate that endogenous Homer1b/c is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that reduction of Homer1b/c could protect against chemically induced seizures through inhibition mTOR pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Does remifentanil improve ECT seizure quality?

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Verònica; Tor, Phern-Chern; Bassa, Adriana; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; MacPherson, Ross; Marroquin-Harris, Mincho; Loo, Colleen K

    2016-12-01

    Studies have reported that co-adjuvant remifentanil can enhance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) seizure quality, putatively by allowing a reduction in the dosage of the main anaesthetic agents, as the latter have anticonvulsant properties. However, whether remifentanil also has direct effects on ECT seizure quality, and by implication, treatment efficacy, is unknown. This is the first study examining the effect of adjuvant remifentanil on ECT seizure quality when the dose of conventional anaesthesia remained unchanged. A total of 96 ECT sessions (from 36 patients) were retrospectively analysed. Subjects received ECT with and without remifentanil (1 µg/kg), while the dose of thiopentone (3-5 mg/kg) or propofol (1-2 mg/kg) was unchanged. Seizure quality indices (time to slow wave activity or TSLOW, amplitude, regularity, stereotypy, post-ictal suppression) and duration were assessed through a structured rating scale by a single trained blinded rater. Linear mixed-effects models with random subject effects analysed the effect of remifentanil on seizure parameters, controlling for other variables that can affect seizure quality or duration. Remifentanil was given in 47.9 % of the ECT sessions. Co-adjuvant remifentanil had no effects on any of the seizure quality parameters analysed [TSLOW (E = -0.21, p > 0.1), amplitude (E = 0.08, p > 0.5), regularity (E = -0.05, p > 0.5), stereotypy (E = -0.02, p > 0.5), suppression (E = -0.3, p > 0.05)] or on seizure duration (E = -0.25, p > 0.1). While adjuvant remifentanil may be a useful strategy for reducing anaesthetic dosage in ECT, present evidence suggests that remifentanil does not have intrinsic properties that enhance ECT seizures.

  19. Intraoperative Seizures: Anesthetic and Antiepileptic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alberto; Zuleta-Alarcon, Alix; Kassem, Mahmoud; Sandhu, Gurneet S; Bergese, Sergio D

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common condition with up to 1% prevalence in the general population. In the perioperative course of neurologic surgery patients, the use of prophylactic and therapeutic antiepileptic drugs is a common practice. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence supporting the use of prophylactic antiepileptics to prevent perioperative seizures and there are no guidelines for which anesthetic technique is preferred. To discuss the seizurogenic potential of anesthetic drugs and to discuss intraoperative seizures in neurosurgical patients. We performed a search of the literature available in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. We also included articles identified in the review of the references of these articles. The incidence of seizures is heterogenic among neurosurgical patients. Seizure prophylaxis is widely administered despite limited available evidence of its effectiveness. In epileptic patients, the recommendation is to continue antiepileptic drugs in the perioperative setting. In these patients, anesthesiologists may also limit the use of medications that alter the seizure threshold and avoid medications that pose significant pharmacological interaction with antiepileptic drugs. In conclusion, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary perioperative team is essential to avoid, identify and treat intraoperative seizures competently. In patients with a history of epilepsy it is recommended to continue antiepileptic therapy. Therefore, clinical judgment should guide the decision of administering seizure prophylaxis in neurosurgery patients according to an individual assessment of potential risk for seizures. Furthermore, there is a need for randomized controlled trials that support new protocols and/or guidelines for anesthetic and perioperative regimens to prevent and treat intraoperative seizures. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  1. Focal seizure symptoms in idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Udaya; Woo, Jia J; Boston, Ray C; Cook, Mark; D'Souza, Wendyl

    2015-08-18

    We sought to study the frequency and prognostic value of focal seizure symptoms (FSS) in idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) using a validated tool: Epilepsy Diagnostic Interview Questionnaire and Partial Seizure Symptom Definitions. Participants with IGE were recruited from epilepsy clinics at 2 tertiary hospitals. The diagnosis was validated and classified into syndromes according to the International League Against Epilepsy criteria by 2 epileptologists independently with discordance resolved by consensus. The Epilepsy Diagnostic Interview Questionnaire utilizes both open- and closed-ended questions to elicit FSS in association with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonus, and absences. The elicited FSS were classified according to the Partial Seizure Symptom Definitions. Regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the duration of seizure freedom and FSS. A total of 135 patients were studied, of whom 70 (51.9%) reported FSS. Those symptoms occurred in association with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (53.1%) as well as myoclonus and absences (58%). FSS were reported with similar frequency in juvenile absence epilepsy (62.5%) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (60%), and with a lesser frequency in generalized epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures only (39.5%) and childhood absence epilepsy (33.3%). A strong relationship between FSS and duration of seizure freedom was found (regression coefficient -0.665, p = 0.037). FSS are frequently reported by patients with IGE. A shorter duration of seizure freedom is associated with FSS. Recognition of the presence of FSS in IGE is important to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis as well as to choose appropriate antiepileptic drug therapy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ATPergic signalling during seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Engel, Tobias; Alves, Mariana; Sheedy, Caroline; Henshall, David C

    2016-05-01

    Much progress has been made over the last few decades in the identification of new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). However, 30% of epilepsy patients suffer poor seizure control. This underscores the need to identify alternative druggable neurotransmitter systems and drugs with novel mechanisms of action. An emerging concept is that seizure generation involves a complex interplay between neurons and glial cells at the tripartite synapse and neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the main drivers of epileptogenesis. The ATP-gated purinergic receptor family is expressed throughout the brain and is functional on neurons and glial cells. ATP is released in high amounts into the extracellular space after increased neuronal activity and during chronic inflammation and cell death to act as a neuro- and gliotransmitter. Emerging work shows pharmacological targeting of ATP-gated purinergic P2 receptors can potently modulate seizure generation, inflammatory processes and seizure-induced brain damage. To date, work showing the functional contribution of P2 receptors has been mainly performed in animal models of acute seizures, in particular, by targeting the ionotropic P2X7 receptor subtype. Other ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptor family members have also been implicated in pathological processes following seizures such as the P2X4 receptor and the P2Y12 receptor. However, during epilepsy, the characterization of P2 receptors was mostly restricted to the study of expressional changes of the different receptor subtypes. This review summarizes the work to date on ATP-mediated signalling during seizures and the functional impact of targeting the ATP-gated purinergic receptors on seizures and seizure-induced pathology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurodevelopmental comorbidities and seizure control 24 months after a first unprovoked seizure in children.

    PubMed

    Jason, Eva Åndell; Tomson, Torbjörn; Carlsson, Sofia; Tedroff, Kristina; Åmark, Per

    2018-07-01

    To follow children with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures to determine (1) whether the prevalence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities and cerebral palsy (CP) changed after the initial seizure, and (2) the association between studied comorbidities and seizures 13-24 months after seizure onset or initiation of treatment. Analyses were based on 750 children (28 days-18 years) with a first unprovoked seizure (index) included in a population-based Incidence Registry in Stockholm between 2001 and 2006. The children were followed for two years and their medical records were examined for a priori defined neurodevelopmental/psychiatric comorbidities and CP and seizure frequency. Baseline information was collected from medical records from before, and up to six months after, the index seizure. Odds ratios (OR) of repeated seizures 13-24 months after the first seizure or after initiation of anti-epileptic drug treatment was calculated by logistic regression and adjusted for age and sex. At baseline, 32% of the children had neurodevelopmental/psychiatric comorbidities or CP compared to 35%, 24 months later. Children with such comorbidities more often experienced seizures 13-24 months after the index seizure (OR 2.87, CI 2.07-3.99) with the highest OR in those with CP or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children diagnosed at age <1 year exhibited the highest prevalence of comorbidities as well as OR for repeated seizures. A combination of young age and comorbidity was associated with an OR for repeated seizures of 5.12 (CI 3.03-8.65). Among the children without comorbidities 76% were seizure free 13-24 months after the index seizure or after initiation of AED treatment compared to 53% of children with comorbidities. This study indicates that neurodevelopmental comorbidities and CP in children with epilepsy tend to be present already at seizure onset and that such comorbidities are strong indicators of poor outcome regarding seizure control with or without

  5. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  6. On the nature of seizure dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical

  7. Eight Flurothyl-Induced Generalized Seizures Lead to the Rapid Evolution of Spontaneous Seizures in Mice: A Model of Epileptogenesis with Seizure Remission

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B.; Yannix, Joshua Q.; Nalwalk, Julia W.; Papandrea, Dominick; Beyer, Barbara S.; Herron, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is the hallmark of human epilepsy. Currently, only two-thirds of this patient population has adequate seizure control. New epilepsy models provide the potential for not only understanding the development of spontaneous seizures, but also for testing new strategies to treat this disorder. Here, we characterize a primary generalized seizure model of epilepsy following repeated exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist, flurothyl, in which mice develop spontaneous seizures that remit within 1 month. In this model, we expose C57BL/6J mice to flurothyl until they experience a generalized seizure. Each of these generalized seizures typically lasts <30 s. We induce one seizure per day for 8 d followed by 24 h video-electroencephalographic recordings. Within 1 d following the last of eight flurothyl-induced seizures, ∼50% of mice have spontaneous seizures. Ninety-five percent of mice tested have seizures within the first week of the recording period. Of the spontaneous seizures recorded, the majority are generalized clonic seizures, with the remaining 7–12% comprising generalized clonic seizures that transition into brainstem seizures. Over the course of an 8 week recording period, spontaneous seizure episodes remit after ∼4 weeks. Overall, the repeated flurothyl paradigm is a model of epileptogenesis with spontaneous seizures that remit. This model provides an additional tool in our armamentarium for understanding the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and may provide insights into why spontaneous seizures remit without anticonvulsant treatment. Elucidating these processes could lead to the development of new epilepsy therapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by the occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures in which the individual seizure–ictal events are self-limiting. Remission of recurrent, unprovoked seizures can be achieved in two-thirds of cases by treatment with

  8. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  9. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs will send written notice of seizure as provided in this section to all known interested...

  10. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...

  11. 50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or consignee is personally notified or seizure is made pursuant to a search warrant, the...

  12. 50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any authorized... the laws listed in § 12.2 will, if so requested, deliver such seizure to the appropriate Special Agent...

  13. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...

  14. 27 CFR 478.152 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture... Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.152 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Any firearm or ammunition... demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

  15. EEG analysis of seizure patterns using visibility graphs for detection of generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B A M; Aarts, Ronald M

    2017-10-01

    The traditional EEG features in the time and frequency domain show limited seizure detection performance in the epileptic population with intellectual disability (ID). In addition, the influence of EEG seizure patterns on detection performance was less studied. A single-channel EEG signal can be mapped into visibility graphs (VGS), including basic visibility graph (VG), horizontal VG (HVG), and difference VG (DVG). These graphs were used to characterize different EEG seizure patterns. To demonstrate its effectiveness in identifying EEG seizure patterns and detecting generalized seizures, EEG recordings of 615h on one EEG channel from 29 epileptic patients with ID were analyzed. A novel feature set with discriminative power for seizure detection was obtained by using the VGS method. The degree distributions (DDs) of DVG can clearly distinguish EEG of each seizure pattern. The degree entropy and power-law degree power in DVG were proposed here for the first time, and they show significant difference between seizure and non-seizure EEG. The connecting structure measured by HVG can better distinguish seizure EEG from background than those by VG and DVG. A traditional EEG feature set based on frequency analysis was used here as a benchmark feature set. With a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the seizure detection performance of the benchmark feature set (sensitivity of 24%, FD t /h of 1.8s) can be improved by combining our proposed VGS features extracted from one EEG channel (sensitivity of 38%, FD t /h of 1.4s). The proposed VGS-based features can help improve seizure detection for ID patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Research advances in circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Qi; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The time phase of epileptic seizures has attracted more and more attention. Epileptic seizures have their own circadian rhythm. The same type of epilepsy has different seizure frequencies in different time periods and states (such as sleeping/awakening state and natural day/night cycle). The circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures has complex molecular and endocrine mechanisms, and currently there are several hypotheses. Clarification of the circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures and prevention and administration according to such circadian rhythm can effectively control seizures and reduce the adverse effects of drugs. The research on the circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures provides a new idea for the treatment of epilepsy.

  17. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project.

    PubMed

    Brook, Heather A; Hiltz, Cynthia M; Kopplin, Vicki L; Lindeke, Linda L

    2015-08-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26) were trained as seizure management educators and instructed staff in 21 schools on seizure awareness and response. School nurses utilized new seizure management resources, a procedural guideline, and care plan updates. The majority of school nurses rated the resources and training interventions as "very helpful." School nurse confidence in managing students with seizures increased, seizure action plan use increased, and 88% of children's records with new seizure diagnoses had completed documentation. School nurses played vital roles in increasing seizure awareness as educators and care managers. EFMN is using this project as an exemplar for expanding its Seizure Smart Schools program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities of standardized Śilājatu (Shilajit) in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P.; Thippeswamy, B. S.; Ahamed, Syed Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Śilājatu (Shilajit; SJ) is claimed in traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as antistress. Aim: To investigate whether SJ possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents. Materials and Methods: Isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), apomorphine, phenytoin, diazepam, haloperidol and other chemicals of analytical grade were procured from standard companies. The antiepileptic activity of SJ was assessed using maximal electro shock (MES)-induced seizures in rats, INH and PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The antipsychotic effect of SJ was evaluated using apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotyped behaviours respectively, in mice and rats. Settings and Designs: SJ (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given orally once daily for 15 days in all the rodent models. On the test day, SJ was administered 1 h prior to electric shock or chemical inducers (INH/PTZ/apomorphine) in experimental animals; the animals were then observed for different phases of seizures and psychotic behaviours. In addition, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the brain of rats and mice was estimated in seizure models. Statistical Analysis: The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Statistical comparisons were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test using Graph Pad Prism version 5.0, USA. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results and Conclusions: SJ pretreatment significantly inhibited the seizures induced by MES, INH and PTZ in a dose dependent manner. Further, SJ augmented brain GABA levels to normal, decreased by INH and PTZ in mice brain. SJ pretreatment also significantly inhibited the climbing and stereotyped behaviours induced by apomorphine. The present data seems to confirm the antiepileptic activity of SJ which may be because of enhancing the GABAergic system. The antipsychotic activity observed may be due to anti-dopaminergic and/or GABA

  19. Antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities of standardized Śilājatu (Shilajit) in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Thippeswamy, B S; Ahamed, Syed Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Śilājatu (Shilajit; SJ) is claimed in traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as antistress. To investigate whether SJ possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents. Isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), apomorphine, phenytoin, diazepam, haloperidol and other chemicals of analytical grade were procured from standard companies. The antiepileptic activity of SJ was assessed using maximal electro shock (MES)-induced seizures in rats, INH and PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The antipsychotic effect of SJ was evaluated using apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotyped behaviours respectively, in mice and rats. SJ (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given orally once daily for 15 days in all the rodent models. On the test day, SJ was administered 1 h prior to electric shock or chemical inducers (INH/PTZ/apomorphine) in experimental animals; the animals were then observed for different phases of seizures and psychotic behaviours. In addition, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the brain of rats and mice was estimated in seizure models. The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Statistical comparisons were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test using Graph Pad Prism version 5.0, USA. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SJ pretreatment significantly inhibited the seizures induced by MES, INH and PTZ in a dose dependent manner. Further, SJ augmented brain GABA levels to normal, decreased by INH and PTZ in mice brain. SJ pretreatment also significantly inhibited the climbing and stereotyped behaviours induced by apomorphine. The present data seems to confirm the antiepileptic activity of SJ which may be because of enhancing the GABAergic system. The antipsychotic activity observed may be due to anti-dopaminergic and/or GABA-mimetic actions.

  20. Zebrafish-Based Discovery of Antiseizure Compounds from the Red Sea: Pseurotin A2 and Azaspirofuran A.

    PubMed

    Copmans, Daniëlle; Rateb, Mostafa; Tabudravu, Jioji N; Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Dirkx, Nina; Vallorani, Riccardo; Diaz, Caridad; Pérez Del Palacio, José; Smith, Alan J; Ebel, Rainer; Reyes, Fernando; Jaspars, Marcel; de Witte, Peter A M

    2018-04-19

    In search for novel antiseizure drugs (ASDs), the European FP7-funded PharmaSea project used zebrafish embryos and larvae as a drug discovery platform to screen marine natural products to identify promising antiseizure hits in vivo for further development. Within the framework of this project, seven known heterospirocyclic γ-lactams, namely, pseurotin A, pseurotin A 2 , pseurotin F1, 11- O-methylpseurotin A, pseurotin D, azaspirofuran A, and azaspirofuran B, were isolated from the bioactive marine fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and their antiseizure activity was evaluated in the larval zebrafish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model. Pseurotin A 2 and azaspirofuran A were identified as antiseizure hits, while their close chemical analogues were inactive. Besides, electrophysiological analysis from the zebrafish midbrain demonstrated that pseurotin A 2 and azaspirofuran A also ameliorate PTZ-induced epileptiform discharges. Next, to determine whether these findings translate to mammalians, both compounds were analyzed in the mouse 6 Hz (44 mA) psychomotor seizure model. They lowered the seizure duration dose-dependently, thereby confirming their antiseizure properties and suggesting activity against drug-resistant seizures. Finally, in a thorough ADMET assessment, pseurotin A 2 and azaspirofuran A were found to be drug-like. Based on the prominent antiseizure activity in both species and the drug-likeness, we propose pseurotin A 2 and azaspirofuran A as lead compounds that are worth further investigation for the treatment of epileptic seizures. This study not only provides the first evidence of antiseizure activity of pseurotins and azaspirofurans, but also demonstrates the value of the zebrafish model in (marine) natural product drug discovery in general, and for ASD discovery in particular.

  1. Influence of vigilance state on physiological consequences of seizures and seizure-induced death in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Michael A; Buchanan, Gordon F

    2016-05-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. SUDEP occurs more commonly during nighttime sleep. The details of why SUDEP occurs at night are not well understood. Understanding why SUDEP occurs at night during sleep might help to better understand why SUDEP occurs at all and hasten development of preventive strategies. Here we aimed to understand circumstances causing seizures that occur during sleep to result in death. Groups of 12 adult male mice were instrumented for EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and subjected to seizure induction via maximal electroshock (MES) during wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Seizure inductions were performed with concomitant EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and breathing assessment via whole body plethysmography. Seizures induced via MES during sleep were associated with more profound respiratory suppression and were more likely to result in death. Despite REM sleep being a time when seizures do not typically occur spontaneously, when seizures were forced to occur during REM sleep, they were invariably fatal in this model. An examination of baseline breathing revealed that mice that died following a seizure had increased baseline respiratory rate variability compared with those that did not die. These data demonstrate that sleep, especially REM sleep, can be a dangerous time for a seizure to occur. These data also demonstrate that there may be baseline respiratory abnormalities that can predict which individuals have higher risk for seizure-induced death.

  2. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  3. Counselling adults who experience a first seizure.

    PubMed

    Legg, Karen T; Newton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    A first seizure can result in significant uncertainty, fear and apprehension. One of the key roles of the clinician in the setting of first seizure is to provide accurate, timely information and counselling. We review the numerous components to be considered when counselling an adult patient after a first seizure. We provide a framework and manner to provide that counselling. We focus on an individualized approach and provide recommendations and information on issues of diagnosis, etiology, prognosis, the role and importance of medical testing, lifestyle considerations, driving, medication and other key counselling considerations. Accurate, timely counselling can allay fears and anxieties, remove misconceptions and reduce the risk for injury in seizure recurrence. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Epilepsies and Seizures: Hope Through Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-existing brain problem, for example, a prior stroke or traumatic brain injury, will have a higher risk of experiencing a second seizure. In general, the decision to start antiseizure medication ...

  5. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy after Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure.

    PubMed

    Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Francis, Andrew W; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female subject after lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery that was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately after witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal, and subretinal involvement. At 4-month follow-up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy after lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted after episodes of seizure in adults.

  6. Aging models of acute seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin M

    2010-01-01

    Aged animals have been used by researchers to better understand the differences between the young and the aged brain and how these differences may provide insight into the mechanisms of acute seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. To date, there have been relatively few studies dedicated to the modeling of acute seizures and epilepsy in aged, healthy animals. Inherent challenges to this area of research include the costs associated with the purchase and maintenance of older animals and, at times, the unexpected and potentially confounding comorbidities associated with aging. However, recent studies using a variety of in vivo and in vitro models of acute seizures and epilepsy in mice and rats have built upon early investigations in the field, all of which has provided an expanded vision of seizure generation and epileptogenesis in the aged brain. Results of these studies could potentially translate to new and tailored interventional approaches that limit or prevent the development of epilepsy in the elderly.

  7. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  8. Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cyrus; Marsh, Eric D.; Ziskind, Daniela M.; Celix, Juanita M.; Peltzer, Bradley; Brown, Merritt W.; Storm, Phillip B.; Litt, Brian; Porter, Brenda E.

    2013-01-01

    Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 patients had surgical fields that allowed for complete identification of the electrodes over the area of resection. Eight of 15 patients were seizure free after a follow up of 1.7 to 8 yr. Only one seizure-free patient had complete resection of all seizure onset associated tissue. Seizure free patients had resection of 64.1% of the seizure onset electrode associated tissue, compared to 35.2% in the not seizure free patients (p=0.05). Resection of tissue associated with infrequent seizure onsets did not appear to be important for seizure freedom. Resecting ≥ 90% of the electrodes from the predominant seizure contacts predicted post-operative seizure freedom (p=0.007). The best predictor of seizure freedom was resecting ≥ 90% of tissue involved in majority of a patient’s seizures. Resection of tissue under infrequent seizure onset electrodes was not necessary for seizure freedom. PMID:24563805

  9. 15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904... Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of the seizure, NOAA will serve the Notice of Seizure as provided in § 904.3 to the owner or consignee, if known or...

  10. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  11. Identifying seizure clusters in patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, R. B.; LeValley, A. J.; Hall, C. B.; Shinnar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians often encounter patients whose neurologic attacks appear to cluster. In a daily diary study, the authors explored whether clustering is a true phenomenon in epilepsy and can be identified in the clinical setting. Nearly half the subjects experienced at least one episode of three or more seizures in 24 hours; 20% also met a statistical clustering criterion. Utilizing the clinical definition of clustering should identify all seizure clusterers, and false positives can be determined with diary data. PMID:16247068

  12. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  13. Functional Neuroimaging of Spike-Wave Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Generalized spike-wave seizures are typically brief events associated with dynamic changes in brain physiology, metabolism, and behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a relatively high spatio-temporal resolution method for imaging cortical-subcortical network activity during spike-wave seizures. Patients with spike-wave seizures often have episodes of staring and unresponsiveness which interfere with normal behavior. Results from human fMRI studies suggest that spike-wave seizures disrupt specific networks in the thalamus and fronto-parietal association cortex which are critical for normal attentive consciousness. However, the neuronal activity underlying imaging changes seen during fMRI is not well understood, particularly in abnormal conditions such as seizures. Animal models have begun to provide important fundamental insights into the neuronal basis for fMRI changes during spike-wave activity. Work from these models including both fMRI and direct neuronal recordings suggest that, like in humans, specific cortical-subcortical networks are involved in spike-wave, while other regions are spared. Regions showing fMRI increases demonstrate correlated increases in neuronal activity in animal models. The mechanisms of fMRI decreases in spike-wave will require further investigation. A better understanding of the specific brain regions involved in generating spike-wave seizures may help guide efforts to develop targeted therapies aimed at preventing or reversing abnormal excitability in these brain regions, ultimately leading to a cure for this disorder. PMID:18839093

  14. [Seizures in neurofibromatosis. What is the risk?].

    PubMed

    Drouet, A

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence and the type of seizures associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2) are not adequately characterized. NF1 has a birth incidence of one in 2500, and NF2 one in 25000. Seizures are an occasional complication in NF1 patients and there is no data for NF2 patients. Central nervous system tumors are always suspected, since NF1 and NF2 are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor gene controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this article is to provide a synthetic overview about epilepsy associated with NF1 and NF2 based on published studies. In NF1, the type of seizures and their response to therapy are reported, the heterogeneity of etiology is also discussed. For NF2 patients, no specific data are available; the current knowledge comes from series of NF2 patients for which seizures has revealed the disease or from isolated case reports of tumors associated with seizures. Cryptogenic epilepsy without anatomic defect is likely to be related to NF1, while seizures seem to be secondary to leptomeningeal tumors (meningioma, meningioangiomatosis) in NF2 patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Febrile seizures: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Dalbem, Juliane S; Siqueira, Heloise H; Espinosa, Mariano M; Alvarenga, Regina P

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8-10.1). There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of convulsive seizures using surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Wolf, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Bilateral (generalized) tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) increase the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), especially when patients are unattended. In sleep, TCS often remain unnoticed, which can result in suboptimal treatment decisions. There is a need for automated detection of these major epileptic seizures, using wearable devices. Quantitative surface electromyography (EMG) changes are specific for TCS and characterized by a dynamic evolution of low- and high-frequency signal components. Algorithms targeting increase in high-frequency EMG signals constitute biomarkers of TCS; they can be used both for seizure detection and for differentiating TCS from convulsive nonepileptic seizures. Two large-scale, blinded, prospective studies demonstrated the accuracy of wearable EMG devices for detecting TCS with high sensitivity (76%-100%). The rate of false alarms (0.7-2.5/24 h) needs further improvement. This article summarizes the pathophysiology of muscle activation during convulsive seizures and reviews the published evidence on the accuracy of EMG-based seizure detection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Intravenous Carbamazepine for Adults With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Vickery, P Brittany; Tillery, Erika E; DeFalco, Alicia Potter

    2018-03-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, potential drug-drug interactions, and place in therapy of the intravenous (IV) formulation of carbamazepine (Carnexiv) for the treatment of seizures in adult patients. A comprehensive PubMed and EBSCOhost search (1945 to August 2017) was performed utilizing the keywords carbamazepine, Carnexiv, carbamazepine intravenous, IV carbamazepine, seizures, epilepsy, and seizure disorder. Additional data were obtained from literature review citations, manufacturer's product labeling, and Lundbeck website as well as Clinicaltrials.gov and governmental sources. All English-language trials evaluating IV carbamazepine were analyzed for this review. IV carbamazepine is FDA approved as temporary replacement therapy for treatment of adult seizures. Based on a phase I trial and pooled data from 2 open-label bioavailability studies comparing oral with IV dosing, there was no noted indication of loss of seizure control in patients switched to short-term replacement antiepileptic drug therapy with IV carbamazepine. The recommended dose of IV carbamazepine is 70% of the patient's oral dose, given every 6 hours via 30-minute infusions. The adverse effect profile of IV carbamazepine is similar to that of the oral formulation, with the exception of added infusion-site reactions. IV carbamazepine is a reasonable option for adults with generalized tonic-clonic or focal seizures, previously stabilized on oral carbamazepine, who are unable to tolerate oral medications for up to 7 days. Unknown acquisition cost and lack of availability in the United States limit its use currently.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid findings after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate ictally-induced CSF parameter changes after seizures in adult patients without acute inflammatory diseases or infectious diseases associated with the central nervous system. In total, 151 patients were included in the study. All patients were admitted to our department of neurology following acute seizures and received an extensive work-up including EEG, cerebral imaging, and CSF examinations. CSF protein elevation was found in most patients (92; 60.9%) and was significantly associated with older age, male sex, and generalized seizures. Abnormal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio was found in only nine patients (5.9%) and did not show any significant associations. CSF lactate was elevated in 34 patients (22.5%) and showed a significant association with focal seizures with impaired consciousness, status epilepticus, the presence of EEG abnormalities in general and epileptiform potentials in particular, as well as epileptogenic lesions on cerebral imaging. Our results indicate that non-inflammatory CSF elevation of protein and lactate after epileptic seizures is relatively common, in contrast to changes in CSF-to-serum glucose ratio, and further suggest that these changes are caused by ictal activity and are related to seizure type and intensity. We found no indication that these changes may have further-reaching pathological implications besides their postictal character.

  19. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  20. Differences in Seizure Expression Between Magnetic Seizure Therapy and Electroconvulsive Shock.

    PubMed

    Cycowicz, Yael M; Rowny, Stefan B; Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that magnetic seizure therapy (MST) results in fewer side effects than electroconvulsive treatment, both in humans treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as well as in the animal preclinical model that uses electroconvulsive shock (ECS). Evidence suggests that MST results in fewer cognitive side effects than ECT. Although MST offers enhanced control over seizure induction and spread, little is known about how MST and ECT seizures differ. Seizure characteristics are associated with treatment effect. This study presents quantitative analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) power after electrical and magnetic seizure induction and anesthesia-alone sham in an animal model. The aim was to test whether differential neurophysiological characteristics of the seizures could be identified that support earlier observations that the powers of theta, alpha, and beta but not delta frequency bands were lower after MST when compared with those after ECS. In a randomized, sham-controlled trial, 24 macaca mulatte received 6 weeks of daily sessions while scalp EEG was recorded. Electroencephalogram power was quantified within delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. Magnetic seizure therapy induced lower ictal expression in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies than ECS, but MST and ECS were indistinguishable in the delta band. Magnetic seizure therapy showed less postictal suppression than ECS. Increasing electrical dosage increased ictal power, whereas increasing MST dosage had no effect on EEG expression. Magnetic seizure therapy seizures have less robust electrophysiological expression than ECS, and these differences are largest in the alpha and beta bands. The relevance of these differences in higher frequency bands to clinical outcomes deserves further exploration. Contrasting EEG in ECS and MST may lead to insights on the physiological underpinnings of seizure-induced amnesia and to finding ways to reduce cognitive side effects.

  1. Epileptic seizures in Neuro-Behcet disease: why some patients develop seizure and others not?

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Semercioglu, Sencer; Ucler, Serap; Erdal, Abidin; Inan, Levent E

    2015-03-01

    Behcet disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder. Neuro BD (NBD) is seen in approximately 5% of all patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency, type and prognosis of epileptic seizures in different forms of NBD. All files of 42 patients with NBD were evaluated between 2006 and 2012, retrospectively. The demographic data, the presentation of NBD, clinical findings including seizures, EEG and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 35.02±8.43 years. Thirty (71.4%) patients were male; the remaining 12 of them were female. Twenty-four patients had brainstem lesions; 16 patients had cerebral venous thrombosis. Spinal cord involvement was seen in two patients. Seven patients had epileptic seizures (six partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization). Six of them had cerebral sinus thrombosis (CVT). Four patients had a seizure as the first symptom of the thrombosis. One patient had late onset seizure due to chronic venous infarct. The other patient with seizure had brainstem involvement. The remaining was diagnosed as epilepsy before the determination of NBD. CVT seen in BD seems to be the main risk factor for epileptic seizures in patients with NBD. The prognosis is usually good especially in patients with CVT. Epileptic seizures in patients with brainstem involvement may be an indicator for poor prognosis. Superior sagittal thrombosis or cortical infarct would be predictor of seizures occurrence because of the high ratio in patients with seizures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seizure disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Urowitz, Murray B.; Su, Li; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Wallace, Daniel J; Clarke, Ann E.; Ginzler, E.M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Petri, M.; Fortin, Paul R.; Gladman, D. D.; Bruce, Ian N.; Steinsson, Kristjan; Dooley, M.A.; Khamashta, Munther A.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Manzi, Susan; Zoma, Asad A.; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Nived, Ola; Aranow, Cynthia; Mackay, Meggan; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; van Vollenhoven, R.F.; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, Sam; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Inanc, Murat; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, attribution, outcome and predictors of seizures in SLE Methods The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) performed a prospective inception cohort study. Demographic variables, global SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), cumulative organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI)) and neuropsychiatric events were recorded at enrollment and annually. Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, anti-β2 glycoprotein-I, anti-ribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies were measured at enrollment. Physician outcomes of seizures were recorded. Patient outcomes were derived from the SF-36 mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores. Statistical analyses included Cox and linear regressions. Results The cohort was 89.4% female with a mean follow up of 3.5±2.9 years. 75/1631 (4.6%) had ≥1 seizure, the majority around the time of SLE diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated a higher risk of seizures with African race/ethnicity (HR(CI):1.97 (1.07–3.63); p=0.03) and lower education status (1.97 (1.21–3.19); p<0.01). Higher damage scores (without NP variables) were associated with an increased risk of subsequent seizures (SDI=1:3.93 (1.46–10.55)); SDI=2 or 3:1.57 (0.32–7.65); SDI≥4:7.86 (0.89–69.06); p=0.03). There was an association with disease activity but not with autoantibodies. Seizures attributed to SLE frequently resolved (59/78(76%)) in the absence of anti-seizure drugs. There was no significant impact on the MCS or PCS scores. Anti-malarial drugs in absence of immunosuppressive agents were associated with reduced seizure risk (0.07(0.01–0.66); p=0.03). Conclusion Seizures occurred close to SLE diagnosis, in patients with African race/ethnicity, lower educational status and cumulative organ damage. Most seizures resolved without a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Anti-malarial drugs were associated with a protective effect. PMID:22492779

  3. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  4. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  5. Neuropsychological status at seizure onset in children

    PubMed Central

    Fastenau, P S.; Johnson, C S.; Perkins, S M.; Byars, A W.; deGrauw, T J.; Austin, J K.; Dunn, D W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This large, prospective, community-based study characterized neuropsychological functioning and academic achievement at the time of the first recognized seizure and identified risk factors for cognitive deficits. Methods: We compared 282 children (ages 6–14 years, IQ ≥70) with a first recognized seizure to 147 healthy siblings on a battery of well-standardized and widely used neuropsychological and academic achievement tests and examined relationships with demographic and clinical variables. Results: In this intellectually normal cohort, 27% with just one seizure and up to 40% of those with risk factors exhibited neuropsychological deficits at or near onset. Risk factors associated with neuropsychological deficits included multiple seizures (i.e., second unprovoked seizure; odds ratio [OR] = 1.96), use of antiepileptic drugs (OR = 2.27), symptomatic/cryptogenic etiology (OR = 2.15), and epileptiform activity on the initial EEG (OR = 1.90); a child with all 4 risks is 3.00 times more likely than healthy siblings to experience neuropsychological deficits by the first clinic visit. Absence epilepsy carried increased odds for neuropsychological impairment (OR = 2.00). Conclusions: A subgroup of intellectually normal children with seizures showed neuropsychological deficits at onset. Academic achievement was unaffected, suggesting that there is a window early in the disorder for intervention to ameliorate the impact on school performance. Therefore, the risk factors identified here (especially if multiple risks are present) warrant swift referral for neuropsychological evaluation early in the course of the condition. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; ANOVA = analysis of variance; CELF = Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals; CI = confidence interval; CTOPP = Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing; OR = odds ratio; PURS = prior unrecognized seizure; WCST = Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; WRAML = Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning

  6. Seizures and Epilepsy in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniel; Honig, Lawrence S.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are at increased risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. However, reported prevalence and incidence of seizures and relationship of seizures to disease measures such as severity, outcome and progression vary widely between studies. Methods Literature review of the available clinical and epidemiological data on the topic of seizures in patients with AD. We review seizure rates and types, risk factors for seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG)studies, and treatment responses. Finally, we consider limitations and methodological issues. Results There is considerable variability in the reported prevalence and incidence of seizures in patients with AD - with reported lifetime prevalence rates of 1.5 - 64%. More recent, prospective, and larger studies in general report lower rates. Some, but not all, studies have noted increased seizure risk with increasing dementia severity or with younger age of AD onset. Generalized convulsive seizures are the most commonly reported type, but often historical information is the only basis used to determine seizure type and the manifestation of seizures may be difficult to distinguish from other behaviors common in demented patients. EEG has infrequently been performed and reported. Data on treatment of seizures in AD are extremely limited. Similarly, the relationship between seizures and cognitive impairment in AD is unclear. Conclusions The literature on seizures and epilepsy in AD, including diagnosis, risk factors, and response to treatment suffers from methodological limitations and gaps. PMID:22070283

  7. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  8. Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. How do doctors in training react to seizures?

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Udaya; Ma, Henry; Phan, Thanh G

    2016-01-01

    There are scant data on how doctors approach seizures in the acute setting. We sought to study (a) exposure to seizure disorders as well as relevant training and (b) reactions to seizures in the acute setting, among medical residents undergoing physician training. The exposure to and training on seizure disorders were assessed using a structured questionnaire first. Then, they were tested with 20 videos consisting of 10 epileptic seizures (ESs) and 10 psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). After each video, we asked three questions to test (a) the diagnosis and the practice of administration of benzodiazepines to terminate the seizure, (b) the estimation of seizure duration, and (c) the practice of intubation. The accuracy of diagnosis was measured by the area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). The difference between true seizure duration and estimated duration was evaluated using paired-sample t-test. A total of 48 trainees participated in the study. The majority witnessed seizures in movies (37, 77.1%) and television (35, 72.9%). Only 12 (25%) received bedside teaching on seizure disorders. Their diagnostic accuracy of seizures was very poor (AUC=0.54). Participants significantly underestimated the duration of seizures. Thirty-five doctors made an illogical decision to intubate but not to terminate the seizure with intravenous benzodiazepine. The diagnostic accuracy of seizures is poor among trainees, and their estimates of seizure duration are unreliable. Our study highlights potential pitfalls in the acute management of seizures and the need for more training on seizure disorders. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute postoperative seizures as predictors of seizure outcomes after epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Nisha; Horn, Paul S; Greiner, Hansel M; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2016-11-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to determine if acute postoperative seizures (APOS) predict epilepsy surgery outcomes. Additionally, we estimated pooled prevalence for APOS and explored if certain APOS characteristics predict surgical outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed for studies reporting seizure outcomes after epilepsy surgery in patients with and without APOS. APOS were defined as seizure(s) occurring within 30days of surgery. After data extraction, pooled Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated for 1-year seizure-free outcome in patients with and without APOS using random-effects meta-analysis. Sub-group meta-analysis for pediatric studies, time of occurrence, and APOS semiology were also performed. A meta-regression was performed to explore source(s) of heterogeneity. Seventeen studies were included in the final synthesis. Pooled prevalence of APOS was found to be 22.58%. A significantly higher proportion of patients without APOS within 30days of surgery (73.49%) were seizure-free at ≥1-year (OR 4.20, 95% CI 2.97-5.93, p<0.0001) compared to those with APOS (38.96%). Among the pediatric studies (n=6) 77.14% of patients without APOS were seizure-free at ≥1-year, compared to 35.94% of those with APOS (OR 5.71, 95% CI 3.32-9.80, p<0.0001). Patients having APOS within 24h of surgery and APOS semiology different from habitual pre-surgical seizures were more likely to achieve seizure-free outcomes, but these results failed to achieve statistical significance. APOS reliably predict 1-year seizure outcomes after epilepsy surgery. This information should help counsel patients and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in seizure types and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Chad; Dugan, Patricia; Kirsch, Heidi E; Friedman, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Despite the increasing interest in sex differences in disease manifestations and responses to treatment, very few data are available on sex differences in seizure types and semiology. The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative study that aims to create a comprehensive repository of detailed clinical information and DNA samples from a large cohort of people with epilepsy. We used this well-characterized cohort to explore differences in seizure types as well as focal seizure symptoms between males and females. We reviewed the EPGP database and identified individuals with generalized epilepsy of unknown etiology (GE) (n = 760; female: 446, male: 314), nonacquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) (n = 476; female: 245, male: 231), or both (n = 64; female: 33, male: 31). Demographic data along with characterization of seizure type and focal seizure semiologies were examined. In GE, males reported atonic seizures more frequently than females (6.5% vs. 1.7%; p < 0.001). No differences were observed in other generalized seizure types. In NAFE, no sex differences were seen for seizure types with or without alteration of consciousness or progression to secondary generalization. Autonomic (16.4% vs. 26.6%; p = 0.005), psychic (26.7% vs. 40.3%; p = 0.001), and visual (10.3% vs. 19.9%; p = 0.002) symptoms were more frequently reported in females than males. Specifically, of psychic symptoms, more females than males endorsed déjà vu (p = 0.001) but not forced thoughts, derealization/depersonalization, jamais vu, or fear. With corrections for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences in aphasic, motor, somatosensory, gustatory, olfactory, auditory, vertiginous, or ictal headache symptoms between sexes. Significant differences between the sexes were observed in the reporting of atonic seizures, which were more common in males with GE, and for autonomic, visual, and psychic symptoms associated with NAFE, which were more

  12. Sex Differences in Seizure Types and Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Chad; Dugan, Patricia; Kirsch, Heidi E; Friedman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing interest in sex differences in disease manifestations and responses to treatment, very few data are available on sex differences in seizure types and semiology. The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative study that aims to create a comprehensive repository of detailed clinical information and DNA samples from a large cohort of people with epilepsy. We used this well-characterized cohort to explore differences in seizure types as well as focal seizure symptoms between males and females. Methods We reviewed the EPGP database and identified individuals with generalized epilepsy of unknown etiology (GE) (n=760; female 446, male 314), non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) (n=476; female 245, male 231), or both (n=64; female 33, male 31). Demographic data along with characterization of seizure type and focal seizure semiologies were examined. Results In GE, males reported atonic seizures more frequently than females (6.5% vs. 1.7%; p<0.001). No differences were observed in other generalized seizure types. In NAFE, no sex differences were seen for seizure types with or without alteration of consciousness or progression to secondary generalization. Autonomic (16.4% vs. 26.6%; p=0.005), psychic (26.7% vs. 40.3%; p=0.001), and visual symptoms (10.3% vs. 19.9%; p=0.002) were more frequently reported in females than males. Specifically, of psychic symptoms, more females than males endorsed déjà vu (p=0.001), but not forced thoughts, derealization/depersonalization, jamais vu, or fear. With corrections for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences in aphasic, motor, somatosensory, gustatory, olfactory, auditory, vertiginous, or ictal headache symptoms between sexes. Conclusions Significant differences between the sexes were observed in the reporting of atonic seizures, which was more common in males with GE, and for autonomic, visual, and psychic symptoms associated with NAFE

  13. Adaptation of Lorke's method to determine and compare ED50 values: the cases of two anticonvulsants drugs.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Acosta, Osvaldo; Meza-Toledo, Sergio Enrique; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Valencia-Hernández, Ignacio; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2014-01-01

    We determined the median effective dose (ED50) values for the anticonvulsants phenobarbital and sodium valproate using a modification of Lorke's method. This modification allowed appropriate statistical analysis and the use of a smaller number of mice per compound tested. The anticonvulsant activities of phenobarbital and sodium valproate were evaluated in male CD1 mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The anticonvulsant ED50 values were obtained through modifications of Lorke's method that involved changes in the selection of the three first doses in the initial test and the fourth dose in the second test. Furthermore, a test was added to evaluate the ED50 calculated by the modified Lorke's method, allowing statistical analysis of the data and determination of the confidence limits for ED50. The ED50 for phenobarbital against MES- and PTZ-induced seizures was 16.3mg/kg and 12.7mg/kg, respectively. The sodium valproate values were 261.2mg/kg and 159.7mg/kg, respectively. These results are similar to those found using the traditional methods of finding ED50, suggesting that the modifications made to Lorke's method generate equal results using fewer mice while increasing confidence in the statistical analysis. This adaptation of Lorke's method can be used to determine median letal dose (LD50) or ED50 for compounds with other pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenobarbital reduces EEG amplitude and propagation of neonatal seizures but does not alter performance of automated seizure detection.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Sean R; Livingstone, Vicki; Low, Evonne; Pressler, Ronit; Rennie, Janet M; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital increases electroclinical uncoupling and our preliminary observations suggest it may also affect electrographic seizure morphology. This may alter the performance of a novel seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group. The objectives of this study were to compare the morphology of seizures before and after phenobarbital administration in neonates and to determine the effect of any changes on automated seizure detection rates. The EEGs of 18 term neonates with seizures both pre- and post-phenobarbital (524 seizures) administration were studied. Ten features of seizures were manually quantified and summary measures for each neonate were statistically compared between pre- and post-phenobarbital seizures. SDA seizure detection rates were also compared. Post-phenobarbital seizures showed significantly lower amplitude (p<0.001) and involved fewer EEG channels at the peak of seizure (p<0.05). No other features or SDA detection rates showed a statistical difference. These findings show that phenobarbital reduces both the amplitude and propagation of seizures which may help to explain electroclinical uncoupling of seizures. The seizure detection rate of the algorithm was unaffected by these changes. The results suggest that users should not need to adjust the SDA sensitivity threshold after phenobarbital administration. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glutamate receptor antibodies directed against AMPA receptors subunit 3 peptide B (GluR3B) can be produced in DBA/2J mice, lower seizure threshold and induce abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Ganor, Yonatan; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Cohen, Ran; Teichberg, Vivian; Levite, Mia

    2014-04-01

    Anti-GluR3B antibodies (GluR3B Ab's), directed against peptide B/aa372-395 of GluR3 subunit of glutamate/AMPA receptors, are found in ∼35% of epilepsy patients, activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, evoke ion currents, kill neurons and damage the brain. We recently found that GluR3B Ab's also associate with neurological/psychiatric/behavioral abnormalities in epilepsy patients. Here we asked if GluR3B Ab's could be produced in DBA/2J mice, and also modulate seizure threshold and/or cause behavioral/motor impairments in these mice. DBA/2J mice were immunized with the GluR3B peptide in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), or with controls: ovalbumin (OVA), CFA, or phosphate-buffer saline (PBS). GluR3B Ab's and OVA Ab's were tested. Seizures were induced in all mice by the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at three time points, each time with less PTZ to avoid non-specific death. Behavior was examined in Open-Field, RotaRod and Grip tests. GluR3B Ab's were produced only in GluR3B-immunized mice, while OVA Ab's were produced only in OVA-immunized mice, showing high Ab's specificity. In GluR3B Ab's negative mice, seizure severity scores and percentages of animals developing generalized seizures declined in response to decreasing PTZ doses. In contrast, both parameters remained unchanged/high in the GluR3B Ab's positive mice, showing that these mice were more susceptible to seizures. The seizure scores associated significantly with the GluR3B Ab's levels. GluR3B Ab's positive mice were also more anxious in Open-Field test, fell faster in RotaRod test, and fell more in Grip test, compared to all the control mice. GluR3B Ab's are produced in DBA/2J mice, facilitate seizures and induce behavioral/motor impairments. This animal model can therefore serve for studying autoimmune epilepsy and abnormal behavior mediated by pathogenic anti-GluR3B Ab's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Termination Patterns of Complex Partial Seizures: An Intracranial EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Afra, Pegah; Jouny, Christopher C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While seizure onset patterns have been the subject of many reports, there have been few studies of seizure termination. In this study we report the incidence of synchronous and asynchronous termination patterns of partial seizures recorded with intracranial arrays. Methods Data were collected from patients with intractable complex partial seizures undergoing presurgical evaluations with intracranial electrodes. Patients with seizures originating from mesial temporal and neocortical regions were grouped into three groups based on patterns of seizure termination: synchronous only (So), asynchronous only (Ao), or mixed (S/A, with both synchronous and asynchronous termination patterns). Results 88% of the patients in the MT group had seizures with a synchronous pattern of termination exclusively (38%) or mixed (50%). 82% of the NC group had seizures with synchronous pattern of termination exclusively (52%) or mixed (30%). In the NC group, there was a significant difference of the range of seizure durations between So and Ao groups, with Ao exhibiting higher variability. Seizures with synchronous termination had low variability in both groups. Conclusions Synchronous seizure termination is a common pattern for complex partial seizures of both mesial temporal or neocortical onset. This may reflect stereotyped network behavior or dynamics at the seizure focus. PMID:26552555

  17. Termination patterns of complex partial seizures: An intracranial EEG study.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah; Jouny, Christopher C; Bergey, Gregory K

    2015-11-01

    While seizure onset patterns have been the subject of many reports, there have been few studies of seizure termination. In this study we report the incidence of synchronous and asynchronous termination patterns of partial seizures recorded with intracranial arrays. Data were collected from patients with intractable complex partial seizures undergoing presurgical evaluations with intracranial electrodes. Patients with seizures originating from mesial temporal and neocortical regions were grouped into three groups based on patterns of seizure termination: synchronous only (So), asynchronous only (Ao), or mixed (S/A, with both synchronous and asynchronous termination patterns). 88% of the patients in the MT group had seizures with a synchronous pattern of termination exclusively (38%) or mixed (50%). 82% of the NC group had seizures with synchronous pattern of termination exclusively (52%) or mixed (30%). In the NC group, there was a significant difference of the range of seizure durations between So and Ao groups, with Ao exhibiting higher variability. Seizures with synchronous termination had low variability in both groups. Synchronous seizure termination is a common pattern for complex partials seizures of both mesial temporal or neocortical onset. This may reflect stereotyped network behavior or dynamics at the seizure focus. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the opioid system in the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem in mice.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mehdi; Shirzadian, Armin; Dehdashtian, Amir; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic medication that mainly exerts its function through activating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. There is some evidence that zolpidem may have anticonvulsive effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, we used the pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizure model in mice to investigate whether zolpidem can affect seizure threshold. We also further evaluated the roles of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as well as μ-opioid receptors in the effects of zolpidem on seizure threshold. Our data showed that zolpidem in a dose-dependent manner increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. The noneffective (i.e., did not significantly alter the PTZ-induced seizure threshold by itself) doses of KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide) and nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) were able to inhibit the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem. Additionally, noneffective doses of either KATP channel opener (cromakalim) or nonselective μ-opioid receptor agonist (morphine) in combination with a noneffective dose of zolpidem exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. A combination of noneffective doses of naloxone and glibenclamide, which separately did not affect zolpidem effect on seizure threshold, inhibited the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. These results suggest a role for KATP channels and the opioid system, alone or in combination, in the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex dimorphism in seizure-controlling networks.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Fillippo Sean; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Moshé, Solomon L

    2014-12-01

    Males and females show a different predisposition to certain types of seizures in clinical studies. Animal studies have provided growing evidence for sexual dimorphism of certain brain regions, including those that control seizures. Seizures are modulated by networks involving subcortical structures, including thalamus, reticular formation nuclei, and structures belonging to the basal ganglia. In animal models, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) is the best studied of these areas, given its relevant role in the expression and control of seizures throughout development in the rat. Studies with bilateral infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol have identified distinct roles of the anterior or posterior rat SNR in flurothyl seizure control, that follow sex-specific maturational patterns during development. These studies indicate that (a) the regional functional compartmentalization of the SNR appears only after the third week of life, (b) only the male SNR exhibits muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects which, in older animals, is confined to the posterior SNR, and (c) the expression of the muscimol-sensitive anticonvulsant effects become apparent earlier in females than in males. The first three postnatal days are crucial in determining the expression of the muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects of the immature male SNR, depending on the gonadal hormone setting. Activation of the androgen receptors during this early period seems to be important for the formation of this proconvulsant SNR region. We describe molecular/anatomical candidates underlying these age- and sex-related differences, as derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as by [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. These involve sex-specific patterns in the developmental changes in the structure or physiology or GABA(A) receptors or of other subcortical structures (e.g., locus coeruleus, hippocampus) that may affect the function of seizure-controlling networks

  1. Reducing premature KCC2 expression rescues seizure susceptibility and spine morphology in atypical febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Patricia N; Sanon, Nathalie T; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Carriço, Josianne Nunes; Ouardouz, Mohamed; Gagné, Jonathan; Duss, Sandra; Wolf, Daniele; Desgent, Sébastien; Cancedda, Laura; Carmant, Lionel; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Atypical febrile seizures are considered a risk factor for epilepsy onset and cognitive impairments later in life. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a history of atypical febrile seizures often carry a cortical malformation. This association has led to the hypothesis that the presence of a cortical dysplasia exacerbates febrile seizures in infancy, in turn increasing the risk for neurological sequelae. The mechanisms linking these events are currently poorly understood. Potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 affects several aspects of neuronal circuit development and function, by modulating GABAergic transmission and excitatory synapse formation. Recent data suggest that KCC2 downregulation contributes to seizure generation in the epileptic adult brain, but its role in the developing brain is still controversial. In a rodent model of atypical febrile seizures, combining a cortical dysplasia and hyperthermia-induced seizures (LHS rats), we found a premature and sustained increase in KCC2 protein levels, accompanied by a negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA. In parallel, we observed a significant reduction in dendritic spine size and mEPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by spatial memory deficits. To investigate whether KCC2 premature overexpression plays a role in seizure susceptibility and synaptic alterations, we reduced KCC2 expression selectively in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by in utero electroporation of shRNA. Remarkably, KCC2 shRNA-electroporated LHS rats show reduced hyperthermia-induced seizure susceptibility, while dendritic spine size deficits were rescued. Our findings demonstrate that KCC2 overexpression in a compromised developing brain increases febrile seizure susceptibility and contribute to dendritic spine alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in

  3. Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists

    PubMed Central

    Stafstrom, Carl E.; Carmant, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common and disabling neurologic conditions, yet we have an incomplete understanding of the detailed pathophysiology and, thus, treatment rationale for much of epilepsy. This article reviews the clinical aspects of seizures and epilepsy with the goal of providing neuroscientists an introduction to aspects that might be amenable to scientific investigation. Seizures and epilepsy are defined, diagnostic methods are reviewed, various clinical syndromes are discussed, and aspects of differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are considered to enable neuroscientists to formulate basic and translational research questions. PMID:26033084

  4. A systematic review of suggestive seizure induction for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Suggestive seizure induction is a widely used method for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite seven decades of multidisciplinary research, however, there is still no unified protocol, no definitive agreement on the ethical framework and no consensus on diagnostic utility. This systematic review surveys the evidence at hand and addresses clinically relevant aspects of suggestive seizure induction. In addition to its use for facilitating the diagnostic process, its mechanism of action and utility in elucidating the psychopathology of PNES will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the first seizure epilepsy--and when?

    PubMed

    Lawn, Nicholas; Chan, Josephine; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy has recently been redefined to include a single unprovoked seizure if the probability of recurrence is ≥60% over the following 10 years. This definition is based on the estimated risk of a third seizure after two unprovoked seizures, using the lower-limit 95% confidence interval (CI) at 4 years, and does not account for the initially high recurrence rate after first-ever seizure that rapidly falls with increasing duration of seizure freedom. We analyzed long-term outcomes after the first-ever seizure, and the influence of duration of seizure freedom on the likelihood of seizure recurrence, and their relevance to the new definition of epilepsy. Prospective analysis of 798 adults with a first-ever unprovoked seizure seen at a hospital-based first seizure clinic between 2000 and 2011. The likelihood of seizure recurrence was analyzed according to the duration of seizure freedom, etiology, electroencephalography (EEG), and neuroimaging findings. The likelihood of seizure recurrence at 10 years was ≥60% in patients with epileptiform abnormalities on EEG or neuroimaging abnormalities, therefore, meeting the new definition of epilepsy. However, the risk of recurrence was highly time dependent; after a brief period (≤12 weeks) of seizure freedom, no patient group continued to fulfill the new definition of epilepsy. Of 407 patients who had a second seizure, the likelihood of a third seizure at 4 years was 68% (95% CI 63-73%) and at 10 years was 85% (95% CI 79-91%). The duration of seizure freedom following first-ever seizure substantially influences the risk of recurrence, with none of our patients fulfilling the new definition of epilepsy after a short period of seizure freedom. When a threshold was applied based on the 10-year risk of a third seizure from our data, no first-seizure patient group ever had epilepsy. These data may be utilized in a definition of epilepsy after a first-ever seizure. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against

  6. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

  7. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  8. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  9. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  10. Probability of detection of clinical seizures using heart rate changes.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (p<0.001) shaped by patients' age and gender, seizure class, and years with epilepsy. The probability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject... director or assistant regional commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by...

  13. 21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act, all special agents of the Drug...

  14. 19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...

  15. 8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section 274.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority. Any officer of Customs and Border...

  16. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... officer, or a Federal Aviation Administration safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued...

  17. 27 CFR 447.63 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 447.63 Section 447.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.63 Seizure and forfeiture. Whoever knowingly...

  18. 27 CFR 555.166 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Unlawful Acts, Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 555.166 Seizure or forfeiture. Any explosive materials involved or used or intended to be used...

  19. 26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25... AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his...

  20. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  1. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    PubMed Central

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  2. Seizure Termination by Acidosis Depends on ASIC1a

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Adam E.; Schnizler, Mikael K.; Albert, Gregory W.; Severson, Meryl A.; Howard, Matthew A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Wemmie, John A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Most seizures stop spontaneously. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Earlier observations that seizures reduce brain pH and that acidosis inhibits seizures indicated that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid–sensing ion channel–1a (ASIC1a) shows exquisite sensitivity to extracellular pH and regulates neuron excitability, we hypothesized that acidosis might activate ASIC1a to terminate seizures. Disrupting mouse ASIC1a increased the severity of chemoconvulsant–induced seizures, whereas overexpressing ASIC1a had the opposite effect. ASIC1a did not affect seizure threshold or onset, but shortened seizure duration and prevented progression. CO2 inhalation, long known to lower brain pH and inhibit seizures, also required ASIC1a to interrupt tonic–clonic seizures. Acidosis activated inhibitory interneurons through ASIC1a, suggesting that ASIC1a might limit seizures by increasing inhibitory tone. These findings identify ASIC1a as a key element in seizure termination when brain pH falls. The results suggest a molecular mechanism for how the brain stops seizures and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18536711

  3. Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals

    PubMed Central

    Feltane, Amal; Boudreaux-Bartels, G. Faye; Besio, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian electroencephalography (tEEG) recorded from rats using the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. Three features, namely, median absolute deviation, approximate entropy, and maximum singular value were calculated and used as inputs into two different classifiers: support vector machines and adaptive boosting. The relative performance of the extracted features on TCRE tEEG was examined. Results are obtained with an overall accuracy between 84.81 and 96.51%. In addition to using TCRE tEEG data, the seizure detection algorithm was also applied to the recorded EEG signals from Andrzejak et al. database to show the efficiency of the proposed method for seizure detection. PMID:23073989

  4. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: the boomerang effects of newly formed aberrant kainatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders.

  5. Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  7. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  8. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  9. Relations between epileptic seizures and headaches.

    PubMed

    Gameleira, Fernando Tenório; Ataíde, Luiz; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão

    2013-10-01

    To describe headaches in patients with epilepsy and try to identify relations between epileptic seizures and headaches. Cross-sectional study, with 304 patients from the epilepsy out-patient section of University Hospital of Federal University of Alagoas (Brazil) between February 2007 and February 2008. The presence of headaches and their relationships with the epileptic seizures were analyzed. Frequent seizures were associated with a greater tendency of occurrence of headaches (odds ratio=1.6 times, p=0.077). Headaches occurred in 66.1% of the cases. The highest occurrence was of migraine (32.9% of the patients), followed by tension-type headaches (9.2%). Two syndromes with a continuum epilepsy-migraine in the same seizure are worth mentioning: migralepsy in 6.6% and epilepgraine in 10.2% of the patients with epilepsy. A high prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy was observed, with emphasis on hybrid crises of epilepsy and migraine. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autonomic symptoms during childhood partial epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Fogarasi, András; Janszky, József; Tuxhorn, Ingrid

    2006-03-01

    To analyze systematically the occurrence and age dependence as well as the localizing and lateralizing value of ictal autonomic symptoms (ASs) during childhood partial epilepsies and to compare our results with those of earlier adult studies. Five hundred fourteen video-recorded seizures of 100 consecutive children 12 years or younger with partial epilepsy and seizure-free postoperative outcome were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty patients produced at least one AS; 43 (70%) of 61 with temporal and 17 (44%) of 39 with extratemporal lobe epilepsy (p=0.012). Apnea/bradypnea occurred more frequently in younger children (p<0.01), whereas the presence of other ASs was neither age nor gender related. Postictal coughing (p<0.01) and epigastric aura (p<0.05) localized to the temporal lobe, whereas no ASs lateralized to the seizure-onset zone. Our study shows that ASs are common in childhood focal epilepsies, appearing in infants and young children, too. As in adults, childhood central autonomic networks might have a close connection to temporal lobe structures but do not lateralize the seizure-onset zone. To our knowledge, this is the first study comprehensively assessing ASs in childhood epilepsy.

  11. Search and Seizure in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Kay Cowden

    1976-01-01

    The protection afforded a minor student by the fourth amendment is perhaps open to some speculation due to his age and the unique situation presented by the school environment. The search and seizure issue is discussed in terms of the findings in several court cases. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  12. Recurrence of febrile seizure in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Karbasi, Sedighah Akhavan

    2010-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common problem in pediatric neurology. The purpose of this study was to determine FS recurrence frequency and to evaluate its risk factors. In a descriptive retrospective study, 139 children with first FS, admitted between March 2004 and August 2005 in Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital, were followed. Seventy-six boys and 63 girls with a mean age of 2.03 +/- 1.21 years were followed for 25.1 +/- 5.5 months. Thirty-seven percent had FS recurrence, with a mean recurrence time of 6.7 +/- 5.9 months. Sixty-five percent of infants and 30% of children >1 year old had FS recurrence. Sixty-three percent of those with seizure occurring in <1 hour of fever duration had FS recurrence, while only 33% of those with seizure after >1 hour of fever duration had FS recurrence. Seizures in children <1 year old and in <1 hour of fever duration were risk factors for FS recurrence.

  13. Using Dictionary Pair Learning for Seizure Detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Yu, Nana; Zhou, Weidong

    2018-02-13

    Automatic seizure detection is extremely important in the monitoring and diagnosis of epilepsy. The paper presents a novel method based on dictionary pair learning (DPL) for seizure detection in the long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. First, for the EEG data, wavelet filtering and differential filtering are applied, and the kernel function is performed to make the signal linearly separable. In DPL, the synthesis dictionary and analysis dictionary are learned jointly from original training samples with alternating minimization method, and sparse coefficients are obtained by using of linear projection instead of costly [Formula: see text]-norm or [Formula: see text]-norm optimization. At last, the reconstructed residuals associated with seizure and nonseizure sub-dictionary pairs are calculated as the decision values, and the postprocessing is performed for improving the recognition rate and reducing the false detection rate of the system. A total of 530[Formula: see text]h from 20 patients with 81 seizures were used to evaluate the system. Our proposed method has achieved an average segment-based sensitivity of 93.39%, specificity of 98.51%, and event-based sensitivity of 96.36% with false detection rate of 0.236/h.

  14. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  15. Characteristics of seizure-induced signal changes on MRI in patients with first seizures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Eun; Lee, Byung In; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Hyung Chan; Lee, Joonwon; Bae, Soo-Young; Lee, Dongah; Kim, Sung Eun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors and identify the characteristics of the seizure-induced signal changes on MRI (SCM) in patients with first seizures. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with first seizures from March 2010 to August 2014. The inclusion criteria for this study were patients with 1) first seizures, and 2) MRI and EEG performed within 24h of the first seizures. The definition of SCM was hyper-intensities in the brain not applying to cerebral arterial territories. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with or without SCM as a dependent variable. Of 431 patients with seizures visiting the ER, 69 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of 69 patients, 11 patients (15.9%) had SCM. Epileptiform discharge on EEG (OR 29.7, 95% CI 1.79-493.37, p=0.018) was an independently significant variable predicting the presence of SCM in patients with first seizures. In addition, the topography of SCM was as follows; i) ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex (5/11), ii) unilateral cortex (4/11), iii) ipsilateral thalamus and cerebral cortex (1/11), iv) bilateral hippocampus (1/11). Moreover, 6 out of 7 patients who underwent both perfusion CT and MRI exhibited unilateral cortical hyperperfusion with ipsilateral thalamic involvement reflecting unrestricted vascular territories. There is an association between epileptiform discharges and SCM. Additionally, the involvement of the unilateral cortex and ipsilateral thalamus in SCM and its hyperperfusion state could be helpful in differentiating the consequences of epileptic seizures from other pathologies. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coprolalia as a manifestation of epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Massot-Tarrús, Andreu; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Dove, Carin; Hayman-Abello S, Susan; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Derry, Paul A; Diosy, David C; McLachlan, Richard S; Burneo, Jorge G; Steven, David A; Mirsattari, Seyed M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lateralizing and localizing value of ictal coprolalia and brain areas involved in its production. A retrospective search for patients manifesting ictal coprolalia was conducted in our EMU database. Continuous video-EEG recordings were reviewed, and EEG activity before and during coprolalia was analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) technique and was compared to the seizures without coprolalia among the same patients. Nine patients were evaluated (five women), eight with intracranial video-EEG recordings (icVEEG). Four had frontal or temporal lesions, and five had normal MRIs. Six patients showed impairment in the language functions and five in the frontal executive tasks. Two hundred six seizures were reviewed (60.7% from icVEEG). Ictal coprolalia occurred in 46.6% of them, always associated with limbic auras or automatisms. They arose from the nondominant hemisphere in five patients, dominant hemisphere in three, and independently from the right and left hippocampus-parahippocampus in one. Electroencephalographic activity always involved orbitofrontal and/or mesial temporal regions of the nondominant hemisphere when coprolalia occurred. Independent component analysis of 31 seizures in seven patients showed a higher number of independent components in the nondominant hippocampus-parahippocampus before and during coprolalia and in the dominant lateral temporal region in those seizures without coprolalia (p=0.009). Five patients underwent surgery, and all five had an ILAE class 1 outcome. Ictal coprolalia occurs in both males and females with temporal or orbitofrontal epilepsy and has a limited lateralizing value to the nondominant hemisphere but can be triggered by seizures from either hemisphere. It involves activation of the paralimbic temporal-orbitofrontal network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seizure Forecasting from Idea to Reality. Outcomes of the My Seizure Gauge Epilepsy Innovation Institute Workshop

    PubMed Central

    French, Jaqueline A.; Fureman, Brandy E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Epilepsy Innovation Institute (Ei2) is a new research program of the Epilepsy Foundation designed to be an innovation incubator for epilepsy. Ei2 research areas are selected based on community surveys that ask people impacted by epilepsy what they would like researchers to focus on. In their 2016 survey, unpredictability was selected as a top issue regardless of seizure frequency or severity. In response to this need, Ei2 launched the My Seizure Gauge challenge, with the end goal of creating a personalized seizure advisory system device. Prior to moving forward, Ei2 convened a diverse group of stakeholders from people impacted by epilepsy and clinicians, to device developers and data scientists, to basic science researchers and regulators, for a state of the science assessment on seizure forecasting. From the discussions, it was clear that we are at an exciting crossroads. With the advances in bioengineering, we can utilize digital markers, wearables, and biosensors as parameters for a seizure-forecasting algorithm. There are also over a thousand individuals who have been implanted with ambulatory intracranial EEG recording devices. Pairing up peripheral measurements to brain states could identify new relationships and insights. Another key component is the heterogeneity of the relationships indicating that pooling findings across groups is suboptimal, and that data collection will need to be done on longer time scales to allow for individualization of potential seizure-forecasting algorithms. PMID:29291239

  18. Detection of recurrent activation patterns across focal seizures: Application to seizure onset zone identification.

    PubMed

    Vila-Vidal, Manel; Principe, Alessandro; Ley, Miguel; Deco, Gustavo; Tauste Campo, Adrià; Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a method that quantifies the consistent involvement of intracranially monitored regions in recurrent focal seizures. We evaluated the consistency of two ictal spectral activation patterns (mean power change and power change onset time) in intracranial recordings across focal seizures from seven patients with clinically marked seizure onset zone (SOZ). We examined SOZ discrimination using both patterns in different frequency bands and periods of interest. Activation patterns were proved to be consistent across more than 80% of recurrent ictal epochs. In all patients, whole-seizure mean activations were significantly higher for SOZ than non-SOZ regions (P<0.05) while activation onset times were significantly lower for SOZ than for non-SOZ regions (P<0.001) in six patients. Alpha-beta bands (8-20Hz) achieved the highest patient-average effect size on the whole-seizure period while gamma band (20-70Hz) achieved the highest discrimination values between SOZ and non-SOZ sites near seizure onset (0-5s). Consistent spectral activation patterns in focal epilepsies discriminate the SOZ with high effect sizes upon appropriate selection of frequency bands and activation periods. The present method may be used to improve epileptogenic identification as well as pinpoint additional regions that are functionally altered during ictal events. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early and late postoperative seizure outcome in 97 patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.

  20. How long do most seizures last? A systematic comparison of seizures recorded in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Sigmund; Gracely, Edward J; Sperling, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    More information is needed regarding how long seizures typically last, since this influences treatment decisions. Seizure type and other factors could influence seizure duration. Data were collected from a random sample of patients being evaluated with continuous video and scalp EEG. Seizure duration was defined as time from early sign of seizure (clinical or EEG) until the end of seizure on EEG. Seizures were categorized as simple partial (SPS), complex partial (CPS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic (SGTCS), primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTCS) and tonic (TS). SGTCS were divided into a complex partial part (SGTCS/CP) and a tonic-clonic part (SGTCS/TC). Median and longest duration of each seizure type in each individual were used. Comparisons of seizure types, first and last seizure, area of onset, and state of onset were performed. Five hundred seventy-nine seizures were recorded in 159 adult patients. Seizures with partial onset spreading to both hemispheres had the longest duration. SGTCS were unlikely to last more than 660 s, CPS more than 600 s, and SPS more than 240 s. PGTCS and TS had shorter durations, but the number of subjects with those two types was small. CPS did not differ in duration according to sleep state at onset nor side of origin. A working definition of status epilepticus in adults with cryptogenic or symptomatic epilepsy can be drawn from these data for purposes of future epidemiologic research. More information is needed for the idiopathic epilepsies and in children.

  1. Neonatal Seizures: An Update on Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frances E.

    2010-01-01

    The lifespan risk of seizures is highest in the neonatal period. Currently used therapies have limited efficacy. Although the treatment of neonatal seizures has not significantly changed in the last several decades, there has been substantial progress in understanding developmental mechanisms that influence seizure generation and responsiveness to anticonvulsants. Here we provide an overview of current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures, identifying some of the recent insights about the pathophysiology of neonatal seizures that may provide the foundation for better treatment. PMID:19944840

  2. How do you approach seizures in the high altitude traveler?

    PubMed

    Maa, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Counseling patients who suffer first-time or break- through seizures can be difficult, particularly when controllable external factors may be contributing to the lowering of their seizure threshold. High altitude as a potential trigger for seizures is a common question in our epilepsy clinics in Colorado, and this article reviews the existing anecdotal literature, presents our local experience with high altitude seizures (HAS), offers possible mechanisms to explain how high altitude may trigger seizures, and suggests an initial work-up and prophylactic strategies for future high altitude exposures.

  3. Predictability of uncontrollable multifocal seizures - towards new treatment options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian E.

    2016-04-01

    Drug-resistant, multifocal, non-resectable epilepsies are among the most difficult epileptic disorders to manage. An approach to control previously uncontrollable seizures in epilepsy patients would consist of identifying seizure precursors in critical brain areas combined with delivering a counteracting influence to prevent seizure generation. Predictability of seizures with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, even in an ambulatory setting, has been repeatedly shown, however, in patients with a single seizure focus only. We did a study to assess feasibility of state-of-the-art, electroencephalogram-based seizure-prediction techniques in patients with uncontrollable multifocal seizures. We obtained significant predictive information about upcoming seizures in more than two thirds of patients. Unexpectedly, the emergence of seizure precursors was confined to non-affected brain areas. Our findings clearly indicate that epileptic networks, spanning lobes and hemispheres, underlie generation of seizures. Our proof-of-concept study is an important milestone towards new therapeutic strategies based on seizure-prediction techniques for clinical practice.

  4. Ictal electroencephalograms in neonatal seizures: characteristics and associations.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Ghosh, Soumya; Palumbo, Linda

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of ictal electroencephalograms in 160 neonatal seizures of 43 babies were correlated with mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal seizures are focal at onset, most frequently temporal, and often occur during sleep. Twenty-one percent of babies with seizures died, and 76% of survivors manifested neurodevelopmental impairment during 2-6-year follow-up. A low-amplitude ictal electroencephalogram discharge was associated with increased mortality, and a frequency of <2 Hz with increased morbidity. Status epilepticus, ictal fractions, multiple foci, and bihemispheric involvement did not influence outcomes. Of 160 seizures, 99 exhibited no associated clinical features (electrographic seizures). Neonatal seizures with clinical correlates (electroclinical seizures) exhibited a higher amplitude and frequency of ictal electroencephalogram discharge than electrographic seizures. During electroclinical seizures, the ictal electroencephalogram was more likely to involve larger areas of the brain and to cross the midline. Mortality and morbidity were similar in babies with electroclinical and electrographic seizures, emphasizing the need to diagnose and treat both types. Ictal electroencephalogram topography has implications for electrode application during limited-channel, amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms. We recommend temporal and paracentral electrodes. Video electroencephalograms are important in diagnosing neonatal seizures and providing useful information regarding ictal electroencephalogram characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiepileptic effects of levetiracetam in a rodent neonatal seizure model.

    PubMed

    Talos, Delia M; Chang, Meayoung; Kosaras, Bela; Fitzgerald, Erin; Murphy, Andrew; Folkerth, Rebecca Dunn; Jensen, Frances E

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures can result in chronic epilepsy and long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits. Levetiracetam (LEV), an antiepileptic drug that binds to the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), has been increasingly used off-label for the therapy of neonatal seizures. Preclinical data regarding the acute or long-term efficacy of LEV are lacking. We tested the anticonvulsant efficacy of LEV in a rat model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of postnatal day (P)10 LEV treatment on later-life kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure susceptibility and seizure-induced neuronal injury. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the developmental regulation of SV2A in the rat and human brain. LEV pretreatment at P10 significantly decreased the cumulative duration of behavioral and electrographic seizures at both 25 and 50 mg/kg. At P40, KA-induced seizures and neuronal loss were significantly diminished in rats previously treated with LEV. LEV target SV2A is present in both neonatal rat and human brain and increases steadily to adulthood. LEV suppressed acute seizures induced by perinatal hypoxia and diminished later-life seizure susceptibility and seizure-induced neuronal injury, providing evidence for disease modification. These results support consideration of a clinical trial of LEV in neonatal seizures.

  6. Limbic system seizures and aggressive behavior (superkindling effects).

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Velamati, S

    1978-01-01

    This study was done to further analyze the neural mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior associated with psychomotor or temporal lobe seizures. The studies revealed that superkindling the aggressive system by sequential stimulations at seizure-inducing thresholds, of two or more sites in the limbic, hypothalamic, and basal ganglia structures facilitated the production of aggressive seizures. Aggressive behavior in the freely moving cat was evaluated in relation to the occurrence of hissing and growling during stimulation, after-discharge and postictal period. The behavior was correlated with the frequency of the elicited seizures and the seizure durations. Aggression did develop as a component behavioral manifestation of the limbic (psychomotor) seizure. Development of aggressive seizures was facilitated by "priming" the aggressive system. Optimum levels of aggressive behavior occurred with seizures of medium duration. Catecholamine blockers tended to attentuate the occurrence of aggression, whereas the agonist tended to facilitate it. Once the aggressive system was rendered hyperexcitable, exteroceptive stimuli also evoked aggressive attack behavior. It was concluded that repeatedly recurring limbic system seizures through superkindling mechanisms can eventually render the limbic-basal ganglia-preoptico-hypothalamic aggressive system hyper-responsive to both recurring seizures and to exteroceptive stimuli with resulting aggressive behavior with or without an accompanying seizure.

  7. Risk Factors for Preoperative Seizures and Loss of Seizure Control in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations in the contents of consciousness in partial epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Mirja; Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Chaplin, John E; Wedlund, Jan-Eric

    2008-08-01

    Epilepsy research suffers from a deficiency of systematic studies concerning the phenomenology of the contents of consciousness during seizures, partially because of the lack of suitable research methods. The Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), a standardized, valid, and reliable questionnaire, was used here to study which dimensions of the contents of consciousness are distorted during partial epileptic seizures compared with baseline. Further, the similarity of the altered pattern of subjective experiences across recurring seizures was also explored. Our results indicate that patients with epilepsy report alterations on most dimensions of the contents of consciousness in conjunction with seizures, but individual seizure experiences remain similar from one seizure to another. The PCI was found suitable for the assessment of subjective experiences during epileptic seizures and could be a valuable tool in providing new information about phenomenal consciousness in epilepsy in both the research and clinical settings.

  9. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant effects of the monoterpene linalool oxide.

    PubMed

    Souto-Maior, Flávia Negromonte; Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar da; Salgado, Paula Regina Rodrigues; Monte, Lucas de Oliveira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega

    2017-12-01

    Linalool oxide (OXL) (a monoterpene) is found in the essential oils of certain aromatic plants, or it is derived from linalool. The motivation for this work is the lack of psychopharmacological studies on this substance. To evaluate OXL's acute toxicity, along with its anticonvulsant and antinociceptive activities in male Swiss mice. OXL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated for acute toxicity and in the Rota-rod test. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and by formalin testing. Anticonvulsant effects were demonstrated by testing for pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and by Maximum Electroshock headset (MES) test. OXL was administered to the animals intraperitoneally 30 min before for pharmacological tests. OXL showed an LD 50 of ∼721 (681-765) mg/kg. In the Rota-rod test, it was observed that OXL caused no damage to the animal's motor coordination. OXL significantly reduced (p < .001) the number of writhings. OXL also significantly decreased (p < .05, p < .01 or p < .001) paw-licking time in the two phases of the formalin test. OXL significantly reduced (p < .01 or p < .001) the duration of tonic seizures in the MES test, and at the dose 150 mg/kg, significantly increased (p < .01) the latency to first seizure in the PTZ test. The tested doses of OXL were safe, with no motor impairment, and show clear antinociceptive and anticonvulsant potential. Future investigations with this monoterpene may lead to the development of a new molecule with even higher potency and selectivity.

  10. Bioisosteres of ethyl 8-ethynyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-benzo[f]imidazo [1,5-a][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxylate (HZ-166) as novel alpha 2,3 selective potentiators of GABAA receptors: Improved bioavailability enhances anticonvulsant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Smith, J L; Ping, X; Gleason, S D; Poe, M M; Li, G; Jin, X; Hobbs, J; Schkeryantz, J M; McDermott, J S; Alatorre, A I; Siemian, J N; Cramer, J W; Airey, D C; Methuku, K R; Tiruveedhula, V V N P B; Jones, T M; Crawford, J; Krambis, M J; Fisher, J L; Cook, J M; Cerne, R

    2018-05-03

    HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABA A receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity. KRM-II-81 was active against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in rats, elevations in PTZ-seizure thresholds, and amygdala-kindled seizures in rats with efficacies greater than that of diazepam. KRM-II-81 was also active in the 6 Hz seizure model in mice. Structural analogs of KRM-II-81 but not the ester, HZ-166, were active in all models in which they were evaluated. We further evaluated KRM-II-81 in human cortical epileptic tissue where it was found to significantly-attenuate picrotoxin- and AP-4-induced increases in firing rate across an electrode array. These molecules generally had a wider margin of separation in potencies to produce anticonvulsant effects vs. motor impairment on an inverted screen test than did diazepam. Ester bioisosters of HZ-166 are thus presented as novel agents for the potential treatment of epilepsy acting via selective positive allosteric amplification of GABA A signaling through α2/α3-containing GABA receptors. The in vivo data from the present study can serve as a guide to dosing parameters that predict engagement of central GABA A receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The number of seizures needed in the EMU.

    PubMed

    Struck, Aaron F; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S; Westover, M Brandon

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative framework to estimate the likelihood of multifocal epilepsy based on the number of unifocal seizures observed in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). Patient records from the EMU at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) from 2012 to 2014 were assessed for the presence of multifocal seizures as well the presence of multifocal interictal discharges and multifocal structural imaging abnormalities during the course of the EMU admission. Risk factors for multifocal seizures were assessed using sensitivity and specificity analysis. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of multifocal epilepsy for a given number of consecutive seizures. To overcome the limits of the Kaplan-Meier analysis, a parametric survival function was fit to the EMU subjects with multifocal seizures and this was used to develop a Bayesian model to estimate the risk of multifocal seizures during an EMU admission. Multifocal interictal discharges were a significant predictor of multifocal seizures within an EMU admission with a p < 0.01, albeit with only modest sensitivity 0.74 and specificity 0.69. Multifocal potentially epileptogenic lesions on MRI were not a significant predictor p = 0.44. Kaplan-Meier analysis was limited by wide confidence intervals secondary to significant patient dropout and concern for informative censoring. The Bayesian framework provided estimates for the number of unifocal seizures needed to predict absence of multifocal seizures. To achieve 90% confidence for the absence of multifocal seizure, three seizures are needed when the pretest probability for multifocal epilepsy is 20%, seven seizures for a pretest probability of 50%, and nine seizures for a pretest probability of 80%. These results provide a framework to assist clinicians in determining the utility of trying to capture a specific number of seizures in EMU evaluations of candidates for epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015

  12. The number of seizures needed in the EMU

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Aaron F.; Cole, Andrew J.; Cash, Sydney S.; Westover, M. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative framework to estimate the likelihood of multifocal epilepsy based on the number of unifocal seizures observed in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). Methods Patient records from the EMU at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) from 2012 to 2014 were assessed for the presence of multifocal seizures as well the presence of multifocal interictal discharges and multifocal structural imaging abnormalities during the course of the EMU admission. Risk factors for multifocal seizures were assessed using sensitivity and specificity analysis. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of multifocal epilepsy for a given number of consecutive seizures. To overcome the limits of the Kaplan-Meier analysis, a parametric survival function was fit to the EMU subjects with multifocal seizures and this was used to develop a Bayesian model to estimate the risk of multifocal seizures during an EMU admission. Results Multifocal interictal discharges were a significant predictor of multifocal seizures within an EMU admission with a p < 0.01, albeit with only modest sensitivity 0.74 and specificity 0.69. Multifocal potentially epileptogenic lesions on MRI were not a significant predictor p = 0.44. Kaplan-Meier analysis was limited by wide confidence intervals secondary to significant patient dropout and concern for informative censoring. The Bayesian framework provided estimates for the number of unifocal seizures needed to predict absence of multifocal seizures. To achieve 90% confidence for the absence of multifocal seizure, three seizures are needed when the pretest probability for multifocal epilepsy is 20%, seven seizures for a pretest probability of 50%, and nine seizures for a pretest probability of 80%. Significance These results provide a framework to assist clinicians in determining the utility of trying to capture a specific number of seizures in EMU evaluations of candidates for

  13. Long-term outcome and risk factors for uncontrolled seizures after a first seizure in children with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raja B; Morris, E Brannon; Pui, Ching-Hon; Hudson, Melissa M; Zhou, Yinmei; Cheng, Cheng; Ledet, Davonna S; Howard, Scott C

    2014-06-01

    Long-term outcomes of seizures that develop during treatment of childhood hematological malignancies have not been described. We analyzed seizure outcome in 62 children with leukemia or lymphoma treated at our institution. There was a median follow-up of 6.5 years since first seizure. Seizure etiology included intrathecal or systemic methotrexate in 24, leucoencephalopathy in 11, brain hemorrhage or thrombosis in 11, meningitis in 4, and no identifiable cause in 12. Seizures remained uncontrolled in 18, and risk factors for poor control included female sex (P = .02), no seizure control with first antiseizure drug (P = .08), and longer interval between cancer diagnosis and seizure onset (P = .09). Poor seizure control after initial antiseizure drug also predicted recurrent seizure after drug withdrawal (P = .04). In conclusion, seizures are controlled with medications in a majority of patients with hematological cancer. After a period without seizures, antiseizure drug withdrawal in appropriately selected patient has a high success rate. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat

    PubMed Central

    Hill, AJ; Mercier, MS; Hill, TDM; Glyn, SE; Jones, NA; Yamasaki, Y; Futamura, T; Duncan, M; Stott, CG; Stephens, GJ; Williams, CM; Whalley, BJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa have diverse pharmacological targets extending beyond cannabinoid receptors and several exert notable anticonvulsant effects. For the first time, we investigated the anticonvulsant profile of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in vitro and in in vivo seizure models. Experimental Approach The effect of CBDV (1–100 μM) on epileptiform local field potentials (LFPs) induced in rat hippocampal brain slices by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application or Mg2+-free conditions was assessed by in vitro multi-electrode array recordings. Additionally, the anticonvulsant profile of CBDV (50–200 mg·kg−1) in vivo was investigated in four rodent seizure models: maximal electroshock (mES) and audiogenic seizures in mice, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. The effects of CBDV in combination with commonly used antiepileptic drugs on rat seizures were investigated. Finally, the motor side effect profile of CBDV was investigated using static beam and grip strength assays. Key Results CBDV significantly attenuated status epilepticus-like epileptiform LFPs induced by 4-AP and Mg2+-free conditions. CBDV had significant anticonvulsant effects on the mES (≥100 mg·kg−1), audiogenic (≥50 mg·kg−1) and PTZ-induced seizures (≥100 mg·kg−1). CBDV (200 mg·kg−1) alone had no effect against pilocarpine-induced seizures, but significantly attenuated these seizures when administered with valproate or phenobarbital at this dose. CBDV had no effect on motor function. Conclusions and Implications These results indicate that CBDV is an effective anticonvulsant in a broad range of seizure models. Also it did not significantly affect normal motor function and, therefore, merits further investigation as a novel anti-epileptic in chronic epilepsy models. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  15. Tramadol: seizures, serotonin syndrome, and coadministered antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-04-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care-two fields that are inexorably linked.Tramadol (Ultram(®)) is a commonly prescribed analgesic because of its relatively lower risk of addiction and better safety profile in comparison with other opiates. However, two significant adverse reactions are known to potentially occur with tramadol-seizures and serotonin syndrome. These two adverse reactions may develop during tramadol monotherapy, but appear much more likely to emerge during misuse/overdose as well as with the coadministration of other drugs, particularly antidepressants. In this article, we review the data relating to tramadol, seizures, and serotonin syndrome. This pharmacologic intersection is of clear relevance to both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  16. mTOR is involved in stroke-induced seizures and the anti-seizure effect of mild hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Shuai; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; An, Xue-Fang; Liu, Xuan-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Yu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is considered an underlying etiology of the development of seizures. Stroke leads to glucose and oxygen deficiency in neurons, resulting in brain dysfunction and injury. Mild hypothermia is a therapeutic strategy to inhibit stroke-induced seizures, which may be associated with the regulation of energy metabolism of the brain. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member (GLUT)-1 are critical for energy metabolism. Furthermore, mTOR overactivation and GLUT-1 deficiency are associated with genetically acquired seizures. It has been hypothesized that mTOR and GLUT-1 may additionally be involved in seizures elicited by stroke. The present study established global cerebral ischemia (GCI) models of rats. Convulsive seizure behaviors frequently occurred during the first and the second days following GCI, which were accompanied with seizure discharge reflected in the EEG monitor. Expression of phosphor (p)-mTOR and GLUT-1 were upregulated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. Mild hypothermia and/or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) treatments reduced the number of epileptic attacks, seizure severity scores and seizure discharges, thereby alleviating seizures induced by GCI. Mild hypothermia and/or rapamycin treatments reduced phosphorylation levels of mTOR and the downstream effecter p70S6 in neurons, and the amount of GLUT-1 in the cytomembrane of neurons. The present study revealed that mTOR is involved in stroke-induced seizures and the anti-seizure effect of mild hypothermia. The role of GLUT-1 in stroke-elicited seizures appears to be different from the role in seizures induced by other reasons. Further studies are necessary in order to elucidate the exact function of GLUT-1 in stroke-elicited seizures. PMID:29484389

  17. The Presence of Consciousness in Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity of consciousness. PMID:21447898

  18. Lacosamide: in partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sarah A; Curran, Monique P

    2009-01-01

    Lacosamide is a functionalized amino acid, the antiepileptic effects of which appear to be due to a novel mode of action, namely the selective enhancement of slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Lacosamide is available as oral or intravenous formulations. Bioequivalence between the oral tablet and the oral syrup of lacosamide has been established. The bioavailability of the oral lacosamide tablet was similar to that of a 30- or 60-minute intravenous infusion of lacosamide administered at the same dosage. Oral lacosamide when added concomitantly with between one and three antiepileptic drugs was effective in adult patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, according to pooled data (n = 1308) from three phase II/III studies that had a 12-week maintenance phase. The percentage of patients with a >or=50% reduction from baseline to the maintenance phase in seizure frequency was significantly greater with oral lacosamide 200 or 400 mg/day (34% and 40%) than with placebo (23%). The median percentage reduction in seizure frequency per 28 days from baseline to the maintenance phase was significantly greater with lacosamide 400 mg/day than with placebo in each of the three phase II/III studies. Lacosamide was generally well tolerated in adult patients with partial-onset seizures, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being of mild or moderate severity. Dizziness was the most common treatment-related adverse event. When used as short-term replacement for oral lacosamide, intravenous lacosamide was well tolerated when administered as a 15-, 30- or 60-minute infusion.

  19. A Novel Signal Modeling Approach for Classification of Seizure and Seizure-Free EEG Signals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anubha; Singh, Pushpendra; Karlekar, Mandar

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a signal modeling-based new methodology of automatic seizure detection in EEG signals. The proposed method consists of three stages. First, a multirate filterbank structure is proposed that is constructed using the basis vectors of discrete cosine transform. The proposed filterbank decomposes EEG signals into its respective brain rhythms: delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Second, these brain rhythms are statistically modeled with the class of self-similar Gaussian random processes, namely, fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noises. The statistics of these processes are modeled using a single parameter called the Hurst exponent. In the last stage, the value of Hurst exponent and autoregressive moving average parameters are used as features to design a binary support vector machine classifier to classify pre-ictal, inter-ictal (epileptic with seizure free interval), and ictal (seizure) EEG segments. The performance of the classifier is assessed via extensive analysis on two widely used data set and is observed to provide good accuracy on both the data set. Thus, this paper proposes a novel signal model for EEG data that best captures the attributes of these signals and hence, allows to boost the classification accuracy of seizure and seizure-free epochs.

  20. Acute postoperative seizures and long-term seizure outcome after surgery for hippocampal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Casciato, Sara; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Mascia, Addolorata; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Grammaldo, Liliana G; De Risi, Marco; Meldolesi, Giulio N; Romigi, Andrea; Esposito, Vincenzo; Picardi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence and the prognostic value of acute postoperative seizures (APOS) in patients surgically treated for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). We studied 139 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent epilepsy surgery and were followed up for at least 5 years (mean duration of follow-up 9.1 years, range 5-15). Medical charts were reviewed to identify APOS, defined as ictal events with the exception of auras occurring within the first 7 days after surgery. Seizure outcome was determined at annual intervals. Patients who were in Engel Class Ia at the last contact were classified as having a favorable outcome. Seizure outcome was favorable in 99 patients (71%). Six patients (4%) experienced APOS and in all cases their clinical manifestations were similar to the habitual preoperative seizures. All patients with APOS had unfavorable long-term outcome, as compared with 35 (26%) of 133 in whom APOS did not occur (p<0.001). Our study suggests that APOS, despite being relatively uncommon in patients undergoing resective surgery for TLE-HS, are associated with a worse long-term seizure outcome. Given some study limitations, our findings should be regarded as preliminary and need confirmation from future larger, prospective, multicenter studies. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures: relationships with trauma and seizure symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.

  2. Seizure classification key to epilepsy management.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Louise; Derry, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy carries significant implications for physical, psychosocial and financial wellbeing as well as a small but significant increased risk of mortality. The diagnosis is often incorrect, potentially in up to 20% of cases, so should be revisited if seizures are not responding to treatment. Evidence indicates that misdiagnosis is significantly more common among nonspecialists. SIGN recommends that the diagnosis of epilepsy should be made by an epilepsy specialist, ideally in the setting of a dedicated first seizure or epilepsy clinic. An incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy can be harmful. There is an exhaustive list of epilepsy mimics that can result in misdiagnosis and expose patients to unnecessary treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Diagnosis relies primarily on the history. Investigations can support the diagnosis but cannot make it in isolation, and negative investigation findings are common in epilepsy. Brain imaging will be undertaken in most patients with epilepsy, but is not routinely required in those with a definite diagnosis of genetic generalised epilepsy. The EEG has limitations and can sometimes cloud rather than clarify the diagnostic picture. Distinguishing between a genetic generalised epilepsy and a focal epilepsy is vital as this influences investigation, treatment and prognosis. Generally medication should not be started following a single seizure except in specific circumstances or in cases where the risk of recurrence is high.

  3. Ictal alterations of consciousness during ecstatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Picard, Fabienne; Kurth, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ecstatic epileptic seizures report an altered consciousness, which they describe as a sense of heightened perception of themselves – they “feel very present” – and an increased vividness of sensory perceptions. Recently, the anterior insula has been proposed as the region where these seizures originate, based on the results of ictal nuclear imaging in three patients, the first induction of ecstatic auras by electrical stimulation, and the functional characteristics of the anterior insula in neuroimaging literature. Specifically, the anterior insula is thought to play a key role in integrating information from within the body, the external world, as well as the emotional states. In addition, the anterior insula is thought to convert this integrated information into successive global emotional moments, thus enabling both the construct of a sentient self as well as a mechanism for predictive coding. As part of the salience network, this region is also involved in switching from mind wandering toward attentional and executive processing. In this review, we will summarize previous patient reports and recap how insular functioning may be involved in the phenomenon of ecstatic seizures. Furthermore, we will relate these hypotheses to the results from research on meditation and effects of drug abuse.

  4. Optimizing therapy of seizures in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Roberto

    2006-12-26

    The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the neurosurgical setting has a number of implications, including their possible role in the prevention of seizures after acute cerebral insults or brain tumors and the potential for toxicity and interactions when these agents are administered in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This review discusses these controversial issues and draws the following conclusions. 1) AEDs should be prescribed on a short-term basis to prevent seizures occurring within the first week after a cerebral insult (trauma, neurosurgical procedure) but are ineffective to avoid true post-traumatic epilepsy or first seizures in patients with primary or secondary cerebral neoplasms. 2) The use of phenytoin and, to a lesser extent, phenobarbital and carbamazepine during cranial irradiation is associated with an increased risk for severe, potentially fatal, mucocutaneous reactions. In this context, new AEDs with a very low potential for allergic cutaneous reactions should be preferred. 3) Enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, may increase the clearance and reduce the clinical efficacy of corticosteroids and anticancer agents that are also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system. The newly developed AEDs that are devoid of hepatic metabolism, such as levetiracetam and gabapentin, are now recommended because of good results in preliminary studies and because they do not show interactions with anticancer agents.

  5. Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

  6. Do foods precipitate seizures? A cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    It has been reported that a common belief of the families of the patients with epilepsy in Iran is that foods provoke seizures. Our aim in the present study was to ascertain whether a culturally different population of patients with epilepsy in the United States believe that foods precipitate seizures. Adults aged 18 and older with epilepsy were recruited in either the inpatient epilepsy monitoring unit or the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Thomas Jefferson University from September to December 2006. Patients completed a questionnaire asking their age, sex, education, seizure control, and beliefs about the relationship between foods and seizures. One hundred ninety-three patients participated, with a mean age of 40.3 +/- 16. Only 11 (5.7%) patients reported foods as a precipitating factor for seizures. The difference between the results of the Iranian study, in which 55.2% of the families of children with epilepsy reported a relationship between specific foods and seizures, and the present results is significant (P=0.0001). The perception of foods as a seizure precipitant differs greatly between a Middle Eastern country (Iran) and a Western country (United States). This discordance suggests that cultural factors may play a large role in the perception of probable precipitating factors related to seizures. Some commonly reported seizure precipitants may represent cultural beliefs, and this raises a question as to whether foods truly precipitate seizures.

  7. Inheritance of Febrile Seizures in Sudden Unexplained Death in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ingrid A.; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Krous, Henry F.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

  8. Unsupervised EEG analysis for automated epileptic seizure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandtalab, Javad; Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which can, if not controlled, potentially cause unexpected death. It is extremely crucial to have accurate automatic pattern recognition and data mining techniques to detect the onset of seizures and inform care-givers to help the patients. EEG signals are the preferred biosignals for diagnosis of epileptic patients. Most of the existing pattern recognition techniques used in EEG analysis leverage the notion of supervised machine learning algorithms. Since seizure data are heavily under-represented, such techniques are not always practical particularly when the labeled data is not sufficiently available or when disease progression is rapid and the corresponding EEG footprint pattern will not be robust. Furthermore, EEG pattern change is highly individual dependent and requires experienced specialists to annotate the seizure and non-seizure events. In this work, we present an unsupervised technique to discriminate seizures and non-seizures events. We employ power spectral density of EEG signals in different frequency bands that are informative features to accurately cluster seizure and non-seizure events. The experimental results tried so far indicate achieving more than 90% accuracy in clustering seizure and non-seizure events without having any prior knowledge on patient's history.

  9. Perspectives on seizure clusters: Gaps in lexicon, awareness, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janice M; Shafer, Patricia; Shinnar, Ruth; Austin, Joan; Dewar, Sandra; Long, Lucretia; O'Hara, Kathryn; Santilli, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Seizure clusters in epilepsy can result in serious outcomes such as missed work or school, postictal psychosis, emergency room visits, or hospitalizations, and yet they are often not included in discussions between health-care professionals (HCPs) and their patients. The purpose of this paper was to describe and compare consumer (patient and caregivers) and professional understanding of seizure clusters and to describe how consumers and HCPs communicate regarding seizure clusters. We reviewed social media discussion sites to explore consumers' understanding of seizure clusters. We analyzed professional (medical) literature to explore the HCPs' understanding of seizure clusters. Major themes were revealed in one or both groups, including: communication about diagnosis; frequency, duration, and time frame; seizure type and pattern; severity; and self-management. When comparing discussions of professionals and consumers, both consumers and clinicians discussed the definition of seizure clusters. Discussions of HCPs were understandably clinically focused, and consumer discussions reflected the experience of seizure clusters; however, both groups struggled with a common lexicon. Seizure cluster events remain a problem associated with serious outcomes. Herein, we outline the lack of a common understanding and recommend the development of a common lexicon to improve communication regarding seizure clusters. Copyright © 2016 Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immediate, early and late seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Löppönen, Pekka; Tetri, Sami; Huhtakangas, Juha; Juvela, Seppo; Turtiainen, Hanna-Maria E; Bode, Michaela K; Hillbom, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) are significant and treatable complications, but the factors predicting immediate, early and late seizures are poorly known. We investigated characteristics and outcome with special reference to occurrence and timing of a first seizure among consecutive subjects with PICH. A population-based study was conducted in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, in 1993-2008 that included all patients with a first-ever primary ICH without any prior diagnosis of epilepsy. Immediate (<24h after admission), early (1-14 days) and late (>2 weeks) seizures were considered separately. Out of a total of 935 ICH patients, 51 had immediate, 21 early and 58 late seizures. The patients with seizures were significantly younger than the others and more often had a subcortical hematoma location (p<0.05). Lifestyle factors did not differ between the groups. The risk factors for immediate seizures in multivariable analysis were a low Glasgow coma scale score (GCS) on admission, subcortical location and age inversely (p<0.01). The only independent risk factor for early seizures was subcortical location (p<0.001), whereas subcortical location (p<0.001), age inversely (p<0.01) and hematoma evacuation (p<0.05) independently predicted late seizures. Immediate and early seizures predicted infectious complications (p<0.05). Patients with subcortical hematoma and of younger age are at risk for immediate seizures after primary ICH irrespective of hematoma size. Patients with immediate and early seizures more often had infectious complications. Surgery increases the risk of a late seizure after ICH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with acute temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Smith, J K; Kwock, L

    2001-01-01

    Decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as seen by proton MR spectroscopy are found in hippocampal sclerosis, and elevated levels of lipids/lactate have been observed after electroconvulsive therapy. Our purpose was to determine whether increased levels of lipids/lactate are found in patients with acute seizures of hippocampal origin. Seventeen patients with known temporal lobe epilepsy underwent proton MR spectroscopy of the mesial temporal lobes within 24 hours of their last seizure. Four of them were restudied when they were seizure-free. Five healthy individuals were used as control subjects. All MR spectroscopy studies were obtained using a single-voxel technique with TEs of 135 and 270. The relationship between the presence of lipids/lactate and seizures was tested using Fisher's exact test. Mean and standard deviations for NAA/creatine (Cr) were obtained in the hippocampi in patients with seizures on initial and follow-up studies and these values were compared with those in the control subjects. Seizure lateralization was obtained in 15 patients. Of the 17 seizure locations that involved hippocampi, 16 showed lipids/lactate by proton MR spectroscopy. Of the 13 hippocampi not directly affected by seizures, 10 showed no lipids/lactate and three showed lipids/lactate. The relationship between lipids/lactate and seizure location was confirmed. A comparison of NAA/Cr ratios for the involved hippocampi with those in control subjects showed significant differences on initial MR spectroscopy; however, no significant difference was found between acute and follow-up NAA/Cr ratios in hippocampi affected by seizures. Lipids/lactate were present in the hippocampi of patients with acute seizures and decreased when the patients were seizure-free. Thus, lipids/lactate may be a sensitive marker for acute temporal lobe seizures.

  12. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between shaking behaviors and seizure severity in five animal models of convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Rossetti, Franco; Foresti, Maira Licia; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Furtado, Márcio Araújo; Dal-Cól, Maria Luiza Cleto; Bertti, Poliana; Fernandes, Artur; Santos, Francisco Leite; Del Vecchio, Flávio; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2005-05-01

    Wet dog shakes (WDS) and head shakes (HS) are associated with experimentally induced convulsive seizures. We sought to determine whether these behaviors are correlated or not with major (status epilepticus (SE) or fully kindled animals) or minor (non-SE or partially kindled animals) seizure severity. WDS are directly correlated with SE induced by intracerebral star fruit extract (Averrhoa carambola) injection and with kindled animals in the amygdala fast kindling model. On the other hand, WDS are inversely correlated with SE induced by intracerebral bicuculline and pilocarpine injections. Systemic pilocarpine in animals pretreated with methyl-scopolamine barely induced WDS or HS. The role of shaking behaviors may vary from ictal to anticonvulsant depending on the experimental seizure model, circuitries involved, and stimulus intensity. The physical presence of acrylic helmets may per se inhibit the HS response. Also, methyl-scopolamine, a drug incapable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, can induce HS in animals without acrylic helmets.

  14. Subjective and objective characteristics of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Campora, Nuria; Kochen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Conscious states are inner states and processes of awareness. These states are by definition subjective. We analyzed subjective and objective characteristics of alteration of consciousness (AOC) during epileptic seizures, including its involvement in both the level of awareness and subjective content of consciousness. We evaluated AOC using the Consciousness Seizure Scale, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory, and a new structured survey developed by our group: the Seizure Perception Survey, which incorporates patients' subjective experiences before and after they watch a video-electroencephalographic recording of their own seizure. We included 35 patients (105 seizures) with drug-resistant epilepsy. Most seizures caused profound AOC. The content of consciousness was lower during temporal seizures with profound AOC. We uncovered a correlation between the subjective perception and objective duration of a seizure using the Seizure Perception Survey regarding memory; the patients had a better recall of ictal onset during wakefulness regardless of the epileptogenic zone, laterality, or magnitude of AOC. Nonetheless, the recovery of memory at the end of a seizure took more time in patients who showed greater AOC, less vivid content of consciousness, or a longer seizure. For 85% of the patients, this was the first time they were able to view their own seizures. The majority of the patients requested to view them again because this procedure allowed them to compare the recordings with their own memories and emotions during a seizure and to verify the real duration of the seizure. Alteration of consciousness is one of the most dramatic clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Usually, practitioners or relatives assume that the patients with AOC may not have any knowledge on their seizures. In this study, however, we found that most patients with AOC had a fairly accurate perception of the duration of a seizure and retained their memory of ictal onset. In contrast, for the

  15. Minimum Electric Field Exposure for Seizure Induction with Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won H; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2017-05-01

    Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as a means to produce stimulation closer to the neural activation threshold and more focal seizure induction, which could potentially reduce cognitive side effects. However, the effect of current amplitude on the electric field (E-field) in the brain has not been previously linked to the current amplitude threshold for seizure induction. We coupled MRI-based E-field models with amplitude titrations of motor threshold (MT) and seizure threshold (ST) in four nonhuman primates (NHPs) to determine the strength, distribution, and focality of stimulation in the brain for four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right-unilateral, and frontomedial) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) with cap coil on vertex. At the amplitude-titrated ST, the stimulated brain subvolume (23-63%) was significantly less than for conventional ECT with high, fixed current (94-99%). The focality of amplitude-titrated right-unilateral ECT (25%) was comparable to cap coil MST (23%), demonstrating that ECT with a low current amplitude and focal electrode placement can induce seizures with E-field as focal as MST, although these electrode and coil configurations affect differently specific brain regions. Individualizing the current amplitude reduced interindividual variation in the stimulation focality by 40-53% for ECT and 26% for MST, supporting amplitude individualization as a means of dosing especially for ECT. There was an overall significant correlation between the measured amplitude-titrated ST and the prediction of the E-field models, supporting a potential role of these models in dosing of ECT and MST. These findings may guide the development of seizure therapy dosing paradigms with improved risk/benefit ratio.

  16. Diagnostic delay in psychogenic seizures and the association with anti-seizure medication trials.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Wesley T; Janio, Emily A; Le, Justine M; Hori, Jessica M; Patel, Akash B; Gallardo, Norma L; Bauirjan, Janar; Chau, Andrea M; D'Ambrosio, Shannon R; Cho, Andrew Y; Engel, Jerome; Cohen, Mark S; Stern, John M

    2016-08-01

    The average delay from first seizure to diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is over 7 years. The reason for this delay is not well understood. We hypothesized that a perceived decrease in seizure frequency after starting an anti-seizure medication (ASM) may contribute to longer delays, but the frequency of such a response has not been well established. Time from onset to diagnosis, medication history and associated seizure frequency was acquired from the medical records of 297 consecutive patients with PNES diagnosed using video-electroencephalographic monitoring. Exponential regression was used to model the effect of medication trials and response on diagnostic delay. Mean diagnostic delay was 8.4 years (min 1 day, max 52 years). The robust average diagnostic delay was 2.8 years (95% CI: 2.2-3.5 years) based on an exponential model as 10 to the mean of log10 delay. Each ASM trial increased the robust average delay exponentially by at least one third of a year (Wald t=3.6, p=0.004). Response to ASM trials did not significantly change diagnostic delay (Wald t=-0.9, p=0.38). Although a response to ASMs was observed commonly in these patients with PNES, the presence of a response was not associated with longer time until definitive diagnosis. Instead, the number of ASMs tried was associated with a longer delay until diagnosis, suggesting that ASM trials were continued despite lack of response. These data support the guideline that patients with seizures should be referred to epilepsy care centers after failure of two medication trials. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutamate receptor 1 phosphorylation at serine 831 and 845 modulates seizure susceptibility and hippocampal hyperexcitability after early life seizures.

    PubMed

    Rakhade, Sanjay N; Fitzgerald, Erin F; Klein, Peter M; Zhou, Chengwen; Sun, Hongyu; Huganir, Richard L; Hunganir, Richard L; Jensen, Frances E

    2012-12-05

    Neonatal seizures can lead to later life epilepsy and neurobehavioral deficits, and there are no treatments to prevent these sequelae. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced seizures in a neonatal rat model induce rapid phosphorylation of serine-831 (S831) and Serine 845 (S845) sites of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit and later neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy, suggesting that seizure-induced posttranslational modifications may represent a novel therapeutic target. To unambiguously assess the contribution of these sites, we examined seizure susceptibility in wild-type mice versus transgenic knock-in mice with deficits in GluR1 S831 and S845 phosphorylation [GluR1 double-phosphomutant (GluR1 DPM) mice]. Phosphorylation of the GluR1 S831 and S845 sites was significantly increased in the hippocampus and cortex after a single episode of pentyleneterazol-induced seizures in postnatal day 7 (P7) wild-type mouse pups and that transgenic knock-in mice have a higher threshold and longer latencies to seizures. Like the rat, hypoxic seizures in P9 C57BL/6N wild-type mice resulted in transient increases in GluR1 S831 and GluR1 S845 phosphorylation in cortex and were associated with enhanced seizure susceptibility to later-life kainic-acid-induced seizures. In contrast, later-life seizure susceptibility after hypoxia-induced seizures was attenuated in GluR1 DPM mice, supporting a role for posttranslational modifications in seizure-induced network excitability. Finally, human hippocampal samples from neonatal seizure autopsy cases also showed an increase in GluR1 S831 and S845, supporting the validation of this potential therapeutic target in human tissue.

  18. Comparing maximum autonomic activity of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and epileptic seizures using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jesper; Beniczky, Sándor; Johansen, Peter; Sidenius, Per; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    The semiology of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) can resemble epileptic seizures, and differentiation between epileptic seizures with no EEG-correlate and PNES can be challenging even for trained experts. Therefore, there has been a search for a quantitative measure, other than EEG and semiology that could distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures. We used ECG to measure heart rate variability (HRV) in order to compare maximum autonomic activity of epileptic seizures and PNES. These comparisons could potentially serve as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of clinical episodes. Forty-nine epileptic seizures from 17 patients and 24 PNES from 7 patients with analyzable ECG were recorded during long-term video-EEG monitoring. Moving windows of 100 R-R intervals throughout each seizure were used to find maximum values of Cardiac Sympathetic Index (CSI) (sympathetic tonus) and minimum values of Cardiac Vagal Index (CVI), Root-Mean-Square-of-Successive-Differences (RMSSD) and HF-power (parasympathetic tonus). In addition, non-seizure recordings of each patient were used to compare HRV-parameters between the groups. The maximum CSI for epilepsy seizures were higher than PNES (P=0.015). The minimum CVI, minimum RMSSD and HF-power did not show significant difference between epileptic seizures and PNES (P=0.762; P=0.152; P=0.818). There were no statistical difference of non-seizure HRV-parameters between the PNES and epilepsy patients. We found the maximum sympathetic activity accompanying the epileptic seizures to be higher, than that during the PNES. However, the great variation of autonomic response within both groups makes it difficult to use these HRV-measures as a sole measurement in distinguishing epileptic seizures from PNES. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Orgasm-induced seizures: male studied with ictal electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anshuman; Mahmoud, Ali; Tun, Shwe Z; Goulding, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Reflex seizures can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, both sensory and emotional. Common triggers include light and music; however, in a growing number of case reports, the phenomenon of sexual activity triggering epileptic seizures is described. The majority of these case reports have been in women so far, and most have been found to localise to the right cerebral hemisphere on interictal electroencephalography (EEG). We report the case of a 34-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, recorded on ictal EEG. This gentleman's electrophysiology localised his seizure focus to the left cerebral hemisphere, making his case atypical in comparison with the majority of previous reports. Orgasm-induced seizures are an increasingly well-described phenomenon and we suggest that this should be taken into account when assessing patients with possible reflex seizures. Copyright 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with ambulance requests for febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Marui, Eiji

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with ambulance requests for febrile seizures. This study retrospectively investigated medical records of patients who visited the Emergency Care Unit at Tokyo Metropolitan Toshima Hospital in the 5-year period after April 2001. Subjects' basic characteristics (e.g., age and sex), medical history of febrile seizures, sibling and parental medical history of febrile seizures, and distance from hospital were investigated. In total, 310 subjects used ambulances, and 106 came to the hospital without requesting ambulances. The results of binomial logistic analysis indicated that factors associated with ambulance requests included patient's and parents' medical history of febrile seizures. Increasing awareness of febrile seizures and provision of a general public educational campaign are possible strategies to help decrease unnecessary ambulance requests. However, a medical history of febrile seizures among siblings revealed no association, indicating the need to conduct repeated early-stage interventions.

  1. Tranexamic acid-associated seizures: Causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Whissell, Paul D; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2016-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in-hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid-associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid-associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. © 2015 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  2. Tranexamic acid–associated seizures: Causes and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian‐Shi; Whissell, Paul D.; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C. David

    2015-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in‐hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid–associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid–associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:18–26 PMID:26580862

  3. Variation in seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ostahowski, Paige J; Kannan, Nithya; Wainwright, Mark S; Qiu, Qian; Mink, Richard B; Groner, Jonathan I; Bell, Michael J; Giza, Christopher C; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Boyle, Linda Ng; Mitchell, Pamela H; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic seizure is a major complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in seizure prophylaxis in select pediatric trauma centers. The authors hypothesized that there would be wide variation in seizure prophylaxis selection and use, within and between pediatric trauma centers. METHODS In this retrospective multicenter cohort study including 5 regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers, the authors examined data from 236 children (age < 18 years) with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.0-854.1, 959.01, 950.1-950.3, 995.55, maximum head Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) who received tracheal intubation for ≥ 48 hours in the ICU between 2007 and 2011. RESULTS Of 236 patients, 187 (79%) received seizure prophylaxis. In 2 of the 5 centers, 100% of the patients received seizure prophylaxis medication. Use of seizure prophylaxis was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.001), inflicted TBI (p < 0.001), subdural hematoma (p = 0.02), cerebral infarction (p < 0.001), and use of electroencephalography (p = 0.023), but not higher Injury Severity Score. In 63% cases in which seizure prophylaxis was used, the patients were given the first medication within 24 hours of injury, and 50% of the patients received the first dose in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Initial seizure prophylaxis was most commonly with fosphenytoin (47%), followed by phenytoin (40%). CONCLUSIONS While fosphenytoin was the most commonly used medication for seizure prophylaxis, there was large variation within and between trauma centers with respect to timing and choice of seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric TBI. The heterogeneity in seizure prophylaxis use may explain the previously observed lack of relationship between seizure prophylaxis and outcomes.

  4. Periictal activity in cooled asphyxiated neonates with seizures.

    PubMed

    Major, Philippe; Lortie, Anne; Dehaes, Mathieu; Lodygensky, Gregory Anton; Gallagher, Anne; Carmant, Lionel; Birca, Ala

    2017-04-01

    Seizures are common in critically ill neonates. Both seizures and antiepileptic treatments may lead to short term complications and worsen the outcomes. Predicting the risks of seizure reoccurrence could enable individual treatment regimens and better outcomes. We aimed to identify EEG signatures of seizure reoccurrence by investigating periictal electrographic features and spectral power characteristics in hypothermic neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) with or without reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming. We recruited five consecutive HIE neonates, submitted to continuous EEG monitoring, with high seizure burden (>20% per hour) while undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Two of them had reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming. We performed quantitative analysis of fifteen artifact-free consecutive seizures to appreciate spectral power changes between the interictal, preictal and ictal periods, separately for each patient. Visual analysis allowed description of electrographic features associated with ictal events. Every patient demonstrated a significant increase in overall spectral power from the interictal to preictal and ictal periods (p<0.01). Alpha power increase was more pronounced in the two patients with reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming and significant when comparing both interictal-to-preictal and interictal-to-ictal periods. This alpha activity increase could be also appreciated using visual analysis and distinguished neonates with and without seizure reoccurrence. This distinct alpha activity preceding ictal onset could represent a biomarker of propensity for seizure reoccurrence in neonates. Future studies should be performed to confirm whether quantitative periictal characteristics and electrographic features allow predicting the risks of seizure reoccurrence in HIE neonates and other critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  6. Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), low-gamma (30–70 Hz), and high-gamma (70–180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

  7. Pre-stroke seizures: A nationwide register-based investigation.

    PubMed

    Zelano, Johan; Larsson, David; Kumlien, Eva; Åsberg, Signild

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and seizures is clearly illustrated by poststroke epilepsy. Seizures can also be the first manifestation of cerebrovascular disease and case-control studies have demonstrated that seizures carry an increased risk of subsequent stroke. Thus, seizures could serve as a marker for vascular risk that merits intervention, but more data is needed before proper trials can be conducted. The occurrence of pre-stroke seizures has not been assessed on a national scale. We asked what proportion of strokes in middle-aged and elderly patients was preceded by seizures. All patients over 60 years of age with first-ever stroke in 2005-2010 (n=92,596) were identified in the Swedish stroke register (Riksstroke) and cross-sectional data on a history of a first seizure or epilepsy diagnosis in the ten years preceding stroke were collected from national patient registers with mandatory reporting. 1372 patients (1.48%) had a first seizure or epilepsy diagnosis registered less than ten years prior to the index stroke. The mean latency between seizure and stroke was 1474days (SD 1029 days). Seizures or epilepsy preceded 1.48% of strokes in patients >60years of age. Based on recent national incidence figures, 5-20% of incident cases of seizures or epilepsy after 60 years of age could herald stroke, depending on age group. These proportions are of a magnitude that merit further study on how to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with late-onset seizures or epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consciousness and epilepsy: why are complex-partial seizures complex?

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging techniques spanning both human patients and animal models may allow new insights into this old question. While behavioral automatisms are often associated with diminished consciousness during temporal lobe seizures, impaired consciousness without ictal motor activity has also been described. Some have argued that electrographic lateralization of seizure activity to the left temporal lobe is most likely to cause impaired consciousness, but the evidence remains equivocal. Other data correlates ictal consciousness in TLE with bilateral temporal lobe involvement of seizure spiking. Nevertheless, it remains unclear why bilateral temporal seizures should impair responsiveness. Recent evidence has shown that impaired consciousness during temporal lobe seizures is correlated with large-amplitude slow EEG activity and neuroimaging signal decreases in the frontal and parietal association cortices. This abnormal decreased function in the neocortex contrasts with fast polyspike activity and elevated cerebral blood flow in limbic and other subcortical structures ictally. Our laboratory has thus proposed the “network inhibition hypothesis,” in which seizure activity propagates to subcortical regions necessary for cortical activation, allowing the cortex to descend into an inhibited state of unconsciousness during complex-partial temporal lobe seizures. Supporting this hypothesis, recent rat studies during partial limbic seizures have shown that behavioral arrest is associated with frontal cortical slow waves, decreased neuronal firing, and hypometabolism. Animal studies further demonstrate that cortical deactivation and behavioral

  9. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

  10. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Clapp, Ned E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Lawkins, William F.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

  11. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa [Naperville, IL; Kulikov, Stanislav [Sarov, RU; Osorio, Ivan [Leawood, KS; Raptis, Apostolos C [Downers Grove, IL

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  12. Reversal of pentylenetetrazole-altered swimming and neural activity-regulated gene expression in zebrafish larvae by valproic acid and valerian extract.

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Colón, Luis R; Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torrado, Aranza; Miscalichi, Nahira; Ortíz, José G; González-Sepúlveda, Lorena; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Suárez-Pérez, Erick; Bradsher, John N; Behra, Martine

    2016-07-01

    Ethnopharmacology has documented hundreds of psychoactive plants awaiting exploitation for drug discovery. A robust and inexpensive in vivo system allowing systematic screening would be critical to exploiting this knowledge. The objective of this study was to establish a cheap and accurate screening method which can be used for testing psychoactive efficacy of complex mixtures of unknown composition, like plant crude extracts. We used automated recording of zebrafish larval swimming behavior during light vs. dark periods which we reproducibly altered with an anxiogenic compound, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). First, we reversed this PTZ-altered swimming by co-treatment with a well-defined synthetic anxiolytic drug, valproic acid (VPA). Next, we aimed at reversing it by adding crude root extracts of Valeriana officinalis (Val) from which VPA was originally derived. Finally, we assessed how expression of neural activity-regulated genes (c-fos, npas4a, and bdnf) known to be upregulated by PTZ treatment was affected in the presence of Val. Both VPA and Val significantly reversed the PTZ-altered swimming behaviors. Noticeably, Val at higher doses was affecting swimming independently of the presence of PTZ. A strong regulation of all three neural-activity genes was observed in Val-treated larvae which fully supported the behavioral results. We demonstrated in a combined behavioral-molecular approach the strong psychoactivity of a natural extract of unknown composition made from V. officinalis. Our results highlight the efficacy and sensitivity of such an approach, therefore offering a novel in vivo screening system amenable to high-throughput testing of promising ethnobotanical candidates.

  13. Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizures.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Janette; Weston, Jennifer; Dundar, Yenal; Nevitt, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G

    2018-05-23

    This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in Issue 3, 2015.The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure appears to vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investigated in a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). To determine the effic