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Sample records for pepper 9-lipoxygenase gene

  1. Isolation and characterization of 9-lipoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase 2 genes: Insight into lactone biosynthesis in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashish B; Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2017-03-10

    Uniqueness and diversity of mango flavour across various cultivars are well known. Among various flavour metabolites lactones form an important class of aroma volatiles in certain mango varieties due to their ripening specific appearance and lower odour detection threshold. In spite of their biological and biochemical importance, lactone biosynthetic pathway in plants remains elusive. Present study encompasses quantitative real-time analysis of 9-lipoxygenase (Mi9LOX), epoxide hydrolase 2 (MiEH2), peroxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase and acyl-CoA-oxidase genes during various developmental and ripening stages in fruit of Alphonso, Pairi and Kent cultivars with high, low and no lactone content and explains their variable lactone content. Study also covers isolation, recombinant protein characterization and transient over-expression of Mi9LOX and MiEH2 genes in mango fruits. Recombinant Mi9LOX utilized linoleic and linolenic acids, while MiEH2 utilized aromatic and fatty acid epoxides as their respective substrates depicting their role in fatty acid metabolism. Significant increase in concentration of δ-valerolactone and δ-decalactone upon Mi9LOX over-expression and that of δ-valerolactone, γ-hexalactone and δ-hexalactone upon MiEH2 over-expression further suggested probable involvement of these genes in lactone biosynthesis in mango.

  2. The Persimmon 9-lipoxygenase Gene DkLOX3 Plays Positive Roles in Both Promoting Senescence and Enhancing Tolerance to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yali; Meng, Kun; Han, Ye; Ban, Qiuyan; Wang, Biao; Suo, Jiangtao; Lv, Jingyi; Rao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    The lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway is a key regulator for lipid peroxidation, which is crucial for plant senescence and defense pathways. In this study, the transcriptional expression patterns of three persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. 'Fupingjianshi') 9-lipoxygenase genes (DkLOX1, DkLOX3, and DkLOX4) were investigated. DkLOX1 was specifically expressed in fruit, particularly in young fruit, and showed little response to the postharvest environments. DkLOX4 was expressed in all tissues and slightly stimulated by mechanical damage and low temperature. DkLOX3 was expressed mainly in mature fruit, and the expression was extremely high throughout the storage period, apparently up-regulated by mechanical damage and high carbon dioxide treatments. Further functional analysis showed that overexpression of DkLOX3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) accelerated fruit ripening and softening. This was accompanied by higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lycopene accumulation, advanced ethylene release peak and elevated expression of ethylene synthesis genes, including ACS2, ACO1, and ACO3. In addition, DkLOX3 overexpression promoted dark induced transgenic Arabidopsis leaf senescence with more chlorophyll loss, increased electrolyte leakage and MDA content. Furthermore, the functions of DkLOX3 in response to abiotic stresses, including osmotic stress, high salinity and drought were investigated. Arabidopsis DkLOX3 overexpression (DkLOX3-OX) transgenic lines were found to be more tolerant to osmotic stress with higher germination rate and root growth than wild-type. Moreover, DkLOX3-OX Arabidopsis plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity and drought, with similar decreased O2 (-) and H2O2 accumulation and upregulation of stress-responsive genes expression, including RD22, RD29A, RD29B, and NCED3, except for FRY1, which plays a negative role in stress response. Overall, these results suggested that DkLOX3 plays positive roles both in promoting ripening

  3. The Persimmon 9-lipoxygenase Gene DkLOX3 Plays Positive Roles in Both Promoting Senescence and Enhancing Tolerance to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yali; Meng, Kun; Han, Ye; Ban, Qiuyan; Wang, Biao; Suo, Jiangtao; Lv, Jingyi; Rao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    The lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway is a key regulator for lipid peroxidation, which is crucial for plant senescence and defense pathways. In this study, the transcriptional expression patterns of three persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. ‘Fupingjianshi’) 9-lipoxygenase genes (DkLOX1, DkLOX3, and DkLOX4) were investigated. DkLOX1 was specifically expressed in fruit, particularly in young fruit, and showed little response to the postharvest environments. DkLOX4 was expressed in all tissues and slightly stimulated by mechanical damage and low temperature. DkLOX3 was expressed mainly in mature fruit, and the expression was extremely high throughout the storage period, apparently up-regulated by mechanical damage and high carbon dioxide treatments. Further functional analysis showed that overexpression of DkLOX3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) accelerated fruit ripening and softening. This was accompanied by higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lycopene accumulation, advanced ethylene release peak and elevated expression of ethylene synthesis genes, including ACS2, ACO1, and ACO3. In addition, DkLOX3 overexpression promoted dark induced transgenic Arabidopsis leaf senescence with more chlorophyll loss, increased electrolyte leakage and MDA content. Furthermore, the functions of DkLOX3 in response to abiotic stresses, including osmotic stress, high salinity and drought were investigated. Arabidopsis DkLOX3 overexpression (DkLOX3-OX) transgenic lines were found to be more tolerant to osmotic stress with higher germination rate and root growth than wild-type. Moreover, DkLOX3-OX Arabidopsis plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity and drought, with similar decreased O2- and H2O2 accumulation and upregulation of stress-responsive genes expression, including RD22, RD29A, RD29B, and NCED3, except for FRY1, which plays a negative role in stress response. Overall, these results suggested that DkLOX3 plays positive roles both in promoting ripening

  4. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

  5. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry. PMID:27768750

  6. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper.

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A

    2011-06-01

    Four pepper genotypes classified as resistant and four pepper genotypes classified as susceptible to several avirulent populations of M. incognita were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be virulent to resistant bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The virulent population of M. incognita originated from a commercial bell pepper field in California. The resistant pepper genotypes used in all experiments were the Capsicum annuum cultivars Charleston Belle, Carolina Wonder, and Carolina Cayenne, and the C. chinense cultigen PA-426. The susceptible pepper genotypes used in the experiments were the C. annuum cultivars Keystone Resistant Giant, Yolo Wonder B, California Wonder, and the C. chinense cultigen PA-350. Root gall indices (GI) were ≥ 3.0 for all genotypes in both tests except for PA-426 (GI=2.57) in test 1 and 'Carolina Cayenne' (GI=2.83) in test 2. Numbers of eggs per gram fresh root weight ranged from 20,635 to 141,319 and reproductive indices ranged from 1.20 to 27.2 for the pepper genotypes in both tests, indicating that all eight pepper genotypes tested were susceptible to the M. incognita population used in these tests. The M. incognita population used in these studies overcame resistance conferred by the N gene in all resistant genotypes of both C. annuum and C. chinense.

  7. Physiological quality and gene expression during the development of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, H O; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, I V; Dutra, S M F; Andrade, T; Guimarães, R M

    2015-05-12

    Phytohormones have different characteristics and functions, and they may be subject to changes in their gene expression and synthesis during seed development. In this study, we evaluated the physiological qualities of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) during seed development and the expression of genes involved in germination. Seeds were obtained from fruits harvested at different stages of development [i.e., 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days after anthesis (DAA)]. Immediately after harvesting, the seeds were subjected to various tests to determine moisture content, germination, first count germination, and seedling emergence. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of various genes, including MAN2, NCED, B73, ICL6, and GA3ox. Electrophoresis was used to assess the expression of various enzymes, including α-amylase, isocitrate-lyase, and endo-β-mannanase. Habanero peppers harvested at 70 DAA and subjected to 7 days of rest exhibited higher germination rates and vigor compared to those harvested at all other developmental stages. Peppers harvested at 63 DAA without drying exhibited higher α amylase and AmyB73 gene expression levels. Peppers harvested at 70 DAA with 7 days of rest exhibited higher endo-β-mannanase expression levels. MAN2 gene expression increased during the development of non-dried seeds until 70 DAA. Peppers harvested at 42 DAA exhibited the highest isocitrate-lyase and ICL6 gene activity levels in comparison to those at all other developmental stages.

  8. Efficient and specific conversion of 9-lipoxygenase hydroperoxides in the beetroot. Formation of pinellic acid.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Mats; Olsson, Ulrika

    2011-09-01

    The linoleate 9-lipoxygenase product 9(S)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid was stirred with a crude enzyme preparation from the beetroot (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. vulgaris) to afford a product consisting of 95% of 9(S),12(S),13(S)-trihydroxy-10(E)-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). The linolenic acid-derived hydroperoxide 9(S)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid was converted in an analogous way into 9(S),12(S),13(S)-trihydroxy-10(E),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (fulgidic acid). On the other hand, the 13-lipoxygenase-generated hydroperoxides of linoleic or linolenic acids failed to produce significant amounts of trihydroxy acids. Short-time incubation of 9(S)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid afforded the epoxy alcohol 12(R),13(S)-epoxy-9(S)-hydroxy-10(E)-octadecenoic acid as the main product indicating the sequence 9-hydroperoxide → epoxy alcohol → trihydroxy acid catalyzed by epoxy alcohol synthase and epoxide hydrolase activities, respectively. The high capacity of the enzyme system detected in beetroot combined with a simple isolation protocol made possible by the low amounts of endogenous lipids in the enzyme preparation offered an easy access to pinellic and fulgidic acids for use in biological and medical studies.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis and Evolution of the Pto-Like Protein Kinase (PLPK) Gene Family in Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    The tomato Pto gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase (STK) domain-containing protein, confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). In this study, in vivo recognition assays using PVX constructs showed that AvrPto was specifically recognized in the pepper genotypes. This AvrPto recognition caused a nonhost hypersensitive response (HR) and localization of the PVX::AvrPto fusion protein to inoculated pepper leaf tissues, which indicates the presence of a similar Pto recognition mechanism in pepper as in tomato. However, genome-wide analysis in pepper revealed no Pto clade corresponding to that in tomato, suggesting an alternative system for Pto recognition in pepper. Nevertheless, 25 Pto-like protein kinases (PLPKs) with a highly conserved STK domain have been identified in the pepper genome. For the majority of the amino acid sites in the STK domain of Ptos and PLPKs, nonsynonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitution ratios (ω) were less than one, suggesting that purifying selection played a predominant role in the evolutionary process. However, some amino acid sites were found to be subjected to episodic positive selection in the course of evolution of Pto homologs, and, thus, different evolutionary processes might have shaped the Pto gene family in plants. Based on RNA-seq data, PLPK genes and other Pto pathway genes, such as Prf, Pti1, Pti5, and Pti6 were expressed in all tested pepper genotypes. Therefore, the nonhost HR against Pst in pepper may be due to the recognition of the AvrPto effector by a PLPK homolog, and subsequent action of downstream components of the Pto signaling pathway. However, the possibility remains that the recognition of AvrPto in pepper plants may involve activities of other receptor like kinases (RLKs). The identification of the PLPKs in this study will serve as a foundation for further efforts to understand the roles of PLPKs in nonhost resistance. PMID:27536870

  10. Discovery of putative capsaicin biosynthetic genes by RNA-Seq and digital gene expression analysis of pepper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Xin; Zhao, Shu-Niu; Liu, Gao-Feng; Huang, Zu-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Mu; Cheng, Shan-Han; Lin, Shi-Sen

    2016-10-19

    The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. More than 19 million clean reads were obtained from each library, and greater than 50% of the reads were assignable to reference genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed at five fruit developmental stages and resulted in the identification of 135 genes of known function; their expression patterns were compared to the capsaicin accumulation pattern. Ten genes of known function were identified as most likely to be involved in regulating capsaicin synthesis. Additionally, 20 new candidate genes were identified related to capsaicin synthesis. We use a combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analyses to contribute to the understanding of the biosynthetic regulatory mechanism(s) of secondary metabolites in a nonmodel plant and to identify candidate enzyme-encoding genes.

  11. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Thomas H.; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Clark, Eszter T.; Gajiwala, Paresh; Pasion, Romela; Whalen, Maureen C.; Stall, Robert E.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bs2 resistance gene of pepper specifically recognizes and confers resistance to strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that contain the corresponding bacterial avirulence gene, avrBs2. The involvement of avrBs2 in pathogen fitness and its prevalence in many X. campestris pathovars suggests that the Bs2 gene may be durable in the field and provide resistance when introduced into other plant species. Employing a positional cloning strategy, the Bs2 locus was isolated and the gene was identified by coexpression with avrBs2 in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay. A single candidate gene, predicted to encode motifs characteristic of the nucleotide binding site–leucine-rich repeat class of resistance genes, was identified. This gene specifically controlled the hypersensitive response when transiently expressed in susceptible pepper and tomato lines and in a nonhost species, Nicotiana benthamiana, and was designated as Bs2. Functional expression of Bs2 in stable transgenic tomatoes supports its use as a source of resistance in other Solanaceous plant species. PMID:10570214

  12. Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

    2013-01-01

    Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. PMID:24256816

  13. Identification of novel pepper genes involved in Bax- or INF1-mediated cell death responses by high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

    2013-11-19

    Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death.

  14. In silico identification and characterization of the WRKY gene superfamily in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Yao, Z P; Ruan, M Y; Ye, Q J; Wang, R Q; Zhou, G Z; Luo, J

    2016-09-23

    The WRKY family is one of the most important transcription factor families in plants, involved in the regulation of a broad range of biological roles. The recent releases of whole-genome sequences of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) allow us to perform a genome-wide identification and characterization of the WRKY family. In this study, 61 CaWRKY proteins were identified in the pepper genome. Based on protein structural and phylogenetic analyses, these proteins were classified into four main groups (I, II, III, and NG), and Group II was further divided into five subgroups (IIa to IIe). Chromosome mapping analysis indicated that CaWRKY genes are distributed across all 12 chromosomes, although the location of four CaWRKYs (CaWRKY58-CaWRKY61) could not be identified. Two pairs of CaWRKYs located on chromosome 01 appear to be tandem duplications. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree showed a close evolutionary relationship of WRKYs in three species from Solanaceae. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis of CaWRKYs will provide rich resources for further functional studies in pepper.

  15. The Pun1 gene for pungency in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Liu, Kede; Mazourek, Michael; Moore, Shanna L; Yoo, Eun Young; Kim, Byung-Dong; Paran, Ilan; Jahn, Molly M

    2005-06-01

    Pungency in Capsicum fruits is due to the accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs. The biosynthesis of capsaicin is restricted to the genus Capsicum and results from the acylation of an aromatic moiety, vanillylamine, by a branched-chain fatty acid. Many of the enzymes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis are not well characterized and the regulation of the pathway is not fully understood. Based on the current pathway model, candidate genes were identified in public databases and the literature, and genetically mapped. A published EST co-localized with the Pun1 locus which is required for the presence of capsaicinoids. This gene, AT3, has been isolated and its nucleotide sequence has been determined in an array of genotypes within the genus. AT3 showed significant similarity to acyltransferases in the BAHD superfamily. The recessive allele at this locus contains a deletion spanning the promoter and first exon of the predicted coding region in every non-pungent accession tested. Transcript and protein expression of AT3 was tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Virus-induced gene silencing of AT3 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of capsaicinoids, a phenotype consistent with pun1. In conclusion, gene mapping, allele sequence data, expression profile and silencing analysis collectively indicate that the Pun1 locus in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase, and the pun1 allele, used in pepper breeding for nearly 50 000 years, results from a large deletion at this locus.

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to Identify Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Capsaicinoids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies. PMID:23349661

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the SBP-Box Family Genes under Phytophthora capsici Stress in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huai-Xia; Jin, Jing-Hao; He, Yu-Mei; Lu, Bo-Ya; Li, Da-Wei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Khan, Abid; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that are extensively involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, including growth, development, and signal transduction. However, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) SBP-box family genes have not been well characterized. We investigated SBP-box family genes in the pepper genome and characterized these genes across both compatible and incompatible strain of Phytophthora capsici, and also under different hormone treatments. The results indicated that total 15 members were identified and distributed on seven chromosomes of pepper. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SBP-box genes of pepper can be classified into six groups. In addition, duplication analysis within pepper genome, as well as between pepper and Arabidopsis genomes demonstrated that there are four pairs of homology of SBP-box genes in the pepper genome and 10 pairs between pepper and Arabidopsis genomes. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the CaSBP genes demonstrated their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. The expression profiles were similarly analyzed following exposure to P. capsici inoculation and hormone treatments. It was shown that nine of the CaSBP genes (CaSBP01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 11, 12, and 13) exhibited a dramatic up-regulation after compatible HX-9 strain (P. capsici) inoculation, while CaSBP09 and CaSBP15 were down-regulated. In case of PC strain (P. capsici) infection six of the CaSBP genes (CaSBP02, 05, 06, 11, 12, and 13) were arose while CaSBP14 was down regulated. Furthermore, Salicylic acid, Methyl jasmonate and their biosynthesis inhibitors treatment indicated that some of the CaSBP genes are potentially involved in these hormone regulation pathways. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles of the pepper CaSBP genes, will help to improve pepper stress tolerance in the future. PMID:27148327

  19. Discovery of putative capsaicin biosynthetic genes by RNA-Seq and digital gene expression analysis of pepper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Xin; Zhao, Shu-Niu; Liu, Gao-Feng; Huang, Zu-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Mu; Cheng, Shan-Han; Lin, Shi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The Indian pepper ‘Guijiangwang’ (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world’s hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper’s expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. More than 19 million clean reads were obtained from each library, and greater than 50% of the reads were assignable to reference genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed at five fruit developmental stages and resulted in the identification of 135 genes of known function; their expression patterns were compared to the capsaicin accumulation pattern. Ten genes of known function were identified as most likely to be involved in regulating capsaicin synthesis. Additionally, 20 new candidate genes were identified related to capsaicin synthesis. We use a combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analyses to contribute to the understanding of the biosynthetic regulatory mechanism(s) of secondary metabolites in a nonmodel plant and to identify candidate enzyme-encoding genes. PMID:27756914

  20. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five root-knot nematode resistant pepper genotypes and three susceptible pepper genotypes were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be pathogenic to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The pepp...

  1. Systemic acquired resistance delays race shifts to major resistance genes in bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Romero, A M; Ritchie, D F

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT The lack of durability of host plant disease resistance is a major problem in disease control. Genotype-specific resistance that involves major resistance (R) genes is especially prone to failure. The compatible (i.e., disease) host-pathogen interaction with systemic acquired resistance (SAR) has been studied extensively, but the incompatible (i.e., resistant) interaction less so. Using the pepper-bacterial spot (causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria) pathosystem, we examined the effect of SAR in reducing the occurrence of race-change mutants that defeat R genes in laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments. Pepper plants carrying one or more R genes were sprayed with the plant defense activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and challenged with incompatible strains of the pathogen. In the greenhouse, disease lesions first were observed 3 weeks after inoculation. ASM-treated plants carrying a major R gene had significantly fewer lesions caused by both the incompatible (i.e., hypersensitive) and compatible (i.e., disease) responses than occurred on nonsprayed plants. Bacteria isolated from the disease lesions were confirmed to be race-change mutants. In field experiments, there was a delay in the detection of race-change mutants and a reduction in disease severity. Decreased disease severity was associated with a reduction in the number of race-change mutants and the suppression of disease caused by the race-change mutants. This suggests a possible mechanism related to a decrease in the pathogen population size, which subsequently reduces the number of race-change mutants for the selection pressure of R genes. Thus, inducers of SAR are potentially useful for increasing the durability of genotype-specific resistance conferred by major R genes.

  2. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  3. Development of molecular markers tightly linked to Pvr4 gene in pepper using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Devran, Zübeyir; Kahveci, Erdem; Özkaynak, Ercan; Studholme, David J; Tör, Mahmut

    It is imperative to identify highly polymorphic and tightly linked markers of a known trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. Potyvirus resistance 4 (Pvr4) locus in pepper confers resistance to three pathotypes of potato virus Y and to pepper mottle virus. We describe the use of next-generation sequencing technology to generate molecular markers tightly linked to Pvr4. Initially, comparative genomics was carried out, and a syntenic region of tomato on chromosome ten was used to generate PCR-based markers and map Pvr4. Subsequently, the genomic sequence of pepper was used, and more than 5000 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the interval. In addition, we identified nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat-type disease resistance genes within the interval. Several of these SNVs were converted to molecular markers desirable for large-scale molecular breeding programmes.

  4. Putative WRKYs associated with regulation of fruit ripening revealed by detailed expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in pepper

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; JalalAhammed, Golam; Yu, Jiahong; Yao, Zhuping; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Li, Zhimiao; Wang, Rongqing; Feng, Kun; Zhou, Guozhi; Yang, Yuejian; Diao, Weiping; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here, global expression patterns of pepper CaWRKYs in various tissues as well as response to environmental stresses and plant hormones were systematically analyzed, with an emphasis on fruit ripening. The results showed that most CaWRKYs were expressed in at least two of the tissues tested. Group I, a subfamily of the entire CaWRKY gene family, had a higher expression level in vegetative tissues, whereas groups IIa and III showed relatively lower expression levels. Comparative analysis showed that the constitutively highly expressed WRKY genes were conserved in tomato and pepper, suggesting potential functional similarities. Among the identified 61 CaWRKYs, almost 60% were expressed during pepper fruit maturation, and the group I genes were in higher proportion during the ripening process, indicating an as-yet unknown function of group I in the fruit maturation process. Further analysis suggested that many CaWRKYs expressed during fruit ripening were also regulated by abiotic stresses or plant hormones, indicating that these CaWRKYs play roles in the stress-related signaling pathways during fruit ripening. This study provides new insights to the current research on CaWRKY and contributes to our knowledge about the global regulatory network in pepper fruit ripening. PMID:27991526

  5. A simple method for screening of plant NBS-LRR genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses and its application for screening candidate pepper genes against Pepper mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phu-Tri; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-06-01

    Plant NBS-LRR genes are abundant and have been increasingly cloned from plant genomes. In this study, a method based on agroinfiltration and virus inoculation was developed for the simple and inexpensive screening of candidate R genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses. The well-characterized resistance genes Rx and N, which confer resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) and tobamovirus, respectively, were used to optimize a transient expression assay for detection of hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infectious sap of PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus were used to induce hypersensitive response in Rx- and N-infiltrated leaves, respectively. The transient expression of the N gene induced local hypersensitive response upon infection of another tobamovirus, Pepper mild mottle virus, through both sap and transcript inoculation. When this method was used to screen 99 candidate R genes from pepper, an R gene that confers hypersensitive response to the potyvirus Pepper mottle virus was identified. The method will be useful for the identification of plant R genes that confer resistance to viruses.

  6. Amino acids in Tobamovirus coat protein controlling pepper L(1a) gene-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Ikumi; Shimomoto, Yoshifumi; Sawada, Hiromasa; Tomita, Reiko; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Kiba, Akinori; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Kappei; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2012-10-01

    In pepper plants (genus Capsicum), the resistance against Tobamovirus spp. is conferred by L gene alleles. The recently identified L variant L(1a) can recognize coat proteins (CPs) of Tobacco mild green mosaic virus Japanese strain (TMGMV-J) and Paprika mild mottle virus Japanese strain (PaMMV-J), but not of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), as the elicitor to induce resistance at 24 °C. Interestingly, L(1a) gene-mediated resistance against TMGMV-J, but not PaMMV-J, is retained at 30 °C. This observation led us to speculate that L(1a) can discriminate between CPs of TMGMV-J and PaMMV-J. In this study, we aimed to determine the region(s) in CP by which L(1a) distinguishes TMGMV-J from PaMMV-J. By using chimeric CPs consisting of TMGMV-J and PaMMV-J, we found that the chimeric TMGMV-J CP, whose residues in the β-sheet domain were replaced by those of PaMMV-J, lost its ability to induce L(1a) gene-mediated resistance at 30 °C. In contrast, the chimeric PaMMV-J CP with the β-sheet domain replaced by TMGMV-J CP was able to induce L(1a) gene-mediated resistance at 30 °C. Furthermore, viral particles were not detected in the leaves inoculated with either chimeric virus. These observations indicated that the amino acids within the β-sheet domain were involved in both the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance and virion formation. Further analyses using chimeric CPs of TMGMV-J and PMMoV indicated that amino acids within the β-sheet domain alone were not sufficient for the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance by TMGMV-J CP. These results suggest that multiple regions in Tobamovirus CP are implicated in the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile of Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Cui, Junjie; Xu, Xiaowan; Liang, Guansheng; Luo, Xirong; Chen, Xiaocui; Tang, Xiangqun; Hu, Kailin; Qin, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factor family is unique to plants and has diverse roles associated with plant-specific phenomena, such as light, phytohormone and defense responses as well as seed development and germination. Although, genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in many species, information regarding Dof genes in the pepper, Capsicum annuum L., is extremely limited. In this study, exhaustive searches of pepper genome revealed 33 potential CaDofs that were phylogenetically clustered into four subgroups. Twenty-nine of the 33 Dof genes could be mapped on 11 chromosomes, except for chromosome 7. The intron/exon organizations and conserved motif compositions of these genes were also analyzed. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Dof transcription factor family in eight plant species revealed that S. lycopersicum and C. annuum as well as O. sativa and S. bicolor Dof proteins may have evolved conservatively. Moreover, comprehensive expression analysis of CaDofs using a RNA-seq atlas and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Most of the CaDofs were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, whereas several genes were identified as being highly responsive to heat and salt stresses. Overall, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the pepper Dof family, whose genes exhibited different expression patterns in all primary fruit developmental stages and tissue types, as in response to abiotic stress. In particular, some Dof genes might be used as biomarkers for heat and salt stress. The results could expand our understanding of the roles of Dof genes in pepper.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile of Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Cui, Junjie; Xu, Xiaowan; Liang, Guansheng; Luo, Xirong; Chen, Xiaocui; Tang, Xiangqun; Hu, Kailin; Qin, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factor family is unique to plants and has diverse roles associated with plant-specific phenomena, such as light, phytohormone and defense responses as well as seed development and germination. Although, genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in many species, information regarding Dof genes in the pepper, Capsicum annuum L., is extremely limited. In this study, exhaustive searches of pepper genome revealed 33 potential CaDofs that were phylogenetically clustered into four subgroups. Twenty-nine of the 33 Dof genes could be mapped on 11 chromosomes, except for chromosome 7. The intron/exon organizations and conserved motif compositions of these genes were also analyzed. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Dof transcription factor family in eight plant species revealed that S. lycopersicum and C. annuum as well as O. sativa and S. bicolor Dof proteins may have evolved conservatively. Moreover, comprehensive expression analysis of CaDofs using a RNA-seq atlas and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Most of the CaDofs were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, whereas several genes were identified as being highly responsive to heat and salt stresses. Overall, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the pepper Dof family, whose genes exhibited different expression patterns in all primary fruit developmental stages and tissue types, as in response to abiotic stress. In particular, some Dof genes might be used as biomarkers for heat and salt stress. The results could expand our understanding of the roles of Dof genes in pepper. PMID:27200047

  9. 9-Lipoxygenase-Derived Oxylipins Activate Brassinosteroid Signaling to Promote Cell Wall-Based Defense and Limit Pathogen Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Ruth; Izquierdo, Yovanny; Vellosillo, Tamara; Kulasekaran, Satish; Cascón, Tomás; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The oxylipins, a large family of oxygenated lipid derivatives, regulate plant development and immunity. Two members of the 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX) oxylipin pathway, 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid and 9-ketooctadecatrienoic acid, control root development and plant defense. Studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using a series of 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid- and 9-ketooctadecatrienoic acid-insensitive nonresponding to oxylipins (noxy) mutants showed the importance of the cell wall as a 9-LOX-induced defense component and the participation of NOXY proteins in signaling cell wall damage. Here, we examined 9-LOX signaling using the mutants lox1lox5, which lacks 9-LOX activity, and noxy2-2, which shows oxylipin insensitivity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutants in brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of plant hormones necessary for normal plant growth and the control of cell wall integrity, were also analyzed. Several lines of evidence indicated that 9-LOX-derived oxylipins induce BR synthesis and signaling to activate cell wall-based responses such as callose deposition and that constitutive activation of BR signaling in bri1-EMS-suppressor 1-D (bes1-D) plants enhances this response. We found that constitutive BR signaling in bes1-D and brassinolide-resistant 1-1D (bzr1-1D) mutants conferred resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. bes1-D and bzr1-1D showed increased resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum, an obligate biotrophic fungus that penetrates the cell wall for successful infection, whereas susceptibility was enhanced in lox1lox5 and noxy2-2. Our results indicate a sequential action of 9-LOX and BR signaling in activating cell wall-based defense, and this response prevents pathogen infection. These results show interaction between the 9-LOX and BR pathways and help to clarify their role in modulating plant defense. PMID:26417008

  10. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for plastid and cytosolic isoprenoid pathways in pepper fruits.

    PubMed Central

    Hugueney, P; Bouvier, F; Badillo, A; Quennemet, J; d'Harlingue, A; Camara, B

    1996-01-01

    Plant cells synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid compounds in different subcellular compartments, which include the plastid, the mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum cytosol. To start the study of the regulation of these parallel pathways, we used pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit as a model. Using different isoprenoid biosynthetic gene probes from cloned cDNAs, we showed that only genes encoding the plastid enzymes (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and capasanthin-capsorubin synthase) are specifically triggered during the normal period of development, at the ripening stage. This pattern of expression can be mimicked and precociously induced by a simple wounding stress. Concerning the cytosol-located enzymes, we observed that the expression of the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase is constitutive, whereas that of farnesyl pyrophosphate cyclase (5-epi-aristolochene synthase) is undetectable during the normal development of the fruit. The expression of these later genes are, however, only selectively triggered after elicitor treatment. The results provide evidence for developmental control of isoprenoid biosynthesis occurring in plastids and that cytoplasmic isoprenoid biosynthesis is regulated, in part, by environmental signals. PMID:8787029

  11. Expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid pathway in type h1 thioredoxin transiently silenced pepper plants during a begomovirus compatible interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna-Rivero, Marianne S; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Villanueva-Alonzo, Hernán; Minero-García, Yereni; Castell-González, Salvador E; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A

    2016-04-01

    The type-h thioredoxins (TRXs) play a fundamental role in oxidative stress tolerance and defense responses against pathogens. In pepper plants, type-h TRXs participate in the defense mechanism against Cucumber mosaic virus. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants during compatible interaction with a DNA virus, the Euphorbia mosaic virus-Yucatan Peninsula (EuMV-YP). The effects of a transient silencing of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants wëre evaluated by observing the accumulation of viral DNA and the visible symptoms of pepper plants under different treatments. The accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the relative expression of the defense genes NPR1 and PR10 were also evaluated. Results showed that viral DNA accumulation was higher in transiently CaTRXh1-cicy silenced plants that were also infected with EuMV-YP. Symptoms in these plants were more severe compared to the non-silenced plants infected with EuMV-YP. The SA levels in the EuMV-YP-infected plants were rapidly induced at 1 h post infection (hpi) in comparison to the non-silenced plants inoculated with EuMV-YP. Additionally, in pepper plants infected with EuMV-YP, the expression of NPR1 decreased by up to 41 and 58 % at 28 days post infection (dpi) compared to the non-silenced pepper plants infected with only EuMV-YP and healthy non-inoculated pepper plants, respectively. PR10 gene expression decreased by up to 70 % at 28 dpi. Overall, the results indicate that the CaTRXh1-cicy gene participates in defense mechanisms during the compatible interaction of pepper plants with the EuMV-YP DNA virus.

  12. Distinct roles of the pepper pathogen-induced membrane protein gene CaPIMP1 in bacterial disease resistance and oomycete disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Choi, Du Seok; Kim, Sang Hee; Yi, Seung Yeon; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2008-08-01

    Plant integral membrane proteins have essential roles in diverse internal and external physiological processes as signal receptors or ion transporters. The pepper CaPIMP1 gene encoding a putative integral membrane protein with four transmembrane domains was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with the avirulent strain Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaPIMP1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusions localized to the plasma membrane in onion cells, as observed by confocal microscopy. CaPIMP1 was expressed in an organ-specific manner in healthy pepper plants. Infection with Xcv induced differential accumulation of CaPIMP1 transcripts in pepper leaf tissues during compatible and incompatible interactions. The function of CaPIMP1 was examined by using the virus-induced gene silencing technique in pepper plants and by overexpression in Arabidopsis. CaPIMP1-silenced pepper plants were highly susceptible to Xcv infection and expressed lower levels of the defense-related gene CaSAR82A. CaPIMP1 overexpression (CaPIMP1-OX) in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato infection, accompanied by enhanced AtPDF1.2 gene expression. In contrast, CaPIMP1-OX plants were highly susceptible to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Taken together, we propose that CaPIMP1 plays distinct roles in both bacterial disease resistance and oomycete disease susceptibility.

  13. Ornithine decarboxylase gene (CaODC1) is specifically induced during TMV-mediated but salicylate-independent resistant response in hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae Hyoung; Park, Chang-Jin; Ham, Byung-Kook; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2004-10-01

    A gene encoding putative ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) has been isolated by differential screening of a cDNA library from the resistant hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) inoculated with avirulent tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) pathotype P0. In hot pepper plants, transcripts of the CaODC1 (C. annuum ODC1) gene started to accumulate at 24 h post-inoculation of TMV-P0 and the signal was spread systemically. The transcript level of CaODC1 was increased rapidly in a hot pepper resistant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) but not in a susceptible hot pepper after inoculation. These results suggest possible role(s) for CaODC1 in plant defense against a broad range of pathogens including viruses and bacteria.

  14. Selection and gene flow on a diminishing cline of melanic peppered moths.

    PubMed

    Saccheri, Ilik J; Rousset, François; Watts, Phillip C; Brakefield, Paul M; Cook, Laurence M

    2008-10-21

    Historical datasets documenting changes to gene frequency clines are extremely rare but provide a powerful means of assessing the strength and relative roles of natural selection and gene flow. In 19th century Britain, blackening of the environment by the coal-fired manufacturing industry gave rise to a steep cline in the frequency of the black (carbonaria) morph of the peppered moth (Biston betularia) across northwest England and north Wales. The carbonaria morph has declined across the region following 1960s legislation to improve air quality, but the cline had not been comprehensively described since the early 1970s. We have quantified changes to the cline as of 2002, equivalent to an interval of 30 generations, and find that a cline still exists but that it is much shallower and shifted eastward. Joint estimation of the dominant fitness cost of carbonaria and dispersal parameters consistent with the observed cline change indicate that selection against carbonaria is very strong across the landscape (s approximately 0.2), and that dispersal is much greater than previously assumed. The high dispersal estimate is further supported by the weak pattern of genetic isolation by distance at microsatellite loci, and it implies that in addition to adult dispersal, wind-dispersed first instar larvae also contribute to lifetime dispersal. The historical perspective afforded by this study of cline reversal provides new insight into the factors contributing to gene frequency change in this species, and it serves to illustrate that, even under conditions of high dispersal and strong reverse selection acting against it, complete erosion of an established cline requires many generations.

  15. Structural analysis of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E gene controlling potyvirus resistance in pepper: exploitation of a BAC library.

    PubMed

    Ruffel, Sandrine; Caranta, Carole; Palloix, Alain; Lefebvre, Véronique; Caboche, Michel; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2004-09-01

    The pvr2 locus in pepper codes for a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) gene that confers resistance to viruses belonging to the potyvirus genus. In this work, we describe the isolation and characterisation of the genomic sequence carrying the pvr2 locus. A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library that consisted of 239,232 clones with an average insert size of 123 kilobases (kb) was constructed from a Capsicum annuum line with the pvr2(+) allele for susceptibility to potato virus Y (PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV). Based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen with single-copy markers, three to seven positive BAC clones per markers were identified, indicating that the BAC library is suitable for pepper genome analysis. To determine the genomic organization of the pepper eIF4E gene, the library was screened with primers designed from the cDNA sequence and four positive BAC clones carrying the pvr2 locus were identified. A 7-kb DNA fragment containing the complete eIF4E gene was sub-cloned from the positive BAC clones and analysed. The eIF4E gene is organised into five exons and four introns and showed a strictly conserved exon/intron structure with eIF4E genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. Moreover, the splice sites between plant exons 1/2 and 2/3 are conserved among eukaryotes including human, Drosophila and yeast. Several potential binding sites for MADS box transcription factors within the 5' flanking region of eIF4E genes from the three plant species were also predicted.

  16. Calcined Eggshell Waste for Mitigating Soil Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria/Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissemination and Accumulation in Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.

  17. Genetic basis for the hierarchical interaction between Tobamovirus spp. and L resistance gene alleles from different pepper species.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Reiko; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Masaru; Murai, Jun; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Kappei

    2011-01-01

    The pepper L gene conditions the plant's resistance to Tobamovirus spp. Alleles L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) confer a broadening spectra of resistance to different virus pathotypes. In this study, we report the genetic basis for the hierarchical interaction between L genes and Tobamovirus pathotypes. We cloned L(3) using map-based methods, and L(1), L(1a), L(1c), L(2), L(2b), and L(4) using a homology-based method. L gene alleles encode coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-type resistance proteins with the ability to induce resistance response to the viral coat protein (CP) avirulence effectors by themselves. Their different recognition spectra in original pepper species were reproduced in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Chimera analysis with L(1), which showed the narrowest recognition spectrum, indicates that the broader recognition spectra conferred by L(2), L(2b), L(3), and L(4) require different subregions of the LRR domain. We identified a critical amino acid residue for the determination of recognition spectra but other regions also influenced the L genes' resistance spectra. The results suggest that the hierarchical interactions between L genes and Tobamovirus spp. are determined by the interaction of multiple subregions of the LRR domain of L proteins with different viral CP themselves or some protein complexes including them.

  18. EST and microarray analyses of pathogen-responsive genes in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) non-host resistance against soybean pustule pathogen (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Kim, Soo-Yong; Chung, Eunjoo; Joung, Young-Hee; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Choi, Doil

    2004-07-01

    Large-scale single-pass sequencing of cDNA libraries and microarray analysis have proven to be useful tools for discovering new genes and studying gene expression. As a first step in elucidating the defense mechanisms in hot pepper plants, a total of 8,525 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated and analyzed in silico. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 613 hot pepper genes that were transcriptionally responsive to the non-host soybean pustule pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines ( Xag). Several functional types of genes, including those involved in cell wall modification/biosynthesis, transport, signaling pathways and divergent defense reactions, were induced at the early stage of Xag infiltration. In contrast, genes encoding proteins that are involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis of chloroplast biogenetic proteins were down-regulated at the late stage of Xag infiltration. These expression profiles share common features with the expression profiles elicited by other stresses, such as fungal challenge, wounding, cold, drought and high salinity. However, we also identified several novel transcription factors that may be specifically involved in the defense reaction of the hot pepper. We also found that the defense reaction of the hot pepper may involve the deactivation of gibberellin. Furthermore, many genes encoding proteins with unknown function were identified. Functional analysis of these genes may broaden our understanding of non-host resistance. This study is the first report of large-scale sequencing and non-host defense transcriptome analysis of the hot pepper plant species. (The sequence data in this paper have been submitted to the dbEST and GenBank database under the codes 10227604-10236595 and BM059564-BM068555, respectively. Additional information is available at http://plant.pdrc.re.kr/ks200201/pepper.html).

  19. Tapetum-specific expression of a cytoplasmic orf507 gene causes semi-male sterility in transgenic peppers

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Huang, Wei; Li, Zheng; Chai, Wei-Guo; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Though cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in peppers is associated with the orf507 gene, definitive and direct evidence that it directly causes male sterility is still lacking. In this study, differences in histochemical localization of anther cytochrome c oxidase between the pepper CMS line and maintainer line were observed mainly in the tapetal cells and tapetal membrane. Inducible and specific expression of the orf507 gene in the pepper maintainer line found that transformants were morphologically similar to untransformed and transformed control plants, but had shrunken anthers that showed little dehiscence and fewer pollen grains with lower germination rate and higher naturally damaged rate. These characters were different from those of CMS line which does not produce any pollen grains. Meanwhile a pollination test using transformants as the male parent set few fruit and there were few seeds in the limited number of fruits. At the tetrad stage, ablation of the tapetal cell induced by premature programmed cell death (PCD) occurred in the transformants and the microspores were distorted and degraded at the mononuclear stage. Stable transmission of induced semi-male sterility was confirmed by a test cross. In addition, expression of orf507 in the maintainer lines seemed to inhibit expression of atp6-2 to a certain extent, and lead to the increase of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and the ATP hydrolysis of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase. These results introduce the premature PCD caused by orf507 gene in tapetal cells and semi-male sterility, but not complete male sterility. PMID:25954296

  20. Industrial melanism in the peppered moth is not associated with genetic variation in canonical melanisation gene candidates.

    PubMed

    van't Hof, Arjen E; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2010-05-28

    Industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia) is an iconic case study of ecological genetics but the molecular identity of the gene determining the difference between the typical and melanic (carbonaria) morphs is entirely unknown. We applied the candidate gene approach to look for associations between genetic polymorphisms within sixteen a priori melanisation gene candidates and the carbonaria morph. The genes were isolated and sequence characterised in B. betularia using degenerate PCR and from whole-transcriptome sequence. The list of candidates contains all the genes previously implicated in melanisation pattern differences in other insects, including aaNAT, DOPA-decarboxylase, ebony, tan, tyrosine hydroxylase, yellow and yellow2 (yellow-fa). Co-segregation of candidate gene alleles and carbonaria morph was tested in 73 offspring of a carbonaria male-typical female backcross. Surprisingly, none of the sixteen candidate genes was in close linkage with the locus controlling the carbonaria-typical polymorphism. Our study demonstrates that the 'carbonaria gene' is not a structural variant of a canonical melanisation pathway gene, neither is it a cis-regulatory element of these enzyme-coding genes. The implication is either that we have failed to characterize an unknown enzyme-coding gene in the melanisation pathway, or more likely, that the 'carbonaria gene' is a higher level trans-acting factor which regulates the spatial expression of one or more of the melanisation candidates in this study to alter the pattern of melanin production.

  1. Involvement of the Pepper Antimicrobial Protein CaAMP1 Gene in Broad Spectrum Disease Resistance1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, In Sun; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2008-01-01

    Pathogen-inducible antimicrobial defense-related proteins have emerged as key antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in disease resistance in plants. A novel antimicrobial protein gene, CaAMP1 (for Capsicum annuum ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN1), was isolated from pepper (C. annuum) leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Expression of the CaAMP1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves not only during pathogen infection but also after exposure to abiotic elicitors. The purified recombinant CaAMP1 protein possessed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. CaAMP1:smGFP fusion protein was localized mainly in the external and intercellular regions of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. The virus-induced gene silencing technique and gain-of-function transgenic plants were used to determine the CaAMP1 gene function in plant defense. Silencing of CaAMP1 led to enhanced susceptibility to X. campestris pv vesicatoria and Colletotrichum coccodes infection, accompanied by reduced PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) gene expression. In contrast, overexpression of CaAMP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) conferred broad-spectrum resistance to the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, and the fungal necrotrophic pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae and Alternaria brassicicola. CaAMP1 overexpression induced the salicylic acid pathway-dependent genes PR1 and PR5 but not the jasmonic acid-dependent defense gene PDF1.2 during P. syringae pv tomato infection. Together, these results suggest that the antimicrobial CaAMP1 protein is involved in broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogen infection. PMID:18676663

  2. Virus-induced silencing of Comt, pAmt and Kas genes results in a reduction of capsaicinoid accumulation in chili pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    del Rosario Abraham-Juárez, Ma; del Carmen Rocha-Granados, Ma; López, Mercedes G; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael Francisco; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2008-02-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the pungent taste of chili pepper fruits of Capsicum species. Capsaicinoids are biosynthesized through both the phenylpropanoid and the branched-fatty acids pathways. Fragments of Comt (encoding a caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), pAmt (a putative aminotransferase), and Kas (a beta-keto-acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase) genes, that are differentially expressed in placenta tissue of pungent chili pepper, were individually inserted into a Pepper huasteco yellow veins virus (PHYVV)-derived vector to determine, by virus-induced gene silencing, irrespective of whether these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids. Reduction of the respective mRNA levels as well as the presence of related siRNAs confirmed the silencing of these three genes. Morphological alterations were evident in plants inoculated with PHYVV::Comt and PHYVV::Kas constructs; however, plants inoculated with PHYVV::pAmt showed no evident alterations. On the other hand, fruit setting was normal in all cases. Biochemical analysis of placenta tissues showed that, indeed, independent silencing of all three genes led to a dramatic reduction in capsaicinoid content in the fruits demonstrating the participation of these genes in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Using this approach it was possible to generate non-pungent chili peppers at high efficiency.

  3. A Pepper MSRB2 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Rice through the Protection of Chloroplast-Targeted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Songhwa; Lee, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Oh, Sung-Dug; Park, Jong-Sug; Song, Dae-Geun; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yul-Ho; Nahm, Baek Hie; Kim, Yeon-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Background The perturbation of the steady state of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to biotic and abiotic stresses in a plant could lead to protein denaturation through the modification of amino acid residues, including the oxidation of methionine residues. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) catalyze the reduction of methionine sulfoxide back to the methionine residue. To assess the role of this enzyme, we generated transgenic rice using a pepper CaMSRB2 gene under the control of the rice Rab21 (responsive to ABA protein 21) promoter with/without a selection marker, the bar gene. Results A drought resistance test on transgenic plants showed that CaMSRB2 confers drought tolerance to rice, as evidenced by less oxidative stress symptoms and a strengthened PSII quantum yield under stress conditions, and increased survival rate and chlorophyll index after the re-watering. The results from immunoblotting using a methionine sulfoxide antibody and nano-LC-MS/MS spectrometry suggest that porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), which is involved in chlorophyll synthesis, is a putative target of CaMSRB2. The oxidized methionine content of PBGD expressed in E. coli increased in the presence of H2O2, and the Met-95 and Met-227 residues of PBGD were reduced by CaMSRB2 in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). An expression profiling analysis of the overexpression lines also suggested that photosystems are less severely affected by drought stress. Conclusions Our results indicate that CaMSRB2 might play an important functional role in chloroplasts for conferring drought stress tolerance in rice. PMID:24614245

  4. The pepper GNA-related lectin and PAN domain protein gene, CaGLP1, is required for plant cell death and defense signaling during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins, commonly referred to as lectins or agglutinins, function in defense responses to microbial pathogens. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) GNA-related lectin and PAN-domain protein gene CaGLP1 was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaGLP1 contained an amine-terminus prokaryotic membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site, a Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin domain responsible for the recognition of high-mannose N-glycans, and a carboxyl-terminus PAN/apple domain. RNA gel blot and immunoblot analyses determined that CaGLP1 was strongly induced in pepper by compatible and incompatible Xcv infection. CaGLP1 protein localized primarily to the plasma membrane and exhibited mannose-binding specificity. CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants were more susceptible to compatible or incompatible Xcv infection compared with that of non-silenced control plants. CaGLP1 silencing in pepper leaves did not accumulate H2O2 and induce cell death during incompatible Xcv infection. Defense-related CaDEF1 (defensin) gene expression was significantly reduced in CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants. CaGLP1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Defense-related AtPDF1.2 expression was elevated in CaGLP1-overexpression lines. Together, these results suggest that CaGLP1 is required for plant cell death and defense responses through the reactive oxygen species burst and downstream defense-related gene expression in response to bacterial pathogen challenge.

  5. Network inference analysis identifies an APRR2-like gene linked to pigment accumulation in tomato and pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H; Fraser, Paul D; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B

    2013-03-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

  6. Allele mining in the pepper gene pool provided new complementation effects between pvr2-eIF4E and pvr6-eIF(iso)4E alleles for resistance to pepper veinal mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Manuel; Nicolaï, Maryse; Caranta, Carole; Palloix, Alain

    2009-11-01

    Molecular cloning of recessive resistance genes to potyviruses in a large range of host species identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) as an essential determinant in the outcome of potyvirus infection. Resistance results from a few amino acid changes in the eIF4E protein encoded by the recessive resistance allele that disrupt the direct interaction with the potyviral protein VPg. In plants, several loci encode two protein subfamilies, eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. While most eIF4E-mediated resistance to potyviruses depends on mutations in a single eIF4E protein, simultaneous mutations in eIF4E (corresponding to the pvr2 locus) and eIF(iso)4E (corresponding to the pvr6 locus) are required to prevent pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) infection in pepper. We used this model to look for additional alleles at the pvr2-eIF4E locus that result in resistance when combined with the pvr6-eIF(iso)4E resistant allele. Among the 12 pvr2-eIF4E resistance alleles sequenced in the pepper gene pool, three were shown to have a complementary effect with pvr6-eIF(iso)4E for resistance. Two amino acid changes were exclusively shared by these three alleles and were systematically associated with a second amino acid change, suggesting that these substitutions are associated with resistance expression. The availability of new resistant allele combinations increases the possibility for the durable deployment of resistance against this pepper virus which is prevalent in Africa.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Lu, Jin-Ping; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Shu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s) were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship, and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf, and flower) from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7, and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8, and 25.9) showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance. PMID:26483820

  8. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper.

  9. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5′tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5′tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5′tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5′AlaCGC tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5′Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper. PMID:27313593

  10. Effects of the Mi-1, N and Tabasco Genes on Infection and Reproduction of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Tomato and Pepper Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Stanley, J. D.; Kaur, R.; Cetintas, R.; Di Vito, M.; Thies, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a damaging root-knot nematode able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and other economically important crops. In a growth chamber experiment conducted at 22 and 33°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis reproduced at both temperatures on the Mi-1-carrying tomato lines BHN 543 and BHN 585, whereas M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce at 22°C, but reproduced well at 33°C. These results were confirmed in another experiment at 26 ± 1.8°C, where minimal or no reproduction of M. incognita race 4 was observed on the Mi-1-carrying tomato genotypes BHN 543, BHN 585, BHN 586 and ‘Sanibel’, whereas heavy infection and reproduction of M. mayaguensis isolate 1 occurred on these four genotypes. Seven additional Florida M. mayaguensis isolates also reproduced on resistant ‘Sanibel’ tomato at 26 ± 1.8°C. Isolate 3 was the most virulent, with reproduction factor (Rf) equal to 8.4, and isolate 8 was the least virulent (Rf = 2.1). At 24°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis also reproduced well (Rf ≥ 1) and induced numerous small galls and large egg masses on the roots of root-knot nematode-resistant bell pepper ‘Charleston Belle’ carrying the N gene and on three root-knot nematode-resistant sweet pepper lines (9913/2, SAIS 97.9001 and SAIS 97.9008) carrying the Tabasco gene. In contrast, M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce or reproduced poorly on these resistant pepper genotypes. The ability of M. mayaguensis isolates to overcome the resistance of tomato and pepper genotypes carrying the Mi-1, N and Tabasco genes limits the use of resistant cultivars to manage this nematode species in infested tomato and pepper fields in Florida. PMID:19259507

  11. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-Li; Chen, Ru-Gang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  12. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress. PMID:23825555

  13. Pepper Oil Surprise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Paolo Nespoli perform the Pepper Oil Surprise experiment from Potlatch Elementary School in Potlatch, Idaho. This research investigates the interaction of liquid pepper/...

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Diversication of Dehydrin Gene Family and Characterization of CaDHN3 in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji-Hui; Khan, Abid; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Yang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chen, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) play a crucial role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although DHNs have been identified and characterized in many plants, there is little known about Capsicum annuum L., one of the economically important vegetable crops. In this study, seven CaDHNs in the pepper genome were identified, which could be divided into two classes: YnSKn- and SKn-type, based on their highly conserved domains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the seven DHN genes were expressed in all tissues and might be involved in the growth and development of pepper. The gene expression profiles analysis suggested that most of the CaDHN genes were induced by various stresses (low temperature, salt and mannitol) and signaling molecules (ABA, SA and MeJA). Furthermore, the CaDHN3 (YSK2)-silenced pepper plants showed obvious lower resistance to abiotic stresses (cold, salt and mannitol) than the control plants (TRV2:00). So the CaDHN3 might act as a positive role in resisting abiotic stresses. This study lays the foundation for further studies into the regulation of their expression under various conditions. PMID:27551973

  15. Pepper's Ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-09-01

    Without applications of physics such as counter-weighted sets and backdrops, inclined planes, stage lighting instruments, and other mechanisms for deus ex machina, dramatic productions would revert to the words only—fine for Shakespeare and Becket, but not good for audiences who are accustomed to experiencing plays with the eye as well as the ear. Pepper's Ghost is a 19th-century stage illusion, based on basic optical principles, that can find its way into your introductory classroom.

  16. The pepper calmodulin gene CaCaM1 is involved in reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation required for cell death and the defense response.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2009-11-01

    Calcium signaling has emerged as an important signal transduction pathway of higher plants in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Ca2+-bound calmodulin (CaM) plays a critical role in decoding and transducing stress signals by activating specific targets. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized the pathogen-responsive CaM gene, Capsicum annuum calmodulin 1 (CaCaM1), from pepper (C. annuum) plants. The cellular function of CaCaM1 was verified by Agrobacterium spp.-mediated transient expression in pepper and transgenic overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Agrobacterium spp.-mediated transient expression of CaCaM1 activated reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) generation, and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death in pepper leaves, ultimately leading to local acquired resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. CaCaM1-overexpression (OX) Arabidopsis exhibited enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora parasitica, which was accompanied by enhanced ROS and NO generation and HR-like cell death. Treatment with the calcium-channel blocker suppressed the oxidative and NO bursts and HR-like cell death that were triggered by CaCaM1 expression in pepper and Arabidopsis, suggesting that calcium influx is required for the activation of CaCaM1-mediated defense responses in plants. Upon treatment with the CaM antagonist, virulent P. syringae pv. tomato-induced NO generation was also compromised in CaCaM1-OX leaves. Together, these results suggest that the CaCaM1 gene functions in ROS and NO generation are essential for cell death and defense responses in plants.

  17. The Future of Bladder Control—Intravesical Drug Delivery, a Pinch of Pepper, and Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Matthew O; Lavelle, John P; Sacks, Michael S; Chancellor, Michael B

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder problems will continue to grow as the population ages. Future treatments are likely to include an implantable drug delivery system, gene therapy, and the intravesical use of the vallinoids capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX). An understanding of the urothelium is essential for effective design of these therapies. Intravesical anticholinergic drug treatment is currently not widely used, but intravesical pumps are under development to provide less cumbersome treatment methods and will provide nonsurgical options for patients who cannot tolerate oral anticholinergic agents. Research on the use of capsaicin as an intravesicular drug has had limited success, but trials have confirmed the efficacy of intravesical capsaicin for detrusor hyperreflexia. RTX is as effective as capsaicin but without side effects, such as pain and inflammatory neuropeptide release. RTX treatment may eliminate the need for surgical and other drug treatments of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injuries. Gene therapy will change the practice of urology by addressing the deficiencies that cause symptoms rather than attacking the symptoms themselves. PMID:16985646

  18. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers linked to the fertility restorer gene in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2006-02-28

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants, which is due to failure to produce functional pollen, is a maternally inherited trait. Specific nuclear genes that sup-press CMS, termed fertility restorer (Rf) genes, have been identified in several plants. In this study, Rf-linked molecular markers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were detected by bulked segregant analysis of eight amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Only AFRF8 was successfully converted to a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker. This was named AFRF8CAPS and genotype determination using it agreed with that obtained with the original AFRF8. A linkage map with a total size of 54.1 cM was constructed with AFRF8CAPS and the seven AFLP markers using the Kosambi function. The AFRF8CAPS marker was shown to be closest to Rf with a genetic distance of 1.8 cM. These markers will be useful for fast and reliable detection of restorer lines during F(1) hybrid seed production and breeding programs in pepper.

  19. Network Inference Analysis Identifies an APRR2-Like Gene Linked to Pigment Accumulation in Tomato and Pepper Fruits1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H.; Fraser, Paul D.; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B.

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening. PMID:23292788

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of CaPIP1-1 gene in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan-Xu; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Huai-Xia; Xiao, Huai-Juan; Jin, Jing-Hao; Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Jing, Hua; Chen, Ru-Gang; Arisha, Mohamed Hamed; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-05-25

    Plant aquaporins are responsible for water transmembrane transport, which play an important role on abiotic and biotic stresses. A novel plasma membrane intrinsic protein of CaPIP1-1 was isolated from the pepper P70 according to transcriptome databases of Phytophthora capsici inoculation and chilling stress library. CaPIP1-1, which is 1155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 861 bp, encoded 286 amino acids. Three introns, exhibited CT/AC splice junctions, were observed in CaPIP1-1. The numbers and location of introns in CaPIP1-1 were the same as observed in tomato and potato. CaPIP1-1 was abundantly expressed in pepper fruit. Increased transcription levels of CaPIP1-1 were found in the different stresses, including chilling stress, salt stress, mannitol stress, salicylic acid, ABA treatment and Phytophthora capsici infection. The expression of CaPIP1-1 was downregulated by 50 μM HgCl2 and 100 μM fluridone. The pepper plants silenced CaPIP1-1 in cv. Qiemen showed growth inhibition and decreased tolerance to salt and mannitol stresses using detached leaf method.

  1. Characterization of a pepper mild mottle tobamovirus strain capable of overcoming the L3 gene-mediated resistance, distinct from the resistance-breaking Italian isolate.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Kirita, M; Watanabe, Y

    1998-04-01

    Green pepper plants with the L3 resistance gene usually develop necrotic lesions on leaves infected with a Japanese strain of pepper mild mottle tobamovirus (PMMoV-J). A recently discovered strain, PMMoV-Ij, has the ability to overcome L3 resistance. Phytopathological responses of a variety of plant species to PMMoV-J and PMMoV-Ij were determined and the coat protein (CP) sequence comparisons revealed both amino acids 43 and 50 of PMMoV-Ij were unique. This led us to believe that substitutions at these residues would enable PMMoV-J to overcome L3 resistance. This was confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) detection of PMMoV-J containing both point mutations in upper uninoculated leaves of resistant plants. Computer models suggest the critical residues in overcoming resistance lie in CP regions that putatively interact with other subunits. These results contribute to our understanding of the virus's ability to circumvent plant resistance.

  2. The Pepper Extracellular Xyloglucan-Specific Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Inhibitor Protein Gene, CaXEGIP1, Is Required for Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Yeon Kyeong; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce various proteinaceous inhibitors to protect themselves against microbial pathogen attack. A xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase inhibitor1 gene, CaXEGIP1, was isolated and functionally characterized in pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. CaXEGIP1 was rapidly and strongly induced in pepper leaves infected with avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, and purified CaXEGIP1 protein significantly inhibited the hydrolytic activity of the glycoside hydrolase74 family xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase from Clostridium thermocellum. Soluble-modified green fluorescent protein-tagged CaXEGIP1 proteins were mainly localized to the apoplast of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated overexpression of CaXEGIP1 triggered pathogen-independent, spontaneous cell death in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CaXEGIP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced susceptibility to virulent and avirulent X. campestris pv vesicatoria, accompanied by a compromised hypersensitive response and lowered expression of defense-related genes. Overexpression of dexamethasone:CaXEGIP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Comparative histochemical and proteomic analyses revealed that CaXEGIP1 overexpression induced a spontaneous cell death response and also increased the expression of some defense-related proteins in transgenic Arabidopsis leaves. This response was also accompanied by cell wall thickening and darkening. Together, these results suggest that pathogen-inducible CaXEGIP1 positively regulates cell death-mediated defense responses in plants. PMID:23093361

  3. The Pepper E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RING1 Gene, CaRING1, Is Required for Cell Death and the Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense Response1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitination is essential for ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation in plant development and defense. Here, we identified a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase RING1 gene, CaRING1, from pepper (Capsicum annuum). In pepper, CaRING1 expression is induced by avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria infection. CaRING1 contains an amino-terminal transmembrane domain and a carboxyl-terminal RING domain. In addition, it displays in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and the RING domain is essential for E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in CaRING1. CaRING1 also localizes to the plasma membrane. In pepper plants, virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 confers enhanced susceptibility to avirulent X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, which is accompanied by compromised hypersensitive cell death, reduced expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1, and lowered salicylic acid levels in leaves. Transient expression of CaRING1 in pepper leaves induces cell death and the defense response that requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CaRING1. By contrast, overexpression of CaRING1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) confers enhanced resistance to hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato and biotrophic Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infections. Taken together, these results suggest that CaRING1 is involved in the induction of cell death and the regulation of ubiquitination during the defense response to microbial pathogens. PMID:21628629

  4. Spacing Studies in Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plant stand densities usually result in greater pepper fruit yields. While the impact of stand density on yield has been studied for bell and non-bell peppers, but very little information exists regarding implications on pesticide efficacy. The objective of these studies was to determine th...

  5. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    PubMed

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  6. Overexpression of a pepper basic pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene in tobacco plants enhances resistance to heavy metal and pathogen stresses.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Sujon; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Eui Nam; Kim, Ki Deok; Hwang, Byung Kook; Islam, Rafiul; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2005-06-01

    A pepper gene, CABPR1, which encodes basic pathogenesis-related protein 1, has been reported to be strongly induced after ethephon treatment, wounding, and tobacco mosaic virus infection. The potential role of CABPR1 in tolerance of biotic or abiotic stresses was examined in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi plants. Overexpression of CABPR1 in tobacco plants enhanced tolerance not only to heavy metal stresses, but also to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae, and the bacterial pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. RT-PCR revealed that the CABPR1 transgene increased expression of the PR-Q and glutathione S-transferase genes, but decreased expression of the PR-1a and thaumatin genes. Moreover, these transgenic lines exhibited significant decreases in total peroxidase activity and transcription level, suggesting that overexpression of CABPR1 in tobacco cells altered the balance of redox systems. Redox imbalance in transgenic lines may lead to H(2)O(2) accumulation, triggering tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  7. Complete sequencing and comparative analyses of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plastome revealed high frequency of tandem repeats and large insertion/deletions on pepper plastome.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeong Deuk; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Jungeun; Song, Wonho; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2011-02-01

    Plants in the family Solanaceae are used as model systems in comparative and evolutionary genomics. The complete chloroplast genomes of seven solanaceous species have been sequenced, including tobacco, potato and tomato, but not peppers. We analyzed the complete chloroplast genome sequence of the hot pepper, Capsicum annuum. The pepper chloroplast genome was 156,781 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,783 bp. The content and the order of 133 genes in the pepper chloroplast genome were identical to those of other solanaceous plastomes. To characterize pepper plastome sequence, we performed comparative analysis using complete plastome sequences of pepper and seven solanaceous plastomes. Frequency and contents of large indels and tandem repeat sequences and distribution pattern of genome-wide sequence variations were investigated. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis using concatenated alignments of coding sequences was performed to determine evolutionary position of pepper in Solanaceae. Our results revealed two distinct features of pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Firstly, large indels, including insertions on accD and rpl20 gene sequences, were predominantly detected in the pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Secondly, tandem repeat sequences were particularly frequent in the pepper plastome. Taken together, our study represents unique features of evolution of pepper plastome among solanaceous plastomes.

  8. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene. PMID:26992080

  9. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  10. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila) were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family. PMID:21276256

  11. The 9-lipoxygenase Osr9-LOX1 interacts with the 13-lipoxygenase-mediated pathway to regulate resistance to chewing and piercing-sucking herbivores in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxin; Ren, Nan; Qi, Jingfeng; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Caiyu; Ju, Hongping; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-09-01

    Oxylipins produced by the 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) have been reported to play an important role in plant defense responses to herbivores. Yet, the role of oxylipins produced by the 9-LOX pathway in this process remains largely unknown. Here we cloned a gene encoding a chloroplast-localized 9-LOX, Osr9-LOX1, from rice. Transcriptional analysis revealed that herbivore infestation, mechanical wounding and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment either repressed or did not enhance the level of Osr9-LOX1 transcripts at early stages but did at later stages, whereas salicylic acid (SA) treatment quickly increased the transcript level of Osr9-LOX1. Antisense expression of Osr9-lox1 (as-r9lox1) decreased the amount of wound-induced (Z)-3-hexenal but increased levels of striped stem borer (SSB)-induced linolenic acid, JA, SA and trypsin protease inhibitors. These changes were associated with increased resistance in rice to the larvae of the SSB Chilo suppressalis. In contrast, although no significant differences were observed in the duration of the nymph stage or the number of eggs laid by female adults between the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens that fed on as-r9lox1 lines and BPH that fed on wild-type (WT) rice plants, the survival rate of BPH nymphs that fed on as-r9lox1 lines was higher than that of nymphs that fed on WT plants, possibly because of a higher JA level. The results demonstrate that Osr9-LOX1 plays an important role in regulating an herbivore-induced JA burst and cross-talk between JA and SA, and in controlling resistance in rice to chewing and phloem-feeding herbivores.

  12. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  13. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0 Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming.

  14. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions.

    PubMed

    Dziurka, Michał; Janeczko, Anna; Juhász, Csilla; Gullner, Gábor; Oklestková, Jana; Novák, Ondrej; Saja, Diana; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Tóbiás, István; Barna, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Phytohormone levels and the expression of genes encoding key enzymes participating in hormone biosynthetic pathways were investigated in pepper leaves inoculated with two different tobamoviruses. Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) inoculation led to the development of hypersensitive reaction (incompatible interaction), while Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) inoculation resulted in a systemic, compatible interaction. ObPV-inoculation markedly increased not only the levels of salicylic acid (SA) (73-fold) and jasmonic acid (8-fold) but also those of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin-9-riboside and trans-zeatin-9-riboside in the inoculated pepper leaves 3 days post inoculation. PMMoV infection increased only the contents of gibberellic acid and SA. Hormone contents did not change significantly after ObPV or PMMoV infection in non-infected upper leaves 20 days post inoculation. Concentrations of some brassinosteroids (BRs) and progesterone increased both in ObPV- and PMMoV inoculated leaves. ObPV inoculation markedly induced the expression of three phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) genes, while that of an isochorismate synthase (ICS) gene was not modified. PMMoV inoculation did not alter the expression of PAL and ICS genes but induced the transcript abundance of ACO although later than ObPV. Pre-treatment of pepper leaves with exogenous 24-epi-brassinolide (24-epi-BR) prior to ObPV-inoculation strongly mitigated the visible symptoms caused by ObPV. In addition, 24-epi-BR pre-treatment markedly altered the level of several hormones in pepper leaves following ObPV-inoculation. These data indicate that ObPV- and PMMoV-inoculations lead to intricate but well harmonized hormonal responses that are largely determined by the incompatible or compatible nature of plant-virus interactions.

  15. Transgenic peppers that are highly tolerant to a new CMV pathotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Hee; Jung, Min; Shin, Sun Hee; Lee, Ji Hee; Choi, Soon Ho; Her, Nam Han; Lee, Jang Ha; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Paek, Kee Yoeup; Harn, Chee Hark

    2009-02-01

    The CMV (cucumber mosaic virus) is the most frequently occurring virus in chili pepper farms. A variety of peppers that are resistant to CMVP0 were developed in the middle of 1990s through a breeding program, and commercial cultivars have since been able to control the spread of CMVP0. However, a new pathotype (CMVP1) that breaks the resistance of CMVP0-resistant peppers has recently appeared and caused a heavy loss in productivity. Since no genetic source of this new pathotype was available, a traditional breeding method cannot be used to generate a CMVP1-resistant pepper variety. Therefore, we set up a transformation system of pepper using Agrobacterium that had been transfected with the coat protein gene, CMVP0-CP, with the aim of developing a new CMVP1-resistant pepper line. A large number of transgenic peppers (T(1), T(2) and T(3)) were screened for CMVP1 tolerance using CMVP1 inoculation. Transgenic peppers tolerant to CMVP1 were selected in a plastic house as well as in the field. Three independent T(3) pepper lines highly tolerant to the CMVP1 pathogen were found to also be tolerant to the CMVP0 pathogen. These selected T(3) pepper lines were phenotypically identical or close to the non-transformed lines. However, after CMVP1 infection, the height and fruit size of the non-transformed lines became shorter and smaller, respectively, while the T(3) pepper lines maintained a normal phenotype.

  16. Characterization of capsaicin synthase and identification of its gene (csy1) for pungency factor capsaicin in pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    PubMed

    Prasad, B C Narasimha; Kumar, Vinod; Gururaj, H B; Parimalan, R; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2006-09-05

    Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid of the plant kingdom restricted to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is the pungency factor, a bioactive molecule of food and of medicinal importance. Capsaicin is useful as a counterirritant, antiarthritic, analgesic, antioxidant, and anticancer agent. Capsaicin biosynthesis involves condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl nonenoic acid, brought about by capsaicin synthase (CS). We found that CS activity correlated with genotype-specific capsaicin levels. We purified and characterized CS ( approximately 35 kDa). Immunolocalization studies confirmed that CS is specifically localized to the placental tissues of Capsicum fruits. Western blot analysis revealed concomitant enhancement of CS levels and capsaicin accumulation during fruit development. We determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified CS, cloned the CS gene (csy1) and sequenced full-length cDNA (981 bp). The deduced amino acid sequence of CS from full-length cDNA was 38 kDa. Functionality of csy1 through heterologous expression in recombinant Escherichia coli was also demonstrated. Here we report the gene responsible for capsaicin biosynthesis, which is unique to Capsicum spp. With this information on the CS gene, speculation on the gene for pungency is unequivocally resolved. Our findings have implications in the regulation of capsaicin levels in Capsicum genotypes.

  17. Aleurotrachelus trachoides (pepper whitefly)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back also known as solanum or pepper whitefly is a new addition to the list of serious whitefly pests found in Florida. According to EPPO global database, it is a pest of over 70 different crops worldwide, which include a combination of edibles, ornamentals, palms, and wee...

  18. Pepper harvest technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a dual transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to m...

  19. PEPPER HARVESTER DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to mechan...

  20. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  1. The Dynamic Microbiota Profile During Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling by Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qisong; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin

    2017-04-04

    White pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a well-known spice, is the main pepper processing product in Hainan province, China. The solid-state method of fermentation can peel pepper in a highly efficient manner and yield high-quality white pepper. In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to reveal the dynamic changes in the microbiota during pepper peeling by solid-state fermentation. The results suggested that the inoculated Aspergillus niger was dominant throughout the fermentation stage, with its strains constituting more than 95% of the fungi present; thus, the fungal community structure was relatively stable. The bacterial community structure fluctuated across different fermentation periods; among the bacteria present, Pseudomonas, Tatumella, Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus, and Enterobacter accounted for more than 95% of all bacteria. Based on the correlations among the microbial community, we found that Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were significantly positively related with A. niger, which showed strong synergy with them. In view of the microbial functional gene analysis, we found that these three bacteria and fungi were closely related to the production of pectin esterase (COG4677) and acetyl xylan esterase (COG3458), the key enzymes for pepper peeling. The present research clarifies the solid-state fermentation method of pepper peeling and lays a theoretical foundation to promote the development of the pepper peeling process and the production of high-quality white pepper.

  2. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  3. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Janzac, Bérenger; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Palloix, Alain; Moury, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing 2,951 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV). Phylogeny reconstruction showed that this isolate clustered with potato virus V (PVV), Peru tomato virus and wild potato mosaic virus into a monophyletic group, and was closest to PVV. The isolate was shown to be infectious in tobacco, tomato and, contrary to PVV, in pepper. The pvr2(1), pvr2(2), and Pvr4 genes present in many pepper cultivars conferred resistance toward this isolate and could help control ERV.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  5. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  6. Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Shin-Young; Oh, Sang-Keun; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Saet-Byul; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kamoun, Sophien; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    Nonhost resistance (NHR) is a plant immune response to resist most pathogens. The molecular basis of NHR is poorly understood, but recognition of pathogen effectors by immune receptors, a response known as effector-triggered immunity, has been proposed as a component of NHR. We performed transient expression of 54 Phytophthora infestansRXLR effectors in pepper (Capsicum annuum) accessions. We used optimized heterologous expression methods and analyzed the inheritance of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions. Pepper showed a localized cell death response upon inoculation with P. infestans, suggesting that recognition of effectors may contribute to NHR in this system. Pepper accessions recognized as many as 36 effectors. Among the effectors, PexRD8 and Avrblb2 induced cell death in a broad range of pepper accessions. Segregation of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions fit 15 : 1, 9 : 7 or 3 : 1 ratios, depending on the effector. Our genetic data suggest that a single or two independent/complementary dominant genes are involved in the recognition of RXLR effectors. Multiple loci recognizing a series of effectors may underpin NHR of pepper to P. infestans and confer resistance durability. PMID:24889686

  7. Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Shin-Young; Oh, Sang-Keun; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Saet-Byul; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kamoun, Sophien; Choi, Doil

    2014-08-01

    Nonhost resistance (NHR) is a plant immune response to resist most pathogens. The molecular basis of NHR is poorly understood, but recognition of pathogen effectors by immune receptors, a response known as effector-triggered immunity, has been proposed as a component of NHR. We performed transient expression of 54 Phytophthora infestansRXLR effectors in pepper (Capsicum annuum) accessions. We used optimized heterologous expression methods and analyzed the inheritance of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions. Pepper showed a localized cell death response upon inoculation with P. infestans, suggesting that recognition of effectors may contribute to NHR in this system. Pepper accessions recognized as many as 36 effectors. Among the effectors, PexRD8 and Avrblb2 induced cell death in a broad range of pepper accessions. Segregation of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions fit 15:1, 9:7 or 3:1 ratios, depending on the effector. Our genetic data suggest that a single or two independent/complementary dominant genes are involved in the recognition of RXLR effectors. Multiple loci recognizing a series of effectors may underpin NHR of pepper to P. infestans and confer resistance durability.

  8. Molecular biology of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Aza-González, Cesar; Núñez-Palenius, Hector G; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2011-05-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate unique hot compounds known as capsaicinoids in placental tissues. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has been established, but the enzymes and genes participating in this process have not been extensively studied or characterized. Capsaicinoids are synthesized through the convergence of two biosynthetic pathways: the phenylpropanoid and the branched-chain fatty acid pathways, which provide the precursors phenylalanine, and valine or leucine, respectively. Capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation is a genetically determined trait in chili pepper fruits as different cultivars or genotypes exhibit differences in pungency; furthermore, this characteristic is also developmentally and environmentally regulated. The establishment of cDNA libraries and comparative gene expression studies in pungent and non-pungent chili pepper fruits has identified candidate genes possibly involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Genetic and molecular approaches have also contributed to the knowledge of this biosynthetic pathway; however, more studies are necessary for a better understanding of the regulatory process that accounts for different accumulation levels of capsaicinoids in chili pepper fruits.

  9. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) microRNA transcriptome reveals novel and conserved targets: a foundation for understanding MicroRNA functional roles in hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Gyu; Park, June Hyun; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Yourim; Kim, Soyoung; Reeves, Gregory; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Doil; Shin, Chanseok

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper.

  10. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  11. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-09-16

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  12. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  13. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  14. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  15. Dynamics of the chili pepper transcriptome during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The set of all mRNA molecules present in a cell constitute the transcriptome. The transcriptome varies depending on cell type as well as in response to internal and external stimuli during development. Here we present a study of the changes that occur in the transcriptome of chili pepper fruit during development and ripening. Results RNA-Seq was used to obtain transcriptomes of whole Serrano-type chili pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.; ‘Tampiqueño 74’) collected at 10, 20, 40 and 60 days after anthesis (DAA). 15,550,468 Illumina MiSeq reads were assembled de novo into 34,066 chili genes. We classified the expression patterns of individual genes as well as genes grouped into Biological Process ontologies and Metabolic Pathway categories using statistical criteria. For the analyses of gene groups we added the weighted expression of individual genes. This method was effective in interpreting general patterns of expression changes and increased the statistical power of the analyses. We also estimated the variation in diversity and specialization of the transcriptome during chili pepper development. Approximately 17% of genes exhibited a significant change of expression in at least one of the intervals sampled. In contrast, significant differences in approximately 63% of the Biological Processes and 80% of the Metabolic Pathways studied were detected in at least one interval. Confirming previous reports, genes related to capsaicinoid and ascorbic acid biosynthesis were significantly upregulated at 20 DAA while those related to carotenoid biosynthesis were highly expressed in the last period of fruit maturation (40–60 DAA). Our RNA-Seq data was validated by examining the expression of nine genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis by qRT-PCR. Conclusions In general, more profound changes in the chili fruit transcriptome were observed in the intervals between 10 to 20 and 40 to 60 DAA. The last interval, between 40 to 60 DAA, included 49% of all

  16. Capsicum Annuum L. Lil' Pumpkin and Pepper Jack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 05C37-3 (trademarked as Lil’ Pumpkin) and 05C69-12 (trademarked as Pepper Jack). Lil’ Pumpkin and Pepper Jack are intended for ornamental applications. Lil’ Pumpkin’s unique black foliage and orange pumpkin-like fruit and Pepper Jack’s ...

  17. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network.

  18. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  19. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. Direct treatments of the CWEs and BABA on pepper and cucumber leaves at 1 and 3 days before or after inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed

  20. Overexpression of the pepper antimicrobial protein CaAMP1 gene regulates the oxidative stress- and disease-related proteome in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, In Sun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-12-01

    Proteomics facilitates our understanding of cellular processes and network functions in the plant defense response during abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we demonstrate that the ectopic expression of the Capsicum annuum antimicrobial protein CaAMP1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confers enhanced tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress, which is accompanied by lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Quantitative comparative proteome analyses using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified some of the oxidative stress- and disease-related proteins that are differentially regulated by CaAMP1 overexpression in Arabidopsis leaves. Antioxidant- and defense-related proteins, such as 2-cys peroxiredoxin, L-ascorbate peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, glutathione S-transferase and copper homeostasis factor, were up-regulated in the CaAMP1 transgenic leaf tissues. In contrast, GSH-dependent dehydroascorbate reductase and WD-40 repeat family protein were down-regulated by CaAMP1 overexpression. In addition, CaAMP1 overexpression enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection and also H(2)O(2) accumulation in Arabidopsis. The identified antioxidant- and defense-related genes were differentially expressed during MV-induced oxidative stress and Pst DC3000 infection. Taken together, we conclude that CaAMP1 overexpression can regulate the differential expression of defense-related proteins in response to environmental stresses to maintain reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis.

  1. Mycobiota of ground red pepper and their aflatoxigenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Sosoo; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Soohyung; Hong, Sung Kee; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Lee, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria. Within Aspergillus, A. ruber was predominant, followed by A. niger, A. amstelodami, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and citrinin by ultra-perfomance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Ochratoxin A was detected from three samples at 1.03‒2.08 μg/kg, whereas no aflatoxins or citrinin were detected. To test the potential of fungal isolates to produce aflatoxin, we performed a PCR assay that screened for the norB-cypA gene for 64 Aspergillus isolates. As a result, a single 800-bp band was amplified from 10 A. flavus isolates, and one Aspergillus sp. isolate. UPLC analyses confirmed aflatoxin production by nine A. flavus isolates and one Aspergillus sp. isolate, which produced total aflatoxins at 146.88‒909.53 μg/kg. This indicates that continuous monitoring of ground red pepper for toxigenic fungi is necessary to minimize mycotoxin contamination.

  2. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both

  3. Effects of Japanese pepper and red pepper on the microbial community during nukadoko fermentation

    PubMed Central

    ONO, Hiroshi; NISHIO, Shoko; TSURII, Jun; KAWAMOTO, Tetsuhiro; SONOMOTO, Kenji; NAKAYAMA, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko has depended on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Spices, Japanese pepper, and red pepper, are added to nukadoko empirically, but the functions of spices in nukadoko have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of Japanese pepper and red pepper on nukadoko fermentation, we compared the chemical and microbiological changes during 2 months of fermentation of a laboratory model nukadoko with or without spices. The successive pH values and colony counts in the first 10 days showed that the spices promoted lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth and fermentation in the nukadoko niche. The successive bacterial communities during natural fermentation of nukadoko were carefully monitored by pyrotag 16S rRNA analysis, and the effect of spices on the development and maintenance of the nukadoko microbiota was investigated. It was shown that addition of Japanese peppers and red peppers shortened the pre-lactic acid fermentation phase, during which Staphylococcus saprophyticus grew dominantly, and promoted the development of a microbiota that LAB dominated. Notably, the growth of the dominant LAB, Pediococcus pentosaceus, was improved by adding either Japanese pepper or red pepper. The differences in the LAB species, which were associated with the differences in chemical composition of the nukadoko, were dependent on the type of pepper used. We conclude that the spices used can affect the bacterial community and modulate its metabolic profile in nukadoko. PMID:25625032

  4. In silico identification of Bell pepper endornavirus from pepper transcriptomes and their phylogenetic and recombination analyses.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-01-10

    Here, we identified eight Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) isolates from nine different pepper transcriptomes. BPEV was present with low copy numbers ranging from 0.01% to 0.18% in the host transcriptome. Phylogenetic identified two different groups of BPEV isolates. Sequence alignment of the five BPEV genomes revealed conservation of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Recombination analysis identified two possible recombinant events in the isolate Yolo Wonder. Single nucleotide variation profiles revealed the presence of BPEV variants within a single pepper cultivar. Taken together, this study provides phylogenetic and recombination analyses of the genus Endornavirus using pepper transcriptome data.

  5. Ectopic expression of Tsi1 in transgenic hot pepper plants enhances host resistance to viral, bacterial, and oomycete pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoung; Park, Jeong Mee; An, Jong-Min; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2002-10-01

    In many plants, including hot pepper plants, productivity is greatly affected by pathogen attack. We reported previously that tobacco stress-induced gene 1 (Tsi1) may play an important role in regulating stress responsive genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of Tsi1 gene in transgenic hot pepper plants induced constitutive expression of several PR genes in the absence of stress or pathogen treatment. The transgenic hot pepper plants expressing Tsi1 exhibited resistance to Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Furthermore, these transgenic plants showed increased resistance to a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and also an oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. These results suggested that ectopic expression of Tsi1 in transgenic hot pepper plants enhanced the resistance of the plants to various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and oomycete. These results suggest that using transcriptional regulatory protein genes may contribute to developing broad-spectrum resistance in crop plants.

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of the Ca-DREBLP1 gene encoding a dehydration-responsive element binding-factor-like protein 1 in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Pukang).

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong-Pil; Kim, Woo Taek

    2005-04-01

    Through the use of subtractive hybridization analysis, we have identified 14 partial cDNA clones (pCa-DSRs) that are rapidly induced by dehydration in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) roots. The predicted proteins encoded by Ca-DSRs are putatively involved in processes as diverse as primary and secondary metabolism, protein degradation, and stress responses, indicating the complexity of cellular responses to water deficit in hot pepper roots. Particularly, we investigated the detailed structural properties and expression profiles of Ca-DSR2 (Ca-DREBLP1: dehydration-responsive element binding-factor-like protein 1) encoding a protein that contains a single ERF/AP2 DNA-binding domain. Based on the conserved 14th valine and 19th glutamic acid residues in the ERF/AP2 domain, a basic amino acid stretch (PKKPAGRKKFR) near its N-terminal region, and DSAW signature sequence at the end of its ERF/AP2 domain, Ca-DREBLP1 was classified as a member of a DREB1-type subfamily. Gel retardation assays revealed that Ca-DREBLP1 was able to form a specific complex with the DRE/CRT motif, but not with the GCC box. When fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, the Ca-DREBLP1(190-215) mutant could effectively function as a trans-activator in yeast. This suggests that the extreme C-terminal region plays an essential role in transcription activation. In hot pepper plants, Ca-DREBLP1 was rapidly induced by dehydration, high salinity and, to a lesser extent, mechanical wounding, but not by cold stress. Thus, although the structural features of Ca-DREBLP1 resemble those of the DREB1-type proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice plants, its induction patterns are reminiscent of the DREB2-type proteins, indicating that Ca-DREBLP1 is a novel class DREB subfamily in hot pepper.

  7. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

  9. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt. PMID:26761278

  10. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes

  11. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  12. Inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    de Souza-Sobrinho, Fausto; Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Gomes, Luiz A A; Campos, Vicente Paulo

    2002-09-30

    Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are important pathogens affecting vegetable crop production in Brazil and worldwide. The pepper species Capsicum annuum includes both hot and sweet peppers; very little emphasis has been placed on breeding sweet peppers for nematode resistance. We report on the inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne. The hot pepper cv. Carolina Cayenne was used as seed parent and the sweet pepper cv. Agronômico-8 was used as pollen parent to obtain the F(1) and F(2) generations and the backcross generations BC(11) and BC(12). The plants were inoculated with M. incognita race 2 at a rate of 60 eggs/ml of substrate and, after a suitable incubation period, the numbers of root galls and egg masses per root system were evaluated on each plant. Broad- (0.77 and 0.72) and narrow-sense (0.77 and 0.63) heritability estimates were high for both root galls and egg masses, respectively. The mean degree of dominance was estimated as 0.29 and 0.25 for numbers of galls and egg masses, respectively; these estimates were not significantly different from 0, indicating a predominantly additive gene action. The results were consistent with a hypothesis of monogenic resistance in Carolina Cayenne.

  13. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  14. Characterization of a new curtovirus, pepper yellow dwarf virus, from chile pepper and distribution in weed hosts in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nhan; Creamer, Rebecca; Rascon, Jaime; Belfon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Over 4,950 asymptomatic weed samples from more than 20 weed species that are host plants for curtoviruses were collected from ten chile pepper fields in southern New Mexico (NM) during 2003, 2004 and 2005 to identify whether they were infected with curtoviruses and to determine which curtoviruses were distributed in the weed population. Polymerase chain reaction using primers designed to detect a portion of the coat protein (cp) gene were used to detect curtoviruses, and infected plants were further tested for specific curtoviruses using primers designed to detect to a portion of the replication-associated protein (rep) gene. Amplification of the cp gene was successful from 3.7, 1.17, and 1.9% of the weed samples in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Seventy-three amplicons from those samples were sequenced and compared to well-characterized curtoviruses. Analysis of the rep nucleotide sequences showed that approximately 32.9% of the weed isolates tested were closely related to beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV). Approximately 12.4% were closely related to beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV). The rest of the weed isolates (54.7%), which shared a very high level of nucleotide sequence identity to each other, represent a new curtovirus species. Using eight primers designed for PCR, complete genomes of three curtoviruses isolated from chile pepper samples representing the three groups of curtoviruses in southern New Mexico were sequenced. Comparisons of whole sequences of the genomes revealed that the DG2SW171601 isolate (2,929 nucleotides) was nearly identical to BMCTV-W4 (approximately 98% nucleotide sequence identity). The LRME27601 isolate (2,927 nucleotides) was most closely related to BSCTV (approximately 92% nucleotide sequence identity). The LJN17601 isolate (2,959 nucleotides) shared only from 49.9 to 88.8% nucleotide sequence identity with other well-characterized curtoviruses. Based on the accepted cut-off of 89%, we propose that the LJN17601 isolate is a

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in...

  1. Viruses of pepper crops in the Mediterranean basin: a remarkable stasis.

    PubMed

    Moury, Benoît; Verdin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Compared to other vegetable crops, the major viral constraints affecting pepper crops in the Mediterranean basin have been remarkably stable for the past 20 years. Among these viruses, the most prevalent ones are the seed-transmitted tobamoviruses; the aphid-transmitted Potato virus Y and Tobacco etch virus of the genus Potyvirus, and Cucumber mosaic virus member of the genus Cucumovirus; and thrips-transmitted tospoviruses. The last major viral emergence concerns the tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which has undergone major outbreaks since the end of the 1980s and the worldwide dispersal of the thrips vector Frankliniella occidentalis from the western part of the USA. TSWV outbreaks in the Mediterranean area might have been the result of both viral introductions from Northern America and local reemergence of indigenous TSWV isolates. In addition to introductions of new viruses, resistance breakdowns constitute the second case of viral emergences. Notably, the pepper resistance gene Tsw toward TSWV has broken down a few years after its deployment in several Mediterranean countries while there has been an expansion of L³-resistance breaking pepper mild mottle tobamovirus isolates. Beyond the agronomical and economical concerns induced by the breakdowns of virus resistance genes in pepper, they also constitute original models to understand plant-virus interactions and (co)evolution.

  2. A COSII genetic map of the pepper genome provides a detailed picture of synteny with tomato and new insights into recent chromosome evolution in the genus Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feinan; Eannetta, Nancy T; Xu, Yimin; Durrett, Richard; Mazourek, Michael; Jahn, Molly M; Tanksley, Steven D

    2009-05-01

    We report herein the development of a pepper genetic linkage map which comprises 299 orthologous markers between the pepper and tomato genomes (including 263 conserved ortholog set II or COSII markers). The expected position of additional 288 COSII markers was inferred in the pepper map via pepper-tomato synteny, bringing the total orthologous markers in the pepper genome to 587. While pepper maps have been previously reported, this is the first complete map in the sense that all markers could be placed in 12 linkage groups corresponding to the 12 chromosomes. The map presented herein is relevant to the genomes of cultivated C. annuum and wild C. annuum (as well as related Capsicum species) which differ by a reciprocal chromosome translocation. This map is also unique in that it is largely based on COSII markers, which permits the inference of a detailed syntenic relationship between the pepper and tomato genomes-shedding new light on chromosome evolution in the Solanaceae. Since divergence from their last common ancestor is approximately 20 million years ago, the two genomes have become differentiated by a minimum number of 19 inversions and 6 chromosome translocations, as well as numerous putative single gene transpositions. Nevertheless, the two genomes share 35 conserved syntenic segments (CSSs) within which gene/marker order is well preserved. The high resolution COSII synteny map described herein provides a platform for cross-reference of genetic and genomic information (including the tomato genome sequence) between pepper and tomato and therefore will facilitate both applied and basic research in pepper.

  3. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster, and genes

  4. [Beliefs about chili pepper consumption and health in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    López-Carrillo, L; Fernández-Ortega M, C; Costa-Dias, R; Franco-Marina, J; Alejandre-Badillo, T

    1995-01-01

    Eating chili peppers is a cultural tradition in Mexico. Controversial characteristics have been empirically associated to chili pepper consumption and human health. In this paper, the beliefs about the health impacts of chili pepper consumption in two independent groups of Mexico City residents are described. The results confirm, on the one hand, that there is a wide variety of health benefits and damages associated with chili pepper consumption, but on the other hand, that the levels of chili pepper consumption are not related to beliefs about its human health impact.

  5. Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is the most popular of the techniques used to induce microspore embryogenesis. This technique is well set up in a wide range of crops, including pepper. In this chapter, a protocol for anther culture in pepper is described. The protocol presented hereby includes the steps from the selection of buds from donor plants to the regeneration and acclimatization of doubled haploid plants derived from the embryos, as well as a description of how to analyze the ploidy level of the regenerated plants.

  6. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described.

  7. The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, E; Tanksley, S D

    2003-06-01

    several aspects of fruit morphology may be due to pleiotrophic effects of the same, orthologous loci in these species. Moreover, it appears that the evolution of bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit may have proceeded through mutations of some of the same genes that led to bell pepper-type fruit in garden pepper.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%), CMV (22.14%) while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10%) but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07). PMID:22495040

  9. Interactions of Phytophthora capsici with Resistant and Susceptible Pepper Roots and Stems.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Amara R; Smart, Christine D

    2015-10-01

    Using host resistance is an important strategy for managing pepper root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. An isolate of P. capsici constitutively expressing a gene for green fluorescent protein was used to investigate pathogen interactions with roots, crowns, and stems of Phytophthora-susceptible bell pepper 'Red Knight', Phytophthora-resistant bell pepper 'Paladin', and Phytophthora-resistant landrace Criollos de Morelos 334 (CM-334). In this study, the same number of zoospores attached to and germinated on roots of all cultivars 30 and 120 min postinoculation (pi), respectively. At 3 days pi, significantly more secondary roots had necrotic lesions on Red Knight than on Paladin and CM-334 plants. By 4 days pi, necrotic lesions had formed on the taproot of Red Knight but not Paladin or CM-334 plants. Although hyphae were visible in the crowns and stems of all Red Knight plants observed at 4 days pi, hyphae were observed in crowns of only a few Paladin and in no CM-334 plants, and never in stems of either resistant cultivar at 4 days pi. These results improve our understanding of how P. capsici infects plants and may contribute to the use of resistant pepper cultivars for disease management and the development of new cultivars.

  10. Antimutagenic properties of bell and black peppers.

    PubMed

    El Hamss, R; Idaomar, M; Alonso-Moraga, A; Muñoz Serrano, A

    2003-01-01

    The wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) in combination with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate (EC). Larvae trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 [flr(3)] were fed genotoxins alone or in combination with each of the two spices. Genetic changes induced in somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs lead to the formation of mutant clones on the wing blade. Our results showed that bell pepper was effective in reducing the mutational events induced by EC and MMS and black pepper was only effective against EC. Pretreatment of 2-day-old larvae with the spices for 24 h followed by a treatment with EC and MMS was only effective in reducing mutations induced by EC. Suppression of metabolic activation or interaction with the active groups of mutagens could be mechanisms by which the spices exert their antimutagenic action.

  11. Conservation Biological Control in Pepper and Eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several important factors contribute to low productivity in pepper and eggplant due to western flower thrips. Research has been conducted to develop an understanding of flower thrips population dynamics and insecticide efficacy studies have allowed us to direct recommendations for biological contro...

  12. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  13. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia.

  14. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L.; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5–0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  15. Metabolomic Characterization of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-11-04

    Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") was performed at six development stages [16, 25, 36, 38, 43, and 48 days post-anthesis (DPA)] to analyze biochemical changes. Distinct distribution patterns were observed in the changes of metabolites, gene expressions, and antioxidant activities by early (16-25 DPA), breaker (36-38 DPA), and later (43-48 DPA) stages. In the early stages, glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, shikimic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and putrescine were highly distributed but gradually decreased over the breaker stage. At later stages, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and kaempferol glycosides were significantly increased. Pathway analysis revealed metabolite-gene interactions in the biosynthesis of amino acids, capsaicinoids, fatty acid chains, and flavonoids. The changes in antioxidant activity were highly reflective of alterations in metabolites. The present study could provide useful information about nutrient content at each stage of pepper cultivation.

  16. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum. PMID:27609555

  17. Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gahyung; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2017-01-01

    Yeast associates with many plant parts including the phyllosphere, where it is subject to harsh environmental conditions. Few studies have reported on biological control of foliar pathogens by yeast. Here, we newly isolated leaf-colonizing yeasts from leaves of field-grown pepper plants in a major pepper production area of South Korea. The yeast was isolated using semi-selective medium supplemented with rifampicin to inhibit bacterial growth and its disease control capacity against Xanthomonas axonopodis infection of pepper plants in the greenhouse was evaluated. Of 838 isolated yeasts, foliar spray of Pseudozyma churashimaensis strain RGJ1 at 108 cfu/mL conferred significant protection against X. axonopodis and unexpectedly against Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus, and Broad bean wilt virus under field conditions. Direct antagonism between strain RGJ1 and X. axonopodis was not detected from co-culture assays, suggesting that disease is suppressed via induced resistance. Additional molecular analysis of the induced resistance marker genes Capsicum annuum Pathogenesis-Related (CaPR) 4 and CaPR5 indicated that strain RGJ1 elicited plant defense priming. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of plant protection against bacterial and viral pathogens mediated by a leaf-colonizing yeast and has potential for effective disease management in the field. PMID:28071648

  18. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes.

  19. Biocontrol activity and induction of systemic resistance in pepper by compost water extracts against Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki Deok

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effects of water extracts of composts (CWE) from commercial compost facilities for controlling root and foliar infection of pepper plants by Phytophthora capsici. Among 47 CWE tested, CWE from composts Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and population of P. capsici. All selected CWE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence and severity in the seedling and plant assays compared with the controls. However, there were no significant differences in zoospore germination, disease incidence, and disease severity between treatments of untreated, autoclaved, and filtered CWE. In addition, CWE significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed leaf infection of P. capsici through induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants root-drenched with CWE. The tested CWE enhanced the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes, CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, or CaPR-10 as well as beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase activities, which resulted in enhanced plant defense against P. capsici in pepper plants. Moreover, the CWE enhanced the chemical and structural defenses of the plants, including H(2)O(2) generation in the leaves and lignin accumulation in the stems. The CWE could also suppress other fungal pathogens (Colletotrichum coccodes in pepper leaves and C. orbiculare in cucumber leaves) through ISR; however, it failed to inhibit other bacterial pathogens (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper leaves and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber leaves). These results suggest that a heat-stable chemical(s) in the CWE can suppress root and foliar infection by P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these suppressions might result from direct inhibition of development and population of P. capsici for root infection, as well as indirect inhibition of foliar infection through ISR with broad-spectrum protection.

  20. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Kirchberg, Janine; Büttner, Daniela; Thiemer, Barbara; Sawers, R Gary

    2012-01-01

    The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB). acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  1. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (Capsicum).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Bosland, Paul; Bebeli, Penelope J; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2013-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of postharvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. To shed light on the chemical-compositional diversity of cuticles in pepper, the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world collection were screened for both wax and cutin monomer amount and composition. These same genotypes were also screened for fruit water loss rate and this was tested for associations with cuticle composition. Our results revealed an unexpectedly large amount of variation for the fruit cuticle lipids, with a more than 14-fold range for total wax amounts and a more than 16-fold range for cutin monomer amounts between the most extreme accessions. Within the major wax constituents fatty acids varied from 1 to 46%, primary alcohols from 2 to 19%, n-alkanes from 13 to 74% and triterpenoids and sterols from 10 to 77%. Within the cutin monomers, total hexadecanoic acids ranged from 54 to 87%, total octadecanoic acids ranged from 10 to 38% and coumaric acids ranged from 0.2 to 8% of the total. We also observed considerable differences in water loss among the accessions, and unique correlations between water loss and cuticle constituents. The resources described here will be valuable for future studies of the physiological function of fruit cuticle, for the identification of genes and QTLs associated with fruit cuticle synthesis in pepper fruit, and as a starting point for breeding improved fruit quality in pepper.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Pepper in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Yamane, Ryoko; Dang, Van Chinh; Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kanki, Masashi; Kawai, Takao; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kumeda, Yuko; Isegawa, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-03-28

    To investigate the microbial quality of retail pepper in Vietnam, the enumeration and detection of Enterobacteriaceae and the screening of cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were performed by using 84 commercial samples. Although Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 78 samples, the number of Enterobacteriaceae was lower than 1.0 log CFU/g in 46 samples. For the detection of Enterobacteriaceae with the International Organization for Standardization methods, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Cronobacter sakazakii , and Enterobacter cloacae complex were isolated from 5, 12, 36, 19, and 30 samples, respectively. During screening of CTX-resistant coliforms, K. pneumoniae , C. sakazakii , and E. cloacae complex were isolated from 8, 1, and 21 samples, respectively. Seven K. pneumoniae and seven E. cloacae complex isolates obtained in the screening of CTX-resistant coliforms were resistant to at least one of the three third-generation cephalosporins (CTX, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime). Moreover, one E. cloacae complex cluster IV and all K. pneumoniae isolates were positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase genes or both. Additionally, two extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and one AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. cloacae complex cluster IV isolate were positive for the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and also had amino acid alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of GyrA and ParC. Furthermore, 10 E. cloacae complex isolates were positive for the plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene fosA. As pepper is often consumed without a heating process, the possible spread to humans of foodborne, opportunistic, and nosocomial infection pathogens or resistance genes from foods prepared or seasoned with pepper cannot be excluded. Therefore, it is necessary to handle pepper by using hygienic conditions during the cultivation, harvesting and

  3. Integrative Comparative Analyses of Transcript and Metabolite Profiles from Pepper and Tomato Ripening and Development Stages Uncovers Species-Specific Patterns of Network Regulatory Behavior[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Alba, Rob; Nikoloski, Zoran; Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Giovannoni, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Integrative comparative analyses of transcript and metabolite levels from climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits can be employed to unravel the similarities and differences of the underlying regulatory processes. To this end, we conducted combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and heterologous microarray hybridization assays in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; climacteric) and pepper (Capsicum chilense; nonclimacteric) fruits across development and ripening. Computational methods from multivariate and network-based analyses successfully revealed the difference between the covariance structures of the integrated data sets. Moreover, our results suggest that both fruits have similar ethylene-mediated signaling components; however, their regulation is different and may reflect altered ethylene sensitivity or regulators other than ethylene in pepper. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were not induced in pepper fruits. Nevertheless, genes downstream of ethylene perception such as cell wall metabolism genes, carotenoid biosynthesis genes, and the never-ripe receptor were clearly induced in pepper as in tomato fruit. While signaling sensitivity or actual signals may differ between climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit, the evidence described here suggests that activation of a common set of ripening genes influences metabolic traits. Also, a coordinate regulation of transcripts and the accumulation of key organic acids, including malate, citrate, dehydroascorbate, and threonate, in pepper fruit were observed. Therefore, the integrated analysis allows us to uncover additional information for the comprehensive understanding of biological events relevant to metabolic regulation during climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit development. PMID:22685169

  4. Isolation and analysis of bioactive compounds in Capsicum peppers.

    PubMed

    Asnin, L; Park, S W

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the state of the art in the extraction, isolation, and analytical determination of bioactive compounds in peppers of the genus Capsicum is presented. The review is structured by classes of phytochemicals. Both major and minor constituents of peppers are considered. Modern trends in analytical chemistry of nutrients in regard to pepper analysis with particular focus on chromatographic and related methods are discussed. Attention was paid to controversial questions of pepper analysis, including but not limited to problems of sample degradation and the completeness of extraction of target analytes. The rationale for choosing an optimal strategy of analysis is given.

  5. Identification of Salmonella serotypes isolated from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems in Mexico by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Robles, Miguel A; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva; Vega-P, Adrián; Chew-M, Yazmín; Velarde, Sixto; Fratamico, Pina

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on three cantaloupe farms in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico, and on one farm that cultivates chile peppers var. Bell in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Samples from cantaloupe farms consisted of cantaloupe rinses, irrigation water, water from furrows in the field, and workers' hands. Samples from the chile pepper farm consisted of rinses of chile peppers obtained at the field, pepper rinses obtained at the packing house, and irrigation water from the field. A total of 55 samples were obtained from both production systems. Twelve and 10 samples from the cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella according to a traditional culture method. The difference between the proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from the cantaloupe production system (12 of 28 = 0.43) and the chile pepper production system (10 of 27 = 0.37) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on the fliC gene was used to determine the serotype of the isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium was the only serotype found associated with the cantaloupe production system, whereas both Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis serotypes were found associated with the chile pepper production system. Results showed that 91% (20 of 22) and 9% (2 of 22) of the isolates from both agricultural systems matched with the Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis reference strain restriction profiles, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR-RFLP technique for determining the serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems.

  6. Detection of pepper mild mottle virus in pepper sauce in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiejun; Shi, Bingbin; Zheng, Hongying; Lu, Yuwen; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Tong; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) was detected by RT-PCR in all 42 pepper sauce samples from the 10 main manufacturing provinces in China at concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 8.8 (Log10 copies/mL). Their coat protein nucleotide sequences had 97.4 to 100 % identity to each other and 92.4 to 100 % to other published isolates. The samples remained infectious to N. benthamiana, indicating that commercial trade in sauce could contribute to the natural spread of PMMoV.

  7. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  8. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  9. "Measuring by the bushel": reweighing the Indian Ocean pepper trade.

    PubMed

    Prange, Sebastian R

    2011-01-01

    Of all the oriental spices, black pepper was the most important until the eighteenth century. The historiography of the pepper trade is characterized by a strong focus on Europe in terms of both its economic significance in the ancient and medieval periods and the struggle for its control in the early modern period. This article, by contrast, seeks to situate the pepper trade firmly in its Asian contexts. It examines the Indian Ocean pepper trade from three perspectives. First, it places the trade in its supply-side context by focusing on the Malabar coast as the primary source of pepper. Second, it examines the relative importance of the different branches of Malabar's pepper trade and highlights the central role played by Muslim mercantile networks. Third, it considers the reconfiguration of these pepper networks in the sixteenth century in the face of aggressive competition from the Portuguese. In their sum, these arguments advocate the need for rethought balances of trade and a reweighted scholarly focus on the pepper trade in its global dimensions.

  10. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus populations infecting pepper suggests unique patterns of evolution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeong-Jin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Studying genetic structure and diversity of viruses is important to understand the evolutionary mechanisms that generate and maintain variations in viral populations. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is endemic in most pepper fields in Korea. Currently, no effective methods for control of CMV are available due to many environmental and biological factors such as the extensive evolutionary capacity of CMV. Thus, analyzing the genetic structure of CMV populations may facilitate the development of strategies for the control of CMV. In this study, 252 pepper (Capsicum annuum) samples showing virus symptoms were collected by field surveys performed throughout Korea in 2007. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that, in total, 165 collected samples were infected with CMV. Forty-five CMV isolates were randomly selected within each regional subpopulation and analyzed by full-genome sequencing. Analyses of genetic diversity showed that the 2b gene of CMV is under weaker purifying selection than the other genes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of RNA1, the CMV isolates from pepper were divided into three clusters in subgroup I. Our full-genome sequence-based molecular analyses of the CMV Korean population suggest that the subpopulations of CMV have been geographically localized in pepper fields in Korea.

  12. Development of a SNP array and its application to genetic mapping and diversity assessment in pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Tang, Xin; Zhou, Huangkai; Hu, Yafei; Zhao, Zicheng; Cui, Junjie; Li, Bo; Wu, Zhiming; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is in its infancy for pepper. Here, a set of 15,000 SNPs were chosen from the resequencing data to develop an array for pepper with 12,720 loci being ultimately synthesized. Of these, 8,199 (~64.46%) SNPs were found to be scorable and covered ~81.18% of the whole genome. With this array, a high-density interspecific genetic map with 5,569 SNPs was constructed using 297 F2 individuals, and genetic diversity of a panel of 399 pepper elite/landrace lines was successfully characterized. Based on the genetic map, one major QTL, named Up12.1, was detected for the fruit orientation trait. A total of 65 protein-coding genes were predicted within this QTL region based on the current annotation of the Zunla-1 genome. In summary, the thousands of well-validated SNP markers, high-density genetic map and genetic diversity information will be useful for molecular genetics and innovative breeding in pepper. Furthermore, the mapping results lay foundation for isolating the genes underlying variation in fruit orientation of Capsicum. PMID:27623541

  13. Genetic determinants of the defense response of resistant and susceptible pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars infected with Phytophthora capsici (Oomycetes; Pythiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-L; Li, D-W; Gong, Z-H; Wang, J-E; Yin, Y-X; Ji, J-J

    2013-09-13

    Based on culture isolation and morphological observation blight-infected pepper plants in Shaanxi Province, China, we identified the pathogen causing pepper phytophthora blight as Phytophthora capsici. Varieties that differed in resistance (CM334, PBC602, and B27) were inoculated with this pathogen. The root activity of resistant CM334 variety was the highest while that of susceptible B27 variety was the lowest. Also, significant differences in the activity of POD, PAL, and β-1,3-glucanase were found; there was a positive correlation between disease resistance and activity of these three enzymes. We inhibited mycelial growth and sporangia formation of P. capsici using crude β-1,3-glucanase and PAL enzymes isolated from the resistant variety CM334 after it had been inoculated with P. capsici. These two enzymes had a synergistic effect on inhibition of P. capsici mycelial growth and sporangia formation. Expression of the defensive genes CaPO1, CaBGLU, CaBPR1, and CaRGA in the three varieties was higher in the leaves than in the roots. All three genes were upregulated in infected leaves and roots of the pepper plants, always expressing at higher levels in the resistant cultivar than in the susceptible cultivar, suggesting that the differences in resistance among the pepper genotypes involve differences in the timing and magnitude of the defense response.

  14. A hot pepper cDNA encoding ascorbate peroxidase is induced during the incompatible interaction with virus and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae Hyoung; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Gil-Je; Shin, Ryoung; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Rhee, Ki-Hyeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2002-08-31

    Capsicum annuum L. is infected by a number of viruses, including the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). To study the defense-related genes that are induced by TMV in hot peppers, the pepper plant, which is susceptible to P1.2 but resistant to the P0 pathotype of TMV, was inoculated with TMV-P0. Differential screening isolated the genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated during the hypersensitive response (HR). The CaAPX1 cDNA clone that putatively encodes a polypeptide of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was selected as an up-regulated gene. It was isolated for further study. The full-length cDNA for CaAPX1, which is 972 bp long, contained the open-reading frame of 250-amino acid residues. A genomic Southern blot analysis showed that there were only limited copies of the CaAPX1 gene in the hot pepper genome. In hot pepper cv. Bugang, which is resistant to TMV-P0 and susceptible to TMV-P1.2, the CaAPX1 gene transcript was accumulated by TMV-P0, but not by TMV-P1.2 inoculation. CaAPX1 transcripts began to accumulate 24 h post-inoculation of TMV-P0, and increased gradually until 96 h. To investigate whether each transcript is induced by other stimuli, the plants were treated with various chemicals and wounding. A striking induction of the CaAPX1 transcript was observed at 2 h. It subsided 12 h after salicylic acid (SA), ethephon, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. The response of the gene upon other pathogen infection was also examined by a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race 3) inoculation. The CaAPX1 gene was induced in a hot pepper (C. annuum cv. ECW 20R) that was resistant to this bacterial pathogen, but not in a susceptible hot pepper (C. annuum cv. ECW). These results suggest the possible role(s) for the CaAPX1 gene in plant defense against viral and bacterial pathogen.

  15. ‘TigerPaw-NR’, a New Root-knot Nematode Resistant Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most peppers grown in the United States belong to the species Capsicum annuum. However, the increasing popularity of hot peppers has created intense interest in the Habanero, a type of pepper that belongs to another domesticated Capsicum species, C. chinense. Habanero-type peppers are some of the ...

  16. Antihyperglucolipidaemic and anticarbonyl stress properties in green, yellow and red sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Srishti; Kumar, Dommati Anand; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Effect of aqueous methanol extract of different colour sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) on parameters of diabesity and carbonyl stress was analysed in vitro. Yellow pepper displayed significantly (p < 0.001) higher intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than green and red pepper. Porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was significantly (p < 0.01) high in yellow and red pepper than in green pepper. Green and red pepper inhibited vesperlysine-type advanced glycation end products (AGEs) more potently than yellow pepper; however, pentosidine-type AGEs were similarly inhibited by all three peppers. Yellow and red pepper inhibited lipid peroxidation more potently (p < 0.01) than green pepper. Total polyphenol content and free radicals scavenging activities in yellow and red bell peppers were higher than in green pepper. Total flavonoid content was high in green pepper than that present in yellow and red peppers. Green pepper displayed presence of proanthocyanins; however, oligomeric anthocyanins were detected in yellow and red peppers.

  17. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capscicum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot pepper is an important spice crop the world-over and is closely related to sweet peppers that represent an important vegetable crop in many cultures. Both hot and mild peppers are important sources of dietary nutrients and hot pepper is a source of the medicinal compound capsaicin, which is wide...

  18. The pepper phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase CaPEPCK1 is involved in plant immunity against bacterial and oomycete pathogens.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Seok; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a member of the lyase family, is involved in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis in organisms. Although the major function of PEPCK in gluconeogenesis is well established, it is unclear whether this enzyme is involved in plant immunity. Here, we isolated and identified the pepper (Capsicum annuum) PEPCK (CaPEPCK1) gene from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaPEPCK1 was strongly expressed in pepper leaves during the incompatible interaction with avirulent Xcv and in response to environmental stresses, especially salicylic acid (SA) treatment. PEPCK activity was low in healthy leaves but dramatically increased in avirulent Xcv-infected leaves. Knock-down expression of CaPEPCK1 by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in high levels of susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Xcv infection. CaPEPCK1 silencing in pepper compromised induction of the basal defense-marker genes CaPR1 (pathogenesis-related 1 protein), CaPR10 (pathogenesis-related 10 protein) and CaDEF1 (defensin) during Xcv infection. SA accumulation was also significantly suppressed in the CaPEPCK1-silenced pepper leaves infected with Xcv. CaPEPCK1 in an Arabidopsis overexpression (OX) line inhibited the proliferation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). CaPEPCK1-OX plants developed more rapidly, with enlarged leaves, compared to wild-type plants. The T-DNA insertion Arabidopsis orthologous mutants pck1-3 and pck1-4 were more susceptible to the bacterial Pst and oomycete Hpa pathogens than the wild type. Taken together, these results suggest that CaPEPCK positively contributes to plant innate immunity against hemibiotrophic bacterial and obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens.

  19. Antioxidants in hot pepper: variation among accessions.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Jarret, Robert L; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand members or accessions. Many of these species and cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants having a number of benefits for human health. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, free sugars, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Seventeen accessions of pepper from the core Capsicum germplasm collection (four accessions of Capsicum chinense; five accessions of C. baccatum; six accessions of C. annuum; and two of C. frutescens) were field grown and their mature fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant composition. Concentrations of these compounds tended to be higher in C. chinense and C. baccatum, than in C. annuum and C. frutescens. Across all accessions the concentration of total phenols was correlated with ascorbic acid (r = 0.97) and free sugars (r = 0.80). Concentrations of total phenols (1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) and ascorbic acid (1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) were significantly greater in PI-633757, PI-387833, and PI-633754, respectively, compared to other accessions analyzed. Total capsaicinoids concentrations were greatest (1.3 mg g-1 fruit) in PI-438622 and lowest (0.002 mg g-1 fruit) in Grif-9320. The great variability within and among Capsicum species for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with value-added traits.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  2. Paromomycin Derived from Streptomyces sp. AG-P 1441 Induces Resistance against Two Major Pathogens of Chili Pepper.

    PubMed

    Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Chang-Jin; Park, Dong-Jin; Nam, Ki-Woong; Zhang, Kecheng; Sang, Mee Kyung; Park, Kyungseok

    2016-09-28

    This is the first report that paromomycin, an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces sp. AG-P 1441 (AG-P 1441), controlled Phytophthora blight and soft rot diseases caused by Phytophthora capsici and Pectobacterium carotovorum, respectively, in chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Chili pepper plants treated with paromomycin by foliar spray or soil drenching 7 days prior to inoculation with P. capsici zoospores showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in disease severity (%) when compared with untreated control plants. The disease severity of Phytophthora blight was recorded as 8% and 50% for foliar spray and soil drench, respectively, at 1.0 ppm of paromomycin, compared with untreated control, where disease severity was 83% and 100% by foliar spray and soil drench, respectively. A greater reduction of soft rot lesion areas per leaf disk was observed in treated plants using paromomycin (1.0 μg/ml) by infiltration or soil drench in comparison with untreated control plants. Paromomycin treatment did not negatively affect the growth of chili pepper. Furthermore, the treatment slightly promoted growth; this growth was supported by increased chlorophyll content in paromomycin-treated chili pepper plants. Additionally, paromomycin likely induced resistance as confirmed by the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes: PR-1, β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, PR-4, peroxidase, and PR-10, which enhanced plant defense against P. capsici in chili pepper. This finding indicates that AG-P 1441 plays a role in pathogen resistance upon the activation of defense genes, by secretion of the plant resistance elicitor, paromomycin.

  3. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is down-regulated during pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Mioto, Paulo; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-12-27

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an annual plant species of great agronomic importance whose fruits undergo major metabolic changes through development and ripening. These changes include emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls and synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyans) responsible for color shift, protein degradation/synthesis and changes in total soluble reducing equivalents. Previous data have shown that, during the ripening of pepper fruit, an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration takes place. On the other hand, it is well known that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity can modulate the transnitrosylation equilibrium between GSNO and S-nitrosylated proteins and, consequently, regulate cellular NO homeostasis. In this study, GSNOR activity, protein content and gene expression were analyzed in green and red pepper fruits. The content of S-nitrosylated proteins on diaminofluorescein (DAF) gels was also studied. The data show that, while GSNOR activity and protein expression diminished during fruit ripening, S-nitrosylated protein content increased. Some of the protein candidates for S-nitrosylation identified, such as cytochorme c oxidase and peroxiredoxin II E, have previously been described as targets of this posttranslational modification in other plant species. These findings corroborate the important role played by GSNOR activity in the NO metabolism during the process of pepper fruit ripening.

  4. Construction of an integrated pepper map using RFLP, SSR, CAPS, AFLP, WRKY, rRAMP, and BAC end sequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ryul; Bae, Ik-Hyun; Park, Soung-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Min, Woong-Ki; Han, Jung-Heon; Kim, Ki-Taek; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2009-01-31

    Map-based cloning to find genes of interest, markerassisted selection (MAS), and marker-assisted breeding (MAB) all require good genetic maps with high reproducible markers. For map construction as well as chromosome assignment, development of single copy PCR-based markers and map integration process are necessary. In this study, the 132 markers (57 STS from BAC-end sequences, 13 STS from RFLP, and 62 SSR) were newly developed as single copy type PCR-based markers. They were used together with 1830 markers previously developed in our lab to construct an integrated map with the Joinmap 3.0 program. This integrated map contained 169 SSR, 354 RFLP, 23 STS from BAC-end sequences, 6 STS from RFLP, 152 AFLP, 51 WRKY, and 99 rRAMP markers on 12 chromosomes. The integrated map contained four genetic maps of two interspecific (Capsicum annuum 'TF68' and C. chinense 'Habanero') and two intraspecific (C. annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho') populations of peppers. This constructed integrated map consisted of 805 markers (map distance of 1858 cM) in interspecific populations and 745 markers (map distance of 1892 cM) in intraspecific populations. The used pepper STS were first developed from end sequences of BAC clones from Capsicum annuum 'CM334'. This integrated map will provide useful information for construction of future pepper genetic maps and for assignment of linkage groups to pepper chromosomes.

  5. Reduction of mycotoxins in white pepper.

    PubMed

    Jalili, M; Jinap, S

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for the reduction of aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁), G₂ (AFG₂) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in white pepper was studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the effect of four variables, which included time (20-60 min), temperature (30-70°C), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂) (0-1%) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) (1-3%) during the washing step of white pepper. The efficacy of the method was evaluated by the determination of mycotoxins by HPLC with fluorescence detection (FD). Statistical analysis showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model, with a multiple regression coefficient (R²) in the range of 0.805-0.907 for AFG₂ and AFG₁, respectively. The optimal condition was 57.8 min, 62.0°C, of 0.6% (w/v) and 2.8% (v/v) for time, temperature, Ca(OH)₂ and H₂O₂ respectively. By applying the optimum condition, the mycotoxins reduction was found to be in the range of 68.5-100% for AFB₂ and AFG₁ respectively.

  6. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru

    1995-04-01

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as a type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature.

  7. [Severe type 1-allergy to raw bell pepper].

    PubMed

    Rüger, R D; Wagner, S; Simon, J C; Treudler, R

    2010-04-01

    We report on a patient with rare anaphylaxis after ingestion of raw bell pepper. A complex cluster of sensitization including grass and birch pointed out a possible pollen-associated food allergy. We suggest that the severe reaction is due to cross-reactivity towards Bet v 1. Western blot showed binding of the patient's serum to an 11 kDa protein, which has not been described yet and might be a new allergenic structure of the bell pepper plant or a fragment of the Bet v 1-homologous bell pepper protein.

  8. 75 FR 30303 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... introduced into the United States via peppers, including 8 insect pests, 1 bacterium, 1 fungus, and 2 viruses. Insect pests: Mexican fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrapha ludens). Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly,...

  9. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  10. Electroporetic transfection of pepper protoplasts with plant potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Nubia; Murphy, John F; Suh, Sang-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Potyviruses are a persistent threat to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production worldwide. Much effort has been expended to study the resistance response of pepper cultivars at whole plant levels but with only limited effort at the cellular level using protoplasts. A pepper protoplast isolation procedure is available but an inoculation procedure is needed that provides consistent and highly efficient infection. An electroporation-based procedure for inoculation of potyviruses was developed using a base procedure developed for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The final parameters identified for efficient potyvirus infection of pepper protoplasts involves two 25ms pulses, 200V each pulse with a 10s interval between pulses. Depending on the method of detection, e.g., ELISA versus RT-PCR, potyvirus RNA inoculum ranged from 10 to 40μg with infection detection occurring with samples of 50,000-100,000 protoplasts.

  11. Postindustrial melanism in the peppered moth.

    PubMed

    Cook, L M; Mani, G S; Varley, M E

    1986-02-07

    New data show the geographical pattern of frequency of the melanic morph carbonaria of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, in 1983-84. These frequencies are compared with data from 1952 to 1970. After 20 years of smoke control, the area of high melanic frequency has contracted to the northeast. The change indicates a disadvantage to carbonaria of about 12 percent compared with 20 years ago. Computer simulations, which do not include the assumption of heterozygote advantage, provide a good match to the surface for the period 1952 to 1970, and also the 1983-84 surface. Experiments on visual predation have been criticized as giving unrepresentative estimates of selection but they permit satisfactory simulations to be made.

  12. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  13. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  14. Multiple Classes of Immune-Related Proteases Associated with the Cell Death Response in Pepper Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Su-min; Lee, Dong Ju; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Proteases regulate a large number of biological processes in plants, such as metabolism, physiology, growth, and defense. In this study, we carried out virus-induced gene silencing assays with pepper cDNA clones to elucidate the biological roles of protease superfamilies. A total of 153 representative protease genes from pepper cDNA were selected and cloned into a Tobacco rattle virus-ligation independent cloning vector in a loss-of-function study. Silencing of 61 proteases resulted in altered phenotypes, such as the inhibition of shoot growth, abnormal leaf shape, leaf color change, and lethality. Furthermore, the silencing experiments revealed that multiple proteases play a role in cell death and immune response against avirulent and virulent pathogens. Among these 153 proteases, 34 modulated the hypersensitive cell death response caused by infection with an avirulent pathogen, and 16 proteases affected disease symptom development caused by a virulent pathogen. Specifically, we provide experimental evidence for the roles of multiple protease genes in plant development and immune defense following pathogen infection. With these results, we created a broad sketch of each protease function. This information will provide basic information for further understanding the roles of the protease superfamily in plant growth, development, and defense. PMID:23696830

  15. The Pepper CaOSR1 Protein Regulates the Osmotic Stress Response via Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms, and their growth and development is detrimentally affected by environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Defense mechanisms are tightly regulated and complex processes, which respond to changing environmental conditions; however, the precise mechanisms that function under adverse conditions remain unclear. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the CaOSR1 gene, which functions in the adaptive response to abiotic stress. We found that CaOSR1 gene expression in pepper leaves was up-regulated after exposure to abscisic acid (ABA), drought, and high salinity. In addition, we demonstrated that the fusion protein of CaOSR1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in the nucleus. We used CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants and CaOSR1-OX-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to show that the CaOSR1 protein regulates the osmotic stress response. CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants showed increased drought susceptibility, and this was accompanied by a high transpiration rate. CaOSR1-OX plants displayed phenotypes that were hypersensitive to ABA and hyposensitive to osmotic stress, during the seed germination and seedling growth stages; furthermore, these plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance at the adult stage, and this was characterized by higher leaf temperatures and smaller stomatal apertures because of ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that CaOSR1 positively regulates osmotic stress tolerance via ABA-mediated cell signaling. These findings suggest an involvement of a novel protein in ABA and osmotic stress signalings in plants. PMID:27446121

  16. The Pepper CaOSR1 Protein Regulates the Osmotic Stress Response via Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms, and their growth and development is detrimentally affected by environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Defense mechanisms are tightly regulated and complex processes, which respond to changing environmental conditions; however, the precise mechanisms that function under adverse conditions remain unclear. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the CaOSR1 gene, which functions in the adaptive response to abiotic stress. We found that CaOSR1 gene expression in pepper leaves was up-regulated after exposure to abscisic acid (ABA), drought, and high salinity. In addition, we demonstrated that the fusion protein of CaOSR1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in the nucleus. We used CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants and CaOSR1-OX-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to show that the CaOSR1 protein regulates the osmotic stress response. CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants showed increased drought susceptibility, and this was accompanied by a high transpiration rate. CaOSR1-OX plants displayed phenotypes that were hypersensitive to ABA and hyposensitive to osmotic stress, during the seed germination and seedling growth stages; furthermore, these plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance at the adult stage, and this was characterized by higher leaf temperatures and smaller stomatal apertures because of ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that CaOSR1 positively regulates osmotic stress tolerance via ABA-mediated cell signaling. These findings suggest an involvement of a novel protein in ABA and osmotic stress signalings in plants.

  17. Susceptibility of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates to common greenhouse pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of four potential ornamental pepper banker plant candidates [Black Pearl (BP), Explosive Ember (EE), Masquerade (MA), Red Missile (RM), and a commercial pepper cultivar Blitz (BL)] were evaluated against three common greenhouse pests - Bemisia tabaci, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Fra...

  18. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  19. Molecular characterization of tospoviruses associated with ringspot disease in bell pepper from different districts of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Kulshrestha, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum. To confirm the presence of tospovirus, DAC-ELISA was performed using GBNV/CaCV polyclonal antiserum and DAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies i.e. TSWV, GRSV. All the 53 samples were found negative for TSWV and GRSV and positive for GBNV/CaCV. Further, eleven infected isolates from both poly-house and open field conditions were selected for characterization at molecular level. RT-PCR was performed with N gene specific primers for TSWV, GBNV and CaCV. The eleven samples selected for molecular identification were further found to be negative for TSWV and positive for CaCV using RT-PCR. One of the samples from district Sirmaur was found to be positive for mixed infection of GBNV and CaCV. N gene phylogenetic analysis of CaCV/GBNV provided important information about the movement and evolution of tospoviruses in Himachal Pradesh.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of Dof transcription factors reveals functional characteristics during development and response to biotic stresses in pepper.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Seungill; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Yeom, Seon-In

    2016-09-22

    The DNA-binding with one zinc finger proteins (Dofs) are a plant-specific family of transcription factors. The Dofs are involved in a variety of biological processes such as phytohormone production, seed development, and environmental adaptation. Dofs have been previously identified in several plants, but not in pepper. We identified 33 putative Dof genes in pepper (CaDofs). To gain an overview of the CaDofs, we analyzed phylogenetic relationships, protein motifs, and evolutionary history. We divided the 33 CaDofs, containing 25 motifs, into four major groups distributed on eight chromosomes. We discovered an expansion of the CaDofs dated to a recent duplication event. Segmental duplication that occurred before the speciation of the Solanaceae lineages was predominant among the CaDofs. The global gene-expression profiling of the CaDofs by RNA-seq analysis showed distinct temporal and pathogen-specific variation during development and response to biotic stresses (two TMV strains, PepMoV, and Phytophthora capsici), suggesting functional diversity among the CaDofs. These results will provide the useful clues into the responses of Dofs in biotic stresses and promote a better understanding of their multiple function in pepper and other species.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of Dof transcription factors reveals functional characteristics during development and response to biotic stresses in pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Seungill; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Yeom, Seon-In

    2016-01-01

    The DNA-binding with one zinc finger proteins (Dofs) are a plant-specific family of transcription factors. The Dofs are involved in a variety of biological processes such as phytohormone production, seed development, and environmental adaptation. Dofs have been previously identified in several plants, but not in pepper. We identified 33 putative Dof genes in pepper (CaDofs). To gain an overview of the CaDofs, we analyzed phylogenetic relationships, protein motifs, and evolutionary history. We divided the 33 CaDofs, containing 25 motifs, into four major groups distributed on eight chromosomes. We discovered an expansion of the CaDofs dated to a recent duplication event. Segmental duplication that occurred before the speciation of the Solanaceae lineages was predominant among the CaDofs. The global gene-expression profiling of the CaDofs by RNA-seq analysis showed distinct temporal and pathogen-specific variation during development and response to biotic stresses (two TMV strains, PepMoV, and Phytophthora capsici), suggesting functional diversity among the CaDofs. These results will provide the useful clues into the responses of Dofs in biotic stresses and promote a better understanding of their multiple function in pepper and other species. PMID:27653666

  2. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  3. Loss of Function in Mlo Orthologs Reduces Susceptibility of Pepper and Tomato to Powdery Mildew Disease Caused by Leveillula taurica

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Pavan, Stefano; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Wolters, Anne-Marie A.; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bai, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded. PMID:23923019

  4. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bacillus cereus in dried red pepper in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choo, Euiyoung; Jang, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyumson; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a foodborne spore-forming bacterial pathogen that is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Infections with this pathogen manifest as diarrheal or emetic types of food poisoning. In this study, 140 samples of dried red pepper purchased in Korea were assayed for the presence of B. cereus according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method. A multiplex PCR assay was developed for the rapid confirmation of B. cereus as an alternative to conventional biochemical confirmation tests. The genetic diversity of B. cereus isolates was investigated using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. B. cereus was found in 84.3% of the dried red pepper samples, with an average concentration of 1.9 x 10(4) CFU/g. B. cereus could be detected and distinguished from B. thuringiensis in the multiplex PCR assay by using the BCFW1 plus BCrevnew and the K3 plus K5 primer sets designed to detect the gyrB gene of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and the cry gene of B. thuringiensis. A RAPD assay using the OPG 16 and MUP 3 primers was used to successfully distinguish among isolates, thus elucidating the genetic diversity of B. cereus isolates. The discriminating ability of the OPG 16 primer (142 types) was about threefold higher than that of MUP 3 (52 types) in the RAPD assay.

  5. Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  10. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bell Pepper Endornavirus Isolate from Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Bernards, Mark; Wang, Aiming

    2015-08-20

    Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is a double-stranded RNA virus infecting economically important crops, such as peppers. Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs extracted from the leaves of a pepper plant showing mild viral symptoms, along with subsequent analysis, identified BPEV. The complete genome of this isolate was cloned and sequenced.

  12. Electronic Nose Based Alternative Method for the Determination of Capsaicin in Hot Chili Pepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, E. I.; Andreoli, A.; Martinelli, E.; Candeloro, N.; Mantini, A.; di Natale, C.; de Lorenzo, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the EN aptitude to evaluate different pepper brands' freshness by repeated measurements of chosen pepper samples. This, in addition to study the possibility of differentiation and classification of Bell, Thai and Scotch Bonnet pepper brands, available in the Italian market.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  14. Postharvest quality and shelf life of some hot pepper varieties.

    PubMed

    Samira, Awole; Woldetsadik, Kebede; Workneh, Tilahun S

    2013-10-01

    Five hot pepper varieties were grown at Haramaya University Research Farm, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. The experiment was undertaken using completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. Green peppers were stored under ambient and evaporatively cooled conditions. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences were observed among cultivars and storage conditions in changes in quality of pepper. Storage at ambient conditions resulted in high weight loss and rapid deterioration in chemical composition. The highest and lowest moisture contents were recorded in Melka Eshet and PBC 600, respectively. Evaporative cooler reduced weight loss and maintained higher levels of pH, ascorbic acid and marketability. The highest weight loss was recorded in Melka Dima stored at ambient condition. The lowest weight loss and highest ascorbic acid content was obtained in Mareko Fana stored in evaporative cooler. After 16 days of storage, all pepper fruits stored at ambient condition were unmarketable while those stored in evaporative cooler were kept up to 28 days. The highest pungency level was observed in ambient storage environment than in evaporative cooler. Evaporative cooling was shown to improve shelf life by four-fold compared to the ambient condition. The shelf life of pepper was improved in all varieties tested while the quality characteristics were maintained better in Mareko Fana than in the other varieties when harvested at mature-green stage and stored under evaporatively cooled storage.

  15. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  16. Biochemical properties of polysaccharides from black pepper.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hyug; Shin, Dong Hoon; Hong, Bum Shik; Cho, Won Dai; Cho, Hong Yon; Yang, Han Chul

    2002-09-01

    The purified polysaccharides from Piper nigrum were prepared as follows: a hot water extract of pepper seeds was fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 5-kDa-membrane cartridge. A fraction with 5 kDa or bigger molecules was successively purified by open column chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl 650C and Bio-gel P-60 with each active fraction, resulting in PN-Ib and PN-IIa, purified anti-complementary polysaccharides. None of the anti-complementary activity of any polysaccharide was changed by pronase digestion or polymyxin B treatment, but they were decreased by periodate oxidation. Analysis of component sugar and molecular mass determination of the anti-complementary polysaccharides indicated that PN-Ib with an average molecular mass of 21 kDa contained 88.5% glucose and other negligible minor monosaccharides, while PN-IIa showed a different monosaccharide composition, which contained a significant proportion of galactose, arabinose, galacturonic acid and rhamnose. The molar ratio of galactose and arabinose of PN-IIa (48 kDa) was 1.93:1. PN-1 did not react with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent, however, PN-IIa did react, which indicated that PN-IIa might be an arabinogalactan. Based upon these results, the usefulness of purified anti-complementary polysaccharides from Piper nigrum is suggested as a supplement for immune enhancement.

  17. Comparison of a compatible and an incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interaction by biochemical and non-invasive techniques: chlorophyll a fluorescence, isothermal calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rys, Magdalena; Juhász, Csilla; Surówka, Ewa; Janeczko, Anna; Saja, Diana; Tóbiás, István; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Barna, Balázs; Gullner, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Leaves of a pepper cultivar harboring the L(3) resistance gene were inoculated with Obuda pepper virus (ObPV), which led to the appearance of hypersensitive necrotic lesions approx. 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) (incompatible interaction), or with Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) that caused no visible symptoms on the inoculated leaves (compatible interaction). ObPV inoculation of leaves resulted in ion leakage already 18 hpi, up-regulation of a pepper carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene from 24 hpi, heat emission and declining chlorophyll a content from 48 hpi, and partial desiccation from 72 hpi. After the appearance of necrotic lesions a strong inhibition of photochemical energy conversion was observed, which led to photochemically inactive leaf areas 96 hpi. However, leaf tissues adjacent to these inactive areas showed elevated ΦPSII and Fv/Fm values proving the advantage of chlorophyll a imaging technique. PMMoV inoculation also led to a significant rise of ion leakage and heat emission, to the up-regulation of the pepper CCD gene as well as to decreased PSII efficiency, but these responses were much weaker than in the case of ObPV inoculation. Chlorophyll b and total carotenoid contents as measured by spectrophotometric methods were not significantly influenced by any virus inoculations when these pigment contents were calculated on leaf surface basis. On the other hand, near-infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy showed an increase of carotenoid content in ObPV-inoculated leaves suggesting that the two techniques detect different sets of compounds.

  18. Pepper beta-galactosidase 1 (PBG1) plays a significant role in fruit ripening in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Abe, Keietsu; Nakajima, Tasuku

    2007-02-01

    During bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit ripening, beta-galactosidase activity increased markedly as compared with other glycosidases. We purified 77.5 kDa exo-1,4-beta-D-galactanase from red bell pepper fruit classified as beta-galactosidase II. A marked decrease in galactose content appeared during fruit ripening, especially in the pectic fraction. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed a considerable amount of galactose residues in this fraction. We isolated bell pepper beta-galactosidase (PBG1) cDNA. This PBG1 protein contained the putative active site, G-G-P-[LIVM]-x-Q-x-E-N-E-[FY], belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 35. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of PBG1 in red fruit was significantly stronger than that from any other tissues. Moreover, expression of PBG1 occurred prior to that of pepper endo-polygalacturonase 1 (PPG1), the major fruit-ripening enzyme. Based on these results, it appears that the hydrolysis of galactose residues in pectic substances is the first event in the ripening process in bell pepper fruit.

  19. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste).

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu Min; Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-07-15

    To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste), metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice) and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens) affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity.

  20. Defense-Related Responses in Fruit of the Nonhost Chili Pepper against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Pae; Jeon, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag ) is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of the soybean that causes bacterial pustules and is a nonhost pathogen of the chili pepper. In the current study, chili pepper fruit wound inoculated in planta with Xag 8ra formed necrotic lesions on the fruit surface and induced several structural and chemical barriers systemically in the fruit tissue. The initial defense response included programmed cell death of necrotizing and necrotized cells, which was characterized by nuclear DNA cleavage, as detected by TUNEL-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and phosphatidylserine exposure on cell walls distal to the infection site, as detected by Annexin V FLUOS-CLSM. These two responses may facilitate cell killing and enhance transportation of cell wall materials used for cell wall thickening, respectively. The cells beneath the necrotic tissue were enlarged and divided to form periclinal cell walls, resulting in extensive formation of several parallel boundary layers at the later stages of infection, accompanying the deposition of wall fortification materials for strengthening structural defenses. These results suggest that nonhost resistance of chili pepper fruit against the nonhost necrotrophic pathogen Xag 8ra is activated systematically from the initial infection until termination of the infection cycle, resulting in complete inhibition of bacterial pathogenesis by utilizing organ-specific in situ physiological events governed by the expression of genes in the plant fruit organ.

  1. Defense-Related Responses in Fruit of the Nonhost Chili Pepper against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sung Pae; Jeon, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag ) is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of the soybean that causes bacterial pustules and is a nonhost pathogen of the chili pepper. In the current study, chili pepper fruit wound inoculated in planta with Xag 8ra formed necrotic lesions on the fruit surface and induced several structural and chemical barriers systemically in the fruit tissue. The initial defense response included programmed cell death of necrotizing and necrotized cells, which was characterized by nuclear DNA cleavage, as detected by TUNEL-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and phosphatidylserine exposure on cell walls distal to the infection site, as detected by Annexin V FLUOS-CLSM. These two responses may facilitate cell killing and enhance transportation of cell wall materials used for cell wall thickening, respectively. The cells beneath the necrotic tissue were enlarged and divided to form periclinal cell walls, resulting in extensive formation of several parallel boundary layers at the later stages of infection, accompanying the deposition of wall fortification materials for strengthening structural defenses. These results suggest that nonhost resistance of chili pepper fruit against the nonhost necrotrophic pathogen Xag 8ra is activated systematically from the initial infection until termination of the infection cycle, resulting in complete inhibition of bacterial pathogenesis by utilizing organ-specific in situ physiological events governed by the expression of genes in the plant fruit organ. PMID:27493606

  2. Metabolism of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Mateos, Rosa M; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B; Del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2012-02-01

    Low temperature is an environmental stress that affects crop production and quality and regulates the expression of many genes, and the level of a number of proteins and metabolites. Using leaves from pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants exposed to low temperature (8 °C) for different time periods (1 to 3 d), several key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS, respectively) were analysed. After 24 h of exposure at 8 °C, pepper plants exhibited visible symptoms characterized by flaccidity of stems and leaves. This was accompanied by significant changes in the metabolism of RNS and ROS with an increase of both protein tyrosine nitration (NO(2) -Tyr) and lipid peroxidation, indicating that low temperature induces nitrosative and oxidative stress. During the second and third days at low temperature, pepper plants underwent cold acclimation by adjusting their antioxidant metabolism and reverting the observed nitrosative and oxidative stress. In this process, the levels of the soluble non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione, and the activity of the main NADPH-generating dehydrogenases were significantly induced. This suggests that ascorbate, glutathione and the NADPH-generating dehydrogenases have a role in the process of cold acclimation through their effect on the redox state of the cell.

  3. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 (p<0.05). Additionally, ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  4. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 (p<0.05). Additionally, ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert). PMID:28316469

  5. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  6. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  7. A differentially expressed proteomic analysis in placental tissues in relation to pungency during the pepper fruit development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Kim, Seyoon; Lee, Ji Young; Yoo, Eun Young; Cho, Myeong Cheoul; Cho, Min Rae; Kim, Byung-Dong; Bahk, Young Yil

    2006-10-01

    Using proteomic analysis including 2-DE, image analysis, and protein identification with LC-MS/MS, an investigation aimed at a better understanding of the differentially expressed proteins and/or gene products was carried out with total cell extracts from placental tissues in nonpungent (Capsicum annuum cv. Saeng-Ryeog #213) and pungent peppers (C. annuum cv. Saeng-Ryeog #211). Mobilization of the most abundant proteins, which were on the gels of pH ranges of 4-7, 4.5-5.5, 5.5-6.7, and 6-9, and showed very similar profiles in the two tissues, revealing approximately 2600 protein spots consisting of 1200 on pH 4-7, 600 on 4.5-5.5, 550 on 5.5-6.7, 250 on 6-9. Of these, 37 protein spots, which appeared in only pungent tissues but not in nonpungent tissues or markedly increased in their staining intensities on the gels from pungent tissue, were selected, excised, in-gel trypsin digested, and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Peptide MS/MS data were searched against publicly available protein and EST databases, and 22 proteins were identified. Based on this result, we tested and compared the differential expression during fruit development on the 2-DE gels with total cell extracts from placental tissues of pungent and nonpungent peppers at an interval of 10 days from 10 to 40 days after flowering. In addition, this differential protein expression was further confirmed for some subsets of candidates by Northern-blot analysis with RNA samples from placental tissues harvested from each pepper fruit at the same sampling intervals. In this study, the physiological implications, revealed from the experimental data in the levels of proteome and transcripts, are discussed in the context of a complex biosynthesis network of capsaicinoids in pepper cells responsive to pungency.

  8. Heritability and genetic advance among chili pepper genotypes for heat tolerance and morphophysiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, M Y; Ismail, M R; Malek, M A; Abdul Latif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23-0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  9. Properties of capsaicinoids for the control of fungi and oomycetes pathogenic to pepper.

    PubMed

    Veloso, J; Prego, C; Varela, M M; Carballeira, R; Bernal, A; Merino, F; Díaz, J

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are pungent compounds found in pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits. Capsaicin showed antimicrobial activity in plate assays against seven isolates of five species of fungi and nine isolates of two species of oomycetes. The general trend was that oomycetes were more inhibited than fungi. Assays of capsaicin biosynthetic precursors suggest that the lateral chain of capsaicinoids has more inhibitory activity than the phenolic part. In planta tests of capsaicinoids (capsaicin and N-vanillylnonanamide) applied to the roots demonstrated that these compounds conferred protection against the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae and induced both chitinase activity and expression of several defence-related genes, such as CASC1, CACHI2 and CABGLU. N-Vanillylnonanamide infiltrated into cotyledons confers systemic protection to the upper leaves of pepper against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. In wild-type tomato plants such cotyledon infiltration has no protective effect, but is effective in the Never-ripe tomato mutant impaired in ethylene response. A similar effect was observed in tomato after salicylic acid infiltration.

  10. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Anne Roden, Branids Belt, Jason Barzel Ross, Thomas Tachibana, Joe Vargas, Mary Beth Mudgett

    2004-11-23

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host plant cells. The TTSS is required for Xcv colonization, yet the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen to functionally identify Xcv TTSS effectors. A transposon 5 (Tn5)-based transposon construct including the coding sequence for the Xcv AvrBs2 effector devoid of its TTSS signal was randomly inserted into the Xcv genome. Insertion of the avrBs2 reporter gene into Xcv genes coding for proteins containing a functional TTSS signal peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during infection, activating the avrBs2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR). We isolated seven chimeric fusion proteins and designated the identified TTSS effectors as Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops). Translocation of each Xop was confirmed by using the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cydase reporter assay. Three xop genes are Xanthomonas spp.-specific, whereas homologs for the rest are found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. XopF1 and XopF2 define an effector gene family in Xcv. XopN contains a eukaryotic protein fold repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors identified in this work expand our knowledge of the diversity of proteins that Xcv uses to manipulate its hosts.

  11. Pepper heat shock protein 70a interacts with the type III effector AvrBsT and triggers plant cell death and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) function as molecular chaperones and are essential for the maintenance and/or restoration of protein homeostasis. The genus Xanthomonas type III effector protein AvrBsT induces hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum). Here, we report the identification of the pepper CaHSP70a as an AvrBsT-interacting protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirm the specific interaction between CaHSP70a and AvrBsT in planta. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain is essential for its interaction with AvrBsT. Heat stress (37°C) and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection distinctly induce CaHSP70a in pepper leaves. Cytoplasmic CaHSP70a proteins significantly accumulate in pepper leaves to induce the hypersensitive cell death response by Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient CaHSP70a overexpression induces hypersensitive cell death under heat stress, which is accompanied by strong induction of defense- and cell death-related genes. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain and ATPase-binding domain are required to trigger cell death under heat stress. Transient coexpression of CaHSP70a and avrBsT leads to cytoplasmic localization of the CaHSP70a-AvrBsT complex and significantly enhances avrBsT-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CaHSP70a silencing in pepper enhances Xcv growth but disrupts the reactive oxygen species burst and cell death response during Xcv infection. Expression of some defense marker genes is significantly reduced in CaHSP70a-silenced leaves, with lower levels of the defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results suggest that CaHSP70a interacts with the type III effector AvrBsT and is required for cell death and immunity in plants.

  12. Pepper Heat Shock Protein 70a Interacts with the Type III Effector AvrBsT and Triggers Plant Cell Death and Immunity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) function as molecular chaperones and are essential for the maintenance and/or restoration of protein homeostasis. The genus Xanthomonas type III effector protein AvrBsT induces hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum). Here, we report the identification of the pepper CaHSP70a as an AvrBsT-interacting protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirm the specific interaction between CaHSP70a and AvrBsT in planta. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain is essential for its interaction with AvrBsT. Heat stress (37°C) and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection distinctly induce CaHSP70a in pepper leaves. Cytoplasmic CaHSP70a proteins significantly accumulate in pepper leaves to induce the hypersensitive cell death response by Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient CaHSP70a overexpression induces hypersensitive cell death under heat stress, which is accompanied by strong induction of defense- and cell death-related genes. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain and ATPase-binding domain are required to trigger cell death under heat stress. Transient coexpression of CaHSP70a and avrBsT leads to cytoplasmic localization of the CaHSP70a-AvrBsT complex and significantly enhances avrBsT-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CaHSP70a silencing in pepper enhances Xcv growth but disrupts the reactive oxygen species burst and cell death response during Xcv infection. Expression of some defense marker genes is significantly reduced in CaHSP70a-silenced leaves, with lower levels of the defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results suggest that CaHSP70a interacts with the type III effector AvrBsT and is required for cell death and immunity in plants. PMID:25491184

  13. CaAlaAT1 catalyzes the alanine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase reaction during the resistance response against Tobacco mosaic virus in hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; An, Jong-Min; Ham, Byung-Kook; Lee, Boo-Ja; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2005-08-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bugang) plants exhibit a hypersensitive response (HR) upon infection by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) pathotype P0. To elucidate molecular mechanism that underlies this resistance, hot pepper cv. Bugang leaves were inoculated with TMV-P0 and genes specifically up-regulated during the HR were isolated by differential screening. One of the clones, CaAlaAT1 encoding a putative alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2) exhibited organ-specific expression pattern and the transcript accumulated abundantly in red (ripe) fruit tissues. CaAlaAT1 transcript was also induced in older leaves during senescence. The expression of CaAlaAT1 gene was increased in the incompatible interaction with TMV-P0 but was not in the compatible interaction with TMV-P1.2. When a strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) carrying an AvrBs2 gene was infiltrated into the leaves of a pepper cv. ECW 20R carrying Bs2 resistance gene, a marked induction and maintenance of CaAlaAT1 gene expression was observed. The expression of CaAlaAT1 gene was triggered by salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene but not by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). CaAlaAT1 seemed to be localized mostly at the cytosol from the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation experiment. CaAlaAT1 seemed to catalyze alanine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (AKT) reaction, which was a main activity among the four activities in vitro, during the resistance response against TMV in hot pepper. These results suggest that CaAlaAT1, a protein known to be involved in metabolic reactions, might be one of the components in the plant's defense signal pathway against pathogens.

  14. streamgap-pepper: Effects of peppering streams with many small impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason

    2017-02-01

    streamgap-pepper computes the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold tidal streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. A line-of-parallel-angle approach is used to calculate the perturbed distribution function of a given stream segment by undoing the effect of all impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 10^5 Msun, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. This code uses galpy (ascl:1411.008) and the streampepperdf.py galpy extension, which implements the fast calculation of the perturbed stream structure.

  15. Ecological Genetics: A Key Gene for Mimicry and Melanism.

    PubMed

    Mallet, James; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2016-09-12

    Mimicry and melanism in Lepidoptera provided the first convincing examples of natural selection in action. Genetic analysis has now shown that, surprisingly, mimicry in Heliconius butterflies and melanism in peppered moths are switched at precisely the same gene: cortex.

  16. Structural homology in the Solanaceae: analysis of genomic regions in support of synteny studies in tomato, potato and pepper.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sander A; Bargsten, Joachim W; Szinay, Dóra; van de Belt, José; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; de Jong, Hans

    2012-08-01

    We have analysed the structural homology in euchromatin regions of tomato, potato and pepper with special attention for the long arm of chromosome 2 (2L). Molecular organization and colinear junctions were delineated using multi-color BAC FISH analysis and comparative sequence alignment. We found large-scale rearrangements including inversions and segmental translocations that were not reported in previous comparative studies. Some of the structural rearrangements are specific for the tomato clade, and differentiate tomato from potato, pepper and other Solanaceous species. Although local gene vicinity is largely preserved, there are many small-scale synteny perturbations. Gene adjacency in the aligned segments was frequently disrupted for 47% of the ortholog pairs as a result of gene and LTR retrotransposon insertions, and occasionally by single gene inversions and translocations. Our data also suggests that long distance intra-chromosomal rearrangements and local gene rearrangements have evolved frequently during speciation in the Solanum genus, and that small changes are more prevalent than large-scale differences. The occurrence of sonata and harbinger transposable elements and other repeats near or at junction breaks is considered in the light of repeat-mediated rearrangements and a reconstruction scenario for an ancestral 2L topology is discussed.

  17. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  18. Analysis of the January 2006 Pepper-Pot Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G; Chambers, F; Bieniosek, F; Henestroza, E

    2006-03-22

    Between January 9-12, 2006 a series of experiments were performed on the DARHT-II injector to measure the beam's emittance. Part of these experiments were pepper-pot measurements. This note describes the analysis of the data, and our conclusions from the experiments.

  19. Genome assembly of bell pepper endornavirus from small RNA.

    PubMed

    Sela, Noa; Luria, Neta; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2012-07-01

    The family Endornaviridae infects diverse hosts, including plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Here we report for the first time the assembly of bell pepper endornavirus by next-generation sequencing of viral small RNA. Such a population of small RNA indicates the activation of the viral immunity silencing machinery by this cryptic virus, which probably encodes a novel silencing suppressor.

  20. Post-directed weed control in bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  1. Recent history of melanism in American peppered moths.

    PubMed

    Grant, B S; Wiseman, L L

    2002-01-01

    Industrial melanism in peppered moths has been studied most intensively in Britain. The first melanic phenotype (effectively solid black) was recorded near Manchester in 1848. By 1895 about 98% of the specimens near Manchester were melanic, and this once rare phenotype had spread across regions of the country blackened by industrial soot. In rural, unpolluted regions, well away from industrial centers, the pale phenotype (peppered with white and black scales) remained the predominant form. During the latter half of the 20th century, following legislation designed to improve air quality, melanics began to decline in frequency and are now rare where once they had been common. Similar evolutionary changes have occurred elsewhere, but records from outside Britain are fragmentary. We have extended previous surveys of American peppered moth populations and present a composite picture of the recent decline in melanism in northern industrial states-Michigan and Pennsylvania-where melanic phenotypes decreased from more than 90% in 1959 to 6% by 2001. We contrast these changes to the near absence of melanism in a southern state-Virginia-during that same period. As in Britain, the decline in melanism in American peppered moths followed clean air legislation.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  5. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Barroso, Juan B.; del Río, Luis A.; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. Methods The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide (·NO), superoxide radical (O2·–) and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Key Results The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. Conclusions There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling

  6. Construction of an interspecific genetic map based on InDel and SSR for mapping the QTLs affecting the initiation of flower primordia in pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu; Cheng, Jiao-Wen; Zhang, Li; Qin, Cheng; Nong, Ding-Guo; Li, Wei-Peng; Tang, Xin; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Kai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Re-sequencing permits the mining of genome-wide variations on a large scale and provides excellent resources for the research community. To accelerate the development and application of molecular markers and identify the QTLs affecting the flowering time-related trait in pepper, a total of 1,038 pairs of InDel and 674 SSR primers from different sources were used for genetic mapping using the F2 population (n = 154) derived from a cross between BA3 (C. annuum) and YNXML (C. frutescens). Of these, a total of 224 simple PCR-based markers, including 129 InDels and 95 SSRs, were validated and integrated into a map, which was designated as the BY map. The BY map consisted of 13 linkage groups (LGs) and spanned a total genetic distance of 1,249.77 cM with an average marker distance of 5.60 cM. Comparative analysis of the genetic and physical map based on the anchored markers showed that the BY map covered nearly the whole pepper genome. Based on the BY map, one major and five minor QTLs affecting the number of leaves on the primary axis (Nle) were detected on chromosomes P2, P7, P10 and P11 in 2012. The major QTL on P2 was confirmed based on another subset of the same F2 population (n = 147) in 2014 with selective genotyping of markers from the BY map. With the accomplishment of pepper whole genome sequencing and annotations (release 2.0), 153 candidate genes were predicted to embed in the Nle2.2 region, of which 12 important flowering related genes were obtained. The InDel/SSR-based interspecific genetic map, QTLs and candidate genes obtained by the present study will be useful for the downstream isolation of flowering time-related gene and other genetic applications for pepper.

  7. Frequency of insularia during the decline in melanics in the peppered moth Biston betularia in Britain.

    PubMed

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S

    2000-12-01

    Over the last three decades the frequency of the dark melanic form carbonaria of the peppered moth Biston betularia has declined in Britain. Data have been examined which show the intermediate phenotype insularia, controlled by alleles at the same locus, to have increased or remained level in frequency. Phenotype frequency of insularia does not always track allele frequency accurately because it is recessive to its alternative when carbonaria is common but dominant to the alternative when typical is common. It is shown that if insularia fitness lies between that of carbonaria and typical, and melanics replace typicals or vice versa, there will be a rise and fall in insularia allele frequency during a transitory period. The path followed is strongly affected by initial gene frequencies. During the high melanic period in Britain, differences in insularia frequency between localities may have been influenced by history of arrival of the novel morphs as well as by local selective conditions.

  8. Antioxidant activity of fresh and processed Jalapeño and Serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    In this research, total phenols, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (ORAC, hydroxyl radical, DPPH, and TEAC assays) of fresh and processed (pickled and chipotle canned) Jalapeño and Serrano peppers were determined. All fresh and processed peppers contained capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, even though the latter could be quantified only in fresh peppers. Processed peppers contained lower amounts of phytochemicals and had lower antioxidant activity, compared to fresh peppers. Good correlations between total phenols and ascorbic acid with antioxidant activity were observed. Elimination of chlorophylls by silicic acid chromatography reduced the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, compared to crude extracts, confirming the antioxidant activity of chlorophylls present in Jalapeño and Serrano peppers.

  9. Antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of carotenoids extracted from dried pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH(+) cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief.

  10. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Gene Family in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Wei-Ping; Snyder, John C.; Wang, Shu-Bin; Liu, Jin-Bing; Pan, Bao-Gui; Guo, Guang-Jun; Wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper. PMID:26941768

  12. Pepper CaREL1, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, regulates drought tolerance via the ABA-signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Park, Chanmi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Joo, Hyunhee; Hong, Eunji; Lee, Sung Chul

    2017-03-28

    Drought stress conditions in soil or air hinder plant growth and development. Here, we report that the hot pepper (C apsicum a nnuum) RING type E3 Ligase 1 gene (CaREL1) is essential to the drought stress response. CaREL1 encodes a cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized protein with E3 ligase activity. CaREL1 expression was induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and drought. CaREL1 contains a C3H2C3-type RING finger motif, which functions in ubiquitination of the target protein. We used CaREL1-silenced pepper plants and CaREL1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate the in vivo function of CaREL1 in response to drought stress and ABA treatment. CaREL1-silenced pepper plants displayed a drought-tolerant phenotype characterized by ABA hypersensitivity. In contrast, CaREL1-OX plants exhibited ABA hyposensitivity during the germination, seedling, and adult stages. In addition, plant growth was severely impaired under drought stress conditions, via a high level of transpirational water loss and decreased stomatal closure. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that ABA-related drought stress responsive genes were more weakly expressed in CaREL1-OX plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that CaREL1 functions in the drought stress response via the ABA-signalling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that CaREL1 functions as a negative regulator of ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance.

  13. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling.

  14. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  15. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  16. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    PubMed

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone.

  17. Effects of pepper grenade explosions on non-combatant bystanders.

    PubMed

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Shah, Tajamul H; Bagdadi, Farhana; Khan, Umar Hafiz

    2014-11-01

    Pepper gas is used for riot control in many parts of the world. Yet, its effects on bystanders are largely unreported. We fielded a questionnaire-based survey of 500 bystanders exposed to gas when police used pepper grenades against belligerent 'stone-pelters' in the northern Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. Of 294 non-combatants who consented to participate in our survey, 97 per cent developed cough and irritation of the throat within few seconds of breathing the pungent smelling gas. They reported respiratory problems, dermatologic symptoms, sleep disturbances, and mood changes with varying frequency. Sixteen reported exacerbations of underlying respiratory disorders, with one temporally related to death. Symptoms led 51 to get medical attention. Nearly all respondents reported that symptoms recurred on re-exposure. We conclude that use of pepper grenades can cause serious acute symptoms in non-combatants accidentally exposed. We recommend alternate methods of riot control - water cannons, baton charges, tasers, plastic or rubber bullets, and so on - that have no collateral side effects on non-combatants be considered for routine use.

  18. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content.

  19. Characterization of the galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from pepper fruits and its modulation in the ascorbate biosynthesis. Role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Mateos, Rosa M; Codesido, Verónica; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2017-02-20

    Pepper fruit is one of the highest vitamin C sources of plant origin for our diet. In plants, ascorbic acid is mainly synthesized through the L-galactose pathway, being the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH) the last step. Using pepper fruits, the full GalLDH gene was cloned and the protein molecular characterization accomplished. GalLDH protein sequence (586 residues) showed a 37 amino acids signal peptide at the N-terminus, characteristic of mitochondria. The hydrophobic analysis of the mature protein displayed one transmembrane helix comprising 20 amino acids at the N-terminus. By using a polyclonal antibody raised against a GalLDH internal sequence and immunoblotting analysis, a 56kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with pepper fruit samples. Using leaves, flowers, stems and fruits, the expression of GalLDH by qRT-PCR and the enzyme activity were analyzed, and results indicate that GalLDH is a key player in the physiology of pepper plants, being possibly involved in the processes which undertake the transport of ascorbate among different organs. We also report that an NO (nitric oxide)-enriched atmosphere enhanced ascorbate content in pepper fruits about 40% parallel to increased GalLDH gene expression and enzyme activity. This is the first report on the stimulating effect of NO treatment on the vitamin C concentration in plants. Accordingly, the modulation by NO of GalLDH was addressed. In vitro enzymatic assays of GalLDH were performed in the presence of SIN-1 (peroxynitrite donor) and S-nitrosoglutahione (NO donor). Combined results of in vivo NO treatment and in vitro assays showed that NO provoked the regulation of GalLDH at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but not post-translational modifications through nitration or S-nitrosylation events promoted by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) took place. These results suggest that this modulation point of the ascorbate biosynthesis could be potentially used for biotechnological purposes to

  20. Pepper osmotin-like protein 1 (CaOSM1) is an essential component for defense response, cell death, and oxidative burst in plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Seok; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2013-12-01

    Osmotin or osmotin-like protein, a PR-5 family member, is differentially induced in plants by abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we demonstrate that the pepper (Capsicum annuum) osmotin-like protein 1 gene, CaOSM1, was required for the defense and hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. CaOSM1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane in leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of CaOSM1 in pepper distinctly induced the hypersensitive cell death response and H2O2 accumulation. Knock-down of CaOSM1 in pepper by virus-induced gene silencing increased the susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by attenuation of the cell death response and decreased accumulation of H2O2. CaOSM1 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred reduced susceptibility and accelerated cell death response and H2O2 accumulation to infection by Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Together, these results suggest that CaOSM1 is involved in cell death and oxidative burst responses during plant defense against microbial pathogens.

  1. Expression and functional roles of the pepper pathogen-induced transcription factor RAV1 in bacterial disease resistance, and drought and salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Lee, Sung Chul; Jung, Ho Won; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2006-08-01

    A novel pathogen-induced gene encoding the RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factor, CARAV1, was isolated from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. CARAV1 contains two distinct DNA-binding domains AP2 and B3 uniquely found in higher plants. Transient expression analysis of the smGFP:CARAV1 fusion construct in Arabidopsis protoplasts and pepper epidermal cells revealed the CARAV1 protein to be localized in the nucleus. The N-terminal region of CARAV1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain was required to activate transcription of reporter genes in yeast. In yeast one-hybrid, the recognition of CAACA and CACCTG motifs also were essential for the CARAV1 protein to bind to a specific target gene and activate the reporter gene. The expression of the CARAV1 gene was strongly induced early in pepper leaves during the pathogen infection, abiotic elicitors and environmental stresses. CARAV1 transcripts were localized in the phloem cells of leaf tissues during pathogen infection and ethylene treatment. Ectopic expression of the CARAV1 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants induced some PR genes and enhanced resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and osmotic stresses by high salinity and dehydration. The CARAV1 promoter activation was induced by P. syringae pv. tabaci, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. These data suggest that pathogen- and abiotic stress-inducible CARAV1 functions as a transcriptional activator triggering resistance to bacterial infection and tolerance to osmotic stresses.

  2. Pepper banker plant systems and predatory mitespepper banker plant systems and predatory mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While developing the ornamental pepper banker plant system for greenhouse grown vegetables and ornamental crops we discovered that the predatory mites we were using could survive and reproduce on ornamental pepper without their prey especially if they were provided supplemental pollen or if the bank...

  3. Effects of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers.

    PubMed

    Arancon, Norman Q; Edwards, Clive A; Atiyeh, Rola; Metzger, James D

    2004-06-01

    Vermicomposts, produced commercially from food wastes, were substituted at a range of different concentrations into a soil-less commercial bedding plant container medium, Metro-Mix 360 (MM360), to evaluate their effects on the growth and yields of peppers in the greenhouse. Six-week-old peppers (Capsicum annum L. var. California) were transplanted into 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% or 10% MM360 substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% vermicompost. All plants were watered three times weekly with 200 ppm Peter's Nutrient Solution from the time of transplanting up to 107 days. Peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 40% food waste vermicomposts and 60% MM360 yielded 45% more fruit weights and had 17% greater mean number of fruits than those grown in MM360 only. The mean heights, numbers of buds and numbers of flowers of peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 10-80% vermicompost although greater did not differ significantly from those of peppers grown in MM360. There were no positive correlations between the increases in pepper yields, and the amounts of mineral-N and microbial biomass-N in the potting mixtures, or the concentrations of nitrogen in the shoot tissues of peppers. Factors such as: an improvement of the physical structure of the potting medium, increases in populations of beneficial microorganisms and the potential availability of plant growth-influencing-substances produced by microorganisms in vermicomposts, could have contributed to the increased pepper yields obtained.

  4. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  5. Yield in nonpungent jalapeno pepper established at different in-row spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doubling the plant density in transplanted non-pungent jalapeno peppers (Capsicum annuum Mill.) improves yield. However, it is not known how other spacings affect yield. In-row plant spacing was examined to determine how it affects development of these peppers. Transplants of a non-pungent jalapen...

  6. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  7. Tospoviruses and Thrips and Integrated Resistance Management Strategies in Pepper in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida ranks second in the production and value of bell pepper in the U.S. In 2015, Florida produced over one-half billion pounds of bell pepper on over 12,000 acres, valued at over 220 million dollars. In recent years, several invasive species of thrips and thrips-vectored tospoviruses have beco...

  8. Lack of influence of Meloidogyne incognita on resistance of bell pepper cultivars to Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Mi), and the Phytophthora blight pathogen, Phytophthora capsici (Pc), cause root diseases in bell pepper under natural field conditions. However, the interactions between these two pathogens on different bell pepper genotypes are not clear. Greenhouse e...

  9. Selection of genetically diverse trichoderma spp. isolates for suppression of phytophthora capsici on bell pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally compatible control measures are needed for suppression of Phytophthora capsici on pepper. Twenty-four isolates of Trichoderma were screened for suppression of this pathogen on bell pepper in greenhouse pot assays. Of these twenty-four isolates, GL12, GL13, and Th23 provided signifi...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  15. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  16. Heterologous expression, and biochemical and cellular characterization of CaPLA1 encoding a hot pepper phospholipase A1 homolog.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Eun Yu; Mang, Hyung Gon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2008-03-01

    Phospholipid signaling has been recently implicated in diverse cellular processes in higher plants. We identified a cDNA encoding the phospholipase A1 homolog (CaPLA1) from 5-day-old early roots of hot pepper. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the lipase-specific catalytic triad is well conserved in CaPLA1. In vitro lipase assays and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that CaPLA1 possesses PLA1 activity, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids at the sn-1 position. CaPLA1 was selectively expressed in young roots, at days 4-5 after germination, and rapidly declined thereafter, suggesting that the expression of CaPLA1 is subject to control by a development-specific mechanism in roots. Because transgenic work was extremely difficult in hot peppers, in this study we overexpressed CaPLA1 in Arabidopsis so as to provide cellular information on the function of this gene. CaPLA1 overexpressors had significantly longer roots, leaves and petioles, and grew more rapidly than the wild-type plants, leading to an early bolting phenotype with prolonged inflorescence. Microscopic analysis showed that the vegetative tissues of 35S:CaPLA1 plants contained an increased number of small-sized cells, which resulted in highly populated cell layers. In addition, mRNAs for cell cycle-controlled proteins and fatty acid catabolizing enzymes were coordinately upregulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. These results suggest that CaPLA1 is functionally relevant in heterologous Arabidopsis cells, and hence might participate in a subset of positive control mechanisms of cell and tissue growth in transgenic lines. We discuss possible biochemical and cellular functions of CaPLA1 in relation to the phospholipid signaling pathway in hot pepper and transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  17. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  18. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  19. Exposure to ozone reduces postharvest quality loss in red and green chilli peppers.

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Marcin; Rees, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone at 0.45, 0.9 and 2μmolmol(-1) on quality changes during the storage of red and green chilli peppers at 10°C was investigated. Ozone at 0.45 and 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced disease incidence in red peppers, with no further benefits at 2μmolmol(-1). Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced weight loss during storage and improved firmness maintenance. Skin colour was bleached in red peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), and in green ones at all tested doses. Total phenolic content was not affected by ozone but antioxidant activity was reduced in green chilli peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), due to lower ascorbic acid content in those samples. Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) extended the shelf-life of chilli peppers.

  20. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    PubMed

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  1. Genetic analysis for some plant and fruit traits, and its implication for a breeding program of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Marame, Fekadu; Desalegne, Lemma; Fininsa, Chemeda; Sigvald, Roland

    2009-09-01

    Two separate field experiments were conducted on hot pepper in which the genetic, heritability and environmental components of variation for seven plant and fruit traits in 78 genotypes and gene effects for four fruit traits in six generations of five crosses were estimated. The objectives were to determine the variation and effects of genes controlling inheritance of plant and fruit traits, and to propose efficient breeding procedures for improving the crop. Analysis of variance in half-diallel crosses revealed the presence of total genetic variability for seven traits among the 78 experimental entries with an excess of over-dominance genes. The presence of unequal distributions of dominant genes with positive and negative effects was observed among the parents and indicated the need to be cautious while selecting hot pepper parents for breeding purposes. Significant variability was also revealed in environmental sensitivity among the 78 experimental entries for some traits along with high heritability, which could be an advantage for a plant breeder but provides less clear opportunities for an agronomist to achieve better plant and fruit traits. Progeny generations (F(1), F(2), B(1) and B(2)) were found to perform better for fruit traits than their parents (P(1) and P(2)). The presence of significant gene interactions indicated a polygenic inheritance of the fruit traits studied and the possibility of pyramiding favorable alleles in the required directions at different levels of progeny generations. Heterosis, backcrossing, multiple crossing and pedigree breeding methods with recurrent selection may facilitate simultaneous exploitation of the genetic components and gene effects obtained. Nevertheless, it is doubtful whether selection efforts within the current set of hot pepper parents would be beneficial to achieve superior fruit traits for developing new varieties.

  2. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-02

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  3. Pepper seed variety identification based on visible/near-infrared spectral technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun; Fan, Pengfei; Cai, Jichen

    2016-11-01

    Pepper is a kind of important fruit vegetable, with the expansion of pepper hybrid planting area, detection of pepper seed purity is especially important. This research used visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectral technology to detect the variety of single pepper seed, and chose hybrid pepper seeds "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" as research sample. VIS/NIR spectral data of 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" pepper seeds were collected, and the original spectral data was pretreated with standard normal variable (SNV) transform, first derivative (FD), and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was adopted to reduce the dimension of the spectral data and extract principal components, according to the distribution of the first principal component (PC1) along with the second principal component(PC2) in the twodimensional plane, similarly, the distribution of PC1 coupled with the third principal component(PC3), and the distribution of PC2 combined with PC3, distribution areas of three varieties of pepper seeds were divided in each twodimensional plane, and the discriminant accuracy of PCA was tested through observing the distribution area of samples' principal components in validation set. This study combined PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify single pepper seed varieties, results showed that with the FD preprocessing method, the discriminant accuracy of pepper seed varieties was 98% for validation set, it concludes that using VIS/NIR spectral technology is feasible for identification of single pepper seed varieties.

  4. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-12-01

    The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper.

  5. The Pepper Lipoxygenase CaLOX1 Plays a Role in Osmotic, Drought and High Salinity Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Han, Sang-Wook; Hwang, In Sun; Kim, Dae Sung; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-05-01

    In plants, lipoxygenases (LOXs) are involved in various physiological processes, including defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Our previous study had shown that the pepper 9-LOX gene, CaLOX1, plays a crucial role in cell death due to pathogen infection. Here, the function of CaLOX1 in response to osmotic, drought and high salinity stress was examined using CaLOX1-overexpressing (CaLOX1-OX) Arabidopsis plants. Changes in the temporal expression pattern of the CaLOX1 gene were observed when pepper leaves were treated with drought and high salinity, but not when treated with ABA, the primary hormone in response to drought stress. During seed germination and seedling development, CaLOX1-OX plants were more tolerant to ABA, mannitol and high salinity than wild-type plants. In contrast, expression of the ABA-responsive marker genes RAB18 and RD29B was higher in CaLOX1-OX Arabidopsis plants than in wild-type plants. In response to high salinity, CaLOX1-OX plants exhibited enhanced tolerance, compared with the wild type, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 and high levels of RD20, RD29A, RD29B and P5CS gene expression. Similarly, CaLOX1-OX plants were also more tolerant than wild-type plants to severe drought stress. H2O2 production and the relative increase in lipid peroxidation were lower, and the expression of COR15A, DREB2A, RD20, RD29A and RD29B was higher in CaLOX1-OX plants, relative to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that CaLOX1 plays a crucial role in plant stress responses by modulating the expression of ABA- and stress-responsive marker genes, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production.

  6. Effects of grilling on luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) content in sweet green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Durucasu, Inci; Tokuşoğlu, Ozlem

    2007-10-01

    The content of luteloin in green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) produced in Turkey were determined by RP-HPLC with DAD detection. The luteloin (3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone) content of green pepper samples were 46.00 +/- 0.76 mg kg(-1) f.w. (average). The alterations of luteloin concentrations with heating process (grilling, közleme) and the loss of luteloin amount were also determined. Luteolin contents of grilled peppers were found as 29.96 +/- 0.96 mg kg(-1) f.w. The method was objective and reproducible for accurate detection of luteloin in green pepper and other pepper varieties.

  7. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  8. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  9. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  10. Allelic melanism in American and British peppered moths.

    PubMed

    Grant, B S

    2004-01-01

    Parallel evolutionary changes in the incidence of melanism are well documented in widely geographically separated subspecies of the peppered moth (Biston betularia). The British melanic phenotype (f. carbonaria) and the American melanic phenotype (f. swettaria) are indistinguishable in appearance, and previous genetic analysis has established that both are inherited as autosomal dominants. This report demonstrates through hybridizations of the subspecies and Mendelian testcrosses of melanic progeny that carbonaria and swettaria are phenotypes produced by alleles (isoalleles) at a single locus. The possibility of close linkage at two loci remains, but the simpler one-locus model cannot be rejected in the absence of contrary evidence.

  11. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Stahl-Hermes, Vanessa; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; de Vos, Ric C H; Voorrips, Roeland E; Maharijaya, Awang; Molthoff, Jos; Zamora, Marcela Viquez; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental accessions were selected based on their variation in fruit morphological characteristics and fruit content of some target phytonutrients. Clear segregation of fruit colour and fruit metabolite profiles was observed in the F2 population. The F2 plants formed three clusters based on their metabolite profiles. Of the total of 542 metabolites, 52 could be annotated, including a range of flavonoids, such as flavone C-glycosides, flavonol O-glycosides and naringenin chalcone, as well as several phenylpropanoids, a capsaicin analogue, fatty acid derivatives and amino acid derivatives. Interval mapping revealed 279 mQTLs in total. Two mQTL hotspots were found on chromosome 9. These two chromosomal regions regulated the relative levels of 35 and 103 metabolites, respectively. Analysis also revealed an mQTL for a capsaicin analogue, located on chromosome 7. Confirmation of flavonoid mQTLs using a set of six flavonoid candidate gene markers and their corresponding expression data (expression QTLs) indicated the Ca-MYB12 transcription factor gene on chromosome 1 and the gene encoding flavone synthase (FS-2) on chromosome 6 as likely causative genes determining the variation in naringenin chalcone and flavone C-glycosides, respectively, in this population. The combination of large-scale metabolite profiling and QTL analysis provided valuable insight into the genomic regions and genes important for the production of (secondary) metabolites in pepper fruit. This will impact breeding strategies aimed at optimising the content of specific metabolites in pepper fruit.

  12. Pepper aldehyde dehydrogenase CaALDH1 interacts with Xanthomonas effector AvrBsT and promotes effector-triggered cell death and defence responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-06-01

    Xanthomonas type III effector AvrBsT induces hypersensitive cell death and defence responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Nicotiana benthamiana. Little is known about the host factors that interact with AvrBsT. Here, we identified pepper aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (CaALDH1) as an AvrBsT-interacting protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction between CaALDH1 and AvrBsT in planta. CaALDH1:smGFP fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. CaALDH1 expression in pepper was rapidly and strongly induced by avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) Ds1 (avrBsT) infection. Transient co-expression of CaALDH1 with avrBsT significantly enhanced avrBsT-triggered cell death in N. benthamiana leaves. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was higher in leaves transiently expressing CaALDH1, suggesting that CaALDH1 acts as a cell death enhancer, independently of AvrBsT. CaALDH1 silencing disrupted phenolic compound accumulation, H2O2 production, defence response gene expression, and cell death during avirulent Xcv Ds1 (avrBsT) infection. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CaALDH1 exhibited enhanced defence response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. These results indicate that cytoplasmic CaALDH1 interacts with AvrBsT and promotes plant cell death and defence responses.

  13. The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Hong, Jong-Chan; Jeon, Woong Bae; Chung, Young-Soo; Sung, Soonkee; Choi, Doil; Joung, Young Hee; Oh, Boung-Jun

    2009-10-01

    The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the unripe fruit inhibited the fungal appressoria, resulting in protection against fungal infection. Microarray analysis revealed that 177 of 7,900 cDNA clones showed more than fourfold transcriptional accumulation in SA-treated unripe fruit. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that most of the SA-responsive genes (SRGs) were regulated by SA, but not by JA or ethylene-releasing ethephon. Furthermore, most of the SRGs were preferentially expressed in the ripe fruit. These results suggest that the SA-mediated transcriptional regulation of SRGs has a critical role in the resistance of ripe pepper fruit to fungal infection.

  14. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopQ interacts with tomato and pepper 14-3-3 isoforms to suppress effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Teper, Doron; Salomon, Dor; Sunitha, Sukumaran; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sessa, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to host-adapted pathogens is associated with rapid cell death at the infection site. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) interferes with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that the Xcv effector XopQ suppresses cell death induced by components of the ETI-associated MAP kinase cascade MAPKKKα MEK2/SIPK and by several R/avr gene pairs. Inactivation of xopQ by insertional mutagenesis revealed that this effector inhibits ETI-associated cell death induced by avirulent Xcv in resistant pepper (Capsicum annuum), and enhances bacterial growth in resistant pepper and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Using protein-protein interaction studies in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we identified the tomato 14-3-3 isoform SlTFT4 and homologs from other plant species as XopQ interactors. A mutation in the putative 14-3-3 binding site of XopQ impaired interaction of the effector with CaTFT4 in yeast and its virulence function in planta. Consistent with a role in ETI, TFT4 mRNA abundance increased during the incompatible interaction of tomato and pepper with Xcv. Silencing of NbTFT4 in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly reduced cell death induced by MAPKKKα. In addition, silencing of CaTFT4 in pepper delayed the appearance of ETI-associated cell death and enhanced growth of virulent and avirulent Xcv, demonstrating the requirement of TFT4 for plant immunity to Xcv. Our results suggest that the XopQ virulence function is to suppress ETI and immunity-associated cell death by interacting with TFT4, which is an important component of ETI and a bona fide target of XopQ.

  15. Real-time reverse-transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction for Salmonella enterica detection from jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan D; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-04-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to curb the spread of foodborne pathogens. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA), with greater potential of detecting viable pathogens. Real-time RT-PCR eliminates the need for gel electrophoresis and significantly enhances the speed of detection (<1 day) compared with traditional methods (>5 days). The objectives of this research were to apply real-time SYBR Green I-based RT-PCR to detect Salmonella from jalapeño and serrano peppers spiked with low and high inocula of Salmonella. Inoculated and uninoculated peppers were rinsed with water and dried under ultraviolet light for 10 min. Approximately 25 g peppers was inoculated with 10(8) to 10(1) colony forming units (CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a stomacher bag and hand massaged in sterile 0.05 M glycine-0.14 M saline buffer (0.05% Tween, 3% beef extract) for optimal recovery of bacteria. A short preenrichment step of 6 h in buffered peptone water was needed for the detection of low inocula (10(4) CFU/25 g). One-milliliter portions of the extracts were serially diluted, plated on XLT4 agar, and used for RNA extraction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit. RT-PCR was carried out using SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR with previously described invA gene primers and an internal amplification control. Detection limits were 10(4) CFU/25 g (approximately 10(2) CFU/g) and 10(7) CFU/25 g (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) Salmonella from enriched and unenriched inoculated peppers, respectively. Even though this method included a 6-h incubation period, the results were still obtainable in 1 day. This method shows promise for applications in routine surveillance and during outbreaks.

  16. Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7

    PubMed Central

    Sopheareth, Mao; Chan, Sarun; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Yong Seong; Hyun, Hae Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Kil Yong

    2013-01-01

    A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants. PMID:25288930

  17. Characterizing and marker-assisting a novel chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yellow bud mutant with cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Sun, G S; Dai, Z L; Bosland, P W; Wang, Q; Sun, C Q; Zhang, Z C; Ma, Z H

    2017-02-23

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper is a better way to produce hybrid seeds compared to manual production. We used the two sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR130) in CMS pepper, to identify the genotype. We assembled two CMS yellow bud mutants (YBM; YBM12-A and YBM12-B). This mutation in leaf color is controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. The aim was to create a new hybrid seed production method that reduces the costs and increases F1 hybrid seed purity. The results suggest that the CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR130 markers can be used together in multiple generations to screen for restorer or maintainer genes. We found the marker linked to the restorer gene (Rf) in the C-line and F1 hybrids, as well as partially in the F2 generation, whereas it was not found in the sterile YBM12-A or the maintainer line YBM12-B. In the F2 population, sterility and fertility segregated at a 3:1 ratio based on the CRF-SCAR marker. A 130 bp fragment was produced in the YBM12-A, F1, and F2 populations, suggesting that these lines contained sterile cytoplasm. A 140 bp fragment present in the YBM12-B and C-line indicated that these lines contained normal cytoplasm. In addition, we identified some morphological characters distinguishing sterile and fertile buds and flowers that may be linked to the sterility gene. If more restorer lines are identified, CMS expressing the YBM trait can be used in hybrid seed production.

  18. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  19. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation.

  20. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

    PubMed Central

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation. PMID:23211790

  1. High-affinity K+ uptake in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cordero, M Angeles; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    High-affinity K+ uptake is an essential process for plant nutrition under K+-limiting conditions. The results presented here demonstrate that pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants grown in the absence of NH4+ and starved of K+ show an NH4+-sensitive high-affinity K+ uptake that allows plant roots to deplete external K+ to values below 1 microM. When plants are grown in the presence of NH4+, high-affinity K+ uptake is not inhibited by NH4+. Although NH4+-grown plants deplete external K+ below 1 microM in the absence of NH4+, when 1 mM NH4+ is present they do not deplete external K+ below 10 microM. A K+ transporter of the HAK family, CaHAK1, is very likely mediating the NH4+-sensitive component of the high-affinity K+ uptake in pepper roots. CaHAK1 is strongly induced in the roots that show the NH4+-sensitive high-affinity K+ uptake and its induction is reduced in K+-starved plants grown in the presence of NH4+. The NH4+-insensitive K+ uptake may be mediated by an AKT1-like K+ channel.

  2. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf tomato and pepper plants were grown in controlled environment chambers to assess their potential as space crops for supplementing the crew's diet. Six cultivars of each species were compared in initial tests and then down-selected to three cultivars of each. Initial selection criteria included fruit yield, growth height, and nutritional value. Following completion of a second production test with the three best performing cultivars, sample fruits of both tomato and peppers were then assessed for acceptance using tasting panels. Based on the criteria considered in these studies, Red Robin tomato and Pompeii pepper were recommended for consideration for use in space.

  3. Dramatic Number Variation of R Genes in Solanaceae Species Accounted for by a Few R Gene Subfamilies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chunhua; Chen, Jiongjiong; Kuang, Hanhui

    2016-01-01

    Most disease resistance genes encode nucleotide-binding-site (NBS) and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domains, and the NBS-LRR encoding genes are often referred to as R genes. Using newly developed approach, 478, 485, 1,194, 1,665, 2,042 and 374 R genes were identified from the genomes of tomato Heinz1706, wild tomato LA716, potato DM1-3, pepper Zunla-1 and wild pepper Chiltepin and tobacco TN90, respectively. The majority of R genes from Solanaceae were grouped into 87 subfamilies, including 16 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) and 71 non-TNL subfamilies. Each subfamily was annotated manually, including identification of intron/exon structure and intron phase. Interestingly, TNL subfamilies have similar intron phase patterns, while the non-TNL subfamilies have diverse intron phase due to frequent gain of introns. Prevalent presence/absence polymorphic R gene loci were found among Solanaceae species, and an integrated map with 427 R loci was constructed. The pepper genome (2,042 in Chiltepin) has at least four times of R genes as in tomato (478 in Heinz1706). The high number of R genes in pepper genome is due to the amplification of R genes in a few subfamilies, such as the Rpi-blb2 and BS2 subfamilies. The mechanism underlying the variation of R gene number among different plant genomes is discussed.

  4. Dramatic Number Variation of R Genes in Solanaceae Species Accounted for by a Few R Gene Subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunhua; Chen, Jiongjiong; Kuang, Hanhui

    2016-01-01

    Most disease resistance genes encode nucleotide-binding-site (NBS) and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domains, and the NBS-LRR encoding genes are often referred to as R genes. Using newly developed approach, 478, 485, 1,194, 1,665, 2,042 and 374 R genes were identified from the genomes of tomato Heinz1706, wild tomato LA716, potato DM1-3, pepper Zunla-1 and wild pepper Chiltepin and tobacco TN90, respectively. The majority of R genes from Solanaceae were grouped into 87 subfamilies, including 16 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) and 71 non-TNL subfamilies. Each subfamily was annotated manually, including identification of intron/exon structure and intron phase. Interestingly, TNL subfamilies have similar intron phase patterns, while the non-TNL subfamilies have diverse intron phase due to frequent gain of introns. Prevalent presence/absence polymorphic R gene loci were found among Solanaceae species, and an integrated map with 427 R loci was constructed. The pepper genome (2,042 in Chiltepin) has at least four times of R genes as in tomato (478 in Heinz1706). The high number of R genes in pepper genome is due to the amplification of R genes in a few subfamilies, such as the Rpi-blb2 and BS2 subfamilies. The mechanism underlying the variation of R gene number among different plant genomes is discussed. PMID:26849045

  5. Response of Resistant and Susceptible Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) to a Southern California Meloidogyne incognita Population from a Commercial Bell Pepper Field.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Jose Luis; Bachie, Oli; Ploeg, Antoon

    2014-12-01

    To determine the presence and level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) infestation in Southern California bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields, soil and root samples were collected in April and May 2012 and analyzed for the presence of root-knot nematodes. The earlier samples were virtually free of root-knot nematodes, but the later samples all contained, sometimes very high numbers, of root-knot nematodes. Nematodes were all identified as M. incognita. A nematode population from one of these fields was multiplied in a greenhouse and used as inoculum for two repeated pot experiments with three susceptible and two resistant bell pepper varieties. Fruit yields of the resistant peppers were not affected by the nematodes, whereas yields of two of the three susceptible pepper cultivars decreased as a result of nematode inoculation. Nematode-induced root galling and nematode multiplication was low but different between the two resistant cultivars. Root galling and nematode reproduction was much higher on the three susceptible cultivars. One of these susceptible cultivars exhibited tolerance, as yields were not affected by the nematodes, but nematode multiplication was high. It is concluded that M. incognita is common in Southern California bell pepper production, and that resistant cultivars may provide a useful tool in a nonchemical management strategy.

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, Everyday Life in Washington (1900, p. 371) - Robert P. Dodge House, 1534 Twenty-eighth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of steamed and irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Waje, Catherine K; Kim, Hyun-Ku; Kim, Kyong-Su; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2008-06-25

    The effects of steam and irradiation treatments on the physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, extractable yield, reducing sugar, soluble pigment, antioxidant activity, piperine, Hunter's color, and sensory attributes) and microbiological quality (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and molds) of ground black pepper stored at refrigerated and room temperatures for 6 months were compared and evaluated. Irradiation resulted in a higher microbial reduction in pepper, with minimal effects on the proximate composition, functional components, color, and sensory attributes of the spice. Steamed peppers appeared darker, and a considerable decrease in the piperine content was observed after treatment and storage. This study illustrates that irradiation is a better decontamination method than steam treatment in eliminating microorganisms without apparently affecting the quality of the powdered spice. Storage at 4 degrees C enhanced the microbial quality and minimized the loss of piperine content in ground black peppers.

  8. GRAFTING FOR CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON BELL PEPPER, TOMATO, AND MELONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse, microplot, and field trials were conducted over three-years to evaluate rootstocks for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance. Rootstocks were evaluated for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum esculentum), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lan...

  9. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  10. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: effects of cultivar and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Riga, Patrick; Medina, Sonia; García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of cultivar and solar radiation on the melatonin content of Capsicum annuum (pepper) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruits. The melatonin content of red pepper fruits ranged from 31 to 93ngg(-1) (dry weight). The melatonin content of tomato ranged from 7.5 to 250ngg(-1) (dry weight). We also studied the effect of ripeness on melatonin content and identified one group of pepper cultivars in which the melatonin content increased as the fruit ripened and another in which it decreased as the fruit ripened. Under shade conditions, the melatonin content in most of tomato cultivars tended to increase (up to 135%), whereas that of most pepper cultivars decreased (to 64%). Overall, the results also demonstrated that the melatonin content of the fruits was not related to carbon fluxes from leaves.

  11. Enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of red pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum L.) by regulating stress ethylene synthesis with halotolerant bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Siddikee, Md Ashaduzzaman; Glick, Bernard R; Chauhan, Puneet S; Yim, Woo jong; Sa, Tongmin

    2011-04-01

    Three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-producing halotolerant bacteria were isolated from West Coast soil of Yellow Sea, Incheon, South Korea and evaluated for their efficiency in improving red pepper plant growth under salt stress. The strains RS16, RS656 and RS111 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Brevibacterium iodinum, Bacillus licheniformis and Zhihengliuela alba, respectively. Two hour exposure of 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl stress on 8 day old red pepper seedlings caused 44, 64 and 74% increase ethylene production, while at 150 mM NaCl stress, inoculation of B. licheniformis RS656, Z. alba RS111, and Br. iodinum RS16 reduces ethylene production by 44, 53 and 57%, respectively. Similarly, 3 week old red pepper plants were subjected to salt stress for two weeks and approximately ∼50% reduction in growth recorded at 150 mM NaCl stress compared to negative control whereas bacteria inoculation significantly increase the growth compared to positive control. Salt stress also caused 1.3-fold reduction in the root/shoot dry weight ratio compared to the absence of salt while bacteria inoculation retained the biomass allocation similar to control plants. The salt tolerance index (ratio of biomass of salt stressed to non-stressed plant) was also significantly increased in inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated. Increase nutrient uptakes under salt stress by red pepper further evident that bacteria inoculation ameliorates salt stress effect. In summary, this study indicates that the use of ACC deaminase-producing halotolerant bacteria mitigates the salt stress by reducing salt stress-induced ethylene production on growth of red pepper plants.

  12. ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in

  13. ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in

  14. Assessment of hot peppers for aflatoxin and mold proliferation during storage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Qumer; Amjad, Muhammad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ariño, Agustin

    2011-05-01

    Aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation in three hot pepper hybrids (Sky Red, Maha, and Wonder King) were studied during 5 months of storage at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C) and under different packaging conditions (low-density polyethylene bags and jute bags). The presence of aflatoxins in hot pepper samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis detector. Sampling for analysis of aflatoxins, total mold counts, and Aspergillus counts was carried out at 0, 50, 100, and 150 days of storage. Hot peppers packed in jute bags were more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination than those packed in polyethylene bags; aflatoxin concentrations were 75% higher in peppers stored in jute bags. The effect of storage temperature resulted in aflatoxin concentrations that were 61% higher in hot peppers stored at 25 and 30°C than in those stored at 20°C. Of the three pepper hybrids, Wonder King was more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, with a maximum of 1.50 μg/kg when packed in jute bags and stored at 25°C for 150 days. However, no sample exceeded the maximum permitted level for total aflatoxins in spices established by European Union regulations (10 μg/kg). Total mold counts and Aspergillus counts increased with storage duration, but all counts were significantly lower in peppers stored in polyethylene bags. A gradual increase in temperature during prolonged storage of hot peppers in combination with aeration may be the main reasons for increases in fungal biomass and Aspergillus proliferation with the subsequent aflatoxin production.

  15. Tinea nigra presenting speckled or "salt and pepper" pattern.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad, Vidal Junior

    2014-06-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The "salt and pepper" aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected.

  16. Complete genome sequence supports bell pepper mottle virus as a species of the genus Tobamovirus.

    PubMed

    Rhie, M J; Min, B E; Hong, J S; Song, Y S; Ryu, K H

    2007-01-01

    Biological properties and the complete genome sequence of bell pepper mottle virus (BPeMV) were determined. The full genome of BPeMV consists of 6375 nucleotides. The BPeMV genomic RNA has four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of M(r) 126, 181, 30 and 18 kDa from the 5' to the 3' end, respectively. The lengths of the 5' nontranslated region (NTR) and the 3' NTR are 71 and 198 nucleotides, respectively. Overall identities for the four ORFs of BpeMV, at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, ranged from 36.0 to 80.6% and from 32.1 to 90.9%, compared to those of 22 other tobamoviruses. The CP gene of BPeMV displayed 43.5-73.5% and 32.1-82.4% identity to those of 22 other tobamoviruses at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of four viral proteins clearly supported the conclusion that BPeMV-encoded proteins were related to those of members of the Solanaceae-infecting tobamoviruses. BPeMV was closely related to tomato mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus and different from other tobamoviruses. Western blot analysis showed that BPeMV cross-reacted strongly with antibodies against members of Solanaceae-infecting tobamoviruses. These data represent the first molecular evidence supporting BPeMV as a separate species of the genus Tobamovirus.

  17. The peppered moth and industrial melanism: evolution of a natural selection case study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, L M; Saccheri, I J

    2013-01-01

    From the outset multiple causes have been suggested for changes in melanic gene frequency in the peppered moth Biston betularia and other industrial melanic moths. These have included higher intrinsic fitness of melanic forms and selective predation for camouflage. The possible existence and origin of heterozygote advantage has been debated. From the 1950s, as a result of experimental evidence, selective predation became the favoured explanation and is undoubtedly the major factor driving the frequency change. However, modelling and monitoring of declining melanic frequencies since the 1970s indicate either that migration rates are much higher than existing direct estimates suggested or else, or in addition, non-visual selection has a role. Recent molecular work on genetics has revealed that the melanic (carbonaria) allele had a single origin in Britain, and that the locus is orthologous to a major wing patterning locus in Heliconius butterflies. New methods of analysis should supply further information on the melanic system and on migration that will complete our understanding of this important example of rapid evolution. PMID:23211788

  18. The peppered moth and industrial melanism: evolution of a natural selection case study.

    PubMed

    Cook, L M; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    From the outset multiple causes have been suggested for changes in melanic gene frequency in the peppered moth Biston betularia and other industrial melanic moths. These have included higher intrinsic fitness of melanic forms and selective predation for camouflage. The possible existence and origin of heterozygote advantage has been debated. From the 1950s, as a result of experimental evidence, selective predation became the favoured explanation and is undoubtedly the major factor driving the frequency change. However, modelling and monitoring of declining melanic frequencies since the 1970s indicate either that migration rates are much higher than existing direct estimates suggested or else, or in addition, non-visual selection has a role. Recent molecular work on genetics has revealed that the melanic (carbonaria) allele had a single origin in Britain, and that the locus is orthologous to a major wing patterning locus in Heliconius butterflies. New methods of analysis should supply further information on the melanic system and on migration that will complete our understanding of this important example of rapid evolution.

  19. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Alessandro; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora

    2013-12-01

    The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (-20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers.

  20. Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation for the heat level (hot taste) of korean red pepper powder.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kyung-Hyung; Lee, Kyung-A; Park, Jae-Bok

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the heat level rating of several varieties of Korean red peppers. The chemical constitution of Korean red pepper samples were as follows: 0.54∼290.15 mg% capsaicinoids, 79.22∼139.09 ASTA value, and 16.76∼29.92% free sugar content. The heat level of the Korean red pepper samples was evaluated by trained panelists and the correlation coefficient and F value (0.001%) of the panelist's results were determined to be significant. In the principle component analysis (PCA), PC1 (capsaicinoids) and PC2 (free sugar) were shown to represent 31.98% and 25.77% of the total variance, respectively. The results of panelists trained for red pepper heat rating were evaluated using analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The trained panelists showed a high F value (p=0.05) and high correlation coefficient. A high correlation efficient of 0.84∼0.93 for the test samples with a 40 Scoville heat unit (32,000 SHU red pepper powder) was reported in the sensory evaluation of the Korean red pepper heat level by a trained panel. However, the panel showed a low correlation efficiency of 0.70 R(2) when the 60 SHU test samples were included in the analysis.

  1. Sunflower as a Potential Trap Crop of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Pepper Fields.

    PubMed

    Soergel, D C; Ostiguy, N; Fleischer, S J; Troyer, R R; Rajotte, E G; Krawczyk, G

    2015-12-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), feeds on a variety of fruits and vegetables, and is an economically important invasive hemipteran pest. Trap cropping of H. halys was examined at the Pennsylvania State University Southeast Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SEAREC) in Lancaster Co., PA, from 2012 to 2013, with sunflowers used as a trap crop to protect bell pepper. H. halys were observed frequently on sunflowers planted surrounding the pepper field, and in both years of this experiment significantly more H. halys were observed in sunflowers than peppers. Both adults and nymphs were observed with equal frequency, with higher numbers of both observed in September. A 2:1 ratio of females to males was observed throughout both years. While sunflowers were attractive to H. halys, no difference in fruit damage was observed in peppers surrounded by the sunflower trap crop versus those peppers surrounded by peppers. While sunflowers present an interesting potential trap crop for H. halys, future research is needed to clarify the feasibility of this crop protection technique.

  2. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  3. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-11-18

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  4. Biological control and plant growth promoting capacity of rhizobacteria on pepper under greenhouse and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Sumayo, Marilyn; Hwang, Ye-Ji; Jeon, Seon-Ae; Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jai Youl; Ahn, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-06-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 and Novosphingobium pentaromativorans KUDC1065 isolated from Dokdo Island, S. Korea are capable of eliciting induced systemic resistance (ISR) in pepper against bacterial spot disease. The present study aimed to determine whether plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains including strain KUDC1013, strain KUDC1065, and Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 either singly or in combinations were evaluated to have the capacity for potential biological control and plant growth promotion effect in the field trials. Under greenhouse conditions, the induced systemic resistance (ISR) effect of treatment with strains KUDC1013 and KUDC1065 differed according to pepper growth stages. Drenching of 3-week-old pepper seedlings with the KUDC-1013 strain significantly reduced the disease symptoms. In contrast, treatment with the KUDC1065 strain significantly protected 5-week-old pepper seedlings. Under field conditions, peppers treated with PGPR mixtures containing E681 and KUDC1013, either in a two-way combination, were showed greater effect on plant growth than those treated with an individual treatment. Collectively, the application of mixtures of PGPR strains on pepper might be considered as a potential biological control under greenhouse and field conditions.

  5. Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M

    1994-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sensory cues associated with cigarette smoking can suppress certain smoking withdrawal symptoms, including craving for cigarettes. In this study we investigated the subjective effects of a cigarette substitute delivering a vapor of black pepper essential oil. Forty-eight cigarette smokers participated in a 3-h session conducted after overnight deprivation from smoking. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one group of smokers puffed on a device that delivered a vapor from essential oil of black pepper; a second group puffed on the device with a mint/menthol cartridge, and a third group used a device containing an empty cartridge. Subjects puffed and inhaled ad libitum from the device throughout the session during which no smoking was allowed. Reported craving for cigarettes was significantly reduced in the pepper condition relative to each of the two control conditions. In addition, negative affect and somatic symptoms of anxiety were alleviated in the pepper condition relative to the unflavored placebo. The intensity of sensations in the chest was also significantly higher for the pepper condition. These results support the view that respiratory tract sensations are important in alleviating smoking withdrawal symptoms. Cigarette substitutes delivering pepper constituents may prove useful in smoking cessation treatment.

  6. A single residue in the 126-kDa protein of pepper mild mottle virus controls the severity of symptoms on infected green bell pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, T U; Nagaoka, E N; Hagiwara, K; Sasaya, T; Omura, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious cDNA clones originally derived from a mild strain of Pepper mild mottle virus were constructed by replacing residue 649, a critical point for attenuation of this virus, with all possible amino acids. All clones were infectious to pepper plants and induced a variety of symptoms, including no visible symptoms. The results of this study showed that a single amino acid mutation at residue 649 could control the function of the 126- and 183-kDa proteins, replicases with multiple roles in the life cycle of this virus.

  7. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hot pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene.

  8. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  9. CaWRKY6 transcriptionally activates CaWRKY40, regulates Ralstonia solanacearum resistance, and confers high-temperature and high-humidity tolerance in pepper.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hanyang; Yang, Sheng; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Zhuoli; Cheng, Junbin; Wu, Ji; Qiu, Ailian; Lai, Yan; Mou, Shaoliang; Guan, Deyi; Huang, Ronghua; He, Shuilin

    2015-06-01

    High temperature (HT), high humidity (HH), and pathogen infection often co-occur and negatively affect plant growth. However, these stress factors and plant responses are generally studied in isolation. The mechanisms of synergistic responses to combined stresses are poorly understood. We isolated the subgroup IIb WRKY family member CaWRKY6 from Capsicum annuum and performed quantitative real-time PCR analysis. CaWRKY6 expression was upregulated by individual or simultaneous treatment with HT, HH, combined HT and HH (HTHH), and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation, and responded to exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA), ethephon, and abscisic acid (ABA). Virus-induced gene silencing of CaWRKY6 enhanced pepper plant susceptibility to R. solanacearum and HTHH, and downregulated the hypersensitive response (HR), JA-, ethylene (ET)-, and ABA-induced marker gene expression, and thermotolerance-associated expression of CaHSP24, ER-small CaSHP, and Chl-small CaHSP. CaWRKY6 overexpression in pepper attenuated the HTHH-induced suppression of resistance to R. solanacearum infection. CaWRKY6 bound to and activated the CaWRKY40 promoter in planta, which is a pepper WRKY that regulates heat-stress tolerance and R. solanacearum resistance. CaWRKY40 silencing significantly blocked HR-induced cell death and reduced transcriptional expression of CaWRKY40. These data suggest that CaWRKY6 is a positive regulator of R. solanacearum resistance and heat-stress tolerance, which occurs in part by activating CaWRKY40.

  10. CaMsrB2, Pepper Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2, Is a Novel Defense Regulator against Oxidative Stress and Pathogen Attack1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Seong, Eun Soo; Joung, Young Hee; Choi, Gyung-Ja; Park, Jeong Mee; Cho, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sangku; Choi, Doil

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are inevitably generated in aerobic organisms as by-products of normal metabolism or as the result of defense and development. ROS readily oxidize methionine (Met) residues in proteins/peptides to form Met-R-sulfoxide or Met-S-sulfoxide, causing inactivation or malfunction of the proteins. A pepper (Capsicum annuum) methionine sulfoxide reductase B2 gene (CaMsrB2) was isolated, and its roles in plant defense were studied. CaMsrB2 was down-regulated upon inoculation with either incompatible or compatible pathogens. The down-regulation, however, was restored to the original expression levels only in a compatible interaction. Gain-of-function studies using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants transformed with CaMsrB2 resulted in enhanced resistance to Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora infestans. Inversely, loss-of-function studies of CaMsrB2 using virus-induced gene silencing in pepper plants (cv Early Calwonder-30R) resulted in accelerated cell death from an incompatible bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv vesicatoria (Xav) race 1, and enhanced susceptibility to a compatible bacterial pathogen, virulent X. axonopodis pv vesicatoria race 3. Measurement of ROS levels in CaMsrB2-silenced pepper plants revealed that suppression of CaMsrB2 increased the production of ROS, which in turn resulted in the acceleration of cell death via accumulation of ROS. In contrast, the CaMsrB2-transgenic tomato plants showed reduced production of hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, our results suggest that the plant MsrBs have novel functions in active defense against pathogens via the regulation of cell redox status. PMID:20643759

  11. Antioxidant activity and content of chlorophylls and carotenoids in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at intermediate stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Yahia, Elhadi M; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2014-03-01

    Jalapeño peppers at intermediate ripening stages (IRS) are typically discarded at the packinghouse because they are not demanded for fresh consumption or industrial processing. These peppers have been scarcely studied in terms of pigment composition and bioactivity. In this study, the profile of pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) and antioxidant activity were determined in raw and heat-processed Jalapeño peppers at three IRS (brown, 50% red, and 75% red). Peppers contained 64 different pigments. Chlorophylls were the most abundant pigments in raw brown peppers while capsanthin was the most abundant at the other IRS. The content of most pigments decreased due to heat treatments. Several pheophytins and cis isomers of carotenoids were generated by heat processing. Boiling and grilling consistently decreased and increased the antioxidant activity of peppers, respectively. Tested peppers showed a more complex/abundant pigment content and higher antioxidant activity than those typically reported for green and red peppers.

  12. Management of blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) caused by Drechslera bicolor.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Kuldeep Singh; Shah, Rakesh; Gour, Hari Narayan; Sharma, Pankaj

    Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor.

  13. Wounding induces local resistance but systemic susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    García, Tania; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Veloso, Javier; Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Díaz, José

    2015-03-15

    Cotyledon wounding in pepper caused the early generation of hydrogen peroxide both locally (cotyledons) and systemically (upper true leaves). However, 72 h later there is a different wound response between local and systemic organs, as shown by resistance to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, that increased locally and decreased systemically. Signaling by ethylene and jasmonic acid was assessed by using two inhibitors: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP, inhibitor of ethylene receptors) and ibuprofen (inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis). MCP did not affect the modulation of resistance levels to Botrytis by wounding, ruling out the involvement of ethylene signaling. Ibuprofen did not inhibit wound-induced resistance at the local level, but inhibited wound-induced systemic susceptibility. Moreover, changes of biochemical and structural defenses in response to wounding were studied. Peroxidase activity and the expression of a peroxidase gene (CAPO1) increased locally as a response to wounding, but no changes were observed systemically. Lignin deposition was induced in wounded cotyledons, but was repressed in systemic leaves of wounded plants, whereas soluble phenolics did not change locally and decreased systemically. The expression of two other genes involved in plant defense (CABPR1 and CASC1) was also differentially regulated locally and systemically, pointing to a generalized increase in plant defenses at the local level and a systemic decrease as a response to wounding. Wound-induced defenses at the local level coincided with resistance to the necrotroph fungus B. cinerea, whereas depleted defenses in systemic leaves of wounded plants correlated to induced susceptibility against this pathogen. It may be that the local response acts as a sink of energy resources to mount a defense against pathogens, whereas in systemic organs the resources for defense are lower.

  14. Overexpression of the pepper transcription factor CaPF1 in transgenic Virginia pine (Pinus Virginiana Mill.) confers multiple stress tolerance and enhances organ growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Charles, Thomas M; Newton, Ronald J

    2005-11-01

    Transcription factors play an important role in regulating gene expression in response to stress and pathogen tolerance. We describe here that overexpression of an ERF/AP2 pepper transcription factor (CaPF1) in transgenic Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) confers tolerance to heavy metals Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc, to heat, and to pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, as by the survival rate of transgenic plants and the number of decreasing pathogen cells in transgenic tissues. Measurement of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities demonstrated that the level of the enzyme activities was higher in transgenic Virginia pine plants overexpressing the CaPF1 gene, which may protect cells from the oxidative damage caused by stresses, compared to the controls. Constitutive overexpression of CaPF1 gene enhanced organ growth by increasing organ size and cell numbers in transgenic Virginia pine plants over those in control plants.

  15. Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqin; Shi, Lanping; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Qian; Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Cai, Jinsen; Yu, Huanxin; Wang, Rongzhang; Wen, Jiayu; Lin, Youquan; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper. PMID:26442088

  16. Attachment of 13 Types of Foodborne Bacteria to Jalapeño and Serrano Peppers and Antibacterial Effect of Roselle Calyx Extracts, Sodium Hypochlorite, Colloidal Silver, and Acetic Acid against These Foodborne Bacteria on Peppers.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna N; Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria was evaluated on contaminated jalapeño and serrano peppers. The 13 types of foodborne bacteria evaluated were Listeria monocytogenes , Shigella flexneri , Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus , E. coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. All 13 types attached to both pepper types, with no significant differences in attachment between jalapeño and serrano peppers. Roselle calyx extract treatment resulted in a greater reduction in levels of all foodborne bacteria than did treatment with sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid on both pepper types. Roselle calyx extracts may be a useful for disinfection of chili peppers in the field, processing plants, restaurants, and homes.

  17. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Patriarca, Andrea

    2016-11-07

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid and alternariols. A total 32 out of 48 spoiled pepper fruits were contaminated with at least one of these metabolites. Half of the samples were positive for tenuazonic acid (range 8-11,422μg/kg), while alternariol and its monomethyl ether were less frequently detected (21 and 29%, respectively) and at lower concentrations. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean sweet pepper, and highlights a consumer risk when mouldy fruits are used in industrialized products because these compounds are not destroyed by conventional heat treatments.

  18. Complete genome sequence of a novel endornavirus isolated from hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Kil Hyun; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-12-01

    The complete genome of a putative new endornavirus infecting hot peppers (Capsicum annuum) was determined to be 14,729 nt in size, including 12 cytosines at the 3' end. The hot pepper-infecting virus has the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (94% query cover and 72% identity) to bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) isolated from the cultivar Yolo Wonder in the USA (GenBank accession no. JN019858). The putative single, large open reading frame encodes a 4,884-amino-acid-long polyprotein that contains four putative functional domains: a viral methyltransferase, a viral RNA helicase, a glycosyltransferase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A phylogenetic tree based on whole polyprotein sequences confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of the studied endornavirus to BPEV. The hot pepper-infecting virus also has a nick at nt position 975. Taken together, these results suggest that this virus belongs to a new species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), for which the name hot pepper endornavirus (HPEV) is proposed.

  19. Wound-Inducible Proteinase Inhibitors in Pepper. Differential Regulation upon Wounding, Systemin, and Methyl Jasmonate1

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Daniel S.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    2001-01-01

    Seven small (approximately 6,000 D) wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor proteins were isolated from leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants that are members of the potato inhibitor II family. N-terminal sequences obtained indicated that the pepper leaf proteinase inhibitors (PLPIs) exhibit homology to two GenBank accessions that code for preproteins containing three isoinhibitors domains each that, when post-translationally processed, can account for the mixture of isoinhibitors that are reported herein from pepper leaves. A constitutive level of PLPI proteins was found in pepper leaves, and these levels increased up to 2.6-fold upon wounding of the lower leaves. Exposing intact plants to methyl jasmonate vapors induced the accumulation of PLPIs. Supplying excised young pepper plants with water through the cut stems induced PLPI proteins to levels higher than those found in intact plants, but with high variability. Supplying the excised plants with systemin did not result in an increase of PLPI levels that were statistically higher than levels found in excised plants. Gel-blot analyses of PLPI induction revealed the presence of two mRNA bands, having slightly different mobilities in agarose gels. Only the low Mr mRNA is present in untreated control plants, and it appears to be responsible for the constitutive levels of PLPI found in leaves. Both mRNA species are wound- and methyl jasmonate-inducible. Only the low- Mr species is weakly induced by systemin, indicating a differential expression of the two PLPI species. PMID:11351092

  20. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    López-Carrillo, L; Hernández Avila, M; Dubrow, R

    1994-02-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that capsaicin, the hot-tasting component of chili peppers, may be carcinogenic. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Mexico City during 1989-1990 to evaluate the relation between chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer risk. The study included 220 incident cases and 752 controls randomly selected from the general population. Information was collected by interview. Chili pepper consumers were at high risk for gastric cancer compared with nonconsumers (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio = 5.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.72-11.06). Among consumers, there was a highly significant trend of increasing risk with increasing self-rated level of consumption (low, medium, and high) (p = 2 x 10(-7). The odds ratio for high-level consumers compared with nonconsumers was 17.11 (95% CI 7.78-37.59). However, when consumption was measured as frequency per day, a significant trend among consumers was not observed. Multivariable adjustment increased the magnitude of the chili pepper-gastric cancer association, but a significant trend among consumers (measured as frequency per day) was still not observed. Chili pepper consumption may be a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, but further studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  1. Predator-In-First: A novel biocontrol strategy for managing thrips and other key pests in pepper crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predator-In-First (PIF) is a novel biological-based approach for sustainable control of thrips and other key pests that threaten pepper production in protected and outdoor culture. In the current study pepper plants were used as a model crop system and the key component of this method involves the r...

  2. Capsicum and capsaicin--a review: case report of the use of hot peppers in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Tominack, R L; Spyker, D A

    1987-01-01

    Capsaicin, the active principle of hot peppers of the genus Capsicum, exhibits broad bioactivity. It targets neuronal structures which contain substance P, clinically seen as gastrointestinal and dermatologic irritation, bronchospasm and fibrinolysis. As a research tool, capsaicin profoundly alters neurologic anatomy and function. We review the toxicity of capsaicin and comment briefly on the use of hot peppers in child abuse.

  3. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  4. 'Caro-Tex 312’ – An F1 Hybrid, High Yielding, Multiple Disease Resistant, Orange Habanero Pepper Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas A&M University and the USDA-ARS U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC, have developed a new, F1 hybrid Habanero pepper cultivar. ‘Caro-Tex 312’ produces a large, orange-fruited Habanero pepper with typical shape and high pungency. It also possesses unique yield, early maturity and dise...

  5. Distribution of seven heavy metals among hot pepper plant parts.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Mo, Cu, Zn, and Cr) in the fruits, leaves, stem, and roots of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) plants grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil. Elemental analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Pb and Cd concentrations in soil amended with YW, SS, and CM were not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to NM soil, whereas Mo and Cu concentrations were significantly greater in YW compared to SS, CM, and NM treatments. Concentrations of Cd in the fruits of plants grown in NM soil were greater compared to the fruits of plants grown in other treatments. Total Ni concentration (sum of Ni in all plant parts) in plants grown in NM bare soil was greater than in plants grown in SS-, YW-, and CM-amended soils. Values of the bioaccumulation factor indicated that pepper fruits of plants grown in YW, SS, and CM did not show any tendency to accumulate Pb, Cr, and Ni in their edible fruits.

  6. Nitrogen metabolism in pepper plants applied with different bioregulators.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Castilla, N; Romero, L

    2000-07-01

    Certain bioregulators were studied in relation to nitrogen metabolism of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Lamuyo). Plants were grown under controlled conditions and submitted to regular fertilization with macro- and micronutrients. Treatments were as follows: nontreated control (T0); fosfonutren [essential amino acids and micronutrients (46.9 mg L(-)(1))] (T1); biozyme [GA(3) (32.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus IAA (32.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus zeatin (83.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus chelated micronutrients] (T2); and GA(3) [16 mg L(-)(1)] (T3). The concentrations of NO(3)(-), organic N, amino acids, and proteins, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), and finally the foliar dry weight and yield were analyzed. The results indicated that the application of certain bioregulators, such as fosfonutren (T1), which contain amino acids can cause a negative effect on the efficiency and utilization of NO(3)(-), resulting in a drastic loss in growth and yield, even under the control treatment, in which no bioregulator was applied. On the contrary, the application of certain bioregulators based principally on the combination of different hormones, as in the case of biozyme (T2), increased NO(3)(-) assimilation under our experimental conditions, due possibly to a greater availability of these bioregulators in the leaves and increased NR and NiR activities. This appears to explain why the T2 treatment gave the greatest foliar dry weight and fruit yield per plant in the experiment.

  7. Proteome analysis of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Muhammad Asim; Grossmann, Jonas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baginsky, Sacha

    2006-12-01

    We report a comprehensive proteome analysis of chromoplasts from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The combination of a novel strategy for database-independent detection of proteins from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data with standard database searches allowed us to identify 151 proteins with a high level of confidence. These include several well-known plastid proteins but also novel proteins that were not previously reported from other plastid proteome studies. The majority of the identified proteins are active in plastid carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among the most abundant individual proteins are capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillin, which are involved in the synthesis and storage of carotenoids that accumulate to high levels in chromoplasts. The relative abundances of the identified chromoplast proteins differ remarkably compared with their abundances in other plastid types, suggesting a chromoplast-specific metabolic network. Our results provide an overview of the major metabolic pathways active in chromoplasts and extend existing knowledge about prevalent metabolic activities of different plastid types.

  8. Microarray analysis of tomato plants exposed to the nonviruliferous or viruliferous whitefly vector harboring Pepper golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Gallucci, Matthew; DesRochers, Brittany; Brown, Judith K

    2014-01-01

    Plants are routinely exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses to which they have evolved by synthesizing constitutive and induced defense compounds. Induced defense compounds are usually made, initially, at low levels; however, following further stimulation by specific kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses, they can be synthesized in relatively large amounts to abate the particular stress. cDNA microarray hybridization was used to identify an array of genes that were differentially expressed in tomato plants 15 d after they were exposed to feeding by nonviruliferous whiteflies or by viruliferous whiteflies carrying Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) (Begomovirus, Geminiviridae). Tomato plants inoculated by viruliferous whiteflies developed symptoms characteristic of PepGMV, whereas plants exposed to nonviruliferous whitefly feeding or nonwounded (negative) control plants exhibited no disease symptoms. The microarray analysis yielded over 290 spotted probes, with significantly altered expression of 161 putative annotated gene targets, and 129 spotted probes of unknown identities. The majority of the differentially regulated "known" genes were associated with the plants exposed to viruliferous compared with nonviruliferous whitefly feeding. Overall, significant differences in gene expression were represented by major physiological functions including defense-, pathogen-, photosynthesis-, and signaling-related responses and were similar to genes identified for other insect-plant systems. Viruliferous whitefly-stimulated gene expression was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of selected, representative candidate genes (messenger RNA): arginase, dehydrin, pathogenesis-related proteins 1 and -4, polyphenol oxidase, and several protease inhibitors. This is the first comparative profiling of the expression of tomato plants portraying different responses to biotic stress induced by viruliferous whitefly feeding (with resultant virus infection

  9. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Rio A.; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  10. Inheritance and expression of transgenes through anther culture of transgenic hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soon; Kuk, Yong In; Kim, Kyung-Moon

    2007-01-01

    Anther cultures have been developed from transgenic donor peppers carrying HPT/J1-1. Eight out of sixteen plants produced from an anther culture set pepper fruits. Southern blot analysis of donors revealed two independent plants with a single copy of the integrated transgene. PCR and RT-PCR results showed the inheritance of HPT/J1-1 and expression of J1-1 in A1. All A1 progeny derived from transgenic anthers had resistance to hygromycin. They grew normally and showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type. Therefore, the use of an anther culture system coupled with genetic transformation in breeding programs will greatly facilitate the genetic improvement of pepper plants.

  11. Mobility of heavy metals from soil into hot pepper fruits: a field study.

    PubMed

    Antonious, G F; Kochhar, T S

    2009-01-01

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contribute to pungency as well as having health-promoting properties, in peppers. Twenty-three genotypes (four spp.) of hot pepper from the USDA germplasm collection were grown in the field to identify accessions having increased concentrations of these two compounds and determine the concentrations of heavy metals, in mature fruits. Concentrations and relative proportions of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and seven heavy metals varied between and within pepper species. Plant Introduction 547069 (C. annuum) contained the greatest concentrations of the two pungent compounds. Fruits of PI-439381 and PI-267729 (C. baccatum) accumulated the greatest concentrations of Pb, while PI-246331 (C. annuum) accumulated the greatest concentration of Cd among accessions tested.

  12. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  13. Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, MI; Akanji, MA; Hafizur, Rahman M; Choudhary, MI

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and antiglycation potential of polyphenols from three spices; alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg. Methods Polyphenol extracts of these spices were subjected to brine-shrimp lethality assay, phytotoxicity test, DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging as well as BSA-glucose antiglycation assay. Results Results obtained showed that polyphenol extract of ginger has the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 0.075 and 0.070 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while alligator pepper displayed highest antiglycation activity with IC50 0.125 mg/mL. However, nutmeg extract exhibited weakest cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential with LD50 4359.70 and 1490 µg/mL respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential and are safe for consumption. PMID:23570003

  14. Phytyl Fatty Acid Esters in the Pulp of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Krauß, Stephanie; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-08-17

    Phytyl fatty acid esters (PFAE) are esters of fatty acids with the isoprenoid alcohol phytol (3,7R,11R,15-tetramethylhexadec-2E-enol). In this study, PFAE were identified and quantified in bell pepper using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All red (n = 14) and yellow (n = 6) samples contained six or seven PFAE at 0.9-11.2 mg/100 g fresh weight. By contrast, PFAE were not detected in green bell pepper samples (n = 3). PFAE might eventually be a source for bioavailable phytol, which can be transformed into phytanic acid by humans. Phytanic acid cannot be properly degraded by patients who suffer from Refsum's disease (tolerable daily intake (TDI) ≤ 10 mg of phytanic acid). The phytol moiety of the PFAE (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight) would contribute up to ∼50% to the TDI with the consumption of only one portion of bell pepper fruit pulp.

  15. Quantitative analysis of sanshool compounds in Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.) and their pungent characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Etsuko; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue

    2005-10-01

    The distributions of each sanshool in the Japanese pepper plant grown in various regions and the change in composition of sanshools during maturation of the fruit were investigated. The degree of pungency, defined as the amount of a sanshool/the threshold value, was calculated, and the pungent qualities of the products were evaluated and compared. The degree of pungency and amount of a sanshool showed a positive correlation. In young leaves and flowers, the degree of pungency was less than that in the fruits, the main compound being alpha-sanshool, while the two hydroxy sanshools were detected only in trace amounts. The main compound in fruits was hydroxy alpha-sanshool, whose threshold value was higher than that of alpha-sanshool. It is concluded that the pungency of Japanese pepper should be evaluated not only by the threshold values, but also by the pungent qualities, the composition of sanshools, and the usage of each product of Japanese pepper.

  16. Bioflavour production from tomato and pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Güneşer, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Karagül Yüceer, Yonca; Özmen Toğay, Sine; İşleten Hoşoğlu, Müge; Elibol, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Bioflavours are called natural flavour and/or fragrance compounds which are produced using metabolic pathway of the microorganism and/or plant cells or their enzyme systems with bioengineering approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate bioflavour production from tomato and red pepper pomaces by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Obtained specific growth rates of K. marxianus and D. hansenii in tomato pomace were 0.081/h and 0.177/h, respectively. The bioflavour profile differed between the yeasts. Both yeasts can produce esters and alcohols such as phenyl ethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate and isovaleric acid. "Tarhana" and "rose" were descriptive flavour terms for tomato and pepper pomaces fermented by K. marxianus, respectively. Tomato pomace fermented by D. hansenii had the most intense "green bean" flavour while "fermented vegetable" and "storage/yeast" were defined as characteristic flavour terms for pepper pomaces fermented by D. hansenii.

  17. Seasonal Abundance and Phenology of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Different Pepper Cultivars in the Mid-Atlantic (United States).

    PubMed

    Philips, C R; Kuhar, T P; Dively, G P; Hamilton, G; Whalen, J; Kamminga, K

    2017-02-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since its initial establishment, it has spread throughout the east coast as far south as Georgia, and as far north as New Hampshire. While information is available regarding H. halys behavior and life history in some crops, relatively little information is available for vegetables such as peppers. Key questions include understanding when H. halys enters pepper fields to feed and how best to predict infestations, what population levels create economic damage, and if peppers that vary in capsaicin levels also vary in susceptibility to attack. To answer these questions, replicated plots were set up across four mid-Atlantic states using three types of peppers: sweet bell, sweet banana, and hot chili. We found that there was no difference in the overall abundance of all life stages of H. halys on all pepper varieties tested. However, there were differences in bug density by site, but these differences did not translate to differences in the proportion of damaged fruit. The presence of adult H. halys is a better predictor of damage in banana peppers, whereas nymphs are a better predictor in bell pepper. In addition, across all sites, the presence of egg masses was low in pepper crops and densities of both adults and immatures tend to peak on pepper plants in early August. Altogether, this information can be used to help develop a pest management program in peppers that will reduce crop losses to this new devastating pest, while reducing the reliance on insecticides to manage this pest at the same time.

  18. Chryseobacterium kwangjuense sp. nov., isolated from pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) root.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Hye-Sook; Myung, Inn-Shik; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-08-01

    The yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium KJ1R5(T) was isolated from the root of a pepper plant grown in a field in Kwangju, Korea. Strain KJ1R5(T) was characterized by physiological, biochemical, and molecular genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KJ1R5(T) was most closely related to members of the genus Chryseobacterium, and that the strain exhibited the highest similarities with type strains of Chryseobacterium vrystaatense (97.0 %) and Chryseobacterium rhizosphaerae (97.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization reassociation values between strain KJ1R5(T) and type strains of C. vrystaatense KACC 11675(T) and C. rhizosphaerae KACC 14918(T) were 46.9 and 38.4 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of KJ1R5(T) is 40.2 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone of KJ1R5(T) was menaquinone MK-6; major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C17 : 1ω9c, and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the strain significantly differed from representative strains belonging to the genus Chryseobacterium. Thus, we propose that strain KJ1R5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, named Chryseobacterium kwangjuense sp. nov. The type strain is KJ1R5(T) (= KACC 13029(T) = JCM 15904(T)).

  19. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in drinking water sources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Eiji; Kitajima, Masaaki; Kishida, Naohiro; Konno, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is a plant virus that has been recently proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal contamination of environmental waters; however, information on its geographical occurrence in surface water is still limited. We aimed to determine the seasonal and geographic occurrence of PMMoV in drinking water sources all over Japan. Between July 2008 and February 2011, 184 source water samples were collected from 30 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); viruses from 1 to 2 liters of each sample were concentrated by using an electronegative membrane, followed by RNA extraction and reverse transcription. Using quantitative PCR, PMMoV was detected in 140 (76%) samples, with a concentration ranging from 2.03×10(3) to 2.90×10(6) copies/liter. At least one of the samples from 27 DWTPs (n=4 or 8) was positive for PMMoV; samples from 10 of these DWTPs were always contaminated. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of PMMoV among geographical regions but not a seasonal difference. PMMoV was frequently detected in samples that were negative for human enteric virus or Escherichia coli. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the PMMoV coat protein gene in 12 water samples from 9 DWTPs indicated that there are genetically diverse PMMoV strains present in drinking water sources in Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the occurrence of PMMoV in environmental waters across wide geographical regions.

  20. Levels of Nitrates and Nitrites in Chili Pepper and Ventricina Salami

    PubMed Central

    Piccirilli, Michele; Iafigliola, Luigi; Amadoro, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Ventricina is a traditional sausage made from pork meat produced in the Abruzzi and Molise regions. The aim of this study was to detect the content of nitrates and nitrites in local cultivars of chilli pepper, and their concentration in ventricina samples spiced with the same chilli pepper. Furthermore, it was examined whether, in the samples of ventricina with nitrate addition, the spicing with chilli pepper could exceed the maximum added dose. The concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the organic chilli pepper was 531.0±94.6 mg/kg and less than 5.0 mg, respectively, in the traditional chilli pepper it was 394.0±39.6 and less than 5.0 mg, while in the commercial it was 325.0±115.0 and less than 5.0 mg. The determination of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by high performance ion chromatography. In ventricina samples produced without added sodium nitrate, nitrates and nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at the case-filling time (t0) and after 50 days of aging (t50). In the samples of ventricina with added sodium nitrate, nitrate concentration values were 134.0±20.9 mg/kg at t0 and 129.0±15.4 mg/kg at t50, while the nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at t0 and 28.8±15.8 mg/kg at t50. Although in ventricina the amount of chilli pepper is quite relevant, it did not lead to a detectable concentration of nitrates. The maximum allowed amount was never exceeded. PMID:27800331

  1. Residues and half-lives of pyrethrins on field-grown pepper and tomato.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2004-05-01

    The dried flower heads of Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trev. (Family: Compositae) contain insecticidal compounds collectively called "pyrethrins." Pyrethrins are the subject of intense interest for use in crop protection because their toxicological properties permit control of certain insect species at application rates as low as 5-10 g AI acre(-1). Seedlings of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bell Boy Hybrid and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Mountain Spring F1 Hybrid were planted and sprayed with a Multi-Purpose Insecticide formulation that contains 0.2% pyrethrins, 1.0% piperonyl butoxide (PBO), 88% diatomaceous earth, and 10.8% inert ingredients. The formulation was sprayed on pepper and tomato foliage when tomato fruits became red ripe and pepper became mature green at the rate of 6 lbs of formulated product per acre (5.4 and 27.2 g AI of pyrethrins and PBO, respectively). Following spraying, pepper and tomato leaves and fruits were collected at different time intervals for residue analysis using a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. Residues of pyrethrins and PBO were generally higher on the leaves than fruits. Initial deposits (1 h following spraying) of pyrethrins were significantly higher on pepper than tomato fruits. Half-life (T1/2) values on pepper and tomato fruits did not exceed 2 h. Where concern exists over synthetic pesticide residues on treated crops and in the environment, pyrethrins are suitable alternatives that can be used to reduce the risk of exposure to synthetic pesticide residues.

  2. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  3. Priming maize resistance by its neighbors: activating 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones synthesis and defense gene expression to alleviate leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xupo; Yang, Min; Huang, Huichuan; Chuan, Youcong; He, Xiahong; Li, Chengyun; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Plant disease can be effectively suppressed in intercropping systems. Our previous study demonstrated that neighboring maize plants can restrict the spread of soil-borne pathogens of pepper plants by secreting defense compounds into the soil. However, whether maize plant can receive benefits from its neighboring pepper plants in an intercropping system is little attention. We examined the effects of maize roots treated with elicitors from the pepper pathogen Phytophthora capsici and pepper root exudates on the synthesis of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs), the expression of defense-related genes in maize, and their ability to alleviate the severity of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis. We found that SCLB was significantly reduced after the above treatments. The contents of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs: DIBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression levels of BX synthesis and defense genes in maize roots and shoots were up-regulated. DIMBOA and MBOA effectively inhibited the mycelium growth of Bipolaris maydis at physiological concentrations in maize shoots. Further studies suggested that the defense related pathways or genes in maize roots and shoots were activated by elicitors from the P. capsici or pepper root exudates. In conclusion, maize increased the levels of BXs and defense gene expression both in roots and shoots after being triggered by root exudates and pathogen from neighboring pepper plants, eventually enhancing its resistance.

  4. Priming maize resistance by its neighbors: activating 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones synthesis and defense gene expression to alleviate leaf disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xupo; Yang, Min; Huang, Huichuan; Chuan, Youcong; He, Xiahong; Li, Chengyun; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Plant disease can be effectively suppressed in intercropping systems. Our previous study demonstrated that neighboring maize plants can restrict the spread of soil-borne pathogens of pepper plants by secreting defense compounds into the soil. However, whether maize plant can receive benefits from its neighboring pepper plants in an intercropping system is little attention. We examined the effects of maize roots treated with elicitors from the pepper pathogen Phytophthora capsici and pepper root exudates on the synthesis of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs), the expression of defense-related genes in maize, and their ability to alleviate the severity of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis. We found that SCLB was significantly reduced after the above treatments. The contents of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs: DIBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression levels of BX synthesis and defense genes in maize roots and shoots were up-regulated. DIMBOA and MBOA effectively inhibited the mycelium growth of Bipolaris maydis at physiological concentrations in maize shoots. Further studies suggested that the defense related pathways or genes in maize roots and shoots were activated by elicitors from the P. capsici or pepper root exudates. In conclusion, maize increased the levels of BXs and defense gene expression both in roots and shoots after being triggered by root exudates and pathogen from neighboring pepper plants, eventually enhancing its resistance. PMID:26528303

  5. Overexpression of lipid transfer protein (LTP) genes enhances resistance to plant pathogens and LTP functions in long-distance systemic signaling in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Sujon; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Ki Deok; Hwang, Byung Kook; Ok, Sung Han; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2009-03-01

    The lipid signal is essential for the activation of plant defense responses, but downstream components of the signaling pathway are still poorly defined. To investigate the biological functions of pepper lipid transfer protein (LTP), we carried out virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper, constitutive expression of CALTPs and grafting experiments in the tobacco plant. Suppression of endogenous CALTPI and CALTPII by VIGS, respectively, resulted in enhanced susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vescatoria and pepper mosaic mottle virus in pepper. On the other hand, the constitutive expression of CALTPI and CALTPII genes in tobacco plants showed enhanced resistance to oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora nicotianae and bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Enhanced resistance is found to be associated with the enhanced CALTP transcript levels in the independent transgenic CALTPI or II tobacco lines. Induced resistance responses in grafted scion leaves revealed that LTP plays a role in long-distance systemic signaling in plants.

  6. Starch fossils and the domestication and dispersal of chili peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Linda; Dickau, Ruth; Zarrillo, Sonia; Holst, Irene; Pearsall, Deborah M; Piperno, Dolores R; Berman, Mary Jane; Cooke, Richard G; Rademaker, Kurt; Ranere, Anthony J; Raymond, J Scott; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Scaramelli, Franz; Tarble, Kay; Zeidler, James A

    2007-02-16

    Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) are widely cultivated food plants that arose in the Americas and are now incorporated into cuisines worldwide. Here, we report a genus-specific starch morphotype that provides a means to identify chili peppers from archaeological contexts and trace both their domestication and dispersal. These starch microfossils have been found at seven sites dating from 6000 years before present to European contact and ranging from the Bahamas to southern Peru. The starch grain assemblages demonstrate that maize and chilies occurred together as an ancient and widespread Neotropical plant food complex that predates pottery in some regions.

  7. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  8. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nazia Masood Ahmed; Tariq, Perween

    2006-07-01

    Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) against 176 bacterial isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals. The disc diffusion technique was employed. Overall aqueous decoction of black pepper was the most bacterial-toxic exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates.

  9. Regulation of cell wall-bound invertase in pepper leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type three effectors.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P R; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ΔxopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ΔxopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar

  10. Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Sachiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Yoneda, Hirotsugu; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers.

  11. Genetic diversity and silencing suppression activity of the p22 protein of Tomato chlorosis virus isolates from tomato and sweet pepper.

    PubMed

    Landeo-Ríos, Yazmín M; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Cañizares, M Carmen

    2015-10-01

    As for other bipartite criniviruses (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae), the genome of Tomato chlorosis virus encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, in the 3'-proximal region of RNA1. This protein has been reported as having one of the longest lasting local suppressor activities when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we examined the genetic diversity of the p22 gene in ToCV isolates from tomato and sweet pepper. The p22 gene sequences clearly grouped into two separated clades. However, functional analysis of both types of p22 proteins indicated no evident differences in suppressor activity. Our findings provide experimental evidence that the presence of a "strong" silencing suppressor is a conserved feature of ToCV isolates.

  12. Complete sequence of three different biotypes of tomato spotted wilt virus (wild type, tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking and pepper Tsw resistance-breaking) from Spain.

    PubMed

    Debreczeni, Diana E; López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Darós, José Antonio; Soler, Salvador; Galipienso, Luis; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) occurs worldwide and causes production losses in many important horticultural crops such as tomato and pepper. Breeding resistant cultivars has been the most successful method so far for TSWV disease control, but only two genes have been found to confer resistance against a wide spectrum of TSWV isolates: Sw-5 in tomato and Tsw in pepper. However, TSWV resistance-breaking isolates have emerged in different countries a few years after using resistant cultivars. In this paper, we report the first complete nucleotide sequences of three Spanish TSWV isolates with different biotypes according to their abilities to overcome resistance: LL-N.05 (wild type, WT), Pujol1TL3 (Sw-5 resistance breaking, SBR) and PVR (Tsw resistance-breaking, TBR). The genome of these TSWV isolates consisted of three segments: L (8913-8914 nt), M (4752-4825 nt) and (S 2924-2961 nt). Variations in nucleotide sequences and genomic RNA lengths among the different virus biotypes are reported here. Phylogenetic analysis of the five TSWV open reading frames showed evidence of reassortment between genomic segments of LL-N.05 and Pujol1TL3, which was supported by analysis with different recombination-detecting algorithms.

  13. Complete genome sequences of three tomato spotted wilt virus isolates from tomato and pepper plants in Korea and their phylogenetic relationship to other TSWV isolates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Seung; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infects numerous host plants and has three genome segments, called L, M and S. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three Korean TSWV isolates (TSWV-1 to -3) infecting tomato and pepper plants. Although the nucleotide sequence of TSWV-1 genome isolated from tomato is very different from those of TSWV-2 and TSWV-3 isolated from pepper, the deduced amino acid sequences of the five TSWV genes are highly conserved among all three TSWV isolates. In phylogenetic analysis, deduced RdRp protein sequences of TSWV-2 and TSWV-3 were clustered together with two previously reported isolates from Japan and Korea, while TSWV-1 grouped together with a Hawaiian isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on N protein sequences, however, revealed four distinct groups of TSWV isolates, and all three Korean isolates belonged to group II, together with many other isolates, mostly from Europe and Asia. Interestingly, most American isolates grouped together as group I. Together, these results suggested that these newly identified TSWV isolates might have originated from an Asian ancestor and undergone divergence upon infecting different host plants.

  14. Pepper chat fruit viroid: biological and molecular properties of a proposed new species of the genus Pospiviroid.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Jansen, C C C; Roenhorst, J W; Flores, R; de la Peña, M

    2009-09-01

    In autumn 2006, a new disease was observed in a glasshouse-grown crop of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the Netherlands. Fruit size of the infected plants was reduced up to 50%, and plant growth was also slightly reduced. Here we show that the disease is caused by a previously non-described viroid. The pepper viroid is transmitted by both mechanical inoculation and pepper seeds and, when inoculated experimentally, it infects several solanaceous plant species inducing vein necrosis and reduced fruit and tuber size in tomato and potato, respectively. The viroid RNA genome consists of 348 nucleotides and, with minor modifications, it has the central conserved and the terminal conserved regions characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid. Classification of the pepper viroid within the genus Pospiviroid is further supported by the presence and structure of hairpins I and II, the presence of internal and external RY motifs, and phylogenetic analyses. The primary structure of the pepper viroid only showed a maximum of 66% nucleotide sequence identity with other viroids, which is far below the main species demarcation limit of 90%. According to its biological and molecular properties, we propose to assign the pepper viroid to a new species within the genus Pospiviroid, and to name this new species Pepper chat fruit viroid.

  15. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper.

  16. Comparison of Fungal Community in Black Pepper-Vanilla and Vanilla Monoculture Systems Associated with Vanilla Fusarium Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla monoculture system were compared through the deep pyrosequencing. The results showed that the black pepper-vanilla system revealed a significantly higher fungal diversity than the vanilla monoculture system in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The UniFrac-weighted PCoA analysis revealed significant differences in bulk soil fungal community structures between the two cropping systems, and fungal community structures were seriously affected by the vanilla root system. In summary, the black pepper-vanilla system harbored a lower abundance of Fusarium oxysporum in the vanilla rhizosphere soil and increased the putatively plant-beneficial fungal groups such as Trichoderma and Penicillium genus, which could explain the healthy growth of vanilla in the soil of the long-term continuously cropped black pepper field. Thus, cropping vanilla in the soil of continuously cropped black pepper fields for maintaining the vanilla industry is executable and meaningful as an agro-ecological system. PMID:26903995

  17. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs for fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhoubin; Zhang, Yuping; Ou, Lijun; Kang, Linyu; Liu, Yuhua; Lv, Junheng; Wei, Ge; Yang, Bozhi; Yang, Sha; Chen, Wenchao; Dai, Xiongze; Li, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shudong; Zhang, Zhuqing; Ma, Yanqing; Zou, Xuexiao

    2017-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs which play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are involved in fruit development in model plants. However, the miRNAs related to fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) remains unknown. In this study, small RNA populations from different fruit ripening stages and different varieties were compared using next-generation sequencing technology. Totally, 59 known miRNAs and 310 novel miRNAs were identified from four libraries using miRDeep2 software. For these novel miRNAs, 656 targets were predicted and 402 of them were annotated. GO analysis and KEGG pathways suggested that some of the predicted miRNAs targeted genes involved in starch sucrose metabolism and amino sugar as well as nucleotide sugar metabolism. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. These results will provide an important foundation for future studies on the regulation of miRNAs involved in fruit development and quality.

  18. Red pepper powder is a crucial factor that influences the ontogeny of Weissella cibaria during kimchi fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Min Seok; Park, Dong Suk

    2016-01-01

    Weissella cibaria has been found in Korean kimchi and other sources, including fermented foods, Greek salami, Spanish sausages, and animal and human excrement. W. cibaria was recently reported to show anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, fundamental ecological succession studies are required to scientifically confirm the probiotic action of W. cibaria under various conditions, such as fermentation. Therefore, in the present study, we mined the W. cibaria KACC11862 genome in search of species-specific genes to use as new PCR targets for the detection and quantification of W. cibaria in kimchi. The sensitivity and specificity of the identified primer set from the putative outer membrane protein gene for the detection of W. cibaria KACC11862 in kimchi were analysed. Primer set specificity was evaluated using genomic DNA from eight W. cibaria isolates, 10 different species of Weissella and 13 other reference lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Interestingly, by using the qPCR assay developed herein, we found that red pepper powder markedly affects the ontogeny of W. cibaria during kimchi fermentation. PMID:27311801

  19. Methylobacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel plant-associated methylotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere of red pepper.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, M; Poonguzhali, S; Senthilkumar, M; Pragatheswari, D; Lee, K-C; Lee, J-S

    2013-03-01

    A novel plant-associated obligate methylotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ca-68(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of field-grown red pepper from India. The isolates are strictly aerobic, Gram negative, motile rods multiplying by binary fission and formaldehyde is assimilated via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the strain in a clade with the species Methylobacillus flagellatus, Methylobacillus glycogens and Methylobacillus pratensis, with which it showed pairwise similarity of 97.8, 97.4 and 96.2 %, respectively. The major fatty acids are C(16:0), C(10:0) 3OH and C(16:1) ω7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 59.7 mol%. The major ubiquinone is Q-8. Dominant phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness (14-19 %) with type strains of the genus Methylobacillus, the novel isolate was classified as a new species of this genus and named Methylobacillus rhizosphaerae Ca-68(T) (=KCTC 22383(T) = NCIMB 14472(T)).

  20. Maize death acids, 9-lipoxygenase-derived cyclopente(a)nones display activity as cytotoxic phytoalexins and transcriptional mediators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cellular damage promotes the interaction of lipoxygenases (LOX) with free fatty acids to yield 9- and 13-hydroperoxides which are further metabolized into diverse oxylipins. The enzymatic action of 13-LOX on linolenic acid enables production of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and its downst...

  1. Maize death acids, 9-lipoxygenase derived cyclopente(a)nones, display activity as cytotoxic phytoalexins and transcriptional mediators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant damage promotes the interaction of lipoxygenases (LOX) with fatty acids yielding 9-hydroperoxides, 13-hydroperoxides and complex arrays of oxylipins. The action of 13-LOX on linolenic acid enables production of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and its downstream products, termed jasmonates. ...

  2. An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yutaka; Inoue, Takahiro; Minamiyama, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Nakao

    2012-03-01

    Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar 'California Wonder' and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar 'LS2341 (JP187992)', which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding.

  3. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH.

  4. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) under Ambient Storage

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Qumer; Amjad, Muhammad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Nawaz, Aamir; Khan, Samiya Mahmood; Ariño, Agustin; Ahmad, Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics) were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum). Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control), 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g) to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g). Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05) declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality. PMID:28231158

  5. Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

  6. Mapping Brazilian Pepper Infestations in South Texas with Spatial Information Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), an evergreen shrub or tree indigenous to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, was introduced into the United States as an ornamental. This plant has an aggressive growth habit that allows it to establish, spread, and displace native vegetation, resulting in ...

  7. Identification of Leonurus sibiricus as a Weed Reservoir for Three Pepper-Infecting Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sun-Jung; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In plant virus ecology, weeds are regarded as wild reservoirs of viruses and as potential sources for insect-mediated transmission of viruses. During field surveys in 2013–2014, three Leonurus sibiricus plants showing virus-like symptoms were collected from pepper fields in Daegu, Seosan, and Danyang in Korea. Molecular diagnosis assays showed that the collected L. sibiricus samples were infected with either Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), or Beet western yellow virus (BWYV), respectively. Since this is the first identification of TSWV, PMMoV, and BWYV from L. sibiricus, complete genome sequences of three virus isolates were determined to examine their phylogenetic relationships with the previously reported strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analyses performed using full genome sequences of the viruses showed the isolates of TSWV and PMMoV obtained from L. sibiricus are closely related to the pepper isolates of the corresponding viruses. Our results suggest that L. sibiricus could act an alternative host and reservoir of viruses that cause damages in pepper fields. PMID:26889117

  8. Reading "Salt and Pepper": Social Practices, Unfinished Narratives, and Critical Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Diane Downer

    2008-01-01

    In "Reading "Salt and Pepper"" Anderson examines a story written by three third grade girls and their insights about that story as they re-read it during its production and retrospectively, eight years later. Using a frame for understanding children's writing as social practice, the children's interviews, showing their multiple and sometimes…

  9. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of acibenzolar on fresh market bell peppers, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted inTifton, Georgia to evaluate the phytotoxicity of acibenzolar on fresh market bell peppers in 2012 for the control of bacterial spot. Five broadcast foliar applications were applied on a 6-8 day schedule beginning on 2 Apr and ending on 29 May 2012. On 2 and 17 Apr a...

  10. Post-directed application of a potential organic herbicide for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  11. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Pepper Plants in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of potato psyllid damage and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in La Cruz de Elota, Sinaloa, México in March 2009. The plants had chlorotic or pale green leaves and exhibited leaf cupping, sh...

  12. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of acibenzolar on fresh market bell peppers, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted inTifton, Georgia to evaluate the phytotoxicity of acibenzolar on fresh market bell peppers in 2011 for the control of bacterial spot. Five broadcast foliar applications were applied on a 6-8 day schedule beginning on 18 Apr and ending on 13 Jun 2011. On 18 Apr and 2 ...

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  14. Suppression of Phytophthora capsici on bell pepper with isolates of Trichoderma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically based disease management strategies, including biological control, are being developed for Phytophthora capsici on bell pepper. Biological control agents that are effective in controlling this disease under a number of soil environmental conditions when applied alone or with cover crop...

  15. Evaluation of biorational products for management of Phytophthora blight of bell pepper transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several commercially available biopesticides and phosphonate-containing products were selected and tested for their efficacy in controlling Phytopthora capsici on bell pepper at various inoculum and fertility levels. The effects of concentration, application method and frequency of application on t...

  16. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens).

  17. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.

  18. De novo assembly of a bell pepper endornavirus genome sequence using RNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseng; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-03-19

    The genus Endornavirus is a double-stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of hosts. In this study, we report on the de novo assembly of a bell pepper endornavirus genome sequence by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Our result demonstrates the successful application of RNA-Seq to obtain a complete viral genome sequence from the transcriptome data.

  19. Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of pepper plants in Extremadura (western Spain), a spring-summer crop in this region. Preplant soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may effectively control plant pathogens in many crop production sys...

  20. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in Puerto Rico. TCSV was detected in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  1. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    PubMed

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  2. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  3. Development of a pungency measuring system for red-pepper powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsaicinoids are the main components that determine the spiciness level of red-pepper powders. Current pungency measurement is mostly dependent on HPLC measurement technique, which is a sample-destructive, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive method. In this research, a nondestructive on-...

  4. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  5. Identification of Leonurus sibiricus as a Weed Reservoir for Three Pepper-Infecting Viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun-Jung; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    In plant virus ecology, weeds are regarded as wild reservoirs of viruses and as potential sources for insect-mediated transmission of viruses. During field surveys in 2013-2014, three Leonurus sibiricus plants showing virus-like symptoms were collected from pepper fields in Daegu, Seosan, and Danyang in Korea. Molecular diagnosis assays showed that the collected L. sibiricus samples were infected with either Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), or Beet western yellow virus (BWYV), respectively. Since this is the first identification of TSWV, PMMoV, and BWYV from L. sibiricus, complete genome sequences of three virus isolates were determined to examine their phylogenetic relationships with the previously reported strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analyses performed using full genome sequences of the viruses showed the isolates of TSWV and PMMoV obtained from L. sibiricus are closely related to the pepper isolates of the corresponding viruses. Our results suggest that L. sibiricus could act an alternative host and reservoir of viruses that cause damages in pepper fields.

  6. Weed control in sweet bell pepper using sequential postdirected applications of pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) producers would benefit from additional herbicide options that are safe to the crop and provide effective weed control. Research was conducted in southeastern Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of pelargonic acid on weed control ef...

  7. Biting into the Yellow Pepper: The Development of the Interdisciplinary Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the opening credits of the television cult classic "Iron Chef," Chairman Kaga takes a huge bite out of a big yellow bell pepper. With the ensuing smirk on his face, he introduces the famous "Kitchen Stadium," which he notes is his "dream in a form never seen before." What follows is a learning experience in which…

  8. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M A; Martínez, M C; Bielza, P; Tello, J; Lacasa, A

    2011-01-01

    In the region of Murcia (southeast Spain), sweet pepper has been grown as a monoculture in greenhouses for many years. Until 2005, when it was banned, soils were disinfested with methyl bromide (MB) to control pathogens and to prevent soil fatigue effects. The genus Fusarium plays an important role in the microbiological component associated with yield decline in pepper monocultures. In the present study, soils were treated with manure amendments, alone (biofumigation, B) or in combination with solarization (biosolarization, BS), with or without the addition of pepper plant residues. The B and BS treatments were compared with a treatment using MB. The extent of disinfestation was measured from the density of Fusarium spp. isolated from the soil before and after the respective treatments. Three different species were systematically isolated: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti. The repeated use of manure amendments with pepper crop residues, without solarization, was unable to decrease the Fusarium spp. density (which increased from 2,047.17 CFU g(-1) to 3,157.24 CFU g(-1) before and after soil disinfestation, respectively), unlike MB-treated soil (in which the fungi decreased from 481.39 CFU g(-1) to 23.98 CFU g(-1)). However, the effectiveness of the repeated application of BS in diminishing doses (with or without adding plant residues) on Fusarium populations (reductions greater than 72%) was similar to or even greater than the effect of MB.

  9. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  10. The Validity and Clinical Uses of the Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test was assessed as a measure of reading ability with meaningful text in 38 adults with macular degeneration; scores were compared with assessment made using the Gray Oral Reading Test, a previously standardized assessment. The test's validity was confirmed. (Author/JDD)

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping of Total Nitrogen Spatial Distribution in Pepper Plant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ke-Qiang; Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiao-Li; Shao, Yong-Ni; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging was employed to determine the spatial distribution of total nitrogen in pepper plant. Hyperspectral images of samples (leaves, stems, and roots of pepper plants) were acquired and their total nitrogen contents (TNCs) were measured using Dumas combustion method. Mean spectra of all samples were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in hyperspectral images. Random frog (RF) algorithm was implemented to select important wavelengths which carried effective information for predicting the TNCs in leaf, stem, root, and whole-plant (leaf-stem-root), respectively. Based on full spectra and the selected important wavelengths, the quantitative relationships between spectral data and the corresponding TNCs in organs (leaf, stem, and root) and whole-plant (leaf-stem-root) were separately developed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). As a result, the PLSR model built by the important wavelengths for predicting TNCs in whole-plant (leaf-stem-root) offered a promising result of correlation coefficient (R) for prediction (RP = 0.876) and root mean square error (RMSE) for prediction (RMSEP = 0.426%). Finally, the TNC of each pixel within ROI of the sample was estimated to generate the spatial distribution map of TNC in pepper plant. The achievements of the research indicated that hyperspectral imaging is promising and presents a powerful potential to determine nitrogen contents spatial distribution in pepper plant. PMID:25549353

  12. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  13. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  14. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the cooking procedure; the loss rate varied among individual compounds. Boiling and steaming significantly reduced AsA content (24.3~66.5%), TP (13.9~ 54.9%), and antioxidant activity (21.7~60.5%) in red pepper, while stir-frying and roasting slightly reduced AsA content (2.7~25.9%), TP (1.8~4.9%), and antioxidant activity (4.9~17.9%). The highest loss was observed after boiling, followed by steaming, roasting, and stir-frying. Stir-frying and roasting better preserved AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, dry-heat cooking methods such as stir-frying and roasting may be preferred to retain the nutrient compositions and antioxidant properties of red pepper.

  15. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  16. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  17. Analysis of native carotenoid composition of sweet bell peppers by serially coupled C30 columns.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giacomo; Torre, Germana; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    Serial coupled columns reversed-phase separations in high-performance liquid chromatography can be a useful tool for the analysis of complex real samples. The great difficulties found when analyzing complex carotenoid samples, due to the high natural variability of these compounds, as well as to the presence of carotenoid esters, are well documented. In the present contribution, the applicability of connecting two C30 columns to increase significantly the separation power, resolution and peak capacity for the analysis of carotenoids in a complex carotenoid sample, like sweet bell peppers, has been shown for the first time. By using LC coupled to PDA/APCI-MS detectors, 56 different carotenoids have been detected in red sweet bell peppers. By using two serial coupled C30 columns a peak capacity of 95.4 was obtained, compared with 73 achieved using a single column. Moreover, resolution greatly improved between different critical peaks when using two serial coupled C30 columns, compared with a single column. Interestingly, free carotenoids, mono-esters and diesters were quantitatively equally represented (around 33% for each different class) in red sweet bell pepper, showing, therefore, a value for the ratio of mono-esters/diesters of around 1, which could be considered a parameter of typicality. Free beta-carotene (12.6%), capsanthin-C14:0 (8.4%), and capsanthin-C12:0-C14:0 (8.9%) were the most abundant carotenoids in the three different classes of red sweet bell pepper. No carotenoid esters were detected in either yellow or green sweet bell peppers. The application of such methodology in the analysis of other complex carotenoid matrices could be a future objective of research.

  18. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O

    2010-10-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick's law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma and hue angle of fresh- and osmo-oven dried peppers were evaluated. Drying rates occurred predominantly in the falling rate. Moisture diffusivity varied from 8.071 × 10(-10)-1.048 × 10(-8), 7.710 × 10(-11)-1.018 × 10(-9), 9.807 × 10(-9)-1.746 × 10(-8) and 8.748 × 10(-10)-1.464 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for Bawa, Rodo, Shombo, and Tatashe, respectively. Ea for moisture diffusion during drying of peppers varied from 53.86 to 84.86 kJ/mol and was affected by cultivars and osmotic pretreatment concentration. Osmotic pretreatment and drying temperature had significant effect (p < 0.05) on a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values of dried peppers.

  19. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-03

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation.

  20. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  1. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  2. Effect of ripening, heat processing, and fat type on the micellarization of pigments from jalapeño peppers.

    PubMed

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2013-10-16

    Raw and heat-processed (boiled and grilled) jalapeño peppers at three intermediate ripening stages (brown, 50% red, and 75% red) were digested in vitro without fat and in the presence of soybean oil (SO) or beef tallow (BT), and the micellarization of their lipid soluble pigments (LSP) was measured. The micelles from digestions with brown, 50% red, and 75% red peppers contained up to 27, 35, and 29 different LSP, respectively. Boiling and grilling decreased the micellarization of LSP from brown peppers, whereas the opposite was observed with 75% red peppers. Heat processing did not clearly affect the micellarization of LSP from 50% red fruits. The impact of fat on LSP micellarization was ripening-dependent, but the micellarization of the less polar carotenoids was always increased by SO or BT. This positive effect of fat was higher with SO than with BT.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Nahed M; Ahmed, Amany S; Ebraheim, Zedan Z

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the application of some edible plants including cayenne, green pepper, parsley, and dill to Kareish cheese and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these plant materials against natural microflora, coliforms, molds, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twelve different concentrations of ethanol extract of the plants were prepared for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Cayenne and green pepper extracts showed highest activity followed by dill and parsley against S. aureus. Addition of cayenne or green pepper to Kareish cheese during manufacture revealed that both plants were able reduce the S. aureus population to undetectable level within the first and second days of storage. To study the effect of combining plant materials on the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat Kareish cheese, the total bacterial count, coliform count, and yeast and molds counts were determined. It has been found that addition of plant materials to Kareish cheese reduced the total bacterial and coliform populations. All concentrations of cayenne, green pepper, dill, and parsley (9%) completely reduced the yeast count within 2 hours. Cayenne and green pepper completely reduced the mold count within 2 days, whereas parsley and dill were found to be less effective. Kareish cheese prepared with 1% cayenne pepper and 3% and 6% each of green pepper, dill, and parsley were found strongly acceptable to the consumer and considered the most preferable type. Therefore, this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese.

  4. Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Bell Pepper) Inhibits β-Secretase Activity and β-Amyloid1-40 Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ogunruku, Omodesola Oluwafisayo; Oboh, Ganiyu; Passamonti, Sabina; Trammer, Federica; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2017-02-01

    The deposition of amyloid protein as senile plaques is the major signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is produced by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by secretases. Moreover, peppers are noted for their antiaging and cognitive enhancing properties. Thus, in this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich extracts from bell pepper on amyloid production and aggregation in vitro were investigated. Bell pepper (ripe and unripe) was extracted with methanol-1 N HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, the inhibitory potentials of the extracts on β-secretase and β-amyloid1-40 aggregation were determined. Phenolic composition of the pepper fruits was further determined by HPLC-DAD (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector). There was a dose-dependent inhibition of β-secretase by the pepper fruits with the ripe fruits (2.17 ± 0.17 μg/L) showing a significantly (P < .05) higher inhibitory effect than the unripe (3.44 ± 0.11 μg/L). Furthermore, Thioflavin-T and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that phenolic extracts from pepper fruits (1 and 10 μg/L) could counteract the initial aggregation of Aβ1-40, as well as prevent further aggregation preformed fibrils. These inhibitory activities could be attributed to the predominant presence of phenolic constituents in the pepper fruits. It is possible to conclude that bell pepper could be a possible dietary intervention into the management of AD.

  5. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range <5-1,059 μg/kg) and Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range <5-47 μg/kg), which has an intermediate GBC incidence. The OTA contamination in the red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  6. Excess salt and pepper hair treated with a combination of laser hair removal and topical eflornithine HCl.

    PubMed

    Ganger, Laura K; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2006-06-01

    A common problem among aging women, salt and pepper facial hair poses a significant psychosocial impact as well as a challenge for treatment. Various laser therapies or topical eflornithine HCl 13.9% cream are commonly used to reduce the rate of hair growth. We report a case of a woman with salt and pepper hair in the beard distribution. A combination of laser hair removal with concurrent use of topical eflornithine was used in the treatment.

  7. Cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain: protective effect of hot short pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. var. abbreviatum).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to characterize the distribution of phenols and antioxidant activities in hot short pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. abbreviatum) and their inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in rat's brain. The total phenol content and antioxidant activities of pepper flesh (pericarp) and seeds were determined in vitro and in vivo. The results of the study revealed that intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (75mg/kg of body weight) caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the brain; however, there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the brain MDA content, in those of rats fed diet containing pepper; the flesh showed a higher inhibitory effect. In addition, dietary inclusion of the pepper (seed and flesh) also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin; likewise, dietary inclusion of the flesh inhibited MDA production than the seeds. The higher inhibition of oxidative stress in brain and serum enzymes and metabolites by the flesh could be attributed to its significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol content, reducing power and free-radical scavenging ability. Therefore, dietary hot short pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. var. abbreviatum) could prevent cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain; although the flesh is a better protectant, the possible contributory role of the seeds cannot be neglected. However, this protective effect of the pepper could be attributed to their antioxidant properties.

  8. Constitutive expression of CaXTH3, a hot pepper xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses without phenotypic defects in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2011-05-01

    The hot pepper xyloglucan endo-trans-gluco-sylase/hydrolase (CaXTH3) gene that was inducible by a broad spectrum of abiotic stresses in hot pepper has been reported to enhance tolerance to drought and high salinity in transgenic Arabidopsis. To assess whether CaXTH3 is a practically useful target gene for improving the stress tolerance of crop plants, we ectopically over-expressed the full-length CaXTH3 cDNA in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang) and found that the 35S:CaXTH3 transgenic tomato plants exhibited a markedly increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Transgenic tomato plants exposed to a salt stress of 100 mM NaCl retained the chlorophyll in their leaves and showed normal root elongation. They also remained green and unwithered following exposure to 2 weeks of dehydration. A high proportion of stomatal closures in 35S:CaXTH3 was likely to be conferred by increased cell-wall remodeling activity of CaXTH3 in guard cell, which may reduce transpirational water loss in response to dehydration stress. Despite this increased stress tolerance, the transgenic tomato plants showed no detectable phenotype defects, such as abnormal morphology and growth retardation, under normal growth conditions. These results raise the possibility that CaXTH3 gene is appropriate for application in genetic engineering strategies aimed at improving abiotic stress tolerance in agriculturally and economically valuable crop plants.

  9. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  10. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M. M.; Farkas, J.

    1993-07-01

    Temperature dependency of the apparent viscosity of heat-gelatinized suspensions of untreated and irradiated pepper samples has been investigated. There was a close linear correlation between the logaritm of "fluidity" /reciprocal of the apparent viscosity) and the reciprocal absolute temperature of the measurement. The slope of the regression line(the temperature dependence of fluidity) increased with the radiation dose. Gelatinization thermograms of aqueous suspensions of ground pepper samples were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature characteristics of heat-gelatinization endotherms showed no significant differences between untreated and irradiated samples. A colorimetric method for damaged starch, the estimation of reducing power, and the alcohol-induced turbidity of aqueous extracts showed statistically significant increases of starch damage at doses higher than 4 kGy. These indices of starch-depolymerization have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the heat-gelatinized suspensions.

  11. Antitranspirant associated abscisic Acid effects on the water relations and yield of transplanted bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, G A; Rabin, J

    1988-02-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were performed to determine if increased leaf resistance induced by exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) could enhance the water status of transplanted bell pepper seedlings. Seedling survival and yield were also monitored in the field experiment. When seedlings were transplanted into either wet or dry potting mix in the greenhouse, ABA increased leaf resistance and leaf water potential. In the field, plots were irrigated either immediately after, or 1 day after transplanting. Under both treatments, ABA application resulted in increased leaf resistance and water potential, but seedling survival and yield were enhanced due to ABA only in plots which were irrigated 1 day after transplanting. It is concluded that antitranspirant application can reduce transplant shock and increase yield of bell pepper.

  12. [Parent grouping of 31 elite inbred lines in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhang, Yin-Dong; Yin, Jun-Mei; Wang, De-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Genetic differences were examined among thirty-one elite inbred lines in Capsicum annuum L. Two types of analytic technologies, i.e. SRAP markers and genotypes of traits, were used, and their relative effectiveness was compared. 27 of 30 primer combinations could amplify 310 polymorphic bands among inbred lines, indicating SRAP marker was efficient to detect polymorphism among pepper inbred lines. A dendrogram of 31 inbred lines based on SRAP markers and Yule coefficients could basically separate lines of C. annuum var. grossum and C. annuum var. longum, and reveal the pedigrees of inbred lines. A dendrogram of 31 inbred lines based on genotypes of traits and standardized Euclidean coefficients could separate lines of C. annuum var. grossum and C. annuum var. longum. The SRAP marker genetic distances were correlated with distances based on the genotypes of traits. These results and their application in the development of hot pepper F1 hy-brids were also discussed.

  13. Identification and synthesis of 2-heptanethiol, a new flavor compound found in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Simian, Hervé; Robert, Fabien; Blank, Imre

    2004-01-28

    2-Heptanethiol was identified for the first time as a constituent of red and green bell pepper extracts. The chemical structure of this new aroma compound was proposed on the basis of mass spectra and retention indices and confirmed by chemical synthesis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Its aroma properties were described as sulfury, onion-like, and vegetable-like, reminiscent of bell pepper at lower concentrations, with an orthonasal detection threshold of 10 microg/L of water. No differences in odor note and threshold value were observed for the enantiomeric forms, which were prepared from enantiopure 2-heptanol by tosylation, followed by thioacetylation and reduction, giving the target thiol enantiomers.

  14. Improved End Point Detection in the Redox Titration of Vitamin C in Green Peppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Pope, Sandi R.

    1996-06-01

    We have used E. R. Johnson's "infamous pepper lab" (titrimetric determination of vitamin C content in raw and cooked green peppers) in our introductory biochemistry course for years with varying success. In the original paper, Johnson states that after seeing the change from a bright green to a muddy green or gray a couple of times during the titration procedure that students can easily determine the endpoint. Because of the large variation in the colors of the solutions obtained from the cooking and extraction procedures, we did not find this to be the case. In fact, we found that the endpoint color was very different from sample to sample. Our solution to this problem is discussed in this article. It has proven to be remarkably simple, yet has produced dramatically improved results.

  15. Isolation of Chromoplasts and Suborganellar Compartments from Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit.

    PubMed

    Barsan, Cristina; Kuntz, Marcel; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation of tomato plastids at three fruit developmental stages, namely, nascent chromoplasts from the mature green stage, chromoplasts from an intermediate stage, and fully differentiated red chromoplasts. The method relies on sucrose density gradient centrifugations. It yields high purity organelles suitable for proteome analyses. Enzymatic and microscopy assays are summarized to assess purity and intactness. A method is also described for subfractionation of pepper chromoplast lipoprotein structures.

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of the high-affinity K+ transporter HAK1 of pepper.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cordero, M Angeles; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2004-10-01

    High-affinity K+ uptake in plants plays a crucial role in K+ nutrition and different systems have been postulated to contribute to the high-affinity K+ uptake. The results presented here with pepper (Capsicum annum) demonstrate that a HAK1-type transporter greatly contributes to the high-affinity K+ uptake observed in roots. Pepper plants starved of K+ for 3 d showed high-affinity K+ uptake (Km of 6 microM K+) that was very sensitive to NH and their roots expressed a high-affinity K+ transporter, CaHAK1, which clusters in group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters. When expressed in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), CaHAK1 mediated high-affinity K+ and Rb+ uptake with Km values of 3.3 and 1.9 microM, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+.

  17. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen?

    PubMed

    Surh, Y J; Lee, S S

    1996-03-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent ingredient of the Capsicum fruits such as hot green and red peppers. Besides its use as a food additive in various spicy cuisines, capsaicin is currently utilized for therapeutic purposes to treat various peripheral painful conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic neuropathy. Considering consumption of capsaicin as a food additive and its current medicinal application in humans, correct evaluation and precise assessment of any harmful effects of this compound are essential from the public health standpoint. Numerous investigations have been conducted to determine the potential mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of capsaicin and chili pepper, but results are discordant. This review briefly examines findings in the literature of studies testing mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of capsaicin and presents a possible mechanistic basis for the dual effects exerted by the compound.

  18. Complete genome sequence of pepper yellow mosaic virus, a potyvirus, occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucinda, N; da Rocha, W B; Inoue-Nagata, A K; Nagata, T

    2012-07-01

    The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, was determined. The sequence was 9745 nucleotides long, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail. The genome contained a large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3085 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus and an additional P3-PIPO (pretty interesting potyvirus ORF). In a pairwise comparison with other potyvirus sequences, the full genome of PepYMV shared a maximum of 63.84 % nucleotide sequence identity with pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), followed by verbena virus Y (VVY, 62.11 %), potato virus Y (PVY, 62.07 %) and Peru tomato mosaic virus (PTV, 62.00 %). Based upon a phylogenetic analysis, PepYMV was most closely related to PepMoV and PTV, within the PVY subgroup cluster, like most potyviruses isolated in solanaceous hosts in South America.

  19. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented.

  20. PePPER: a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison algorithms are currently available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their accompanying TFs and regulon members. Results We here extend the current databases of TFs, TFBSs and regulons with our knowledge on Lactococcus lactis and developed a webserver for prediction, mining and visualization of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons via a novel concept. This new approach includes an all-in-one method of data mining for TFs, TFBSs, promoters, and regulons for any bacterial genome via a user-friendly webserver. We demonstrate the power of this method by mining WalRK regulons in Lactococci and Streptococci and, vice versa, use L. lactis regulon data (CodY) to mine closely related species. Conclusions The PePPER webserver offers, besides the all-in-one analysis method, a toolbox for mining for regulons, promoters and TFBSs and accommodates a new L. lactis regulon database in addition to already existing regulon data. Identification of putative regulons and full annotation of intergenic regions in any bacterial genome on the basis of existing knowledge on a related organism can now be performed by biologists and it can be done for a wide range of regulons. On the basis of the PePPER output, biologist can design experiments to further verify the existence and extent of the proposed regulons. The PePPER webserver is freely accessible at http://pepper.molgenrug.nl. PMID:22747501

  1. Toxicity and repellency of hot pepper extracts to spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the spider mites. Crude extracts from fruits of C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were prepared in methanol and tested for their acaricidal properties. Spider mite mortality was greatest (45%) when fruit extract of accession Grif-9169 (C. annuum) was used. Results from diving board bioassays indicated that mites avoided filter paper strips treated with hot pepper extracts from accessions PI-596057 (C. baccatum), PI-195299 (C. annuum), and Grif- 9270 (C. annuum). This investigation suggests that methanolic extracts of these three accessions may have a great potential for repelling spider mites and should be field-tested on a large-scale to assess their value in managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. An attempt was made to correlate repellency with chemical constituents of fruit extracts of the most repellent accessions to identify chemical sources of repellency. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that these are not likely related to the toxicity or repellency of the pepper fruit extracts. Other, unidentified chemicals are likely responsible for toxicity and repellency to the two-spotted spider mite.

  2. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions.

  3. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C H; Pelgrom, Koen T B; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC-MS and headspace GC-MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum-C. chinense-C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  4. Development of the pungency measuring system for red-pepper powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Changyeun; Lee, Kangjin; Lim, Jong-Guk; Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Hyun-Dong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2011-06-01

    Many researchers have been tried to find a rapid pungency measuring method for the capsaicinoids, the main component of spicy to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional HPLC measurement which is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. In this research, an on-line based pungency measuring system for red-pepper powder was developed using a UV/Visible/Near-Infrared spectrometer with the wavelength range of 400 ~ 1050 nm. The system was constructed with a charge-couple device(CCD) spectrometer, a reference measuring unit, and a sample transfer unit. Predetermined non-spicy red-pepper powder were mixed with spicy one (var. Chungyang) to produce samples with a wide range of spicy levels. Total 33 different samples with 11 spicy levels and three particle size(below 0.425 mm, 0.425 ~ 0.71 mm, 0.71 ~ 1.4 mm) were prepared for measurements. The Partial Least Square Regression Model (PLSR model) was developed to predict the capsaicinoids content with the obtained spectra using the developed pungency measuring system and compared with the results measured by HPLC. The best result of PLSR model (R2 = 0.979, SEP = +/- 6.56 mg%) was achieved for the spectra of red-pepper powders of the particle size below 1.4 mm with a pretreatment of smoothing with a 6.5 nm wavelength gap. The results show the potential of NIRS technique for non-destructive and on-line measurement of capsaicinoids content in red-pepper powder.

  5. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  6. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began.

  7. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  8. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  9. Mutagenicity and mutagens of the red chili pepper as gallbladder cancer risk factor in Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Terao, Michinori; Okano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Oyama, Mari; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of red chili pepper has been shown to be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women with gallstones, and included mutagens may be important in this context. We aimed to investigate the mutagenicity and mutagens in Chilean red chili pepper in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Pure capsaicin was tested for mutagenicity using strain TA98. The presence of aflatoxins was evaluated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and then the concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured by an HPLC system. In strain TA98, the mean numbers of revertant colonies with and without the S9 mix were 2.5- and 2.2-fold higher than those of each negative control, respectively. However, pure capsaicin did not show mutagenic activity in strain TA98. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper was confirmed, and the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were 4.4 ng/g and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that low-level but protracted exposure to aflatoxins may be associated with the development of GBC in Chilean women who carry gallstones.

  10. Activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by black pepper components.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yukiko; Narukawa, Masataka; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Ishikawa, Aiko; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    We searched in this study for novel agonists of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) in pepper, focusing attention on 19 compounds contained in black pepper. Almost all the compounds in HEK cells heterogeneously expressed TRPV1 or TRPA1, increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Among these, piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, pipernonaline, dehydropipernonaline, retrofractamide C, piperolein A, and piperolein B relatively strongly activated TRPV1. The EC(50) values of these compounds for TRPV1 were 0.6-128 microM. Piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, piperolein A, piperolein B, and N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-tetradeca-2,4-diamide also relatively strongly activated TRPA1, the EC(50) values of these compounds for TRPA1 were 7.8-148 microM. The Ca(2+) responses of these compounds for TRPV1 and TRPA1 were significantly suppressed by co-applying each antagonist. We identified in this study new transient receptor potential (TRP) agonists present in black pepper and found that piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, piperolein A, and piperolein B activated both TRPV1 and TRPA1.

  11. Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2012-07-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  12. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K; Pieber, Simone M; Slowik, Jay G; Tuthill, Rosemary N; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-10

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg(-1)Herbs min(-1). These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  13. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  14. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sanchez, Esteban; Muñoz-Marquez, Ezequiel; Sida-Arreola, Juan Pedro; Flores-Cordova, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L) using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow), Sweet/Robusto (green), Fascinato/Robusto (red), Orangela/Terrano (orange), and Fascinato/Terrano (red). The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September. PMID:26783714

  15. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  16. Enhancing Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal in Binary Images of Engineering Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khaffaf, Hasan S. M.; Talib, Abdullah Z.; Salam, Rosalina Abdul

    Noise removal in engineering drawing is an important operation performed before other image analysis tasks. Many algorithms have been developed to remove salt-and-pepper noise from document images. Cleaning algorithms should remove noise while keeping the real part of the image unchanged. Some algorithms have disadvantages in cleaning operation that leads to removing of weak features such as short thin lines. Others leave the image with hairy noise attached to image objects. In this article a noise removal procedure called TrackAndMayDel (TAMD) is developed to enhance the noise removal of salt-and-pepper noise in binary images of engineering drawings. The procedure could be integrated with third party algorithms' logic to enhance their ability to remove noise by investigating the structure of pixels that are part of weak features. It can be integrated with other algorithms as a post-processing step to remove noise remaining in the image such as hairy noise attached with graphical elements. An algorithm is proposed by incorporating TAMD in a third party algorithm. Real scanned images from GREC'03 contest are used in the experiment. The images are corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise at 10%, 15%, and 20% levels. An objective performance measure that correlates with human vision as well as MSE and PSNR are used in this experiment. Performance evaluation of the introduced algorithm shows better-quality images compared to other algorithms.

  17. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food.

  18. Selection of genetically diverse Trichoderma spp. isolates for suppression of Phytophthora capsici on bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel P; Maul, Jude E; McKenna, Laurie F; Emche, Sarah E; Meyer, Susan L F; Collins, Ronald T; Bowers, John H

    2010-10-01

    Environmentally compatible control measures are needed for suppression of Phytophthora capsici on pepper. Twenty-three isolates of Trichoderma were screened for suppression of a mixture of 4 genetically distinct isolates of this pathogen on bell pepper (Capsicum anuum) in greenhouse pot assays. Of these 23 isolates, GL12, GL13, and Th23 provided significant suppression of P. capsici in at least 2 assays. These isolates were then compared with Trichoderma virens isolates GL3 and GL21 for suppression of this disease in the presence and absence of the harpin-based natural product Messenger. Isolates GL3 and Th23 provided significant disease suppression (P ≤ 0.05) in 3 of 4 assays, while GL12, GL13, and GL21 provided significant suppression in 2 of 4 assays. There was no apparent benefit from the application of Messenger. Phylogenetic analysis of these 5 isolates (based on the ITS1 region of the nuclear rDNA cluster and tef1), and an additional 9 isolates that suppressed P. capsici in at least 1 assay, separated isolates into 2 clades, with 1 clade containing GL3, GL12, GL13, and GL21. There were also 2 more distantly related isolates, one of which was Th23. We report here the identification of genetically distinct Trichoderma isolates for potential use in disease management strategies employing isolate combinations directed at suppression of P. capsici on pepper.

  19. Understanding the mechanisms of chilling injury in bell pepper fruits using the proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sánchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Martinez-Madrid, Concepción; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Romojaro, Félix; Olmos, Enrique; Estrella, Emilio; Bolarín, Maria C; Flores, Francisco Borja

    2012-09-18

    In order to advance in the understanding of CI in pepper fruits, the cell ultrastructure alterations induced by CI and the physiological and metabolic changes have been studied along with the proteomic study. When stored at low temperatures bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits exhibited visual CI symptoms and important alterations within the cell ultrastructure, since peroxisomes and starch grains were not detected and the structure of the chloroplast was seriously damaged in chilled tissues. Physiological and metabolic disorders were also observed in chilled fruits, such as higher ethylene production, increased MDA content, changes in sugar and organic acids and enzymatic activities. The comparative proteomic analysis between control and chilled fruits reveals that the main alterations induced by CI in bell pepper fruits are linked to redox homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, protein abundance in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is altered and catalase is down-regulated. Key proteins from glycolysis, Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle are also inhibited in chilled fruits. Enolase and GAPDH are revealed as proteins that may play a key role in the development of chilling injury. This study also provides the first evidence at the protein level that cytosolic MDH is involved in abiotic stress.

  20. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sanchez, Esteban; Muñoz-Marquez, Ezequiel; Sida-Arreola, Juan Pedro; Flores-Cordova, Maria Antonia

    2015-06-23

    Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow), Sweet/Robusto (green), Fascinato/Robusto (red), Orangela/Terrano (orange), and Fascinato/Terrano (red). The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  1. Is Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) a novel pest of sweet peppers?

    PubMed

    Roditakis, E; Morin, S; Baixeras, J

    2016-04-01

    This is the first report of Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking a major solanaceous crop, sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. The infestation was detected in two greenhouses at the area of Tympaki (Southern Crete, Greece). The moth larvae caused typical symptoms of a fruit borer with numerous small holes on the surface of the peppers and extensive damage on the inside of the fruit as a result of the feeding activity. Unknown factors facilitated this major shift in host range since B. bactrana is typically a stem borer of sedges. In addition, the pest status of B. bactrana is currently under question, as in both cases the infestations by the moth were associated with significant yield losses. B. bactrana was moderately controlled with chemicals registered for Lepidoptera management in sweet pepper due to the boring nature of the infestation. Some comparative taxonomic notes are provided to facilitate accurate pest discrimination of related Bactra species. Finally, biological attributes of the species are summarized and are discussed from pest control and ecological perspectives. Because Bactra species have been used in augmentative releases for the control of sage, the implications of our findings on the release of biocontrol agents are placed in perspective.

  2. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed.

  3. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air. PMID:27830718

  4. Variability and evolution of the plant RNA virus pepper mild mottle virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cerezo, E; Moya, A; García-Arenal, F

    1989-01-01

    The RNA genomes of 26 isolates of pepper mild mottle virus were compared by their RNase T1 fingerprints. Twenty-three isolates came from epidemic outbreaks in greenhouse-grown peppers in Almería (southeastern Spain) from 1983 to 1987; three other isolates, from 1980, came from Sicily (Italy) and Zaragoza (central Spain). The 26 fingerprints can be classified into 10 different types; nucleotide substitution rates show them to be very similar. Cluster and cladistic analyses group types corresponding to the Almería isolates separate from those of 1980. Intraannual and interannual nucleotide differences were estimated. An evolutionary model for pepper mild mottle virus built on these data indicates a highly stable population, maintaining its diversity through time, with a main prevailing haplotype from which closely related variants arise that do not replace it. This high stability could be due to strong functional constraints on variation, as suggested by the high proportion of invariant versus polymorphic sites in fingerprints. Images PMID:2704076

  5. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Troconis-Torres, Ivonne Guadalupe; Rojas-López, Marlon; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Tellez-Medina, Darío; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52). The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin. PMID:22665993

  6. Biochemical and molecular analysis of some commercial samples of chilli peppers from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Troconis-Torres, Ivonne Guadalupe; Rojas-López, Marlon; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Tellez-Medina, Darío; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52). The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  7. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  8. Lysobacter capsici sp. nov., with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, and emended description of the genus Lysobacter.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Hwang; Kim, Rumi; Aslam, Zubair; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2008-02-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel bacterial strain, YC5194(T), with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper in Jinju, South Korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobes. It grew at a temperature of 15-37 degrees C (optimum 28 degrees C). Growth of the strain occurred between pH 5.5 and 8.5, with an optimum of pH 7.0-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Botryosphaeria dothidea and growth of Bacillus subtilis. The G+C content of the total DNA was 65.4 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was most closely related to species of the genus Lysobacter (<94.0 to >99.0 % sequence similarity). Chemotaxonomic data (major quinone, Q-8; major polar lipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine; major fatty acids, iso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3, C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c and C(18 : 1)omega7c) supported the affiliation of strain YC5194(T) to the genus Lysobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization data and biochemical and physiological characteristics strongly supported the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain YC5194(T) from species of Lysobacter with validly published names. Strain YC5194(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Lysobacter capsici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC5194(T) (=KCTC 22007(T) =DSM 19286(T)).

  9. Ectopic expression of a hot pepper bZIP-like transcription factor in potato enhances drought tolerance without decreasing tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok-Jun; Han, Se-Youn; Kim, Dool-Yi; Yoon, In Sun; Shin, Dongjin; Byun, Myung-Ok; Kwon, Hawk-Bin; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2015-11-01

    Over-expression of group A bZIP transcription factor genes in plants improves abiotic stress tolerance but usually reduces yields. Thus, there have been several efforts to overcome yield penalty in transgenic plants. In this study, we characterized that expression of the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) gene CaBZ1, which encodes a group S bZIP transcription factor, was induced by salt and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants over-expressing CaBZ1 exhibited reduced rates of water loss and faster stomatal closure than non transgenic potato plants under drought and ABA treatment conditions. CaBZ1 over-expression in transgenic potato increased the expression of ABA- and stress-related genes (such as CYP707A1, CBF and NAC-like genes) and improved drought stress tolerance. Interestingly, over-expression of CaBZ1 in potato did not produce undesirable growth phenotypes in major agricultural traits such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation under normal growth conditions. The transgenic potato plants also had higher tuber yields than non transgenic potato plants under drought stress conditions. Thus, CaBZ1 may be useful for improving drought tolerance in tuber crops. This might be the first report of the production of transgenic potato with improved tuber yields under drought conditions.

  10. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (NIb) of the Potyviruses Is an Avirulence Factor for the Broad-Spectrum Resistance Gene Pvr4 in Capsicum annuum cv. CM334

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seungyeon; Lee, Joo Hyun; Choi, Doil

    2015-01-01

    Potyviruses are one of the most destructive viral pathogens of Solanaceae plants. In Capsicum annuum landrace CM334, a broad-spectrum gene, Pvr4 is known to be involved in resistance against multiple potyviruses, including Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), Pepper severe mosaic virus (PepSMV), and Potato virus Y (PVY). However, a potyvirus avirulence factor against Pvr4 has not been identified. To identify the avirulence factor corresponding to Pvr4 in potyviruses, we performed Agrobacterium-mediated transient expressions of potyvirus protein coding regions in potyvirus-resistant (Pvr4) and -susceptible (pvr4) pepper plants. Hypersensitive response (HR) was observed only when a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NIb) of PepMoV, PepSMV, or PVY was expressed in Pvr4-bearing pepper leaves in a genotype-specific manner. In contrast, HR was not observed when the NIb of Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a virulent potyvirus, was expressed in Pvr4-bearing pepper leaves. Our results clearly demonstrate that NIbs of PepMoV, PepSMV, and PVY serve as avirulence factors for Pvr4 in pepper plants. PMID:25760376

  11. An InDel-based linkage map of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Li, Weipeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Wu, Zhiming; Qin, Cheng; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xin; Cui, Junjie; Zhang, Li; Hu, Kailin

    Two independent pepper (Capsicum annuum) genomes were published recently, opening a new era of molecular genetics research on pepper. However, pepper molecular marker technologies are still mainly focusing on the simple sequence repeats derived from public database or genomic library. The development and application of the third generation marker system such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, structure variations as well as insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) is still in its infancy. In the present study, we developed InDel markers for pepper genetic mapping with the convenience of two whole-genome re-sequenced inbred lines BA3 (C. annuum) and B702 (C. annuum). A total of 154,519 and 149,755 InDel (1-5 bp) sites were identified for BA3 and B702, respectively, by the alignment of re-sequencing reads to Zunla-1 reference genome. Then, 14,498 InDel sites (only 4 and 5 bp) that are different between BA3 and B702 were predicted. Finally, within a random set of 1,000 primer pairs, 251 InDel markers were validated and mapped onto a linkage map using F2 population derived from the intraspecific cross BA3 × B702. The first InDel-based map, named as BB-InDel map, consisted of 12 linkage groups, covered a genetic distance of 1,178.01 cM and the average distance between bin markers was 5.01 cM. Compared to the Zunla-1 reference physical map, high consistency was observed on all 12 chromosomes, and the total length of scaffold anchored and physical distance covered by this map was 299.66 and 2,558.68 Mb, respectively, which accounted for 8.95 and 76.38 % of the Zunla-1 reference genome (3.35 Gb), respectively. Furthermore, 37 scaffolds (total length of 36.21 Mb) from the pseudo-chromosome (P0) of the current genome assembly were newly assigned to the corresponding chromosomes by 40 InDel markers. Thus, this map provided good genome coverage and would be useful for basic and applied research in pepper.

  12. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Barroso, Juan B.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. Methods The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Key Results Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. Conclusions The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of

  13. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several dwarf tomato and pepper varieties were evaluated under International Space Station (ISS)-simulated growth conditions (22 degrees Centigrade, 50 percent relative humidity, 1500 parts per million CO2, and 300 micromoles per square meter per second of light for 16 hours per day) with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic potential for use in a pick and eat salad crop system on ISS and future exploration flights. Testing included six cultivars of tomato (Red Robin, Scarlet Sweet 'N' Neat, Tiny Tim, Mohamed, Patio Princess, and Tumbler) and six cultivars of pepper (Red Skin, Fruit Basket, Cajun Belle, Chablis, Sweet Pickle, and Pompeii). Plants were grown to an age sufficient to produce fruit (up to 106 days for tomato and 109 days for pepper) using Turface (arcillite) potting media with 18-6-8 control-release fertilizer and supplemental nutrient solution beginning around 60-days-age. Tomato fruits were harvested when they showed full red color, beginning around 70-days age and then at weekly intervals thereafter, while peppers were grown until fruits showed color and were harvested twice (first test) and just once at the end of the second test, with the final harvests including colored and green fruit. Plant sizes, yields, and nutritional attributes were measured and used to down-select to three cultivars for each species. In particular, we were interested in cultivars that were short (dwarf) but still produced high yields. Nutritional data included elemental (Ca, Mg, Fe, and K) content, vitamin K, phenolics, lycopene (for tomato), anthocyanin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The three down-selected cultivars for each species were grown again and the harvested fruit sent to NASA's Johnson Space Center for sensory evaluation, which included overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, aroma, flavor and texture. The combined data were compared and given weighting factors to rank the cultivars as candidates for testing in

  14. Comparison of rinsing and sanitizing procedures for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Casillas, S; Ibarra-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-García, O; Martínez-Gonzáles, N; Castillo, A

    2007-03-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to health benefits but also to an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne illness. To determine the effectiveness of different sanitizing treatments for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh produce, fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers were harvested and inoculated with suspensions of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fruits were treated with water wash alone or were washed and then waxed or rinsed with 200 mg/liter hypochlorite, 10% Ca(OH)2, or 2% lactic acid solutions applied by dipping for 15 s or spraying for 15 s. Preliminary experiments with chlorine treatments indicated that spraying with a 200, 600, or 1,000 mg/liter hypochlorite solution reduced populations of both pathogens by 2.1 to 2.6 and 1.5 to 2.1 log CFU for Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. In general, no differences were observed between chlorine solutions without pH adjustment (pH 9.2) and those with pH adjusted to 6.0. When different wash regimes were applied to inoculated cantaloupes or bell peppers, water wash alone produced significantly lower counts of both pathogens on bell peppers in comparison to untreated controls. However, this reduction was not observed on cantaloupes, indicating a possible surface effect. Application of 2% L-lactic acid by spray was the treatment that resulted in the lowest bacterial counts on both cantaloupes and bell peppers. This treatment did not produce any deleterious change in the sensorial characteristics of the products tested. None of the pathogens studied was able to grow during refrigerated storage (5 degrees C for cantaloupes and 10 degrees C for bell peppers), although numbers close to the detection limit of the counting method were found in randomly tested individual samples at days 14 and 28 of storage, indicating that these pathogens can survive for long periods on the produce surface. These results indicate that selected produce

  15. GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 interacts with RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 and suppresses cell death and defense responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Plants use a variety of innate immune regulators to trigger cell death and defense responses against pathogen attack. We identified pepper (Capsicum annuum) GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (CaGRP1) as a RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 (CaPIK1)-interacting partner, based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation analyses as well as gene silencing and transient expression analysis. CaGRP1 contains an N-terminal RNA recognition motif and a glycine-rich region at the C-terminus. The CaGRP1 protein had DNA- and RNA-binding activity in vitro. CaGRP1 interacted with CaPIK1 in planta. CaGRP1 and CaGRP1-CaPIK1 complexes were localized to the nucleus in plant cells. CaPIK1 phosphorylated CaGRP1 in vitro and in planta. Transient coexpression of CaGRP1 with CaPIK1 suppressed the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response, accompanied by a reduced CaPIK1-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. The RNA recognition motif region of CaGRP1 was responsible for the nuclear localization of CaGRP1 as well as the suppression of the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response. CaGRP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection; however, CaPIK1-silenced plants were more susceptible to Xcv. CaGRP1 interacts with CaPIK1 and negatively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defense responses by suppressing ROS accumulation.

  16. MultiLocus Sequence Analysis- and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism-based characterization of xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot of tomato and pepper and their relatedness to Xanthomonas species.

    PubMed

    Hamza, A A; Robene-Soustrade, I; Jouen, E; Lefeuvre, P; Chiroleu, F; Fisher-Le Saux, M; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2012-05-01

    MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) were used to measure the genetic relatedness of a comprehensive collection of xanthomonads pathogenic to solaneous hosts to Xanthomonas species. The MLSA scheme was based on partial sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB). Globally, MLSA data unambiguously identified strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper at the species level and was consistent with AFLP data. Genetic distances derived from both techniques showed a close relatedness of (i) X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans and X. alfalfae and (ii) X. gardneri and X. cynarae. Maximum likelihood tree topologies derived from each gene portion and the concatenated data set for species in the X. campestris 16S rRNA core (i.e. the species cluster comprising all strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) were not congruent, consistent with the detection of several putative recombination events in our data sets by several recombination search algorithms. One recombinant region in atpD was identified in most strains of X. euvesicatoria including the type strain.

  17. Removal of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli from green peppers and melons by ultrasound and organic acids.

    PubMed

    José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante de São; de Medeiros, Hiasmyne Silva; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos; de Andrade, Nélio José

    2014-11-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound treatment combined with organic acids in the decontamination step for green peppers and melons. The influence of the surface roughness of the peppers and melons on bacterial adhesion was evaluated, as measured using a profilometer. The adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli to the green pepper and melon surfaces was also evaluated by measuring the hydrophobicity of the microorganisms and the surfaces. The bacteria that adhered to the surface of green peppers and melons was quantified by plate count and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the efficiency of ultrasound and organic acids to remove bacteria from the pepper and melon surfaces was examined. The average roughness (Ra) of the green peppers (13.0±2.7 nm) was significantly different (p>0.05) from the melons (33.5±7.9 nm). Adherence of S. Enteritidis and E. coli are thermodynamically unfavorable for both surfaces studied (∆G(adhesion)>0). Despite these data, good adhesion occurred on both surfaces. The number of bacteria on green pepper slices was 7.3 and 7.0 log CFU/cm(2) for E. coli and S. enterica Enteritidis, respectively. For melon surfaces, the number of bacteria was 7.0 and 6.9 log CFU/cm(2) for E. coli and S. Enteritidis, respectively. The greater adherence of both bacteria on the green peppers can be explained by its hydrophobic surface; the hydrophilic surfaces of melons resulted in lower adherence. These results suggest that the adhesion observed in this experiment is a multifactorial process. Among the treatments evaluated for green peppers, a higher removal of pathogens was observed after use of a combination of ultrasound and 1% lactic acid; this treatment reduced E. coli and Salmonella by 2.9 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. For melons, the combination of ultrasound and lactic acid showed a reduction of 2.5 and 3.1 log CFU/cm(2) for E. coli and S. Enteritidis

  18. Frequency and behavior of Salmonella and Escherichia coli on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; González Ramírez, Cesar A; Villagomez-Ibarra, J Roberto; Chavarría Hernández, Norberto; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Torres-Vitela, M del Refugio

    2011-06-01

    The frequencies of coliform bacteria (CB), thermotolerant coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, and Salmonella were determined for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In addition, the behavior of four serotypes of Salmonella and three E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2°C and 3 to 5°C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. CB, TC, E. coli, and Salmonella were detected on serrano peppers in 100, 90, 50, and 10 % of the samples, and on jalapeño peppers in 100, 86, 32, and 12 % of the samples. Concentrations of CB ranged from 3.8 to 7.9 log CFU per serrano sample and from 5.3 to 8.2 log CFU per jalapeño sample, whereas concentrations of TC and E. coli were between < 3 and 1,100 most probable number per serrano and jalapeño samples. On whole serrano and jalapeño peppers stored at 25 ± 2°C or 3 to 5°C, no growth was observed for rifampin-resistant strains of Salmonella and E. coli. After 6 days at 25 ± 2°C, the tested Salmonella serotypes and E. coli strains had decreased from an initial inoculum level of 5 log CFU to 1 and 2.5 log on serrano and jalapeño peppers, respectively, and at 3 to 5°C they decreased to approximately 1.8 and 1.2 log, respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. Both the Salmonella serotypes and E. coli grew on sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce; after 24 h at 25 ± 2°C, both bacteria types had grown to approximately 4 and 5 log CFU on pepper slices and in sauce, respectively. At 3 to 5°C the bacterial growth was inhibited.

  19. Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Kokalj, Doris; Hribar, Janez; Cigić, Blaž; Zlatić, Emil; Demšar, Lea; Sinkovič, Lovro; Šircelj, Helena; Bizjak, Grega; Vidrih, Rajko

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined. After 7 days of LED light irradiation, there was significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant potential in apple peel extracts. The irradiated fruit of tomato had significantly higher levels of total phenolic compounds, and the fruit of red bell pepper had significantly higher antioxidant potential. LED light had no effects on the colour parameters, although there was a tendency to accelerate colour development. Apple fruit irradiated with LED light was significantly less firm. Among twelve analysed pigments, significantly more β-carotene was detected in LED light-irradiated apple and bell pepper fruit, more α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in bell pepper fruit, and more lutein in apple peel and bell pepper fruit. The applied LED light slightly accelerated the ripening of the studied fruit, and affected the synthesis of some of the secondary metabolites. PMID:27904413

  20. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-12-15

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P(0) interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P(1.2) interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant.

  1. Molecular characterization and construction of an infectious clone of a pepper isolate of Beet curly top Iran virus

    PubMed Central

    Eini, Omid; Ebadzad Sahraei, Ghazal; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Geminiviruses cause curly top disease, in dicotyledonous plants which constrains host crop production. Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a widespread Becurtovirus (family Geminiviridae) in numerous areas within Iran. In this study, we isolated and analyzed a full-length genomic DNA of a new variant of BCTIV from pepper crops in the Kaftark region, east of Shiraz (proposed acronym: BCTIV-Kaf [IR: Kaf:2016:Pepper]). Infected pepper plants showed shortening of internodes, severe interveinal chlorosis, upward leaf rolling and leaf curling. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed this BCTIV variant grouped with sugar beet isolates of BCTIV and has the highest similarity to a sugar beet BCTIV isolate from Negar town in Kerman province, Iran. It was more distantly related to a bean isolate of BCTIV from northeast region of Iran. A tandem repeat partial dimmer of BCTIV was constructed and found to be infectious in pepper, tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Results of this study indicated that BCTIV-Kaf is a new variant of BCTIV infecting pepper plants in Shiraz and that geographic location rather than the type of host plant has more effect on genetic diversity of BCTIV in Iran. PMID:28097164

  2. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P{sub 0} interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P{sub 1.2} interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant.

  3. Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit.

    PubMed

    Kokalj, Doris; Hribar, Janez; Cigić, Blaž; Zlatić, Emil; Demšar, Lea; Sinkovič, Lovro; Šircelj, Helena; Bizjak, Grega; Vidrih, Rajko

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined. After 7 days of LED light irradiation, there was significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant potential in apple peel extracts. The irradiated fruit of tomato had significantly higher levels of total phenolic compounds, and the fruit of red bell pepper had significantly higher antioxidant potential. LED light had no effects on the colour parameters, although there was a tendency to accelerate colour development. Apple fruit irradiated with LED light was significantly less firm. Among twelve analysed pigments, significantly more β-carotene was detected in LED light-irradiated apple and bell pepper fruit, more α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in bell pepper fruit, and more lutein in apple peel and bell pepper fruit. The applied LED light slightly accelerated the ripening of the studied fruit, and affected the synthesis of some of the secondary metabolites.

  4. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  5. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (β-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest β-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid.

  6. Genetic differentiation and recombination among geographic populations of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum from chili peppers in China.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yongzhao; Zhang, Can; Xu, Jianping; Lin, Dong; Liu, Li; Mtung'e, Olivo G; Liu, Xili

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum is an extremely important fungal pathogen. It can cause diseases both in humans and in over 460 plant species. However, little is known about its genetic diversity within and among populations. One of the major plant hosts of C. truncatum is pepper, and China is one of the main pepper-producing countries in the world. Here, we propose the hypotheses that geography has a major influence on the relationships among populations of C. truncatum in China and that infections in different populations need to be managed differently. To test these hypotheses, we obtained and analyzed 266 C. truncatum isolates from 13 regions representing the main pepper-growing areas throughout China. The analysis based on nine microsatellite markers identified high intrapopulation genetic diversity, evidence of sexual recombination, and geographic differentiation. The genetic differentiation was positively correlated with geographic distance, with the southern and northern China populations grouped in two distinct clusters. Interestingly, isolates collected from the pepper-breeding center harbored the most private alleles. The results suggest that the geographic populations of C. truncatum on peppers in China are genetically differentiated and should be managed accordingly. Our study also provides a solid foundation from which to further explore the global genetic epidemiology of C. truncatum in both plants and humans.

  7. Genetic differentiation and recombination among geographic populations of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum from chili peppers in China

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Yongzhao; Zhang, Can; Xu, Jianping; Lin, Dong; Liu, Li; Mtung'e, Olivo G; Liu, Xili

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum is an extremely important fungal pathogen. It can cause diseases both in humans and in over 460 plant species. However, little is known about its genetic diversity within and among populations. One of the major plant hosts of C. truncatum is pepper, and China is one of the main pepper-producing countries in the world. Here, we propose the hypotheses that geography has a major influence on the relationships among populations of C. truncatum in China and that infections in different populations need to be managed differently. To test these hypotheses, we obtained and analyzed 266 C. truncatum isolates from 13 regions representing the main pepper-growing areas throughout China. The analysis based on nine microsatellite markers identified high intrapopulation genetic diversity, evidence of sexual recombination, and geographic differentiation. The genetic differentiation was positively correlated with geographic distance, with the southern and northern China populations grouped in two distinct clusters. Interestingly, isolates collected from the pepper-breeding center harbored the most private alleles. The results suggest that the geographic populations of C. truncatum on peppers in China are genetically differentiated and should be managed accordingly. Our study also provides a solid foundation from which to further explore the global genetic epidemiology of C. truncatum in both plants and humans. PMID:25667606

  8. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  9. Effect of meadowsweet flower extract-pullulan coatings on rhizopus rot development and postharvest quality of cold-stored red peppers.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, Alicja; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna; Przybył, Jarosław L; Bączek, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Zenon

    2014-08-25

    The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P) and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF) or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF). Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%-75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  10. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  11. A single amino acid substitution in the 126-kDa protein of pepper mild mottle virus controls replication and systemic movement into upper non-inoculated leaves of bell pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Nakazono-Nagaoka, E; Omura, T; Uehara-Ichiki, T

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we generated attenuated variants of pepper mild mottle virus by replacing residue 649 in the 126-kDa replicase protein with various amino acids. Here, we examined the biological properties of the 16 variants that caused either mild mosaic or no mosaic. All but one (A649N) of the mild-mosaic-inducing strains replicated at higher levels in pepper plants and systemically moved at higher rates into the upper non-inoculated leaves than the no-mosaic strains. C1421, previously selected for practical use, not only caused mild symptoms but also had an especially high replication rate in pepper plants and spread more efficiently into the upper non-inoculated leaves.

  12. Viscosity of alkaline suspensions of ground black and white pepper samples: An indication or an identification of high dose radiation treatment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Leffke, A.; Mager, M.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-11-01

    Forty-nine pepper samples were taken from retail food stores of different cities in Germany. Most of the black and all white pepper samples showed high viscosity values after jellification in alkaline solution. After irradiation with a γ-ray dose of 6 kGy, viscosity was largely reduced in each case. Some black pepper samples showed a low viscosity level already before irradiation. However, thermoluminescence analysis did not reveal any sign for irradiation treatment prior to examination. Furthermore, the low viscosity level of these samples could not be correlated with a low starch content. It is concluded that the viscosity levels of irradiated white pepper samples clearly reveal high dose irradiation treatment. In case of black peppers it is judged that the method can be used to screen for irradiated samples since it is fast, easy and cheap. However, a positive result should be confirmed by another technique, e.g. thermoluminescence.

  13. Bioaccessibility, uptake, and transport of carotenoids from peppers (Capsicum spp.) using the coupled in vitro digestion and human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Jiwan, Marvin A; Daly, Trevor; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-05-12

    Spanish bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and chili peppers sourced from Kenya and Turkey were analyzed for their carotenoid content, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. The order of total carotenoid content in peppers and their respective micelles was red > green > yellow. In terms of cellular carotenoid transport as a percentage of original food and micelle content, the order was yellow peppers > green > red; however, the opposite trend was seen for the actual amount of total carotenoids transported by Caco-2 cells. Although lutein was generally the most abundant carotenoid in the micelles (496.3-1565.7 microg 100 g(-1)), cellular uptake and transport of beta-carotene were the highest, 8.3-31.6 and 16.8-42.7%, respectively. Hence, the actual amount of carotenoids present in the original food and respective micelles seems to reflect the amount transported by Caco-2 cells. Therefore, color influenced the carotenoid profile, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability of carotenoids rather than pepper type.

  14. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage.

  15. Transmission of a dsRNA in bell pepper and evidence that it consists of the genome of an endornavirus.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Rodrigo A; Gutierrez, Dina L

    2007-10-01

    A double-stranded (ds) RNA from bell pepper (BP-dsRNA) cv Yolo Wonder was inherited maternally and paternally after crossing Yolo Wonder with Jalapeño M or Hungarian Wax pepper. Partial sequence information was obtained from two cDNA clones derived from the BP-dsRNA and based on sequence similarity was related to members of the genus Endornavirus. Clones of the BP-dsRNA hybridized with similar dsRNAs from four other pepper cultivars, suggesting that all five dsRNAs tested are related. One of the cDNA clones contained a region that had significant similarity with UDP-glucose:glycosyltransferases from fungi, bacteria, plants, and three endornaviruses. Data presented indicate that the BP-dsRNA is the genome of a distinct species of the genus Endornavirus.

  16. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    PubMed

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  17. Impact of biochar application to soil on the root-associated bacterial community structure of fully developed greenhouse pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Meller Harel, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Graber, Ellen R; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2011-07-01

    Adding biochar to soil has environmental and agricultural potential due to its long-term carbon sequestration capacity and its ability to improve crop productivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that soil-applied biochar promotes the systemic resistance of plants to several prominent foliar pathogens. One potential mechanism for this phenomenon is root-associated microbial elicitors whose presence is somehow augmented in the biochar-amended soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of biochar amendment on the root-associated bacterial community composition of mature sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Molecular fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a clear differentiation between the root-associated bacterial community structures of biochar-amended and control plants. The pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from the rhizoplane of both treatments generated a total of 20,142 sequences, 92 to 95% of which were affiliated with the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The relative abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum increased from 12 to 30% as a result of biochar amendment, while that of the Proteobacteria decreased from 71 to 47%. The Bacteroidetes-affiliated Flavobacterium was the strongest biochar-induced genus. The relative abundance of this group increased from 4.2% of total root-associated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in control samples to 19.6% in biochar-amended samples. Additional biochar-induced genera included chitin and cellulose degraders (Chitinophaga and Cellvibrio, respectively) and aromatic compound degraders (Hydrogenophaga and Dechloromonas). We hypothesize that these biochar-augmented genera may be at least partially responsible for the beneficial effect of biochar amendment on plant growth and viability.

  18. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  19. Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Rocha, J B T

    2008-06-01

    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

  20. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chopan, Mustafa; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to 1994. The frequency of hot red chili pepper consumption was measured in 16,179 participants at least 18 years of age. Total and cause-specific mortality were the main outcome measures. During 273,877 person-years of follow-up (median 18.9 years), a total of 4,946 deaths were observed. Total mortality for participants who consumed hot red chili peppers was 21.6% compared to 33.6% for those who did not (absolute risk reduction of 12%; relative risk of 0.64). Adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio was 0.87 (P = 0.01; 95% Confidence Interval 0.77, 0.97). Consumption of hot red chili peppers was associated with a 13% reduction in the instantaneous hazard of death. Similar, but statistically nonsignificant trends were seen for deaths from vascular disease, but not from other causes. In this large population-based prospective study, the consumption of hot red chili pepper was associated with reduced mortality. Hot red chili peppers may be a beneficial component of the diet.

  1. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chopan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to 1994. The frequency of hot red chili pepper consumption was measured in 16,179 participants at least 18 years of age. Total and cause-specific mortality were the main outcome measures. During 273,877 person-years of follow-up (median 18.9 years), a total of 4,946 deaths were observed. Total mortality for participants who consumed hot red chili peppers was 21.6% compared to 33.6% for those who did not (absolute risk reduction of 12%; relative risk of 0.64). Adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio was 0.87 (P = 0.01; 95% Confidence Interval 0.77, 0.97). Consumption of hot red chili peppers was associated with a 13% reduction in the instantaneous hazard of death. Similar, but statistically nonsignificant trends were seen for deaths from vascular disease, but not from other causes. In this large population-based prospective study, the consumption of hot red chili pepper was associated with reduced mortality. Hot red chili peppers may be a beneficial component of the diet. PMID:28068423

  2. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  3. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-21

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%-90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%-95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin), indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg) and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    PubMed

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  5. Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Linda; Flannery, Kent V.

    2007-01-01

    Excavations at Guilá Naquitz and Silvia's Cave, two dry rockshelters near Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico, yielded the remains of 122 chili peppers dating to the period A.D. 600–1521. The chilies can be assigned to at least 10 cultivars, all belonging to the species Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens. The specimens are well enough preserved to permit an evaluation of the criteria used to separate wild and domestic chilies and to distinguish among cultivated races. In addition, they provide the opportunity to assess the reliability of starch grains for documenting the presence of chilies in archaeological sites where no macrobotanical remains are preserved. PMID:17620613

  6. The genome sequence of lettuce necrotic stunt virus indicates a close relationship to Moroccan pepper virus.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Anchieta, Amy G

    2012-07-01

    Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) causes severe losses to lettuce production in the western United States, which results in stunting, necrosis and death on all non-crisphead lettuces, as well as flower abortion and yield losses in greenhouse tomato production. The genome of LNSV was sequenced and has an organization typical of viruses of the genus Tombusvirus. Sequence comparisons indicated that much of the genome is relatively closely related to tomato bushy stunt virus; however, the coat protein is very closely related to that of isolates of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV).

  7. An l1-TV algorithm for deconvolution with salt and pepper noise

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Rodriguez, Paul

    2008-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in applying Total Variation with an {ell}{sup 1} data fidelity term to the denoising of images subject to salt and pepper noise, but the extension of this formulation to more general problems, such as deconvolution, has received little attention, most probably because most efficient algorithms for {ell}{sup 1}-TV denoising can not handle more general inverse problems. We apply the Iteratively Reweighted Norm algorithm to this problem, and compare performance with an alternative algorithm based on the Mumford-Shah functional.

  8. Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perry, Linda; Flannery, Kent V

    2007-07-17

    Excavations at Guilá Naquitz and Silvia's Cave, two dry rockshelters near Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico, yielded the remains of 122 chili peppers dating to the period A.D. 600-1521. The chilies can be assigned to at least 10 cultivars, all belonging to the species Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens. The specimens are well enough preserved to permit an evaluation of the criteria used to separate wild and domestic chilies and to distinguish among cultivated races. In addition, they provide the opportunity to assess the reliability of starch grains for documenting the presence of chilies in archaeological sites where no macrobotanical remains are preserved.

  9. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  10. Variation of antioxidant activity and the levels of bioactive compounds in lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-15

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. This study investigated the extraction efficiency of five solvents on antioxidant activities from cayenne (CA408 and Mesilla), jalapeño (Ixtapa) and serrano (Tuxtlas) pepper cultivars. Freeze-dried peppers were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with five solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol:water (80:20). The levels of specific bioactive compounds (phenolics, capsaicinoids, carotenoids and flavonoids) were determined by HPLC and antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods. For all pepper cultivars tested, hexane extracts had the highest levels of capsaicinoids and carotenoids, but methanol extracts had the maximum levels of flavonoids. Hexane extracts showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and higher reducing power, and acetone extracts (from Mesilla pepper) had a high reducing power. All pepper extracts, except hexane, were effective in preventing deoxyribose degradation, and the inhibition was increased by high concentrations of extracts. The results of the present study indicated that, among the different measures of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was strongly correlated with total bioactive compounds (capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolics) in pepper cultivars.

  11. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  12. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  13. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids during ripening of chili pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids in chili pepper fruits during ripening were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mesocarp of chili pepper fruits consists of collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and huge celled parenchyma. In mature green fruits, plastids contain numerous thylakoids that are well organized into grana in collenchyma, a strikingly huge amount of starch and irregularly organized thylakoids in normal parenchyma, and simple tubes rather than thylakoids in huge celled parenchyma. These morphological features suggest that plastids are chloroplasts in collenchyma, chloroamyloplasts in normal parenchyma, proplastids in huge celled parenchyma. As fruits ripen to red, plastids in all cell types convert to chromoplasts and, concomitantly, lipid bodies accumulate in both cytoplasm and chromoplasts. Cytosolic lipid bodies are lined up in a regular layer adjacent to plasma membrane. The cytosolic lipid body consists of a core surrounded by a membrane. The core is comprised of a more electron-dense central part enclosed by a slightly less electron-dense peripheral layer. Plastidial lipid bodies in collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and endodermis initiate as plastoglobuli, which in turn convert to rod-like structures. Therefore, plastidial lipid bodies are more dynamic than cytosolic lipid bodies. Both cytosolic and plastidial lipid bodies contain rich unsaturated lipids.

  14. Bioactive compounds of four hot pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.), antioxidant capacity, and intestinal bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-03-24

    Pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum) contain a wide array of phytochemicals with well-known antioxidant properties. Since bioactive compounds depend on their bioavailability to exert beneficial effects, it was crucial to estimate the extent of release from the food matrix and thus their bioaccessibility. Accordingly, we determined the individual carotenoid and phenolic content as well as the antioxidant properties of four red hot dried cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.) of high consumption in Mexico and estimated the extent of intestinal bioaccessibility of carotenoids with significance in human health, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Hot dried peppers at ripe stage had a high content of bioactive compounds that exhibited significant antioxidant properties (26-80 micromol trolox equivalents/g of dry matter), such as polyphenols (>2000 mg/100 g of dry matter) and carotenoids (95-437 mg/100 g of dry matter), which were partially bioaccessible. The amount released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes was about 75% for total polyphenols, up to 49% for both beta-carotene and zeaxanthin, and up to 41% for beta-cryptoxanthin. The results suggest that from 50 to 80% of these carotenoids could reach the colon to be potentially fermented or could remain unavailable.

  15. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claudia; Siebert, Tracey E; Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P; Eggers, Marcus; Meier, Manfred; Vössing, Tobias; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sefton, Mark A; Herderich, Markus J

    2008-05-28

    An obscure sesquiterpene, rotundone, has been identified as a hitherto unrecognized important aroma impact compound with a strong spicy, peppercorn aroma. Excellent correlations were observed between the concentration of rotundone and the mean 'black pepper' aroma intensity rated by sensory panels for both grape and wine samples, indicating that rotundone is a major contributor to peppery characters in Shiraz grapes and wine (and to a lesser extent in wine of other varieties). Approximately 80% of a sensory panel were very sensitive to the aroma of rotundone (aroma detection threshold levels of 16 ng/L in red wine and 8 ng/L in water). Above these concentrations, these panelists described the spiked samples as more 'peppery' and 'spicy'. However, approximately 20% of panelists could not detect this compound at the highest concentration tested (4000 ng/L), even in water. Thus, the sensory experiences of two consumers enjoying the same glass of Shiraz wine might be very different. Rotundone was found in much higher amounts in other common herbs and spices, especially black and white peppercorns, where it was present at approximately 10000 times the level found in very 'peppery' wine. Rotundone is the first compound found in black or white peppercorns that has a distinctive peppery aroma. Rotundone has an odor activity value in pepper on the order of 50000-250000 and is, on this criterion, by far the most powerful aroma compound yet found in that most important spice.

  16. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Vázquez, Adrián; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mario; del-Río-Robledo, Alicia; Silos-Espino, Héctor; Perales-Segovia, Catarino; Flores-Benítez, Silvia; González-Chavira, Mario Martín; Valera-Montero, Luis Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands. PMID:22629131

  17. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    PubMed

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  18. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  19. High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, R Ramakrishnan; Dutta Gupta, S

    2006-01-01

    A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic embryos. Strength of the medium and sucrose concentration influenced the process of secondary embryogenesis and fresh weight of somatic embryo clumps. Full-strength SH medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose produced significantly higher fresh weight and numbers of secondary somatic embryos while 3.0 and 4.5% sucrose in the medium favored further development of proliferated embryos into plantlets. Ontogeny of secondary embryos was established by histological analysis. Secondary embryogenic potential was influenced by the developmental stage of the explanted somatic embryo and stages up to "torpedo" were more suitable. A single-flask system was standardized for proliferation, maturation, germination and conversion of secondary somatic embryos in suspension cultures. The system of cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper described here represents a permanent source of embryogenic material that can be used for genetic manipulations of this crop species.

  20. Impact of Insecticides on Parasitoids of the Leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in Pepper in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed. PMID:21864155