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Sample records for pepsin a

  1. A CHEMO-BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONS OF PEPSIN TO SO-CALLED ANTI-PEPSIN

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, Walter W.

    1911-01-01

    1. Fresh and inactivated animal serum under proper conditions will bind pepsin quantitatively in weak acid solution and will prevent it from digesting proteid even after the addition of free hydrochloric acid in excess. 2. This binding and inactivation of pepsin cannot be considered as due to a specific anti-pepsin. 3. The phenomenon has been named pepsin deviation in analogy with the deviation described for other ferments, notably trypsin. 4. The ability of animal serum to deviate pepsin has been responsible for most, if not all, of the published accounts of anti-pepsin. 5. By the use of a technique elaborated to control pepsin deviation, it has been found impossible to demonstrate normal anti-pepsin in the blood serum of the dog, cat, guinea pig, beef, horse, rabbit, and of man. PMID:19867495

  2. Pepsin as a Marker for Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, Norma A.; Chang, Yie-Hwa; Ye, Jing Song; Edwards, Sharon J.; Defer, Julie; Dahms, Thomas E.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Stone, Kathleen S.; Clouse, Ray E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although assessment for aspiration of small volumes of gastric contents in tube-fed patients receiving mechanical ventilation is important, available methods for this purpose are not wholly satisfactory. A potential method is immunoassay of tracheal secretions for the gastric enzyme pepsin. OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency with which pepsin in suctioned tracheal secretions from acutely ill, tube-fed patients receiving mechanical ventilation could be detected via an immunoassay. METHODS A convenience sample of 136 specimens of suctioned tracheal secretions was collected from 30 acutely ill, tube-fed adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Multiple samples were obtained from 26 of the 30 patients (range, 2−11 per subject). An immunoassay with rooster polyclonal antibodies to purified human pepsin was used to detect pepsin in the secretions. RESULTS Fourteen specimens tested positive for pepsin. Secretions from 5 patients accounted for the 14 pepsin-positive results. A significant relationship was found between the position of the head of the bed and the presence of pepsin in tracheal secretions (P< .001). Of the 14 pepsin-positive specimens, 13 (92.9%) were obtained from subjects in a flat position. CONCLUSIONS A pepsin immunoassay can be used to detect pepsin in human tracheal secretions. If pepsin in tracheal secretions is considered an indicator of aspiration of gastric contents, aspiration occurred in 5 of the 30 subjects. A flat position is strongly associated with the presence of pepsin in tracheal secretions. PMID:11888127

  3. Local Synthesis of Pepsin in Barrett's Esophagus and the Role of Pepsin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Tina; Hoekzema, Craig; Gould, Jon; Goldblatt, Matthew; Frelich, Matthew; Bosler, Matthew; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Johnston, Nikki

    2015-11-01

    Despite widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continues to rise. PPIs reduce reflux acidity, but only transiently inactivate gastric enzymes. Nonacid reflux, specifically nonacid pepsin, contributes to carcinogenesis in the larynx. Given the carcinogenic potential of pepsin and inefficacy of PPIs to prevent EAC, the presence and effect of pepsin in the esophagus should be investigated. Normal and Barrett's biopsies from 8 Barrett's esophagus patients were collected for pepsin analysis via Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Human esophageal cells cultured from healthy patients were treated with pepsin (0.01-1 mg/mL; 1-20 hours), acid (pH 4)±pepsin (5 minutes); real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and cell migration were assayed. Pepsin was detected in all 8 Barrett's and 4 of 8 adjacent normal specimens. Pepsinogen mRNA was observed in 22 Barrett's, but not in normal adjacent samples. Pepsin induced PTSG2 (COX-2) and IL-1β expression and cell migration in vitro. Pepsin is synthesized by metaplastic, Barrett's esophageal mucosa. Nonacid pepsin increases metrics of tumorigenicity in esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. These findings implicate refluxed and locally synthesized pepsin in development and progression of EAC and, in part, explain the inefficacy of PPIs in the prevention of EAC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Pepsin and Antacid Therapy: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, W. Brayton; Laswick, Patty H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents information intended to encourage students to become thoughtful consumers. Discusses the role of pepsin in splitting off amino acids from stomach proteins and the nature of the protein substrate in determining the ph at which pepsin operates. Directions for an experiment are included. (Author/SA)

  5. Peptide inhibitor modified magnetic particles for pepsin separation.

    PubMed

    Filuszová, Michaela; Kucerová, Zdenka; Tichá, Marie

    2009-06-01

    Synthetic heptapeptide containing D-amino acid residues (Val-D-Leu-Pro-Phe-Phe-Val-D-Leu) was coupled to glyoxal-activated magnetic agarose particles via the free peptide amino group. The peptide-modified magnetic particles were used for the separation of pepsins. Porcine pepsin A and human pepsin A were adsorbed to the magnetic peptide-modified affinity carrier, while the rat pepsin C and human pepsin C did not interact with the immobilized ligand. Conditions of pepsin adsorption to peptide-modified magnetic particles, as well as elution buffers were optimized. Porcine pepsin A did not interact with the immobilized peptide in the presence of pepsin inhibitor pepstatin A, indicating that the enzyme binding site is involved in the studied interaction. The elaborated method represents a rapid and simple technique not only for the separation of pepsins but also, in combination with MS, for the enzyme detection and determination.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1595 - Pepsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1595 Pepsin. (a) Pepsin (CAS Reg. No. 9001-75-6) is an enzyme preparation... amber to brown liquid. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.23.1). (b) The ingredient meets the general requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations...

  7. Naturally occurring pepsin agglutinators in the serum of subhuman primates*

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, S. D.

    1970-01-01

    Antibodies directed against both human and infrahuman pepsin digested γ-globulin were present in a majority of the primate sera tested. The subhuman pepsin agglutinators paralleled previously described human pepsin agglutinators in respect to their wide distribution in normal sera, their specificity and cross-reactivity, and their immunochemical features. The pepsin agglutinators† at different primate levels appeared closely related. Among the subhuman pepsin agglutinators a subspecificity was described for a subhuman primate antigen. This finding suggested some limited differences between the subhuman pepsin agglutinators and the human pepsin agglutinators. Experimental immunization of four cynomologous monkeys failed to elicit or alter these serum reactants. PMID:4097824

  8. Reflux revisited: advancing the role of pepsin.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Karna Dev; Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mediated principally by acid. Today, we recognise reflux reaches beyond the esophagus, where pepsin, not acid, causes damage. Extraesophageal reflux occurs both as liquid and probably aerosol, the latter with a further reach. Pepsin is stable up to pH 7 and regains activity after reacidification. The enzyme adheres to laryngeal cells, depletes its defences, and causes further damage internally after its endocytosis. Extraesophageal reflux can today be detected by recognising pharyngeal acidification using a miniaturised pH probe and by the identification of pepsin in saliva and in exhaled breath condensate by a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay. Proton pump inhibitors do not help the majority with extraesophageal reflux but specifically formulated alginates, which sieve pepsin, give benefit. These new insights may lead to the development of novel drugs that dramatically reduce pepsinogen secretion, block the effects of adherent pepsin, and give corresponding clinical benefit."For now we see through a glass, darkly."-First epistle, Chapter 13, Corinthians.

  9. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  10. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  11. Salivary Pepsin Lacks Sensitivity as a Diagnostic Tool to Evaluate Extraesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Dy, Fei; Amirault, Janine; Mitchell, Paul D; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH testing (pH-MII), endoscopy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaires. We prospectively recruited 50 children from Boston Children's Hospital who were undergoing pH-MII to evaluate for GERD. The patients completed 24-hour pH-MII testing, completed symptom and quality of life questionnaires, and provided a saliva specimen that was analyzed using the PepTest lateral flow test. A subset of patients also underwent bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with each reference standard. Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) were salivary pepsin-positive, with a median salivary pepsin concentration of 10 ng/mL (IQR, 10-55 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in the distributions of acid, nonacid, total reflux episodes, full column reflux, or any other reflux variable in patients who were pepsin-positive compared with those who were pepsin-negative (P > .50). There was no significant correlation between the number of reflux episodes and pepsin concentration (P > .10). There was no positive relationship between salivary pepsin positivity, any extraesophageal symptoms or quality of life scores, or inflammation on bronchoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (P > .30). Salivary pepsin measurement has a low sensitivity for predicting pathological gastroesophageal reflux in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reflux Revisited: Advancing the Role of Pepsin

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Karna Dev; Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mediated principally by acid. Today, we recognise reflux reaches beyond the esophagus, where pepsin, not acid, causes damage. Extraesophageal reflux occurs both as liquid and probably aerosol, the latter with a further reach. Pepsin is stable up to pH 7 and regains activity after reacidification. The enzyme adheres to laryngeal cells, depletes its defences, and causes further damage internally after its endocytosis. Extraesophageal reflux can today be detected by recognising pharyngeal acidification using a miniaturised pH probe and by the identification of pepsin in saliva and in exhaled breath condensate by a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay. Proton pump inhibitors do not help the majority with extraesophageal reflux but specifically formulated alginates, which sieve pepsin, give benefit. These new insights may lead to the development of novel drugs that dramatically reduce pepsinogen secretion, block the effects of adherent pepsin, and give corresponding clinical benefit. “For now we see through a glass, darkly.” —First epistle, Chapter 13, Corinthians PMID:22242022

  13. Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

    2015-01-25

    Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on interaction between curcumin and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ming; Huang, Fengwen; Ye, Haidong; Xu, Hong; Shen, Liangliang; Huan, Tianwen; Huang, Shitong; Xie, Jiangfeng; Tian, Shengli; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Kai

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between curcumin and pepsin was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular docking. Under physiological pH value in stomach, the fluorescence of pepsin can be quenched effectively by curcumin via a combined quenching process. Binding constant (Ka) and binding site number (n) of curcumin to pepsin were obtained. According to the theory of Förster's non-radiation energy transfer, the distance r between pepsin and curcumin was found to be 2.45 nm within the curcumin-pepsin complex, which implies that the energy transfer occurs between curcumin and pepsin, leading to the quenching of pepsin fluorescence. Fluorescence experiments also suggest that curcumin is located more closely to tryptophan residues than tyrosine residues. CD spectra together with UV-vis absorbance studies show that binding of curcumin to pepsin results in the extension of peptide strands of pepsin with loss of some β-sheet structures. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the binding constants at different temperatures reveal that hydrophobic force plays a major role in stabilizing the curcumin-pepsin complex. In addition, docking results support the above experimental findings and suggest the possible hydrogen bonds of curcumin with Thr-77, Thr-218, and Glu-287 of pepsin, which help further stabilize the curcumin-pepsin complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and characterization of chymosin and pepsin from kid.

    PubMed

    Moschopoulou, Ekaterini E; Kandarakis, Ioannis G; Alichanidis, Efstathios; Anifantakis, Emmanouil M

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of the gastric aspartic proteinases chymosin and pepsin which are constituents of the kid rennet. The two enzymes were extracted from abomasal tissue of one kid from a local indigenous breed, separated from each other by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and then were purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weights of the purified kid chymosin and pepsin as determined by gel filtration were 36 kDa and 40 kDa respectively. The isoelectric point of kid chymosin was as multiple forms of 3-6 zones at pH 4.6-5.1, while that of kid pepsin was at pH < or =3.0. Kid pepsin contained 0.37 molecules phosphorous per molecule and was totally inhibited by 5 muM pepstatin A, being more sensitive than kid chymosin. Both enzymes were almost equally as proteolytic as calf chymosin on total casein at pH 5.6. Kid pepsin activity was more pH and temperature dependent than kid chymosin activity. In comparison with the calf chymosin temperature sensitivity, the order of increased sensitivity was: calf chymosin pepsin.

  16. Accessing the reproducibility and specificity of pepsin and other aspartic proteases.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joomi; Cao, Min-Jie; Yu, Ying Qing; Engen, John R

    2013-06-01

    The aspartic protease pepsin is less specific than other endoproteinases. Because aspartic proteases like pepsin are active at low pH, they are utilized in hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) experiments for digestion under hydrogen exchange quench conditions. We investigated the reproducibility, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of online and offline pepsin digestion to understand the compliment of reproducible pepsin fragments that can be expected during a typical pepsin digestion. The collection of reproducible peptides was identified from >30 replicate digestions of the same protein and it was found that the number of reproducible peptides produced during pepsin digestion becomes constant above 5-6 replicate digestions. We also investigated a new aspartic protease from the stomach of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) and compared digestion efficiency and specificity to porcine pepsin and aspergillopepsin. Unique cleavage specificity was found for rice field eel pepsin at arginine, asparagine, and glycine. Different peptides produced by the various proteases can enhance protein sequence coverage and improve the spatial resolution of HDX MS data. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mass spectrometry in structural biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and luminescence of (SBA-15) immobilized pepsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Sun, Si-Jia

    2014-12-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silica was synthesized by hydrothermal method and its surface was methylated by treatment with methyltrimethoxysilane. Pepsin was immobilized on the obtained materials giving host-guest composite materials (SBA-15)-pepsin and (methylated SBA-15)-pepsin. The optimum conditions for preparation of these materials were established. Methylated SBA-15 (M-SBA-15) has improved immobilization efficiency of enzyme compared to initial SBA-15 silica. It was shown that with the gradual increase of NaCl solution ionic strength the immobilized amount of enzyme was reduced. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the host frameworks in the prepared host-guest composite materials are intact and the ordered structure was retained. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed fibrous morphologic characteristics of the SBA-15 and the immobilized pepsin composite materials. The average particle diameter of (SBA-15)-pepsin composite was 338 ± 10 and 343 ± 10 nm for (M-SBA-15)-pepsin. The low temperature N2 adsorption-desorption study at 77 K showed that the pore sizes and specific surface areas of the host-guest composite materials were smaller than those before the introduction of the enzyme, suggesting that the immobilized enzyme occupied a definite position in the host material pore channels. The UV-vis solid diffuse reflectance and luminescence studies showed that the enzyme was successfully immobilized on to the host material and that after the immobilization of enzyme on SBA-15 the conformation of pepsin macromolecule has not been changed.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THREE METHODS FOR MEASURING PEPSIN ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Loken, Merle K.; Terrill, Kathleen D.; Marvin, James F.; Mosser, Donn G.

    1958-01-01

    Comparison has been made of a simple method originated by Absolon and modified in our laboratories for assay of proteolytic activity using RISA (radioactive iodinated serum albumin—Abbott Laboratories), with the commonly used photometric methods of Anson and Kunitz. In this method, pepsin was incubated with an albumin substrate containing RISA, followed by precipitation of the undigested substrate with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of radioactive digestion products in the supernatant fluid. The I131—albumin bond was shown in the present studies to be altered only by the proteolytic activity, and not by the incubation procedures at various values of pH. Any free iodine present originally in the RISA was removed by a single passage through a resin column (amberlite IRA-400-C1). Pepsin was shown to be most stable in solution at a pH of 5.5. Activity of pepsin was shown to be maximal when it was incubated with albumin at a pH of 2.5. Pepsin activity was shown to be altered in the presence of various electrolytes. Pepsin activity measured by the RISA and Anson methods as a function of concentration or of time of incubation indicated that these two methods are in good agreement and are equally sensitive. Consistently smaller standard errors were obtained by the RISA method of pepsin assay than were obtained with either of the other methods. PMID:13587910

  19. Pepsin diffusion in dairy gels depends on casein concentration and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, J; Cauty, C; Legland, D; Dupont, D; Floury, J

    2017-05-15

    Fundamental knowledge of gastric digestion had only focused on acid diffusion from the gastric fluid, but no data are available for pepsin diffusion. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, diffusion coefficients D of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-pepsin were measured in rennet gels across a range of casein concentrations allowing to form networks of protein aggregates with different structures. To investigate the microstructural parameters of native gels, electron microscopy image analysis were performed and qualitatively related to diffusion behavior of FITC-pepsin in these dairy gels. This study is the first report on quantification of pepsin diffusion in dairy product. Pepsin diffusion in rennet gels depends on casein concentration and microstructure. Models of polymer science can be used to assess D in dairy gel. Such data should be confronted with pepsin activity in acidic environment, and will be very useful as input parameters in mathematical models of food degradation in the human stomach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed. PMID:26637601

  1. Effects of bisphenol S on the structures and activities of trypsin and pepsin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2014-11-19

    The effects of bisphenol S on the structures and activities of trypsin and pepsin were investigated by various methods like UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. The secondary and tertiary structures of trypsin and pepsin were altered by bisphenol S binding, which resulted in the loosening of the skeletons of trypsin and pepsin. In addition, bisphenol S induced microenvironmental changes around tyrosine and tryptophan residues of trypsin and pepsin. The activity experimental results showed that the activity of pepsin decreases obviously with the increasing concentration of BPS, while the activity of trypsin does not change remarkably. The binding and thermodynamic parameters obtained by molecular docking and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the bindings of bisphenol S to trypsin and pepsin were spontaneous processes and hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played a vital role in stabilizing the bisphenol S-trypsin and bisphenol S-pepsin complexes. The binding constants (K(A)) of bisphenol S with trypsin were 7.42 × 10(4) (298 K) and 5.91 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K), and those of pepsin were 5.78 × 10(4) (298 K) and 4.44 × 10(4) L/mol (310 K). Moreover, there was one main kind of binding site for bisphenol S on trypsin or pepsin.

  2. Investigation of pepsin in tears of children with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Plateroti, Rocco; Rossi, Paolo; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Mariani, Paola; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Numerous investigations postulated that laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of various upper airway inflammatory diseases as sinusitis or dacryostenosis. The presence of pepsin in tears might be confirmed the presuntive hypothesis of the arrival in the nasolacrimal ducts and precorneal tears film through the laryngopharyngeal reflux of either gastric acid or stomach secretions (pepsin) with inflammatory potentialities. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify the presence or absence of pepsin in the tears collected from children with a high suspicion of LPR who underwent 24-h pH (MII-pH) monitoring to confirm the disease. This study enrolled 20 patients suffering from symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux that underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH monitoring to confirm the disease. The findings of the study group were compared with those of a control group of patients with negative pH monitoring. The quantitative analysis of human pepsin concentration in the tear samples was performed by ELISA method in both groups. Four children (20%) of the study group showed pepsin in the tears. All of the subjects belonging to the control group were negative for its presence. No difference differences in the total number of reflux episodes and the number of weakly basic reflux in the pepsin positive patients vs. pepsin negative children were present. 20% of the children with diagnosed LPR showed pepsin in the tears. Our specific investigation might provide information regarding sinusitis or dacryostenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Spectrophotometric Assay Optimizing Conditions for Pepsin Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ethelynda E.; Kimsey, R. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory protocol optimizing the conditions for the assay of pepsin activity using the Coomasie Blue dye binding assay of protein concentration. The dye bonds through strong, noncovalent interactions to basic and aromatic amino acid residues. (DDR)

  4. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  5. Purification of a novel pepsin inhibitor from Coriolus versicolor and its biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Tian, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Nan-Di

    2012-03-01

    A novel pepsin inhibitor was isolated from Coriolus versicolor. The purification was carried out by a 2-step ultrafiltration followed by DEAE-52 and Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the isolated inhibitor was a 22.3 kDa protein with a single subunit. Heat stability of this inhibitor was estimated and only 7% of its inhibitory activity lost after treatment at 98 °C. The inhibitor was more specific against pepsin than several other proteases. The dissociation constant (K(i)) and concentration required for 50% pepsin inhibition (IC50) were 5.84 × 10(-5) M and 26.26 μg/mL, respectively. Apparent decrease of α-helix and increase of random coil were observed in the circular dichroism spectra of pepsin when an equimolar amount of the inhibitor was added. The inhibition mechanism of this inhibitor differs from the reported aspartic protease inhibitors, according to the secondary structure and the kinetic studies of this inhibitor. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Pepsin in saliva for the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Jamal O; Gabieta-Somnez, Shirley; Yazaki, Etsuro; Kang, Jin-Yong; Woodcock, Andrew; Dettmar, Peter; Mabary, Jerry; Knowles, Charles H; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Current diagnostic methods for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) have moderate sensitivity/specificity and can be invasive and expensive. Pepsin detection in saliva has been proposed as an 'office-based' method for GORD diagnosis. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of salivary pepsin in healthy asymptomatic subjects and to determine its value to discriminate patients with reflux-related symptoms (GORD, hypersensitive oesophagus (HO)) from functional heartburn (FH). 100 asymptomatic controls and 111 patients with heartburn underwent MII-pH monitoring and simultaneous salivary pepsin determination on waking, after lunch and dinner. Cut-off value for pepsin positivity was 16 ng/mL. Patients were divided into GORD (increased acid exposure time (AET), n=58); HO (normal AET and + Symptom Association Probability (SAP), n=26) and FH (normal AET and-SAP, n=27). 1/3 of asymptomatic subjects had pepsin in saliva at low concentration (0(0-59)ng/mL). Patients with GORD and HO had higher prevalence and pepsin concentration than controls (HO, 237(52-311)ng/mL and GORD, 121(29-252)ng/mL)(p<0.05). Patients with FH had low prevalence and concentration of pepsin in saliva (0(0-40) ng/mL). A positive test had 78.6% sensitivity and 64.9% specificity for diagnosis of GORD+HO (likelihood ratio: 2.23). However, one positive sample with >210 ng/mL pepsin suggested presence of GORD+HO with 98.2% specificity (likelihood ratio: 25.1). Only 18/84 (21.4%) of GORD+HO patients had 3 negative samples. In patients with symptoms suggestive of GORD, salivary pepsin testing may complement questionnaires to assist office-based diagnosis. This may lessen the use of unnecessary antireflux therapy and the need for further invasive and expensive diagnostic methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Pepsin and bile acids in saliva in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux - a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sereg-Bahar, M; Jerin, A; Jansa, R; Stabuc, B; Hocevar-Boltezar, I

    2015-06-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and biliary duodenogastric reflux can cause damage to the laryngeal mucosa and voice disorders. The aim of this study was to find out whether levels of pepsin and bile acids in the saliva can serve as diagnostic markers of LPR. A prospective comparative study. Twenty-eight patients with LPR proven via high-resolution manometry and combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and 24-h pH monitoring and 48 healthy controls without symptoms of LPR were included in the study. In the patients with LPR symptoms, oesophagogastroscopy with oesophageal biopsy was performed. The levels of total pepsin, active pepsin, bile acids and the pH of the saliva were determined in all participants and compared between the groups. Reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS) were also obtained and compared. The groups differed significantly in RSI (P = 0.00), RFS (P = 0.00), the levels of bile acids (P = 0.005) and total pepsin in saliva (P = 0.023). The levels of total pepsin and bile acids were about three times higher in the patients with LPR than in the healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between the RSI and RFS score and the level of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva. Histopathological examination of the oesophageal biopsy taken 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter confirmed reflux in almost 93% of patients with symptoms. The study results show that the levels of total pepsin and bile acids in saliva are significantly higher in patients with LPR than in the controls, thus suggesting this as a useful tool in the diagnosis of LPR and particularly biliary LPR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The influence of PAMAM dendrimers surface groups on their interaction with porcine pepsin.

    PubMed

    Ciolkowski, Michal; Rozanek, Monika; Bryszewska, Maria; Klajnert, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    In this study the ability of three polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with different surface charge (positive, neutral and negative) to interact with a negatively charged protein (porcine pepsin) was examined. It was shown that the dendrimer with a positively charged surface (G4 PAMAM-NH2), as well as the dendrimer with a neutral surface (G4 PAMAM-OH), were able to inhibit enzymatic activity of pepsin. It was also found that these dendrimers act as mixed partially non-competitive pepsin inhibitors. The negatively charged dendrimer (G3.5 PAMAM-COOH) was not able to inhibit the enzymatic activity of pepsin, probably due to the electrostatic repulsion between this dendrimer and the protein. No correlation between changes in enzymatic activity of pepsin and alterations in CD spectrum of the protein was observed. It indicates that the interactions between dendrimers and porcine pepsin are complex, multidirectional and not dependent only on disturbances of the secondary structure. © 2013.

  9. Role of nitrite, urate and pepsin in the gastroprotective effects of saliva

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Bárbara S.; Lundberg, Jon O; Radi, Rafael; Laranjinha, João

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nitrate is now recognized as an alternative substrate for nitric oxide (•NO) production in the gut. This novel pathway implies the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrite, •NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides but the physiological relevance of these oxidants has remained elusive. We have previously shown that dietary nitrite fuels an hitherto unrecognized nitrating pathway at acidic gastric pH, through which pepsinogen is nitrated in the gastric mucosa, yielding a less active form of pepsin in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that pepsin is nitrated in vivo and explore the functional impact of protein nitration by means of peptic ulcer development. Upon administration of pentagastrin and human nitrite-rich saliva or sodium nitrite to rats, nitrated pepsin was detected in the animal's stomach by immunoprecipitation. •NO was measured in the gastric headspace before and after nitrite instillation by chemiluminescence. At the end of each procedure, the stomach's lesions, ranging from gastric erosions to haemorrhagic ulcers, were scored. Nitrite increased gastric •NO by 200-fold (p<0.05) and nitrated pepsin was detected both in the gastric juice and the mucosa (p<0.05). Exogenous urate, a scavenger of nitrogen dioxide radical, blunted •NO detection and inhibited pepsin nitration, suggesting an underlining free radical-dependent mechanism for nitration. Functionally, pepsin nitration prevented the development of gastric ulcers, as the lesions were only apparent when pepsin nitration was inhibited by urate. In sum, this work unravels a novel dietary-dependent nitrating pathway in which pepsin is nitrated and inactivated in the stomach, preventing the progression of gastric ulcers. PMID:27156250

  10. Relationship Between Salivary Pepsin Concentration and Esophageal Mucosal Integrity in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Wen; Sifrim, Daniel; Xie, Chenxi; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Ying-Lian

    2017-10-30

    Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD ( r = 0.669, P = 0.035). We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.

  11. Cytotoxicity and Induction of Inflammation by Pepsin in Acid in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bathoorn, Erik; Daly, Paul; Gaiser, Birgit; Sternad, Karl; Poland, Craig; MacNee, William; Drost, Ellen M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Gastroesophageal reflux has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and may be a cause of airway remodelling. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelial cells, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells, but also since it contains digestive enzymes, such as pepsin. Aim. To study whether pepsin enhances cytotoxicity and inflammation in airway epithelial cells, and whether this is pH-dependent. Methods. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to increasing pepsin concentrations in varying acidic milieus, and cell proliferation and cytokine release were assessed. Results. Cell survival was decreased by pepsin exposure depending on its concentration (F = 17.4) and pH level of the medium (F = 6.5) (both P < 0.01). Pepsin-induced interleukin-8 release was greater at lower pH (F = 5.1; P < 0.01). Interleukin-6 induction by pepsin was greater at pH 1.5 compared to pH 2.5 (mean difference 434%; P = 0.03). Conclusion. Pepsin is cytotoxic to bronchial epithelial cells and induces inflammation in addition to acid alone, dependent on the level of acidity. Future studies should assess whether chronic aspiration causes airway remodelling in chronic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:21785693

  12. Accelerated digestion of nucleic acids by pepsin from the stomach of chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Guo, H; Wu, W; Dong, P; Liang, X

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acids have become an important nutritional supplement in poultry feed; however, the digestion of nucleic acids in poultry is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the digestion of nucleic acids by chicken pepsin in vitro. The extracted pepsinogen from the stomach of the chicken was purified to homogeneity. Upon activation at pH 2.0, chicken pepsinogen was converted to its active form. Nucleic acids, including λ-DNA, salmon sperm DNA and single-strand DNA (ssDNA), can be used as substrates and digested into short-chain oligonucleotides by pepsin. Interestingly, the digestion of the nucleic acids was inhibited when pepsin was treated by alkaline solution (pH 8.0) or pepstatin A. Also, the digestion of the nucleic acids was not affected by the addition of haemoglobin or bovine serum albumin. The results suggested that nucleic acids could be digested by chicken pepsin. Thus pepsin may have a role in digesting nucleic acids in vivo. Nucleic acids added to poultry fed may be digested, starting from the stomach.

  13. The diagnostic value of pepsin detection in saliva for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a preliminary study from China.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Wang, Feng; Hu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jimin; Wang, Zhonggao; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Chao; Tang, Juan

    2017-10-17

    None of current diagnostic methods has been proven to be a reliable tool for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a promising diagnostic biomarker for gastro-esophageal reflux. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of salivary pepsin detection for GERD. Two hundred and fifty patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD and 35 asymptomatic healthy volunteers provided saliva on morning waking, after lunch and dinner for pepsin determination using the Peptest lateral flow device. All patients underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (24-h MII-pH) monitoring and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Based on 24-h MII-pH and endoscopy study, patients were defined as GERD (abnormal MII-pH results and/or reflux esophagitis) and non-GERD otherwise. Patients with GERD had a higher prevalence of pepsin in saliva and higher pepsin concentration than patients with non-GERD and healthy controls (P < 0.001 for all). The pepsin test had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 88.3% for diagnosing GERD using the optimal cut-off value of 76 ng/mL. Postprandial saliva samples collected when the symptoms occurred had a more powerful ability to identify GERD. Salivary pepsin test had moderate diagnostic value for GERD. It may be a promising tool to replace the use of currently invasive tools with advantages of non-invasive, easy to perform and cost effective. ChiCTR-DDD-16009506 (date of registration: October 20, 2016).

  14. Pepsinized cashew proteins are hypoallergenic and immunogenic and provide effective immunotherapy in mice with cashew allergy.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Mike; Macqueen, Ian; Li, Yifan; Guo, Rishu; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Burks, A Wesley

    2012-09-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to cashews and other nuts can trigger life-threatening anaphylaxis. Proactive therapies to decrease reaction severity do not exist. We aimed to determine the efficacy of pepsin-digested cashew proteins used as immunotherapy in a murine model of cashew allergy. Mice were sensitized to cashew and then underwent challenges with digested or native cashew allergens to assess the allergenicity of the protein preparations. Using native or pepsinized cashew proteins, mice underwent oral or intraperitoneal sensitization protocols to determine the immunogenic properties of the protein preparations. Finally, cashew-sensitized mice underwent an immunotherapy protocol with native or pepsinized cashew proteins and subsequent provocation challenges. Pepsinized cashew proteins elicited weaker allergic reactions than native cashew proteins but importantly retained the ability to stimulate cellular proliferation and cytokine production. Mice sensitized with pepsinized proteins reacted on challenge with native allergens, demonstrating that pepsinized allergens retain immunogenicity in vivo. Immunotherapy with pepsinized cashew allergens significantly decreased allergic symptoms and body temperature decrease relative to placebo after challenge with native and pepsinized proteins. Immunologic changes were comparable after immunotherapy with native or pepsinized allergens: T(H)2-type cytokine secretion from splenocytes was decreased, whereas specific IgG(1) and IgG(2a) levels were increased. Pepsinized cashew proteins are effective in treating cashew allergy in mice and appear to work through the same mechanisms as native protein immunotherapy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P < 0.0001) for all AA when all 16 MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients.

    PubMed

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Goosheh, Hassan; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Saber, Hamid; Salehi, Maryam; Jafari, Mahvash; Imani, Saber; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed cases compared to healthy controls. In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23) compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003). Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5). Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  17. Pepsin and Bile Acid Concentrations in Sputum of Mustard Gas Exposed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Goosheh, Hassan; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Saber, Hamid; Salehi, Maryam; Jafari, Mahvash; Imani, Saber; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23) compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003). Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls (P = 0.5). Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients. PMID:23680709

  18. 21 CFR 184.1595 - Pepsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amber to brown liquid. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.23.1...) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze proteins... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pepsin. 184.1595 Section 184.1595 Food and Drugs...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1595 - Pepsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amber to brown liquid. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.23.1...) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze proteins... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pepsin. 184.1595 Section 184.1595 Food and Drugs...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1595 - Pepsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amber to brown liquid. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.23.1...) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze proteins... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pepsin. 184.1595 Section 184.1595 Food and Drugs...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1595 - Pepsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.23.1). (b) The ingredient... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pepsin. 184.1595 Section 184.1595 Food and Drugs...

  2. Effect of alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists on gastric pepsin and acid secretion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi-Saad, K.; Chariot, J.; Del Tacca, M.; Rozé, C.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine, guanabenz, detomidine and medetomidine on pepsin secretion in conscious rats provided with gastric chronic fistula and to compare this with acid secretion. 2. Basal interdigestive gastric secretion, which is mainly neurally driven in the rat, and the secretion directly stimulated by the two main stimulants of chief cells, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) and methacholine, were studied. 3. Basal secretion of pepsin and acid was inhibited by all four drugs with comparable EC50S. 4. CCK-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was less sensitive than basal pepsin and acid secretion to alpha 2-adrenoceptor inhibition. 5. Methacholine-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was not changed by clonidine and guanabenz; methacholine-stimulated acid was even marginally increased by clonidine. 6. These results do not favour the presence of alpha 2-receptors on chief cells in the rat stomach. They rather suggest that pepsin inhibition by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists is indirect and due to central or peripheral inhibition of the discharge of nerve fibres activating pepsin secretion. PMID:1356566

  3. Exploring the interaction of silver nanoparticles with pepsin and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangrong; Wang, Kaiwei; Peng, Yanru

    2018-04-25

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is a topic of high relevance for the medical application of nanomaterials. In the study, a comprehensive investigation was performed for the binding properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to pepsin. The results indicate that the binding of AgNPs to pepsin may be a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that AgNPs binds to pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy shows that AgNPs may induce microenvironmental changes of pepsin. The hydrophobicity of Trp is increased while the hydrophility of Tyr is increased. The adsorption of pepsin on AgNPs was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, suggesting that the equilibrium adsorption data fit well with Freundlich model. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. The results indicate that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation better describes the adsorption kinetics. The study provides an accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanism, adsorption isotherms and kinetic behaviors of AgNPs with pepsin. These fundamental works will provide some new insights into the safe and effective application of AgNPs in biological and medical areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  5. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of pepsin-[C16mim]Br system: interfacial dilational rheology and conformational studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Chong; Liu, Zi-lin; Li, Yang; Du, Feng-pei

    2014-09-21

    The interfacial rheological property is closely related to the stabilities of foams and emulsions, yet there have been limited studies on the interaction between proteins with ionic liquid-type imidazolium surfactants at the decane-water interface as well as in the bulk. Herein, we investigated the interfacial and bulk properties of pepsin (PEP) and an ionic liquid (IL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C(16)mim]Br. The interfacial pressure and dilational rheology studies were performed to describe the formation of [C(16)mim]Br-pepsin complexes. The influence of the oscillating frequency and the bulk concentration of [C(16)mim]Br on the dilational properties were explored. The conformational changes were studied by monitoring the fluorescence and far UV-CD spectra. The results reveal that the globular structure of pepsin is one of the decisive factors controlling the nature of the interfacial film. The monotonous increase in the dilational elastic modulus of pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br solutions with the surface age indicates that no loops and tails had formed. Interestingly, with an increase in the concentration of [C(16)mim]Br, the εd-c curve first passes through a plateau value due to steric hindrance and the electrostatic barrier of already absorbed tenacious pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br complexes. With the further addition of [C(16)mim]Br, the remarkable decrease in dilational elastic modulus indicates that the compact structure is destroyed gradually. The results of the fluorescence spectra and far UV-CD spectra confirm that [C(16)mim]Br did not produce perceptible changes in pepsin at the concentrations studied in the dilational experiment. Possible schematic programs of the pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br interaction model at the interface and in bulk phase are proposed.

  7. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    PubMed

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or <1 microg hazelnut in 1 g food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  8. Effect of High-Pressure Treatment on Catalytic and Physicochemical Properties of Pepsin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianan; Bai, Tenghui; Ma, Yaping; Ma, Hanjun

    2017-10-11

    For a long time, high-pressure treatment has been used to destroy the compact structures of natural proteins in order to promote subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. However, there are few reports evaluating the feasibility of directly improving the catalytic capability of proteases by using high-pressure treatments. In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on the catalytic capacity and structure of pepsin were investigated, and the relationship between its catalytic properties and changes in its physicochemical properties was explored. It was found that high-pressure treatment could lead to changes of the sulfhydryl group/disulfide bond content, hydrophobicity, hydrodynamic radius, intrinsic viscosity, and subunit composition of pepsin, and the conformational change of pepsin resulted in improvement to its enzymatic activity and hydrolysis efficiency, which had an obvious relationship with the high-pressure treatment conditions.

  9. Relation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion to serum gastrin levels in dogs given bombesin and gastrin-17.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I; Molina, E

    1983-05-01

    To quantitate bombesin stimulation of gastric acid and pepsin via release of gastrin, five gastric fistula dogs were given graded doses (60-1,250 pmol X kg-1 X h-1) of bombesin tetradecapeptide and 40-2,000 pmol X kg-1 X h-1 of synthetic gastrin-17 (G-17). Acid and pepsin output and serum gastrin were proportional to the dose of stimulant. The half-maximal dose of bombesin for gastrin release was 200 pmol X kg-1 X h-1. Bombesin-stimulated acid secretion related to serum gastrin concentrations was congruent with the G-17 curve, but with a maximum of only 62% of the G-17 maximum before declining by 27% despite higher serum gastrin levels. This suggested that bombesin stimulates acid secretion only via gastrin release and inhibits at higher doses by releasing another inhibitory peptide, most likely somatostatin, which is also released by bombesin. The same mechanism could apply to supramaximal inhibition of acid and pepsin seen with high doses of G-17. Because the pepsin curve related to serum gastrin was to the left of the G-17 curve, we concluded that another secretagogue released by bombesin acts synergistically with gastrin on pepsin secretion. Therefore, bombesin stimulates gastric secretion through gastrin release, but its effects are modified by peptides coreleased to a) increase pepsin output at low doses and b) limit the output of acid and pepsin to 50-60% of the G-17 maximum.

  10. Engineering of Yersinia Phytases to Improve Pepsin and Trypsin Resistance and Thermostability and Application Potential in the Food and Feed Industry.

    PubMed

    Niu, Canfang; Yang, Peilong; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

    2017-08-30

    Susceptibility to proteases usually limits the application of phytase. We sought to improve the pepsin and trypsin resistance of YeAPPA from Yersinia enterocolitica and YkAPPA from Y. kristensenii by optimizing amino acid polarity and charge. The predicted pepsin/trypsin cleavage sites F89/K226 in pepsin/trypsin-sensitive YeAPPA and the corresponding sites (F89/E226) in pepsin-sensitive but trypsin-resistant YkAPPA were substituted with S and H, respectively. Six variants were produced in Pichia pastoris for catalytic and biochemical characterization. F89S, E226H, and F89S/E226H elevated pepsin resistance and thermostability and K226H and F89S/K226H improved pepsin and trypsin resistance and stability at 60 °C and low pH. All the variants increased the ability of the proteins to hydrolyze phytate in corn meal by 2.6-14.9-fold in the presence of pepsin at 37 °C and low pH. This study developed a genetic manipulation strategy specific for pepsin/trypsin-sensitive phytases that can improve enzyme tolerance against proteases and heat and benefit the food and feed industry in a cost-effective way.

  11. Investigation of the binding between pepsin and nucleoside analogs by spectroscopy and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Lingling; Xie, Yuanzhe; Shi, Jie; Wang, Ruiyong; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the interactions of pepsin with CYD (cytidine) or nucleoside analogs, including FNC (2'-deoxy-2'-β-fluoro-4'-azidocytidine) and CMP (cytidine monophosphate), were investigated by fluorescence, UV-visible absorption and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results indicated that FNC (CYD/CMP) caused the fluorescence quenching by the formation of complex. The binding constants and thermo-dynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. The F atom in FNC might weaken the binding of nucleoside analog to pepsin. Results showed that CYD was the strongest quencher and bound to pepsin with higher affinity.

  12. The In Vitro Effect of Acidic-Pepsin on Nuclear Factor KappaB Activation and Its Related Oncogenic Effect on Normal Human Hypopharyngeal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Clarence T.; Toman, Julia; Vageli, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Background Extra-esophageal carcinogenesis has been widely discussed in relation to the chronic effects of laryngopharyngeal reflux and most prominently with pepsin historically central to this discussion. With refluxate known to include gastric (pepsin) and duodenal (bile) fluids, we recently demonstrated the mechanistic role of NF-κB in mediating the preneoplastic effects of acidic-bile. However, the role of pepsin in promoting hypopharyngeal premalignant events remains historically unclear. Here, we investigate the in vitro effect of acidic-pepsin on the NF-κB oncogenic pathway to better define its potential role in hypopharyngeal neoplasia. Methods Human hypopharyngeal primary cells (HHPC) and keratinocytes (HHK) were repetitively exposed to physiologic pepsin concentrations (0.1 mg/ml) at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0. Cellular localization of phospho-NF-κB and bcl-2 was determined using immunofluorescence and western blotting. NF-κB transcriptional activity was tested by luc reporter and qPCR. Analysis of DNA content of pepsin treated HHK and HHPC was performed using Fluorescence-activated-cell sorting assay. To explore a possible dose related effect, pepsin concentration was reduced from 0.1 to 0.05 and 0.01 mg/ml. Results At physiologic concentration, acidic-pepsin (0.1 mg/ml at pH 4.0) is lethal to most normal hypopharyngeal cells. However, in surviving cells, no NF-κB transcriptional activity is noted. Acidic-pepsin fails to activate the NF-κB or bcl-2, TNF-α, EGFR, STAT3, and wnt5α but increases the Tp53 mRNAs, in both HHPC and HHK. Weakly acidic-pepsin (pH 5.0) and neutral-pepsin (pH 7.0) induce mild activation of NF-κB with increase in TNF-α mRNAs, without oncogenic transcriptional activity. Lower concentrations of pepsin at varying pH do not produce NF-κB activity or transcriptional activation of the analyzed genes. Conclusion Our findings in vitro do not support the role of acidic-pepsin in NF-κB related hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis. PMID:27973541

  13. The effects of chronic consumption of heroin on basal and vagal electrical-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rat.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Fatemeh N; Maghouli, Fatemeh; Vahedian, Jalal; Esmaeili, Farzaneh

    2004-10-01

    Addiction to opium and heroin is not only an important social and individual problem in the world but it also affects the human physiology and multiple systems. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic heroin consumption on basal and vagus electrical-stimulated total gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats. The study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran from August 2002 to June 2003. Both male and female rats weighing 200-250 g were used. Rats received daily doses of heroin intraperitoneally starting from 0.2 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg/day up to the maintenance level of 0.7 mg/kg and continued until day 12. After anesthesia, tracheotomy and laparotomy, gastric effluents were collected by washout technique with a 15 minutes interval. The total titrable acid was measured by manual titrator, and the total pepsin content was measured by Anson's method. Vagal electrical stimulation was used to stimulate the secretion of acid and pepsin. Heroin results in a significant decrease in total basal acid and pepsin secretions (4.10 +/- 0.18 mmol/15 minutes versus 2.40 +/- 0.16 mmol/15 minutes for acid, p<0.01, and 3.63 +/- 0.18 mg/15 minutes versus 3.11+/- 0.18 mg/15 minutes for pepsin, p<0.05). But, it does not produce any significant changes in acid and pepsin secretions in vagotomized condition. Heroin also causes a significant decrease in vagal-electrically stimulated acid and pepsin secretions (14.70 +/- 0.54 mmol/15 minutes versus 4.30 +/- 0.21 mmol/15 minutes for acid, p<0.01, and 3.92 +/-0.16 mg/15 minutes versus 3.37+/- 0.16 mg/15 minutes for pepsin, p<0.05). Heroin consumption decreases the total gastric basal and vagus stimulation of acid and pepsin secretion, but not in vagotomized condition. Heroin may decrease acid secretion by inhibiting vagal release of acetylcholine within the gastric wall. Other probable mechanisms include: presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release or depressing the

  14. Fast and efficient proteolysis by reusable pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material for mass spectrometry-based proteomics applications.

    PubMed

    Kayili, H Mehmet; Salih, Bekir

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic silicon-based material having magnetic properties was fairly synthesized by a classical sol-gel approach. Pepsin enzyme was encapsulated in the sol-gel material and the enzyme activity was evaluated in consequence of the digestion of some common proteins such as α- and β-casein, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) both in a single protein batch and in the protein mixture. The optimum digestion time of the studied proteins using pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material was found to be 20min. To produce the magnetic sol-gel material for convenient and easy proteomics applications, Fe3O4 was doped inside sol-gel material during the gelation step. It was observed that the activity of encapsulated pepsin was not affected by the amount of Fe3O4. Poly(ethylene glycol) was also inserted in sol-gel bulk to obtain suitable roughness and increase the hydrophilicity of the material surface to let protein molecules reach to the sol-gel material easily. The digestion of the protein mixture and non-fat bovine milk was performed with the pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material and the digested solutions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS for the protein identification. Reusability of the pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material was examined and it was determined that they could be used at least 20 times. Finally, IgG digestions with a fast incubation time period were carried out using pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material for generation of (Fab)2 product to evaluate the kinetic performance of the material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of acid and pepsin on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. A possible contributor prolonged gastroduodenal mucosal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Green, F W; Kaplan, M M; Curtis, L E; Levine, P H

    1978-01-01

    In a series of in vitro studies, both the soluble (plasmatic) coagulation system and the cellular (platelet-mediated) aspect of coagulation were shown to be extremely sensitive to relatively minor increases in hydrogen ion concentration. All studies became abnormal at pH 6.8. At pH 6.4, assays of the intrinsic and extrinsic coaglution systems, the polymerization of fibrinogen, and assay of the availability of platelet phospholipid (platelet factor 3) were twice prolonged over control values. Platelet aggregation was reduced by more than 50%. At pH 5.4 in vitro, platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation were both virtually abolished. Furthermore, previously formed platelet aggregates disaggregated at a slightly acid pH. Pepsin further enhanced platelet disaggregation. Because gastric acidity is normally two to four orders of magnitude greater than that which abolishes platelet aggregation and plasma clotting in vitro, and pepsin is present in abundance, we call attention to the probable antihemostatic effect of hydrocloric acid and pepsin in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This in vitro study may provide a rationale for meticulous regulation of intragastric pH in an effort to control upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  16. Immobilized Pepsin Microreactor for Rapid Peptide Mapping with Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ying; Wood, Troy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most enzymatic microreactors for protein digestion are based on trypsin, but proteins with hydrophobic segments may be difficult to digest because of the paucity of Arg and Lys residues. Microreactors based on pepsin, which is less specific than trypsin, can overcome this challenge. Here, an integrated immobilized pepsin microreactor (IPMR)/nanoelectrospray emitter is examined for its potential for peptide mapping. For myoglobin, equivalent sequence coverage is obtained in a thousandth the time of solution digestion with better sequence coverage. While sequence coverage of cytochrome c is lesser than solution in this short duration, more highly-charged peptic peptides are produced and a number of peaks are unidentified at low-resolution, suggesting that high-resolution mass spectrometry is needed to take full advantage of integrated IPMR/nanoelectrospray devices.

  17. Growth-promoting effects of pepsin- and trypsin-treated caseinomacropeptide from bovine milk on probiotics.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Gilles; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are generally fastidious bacteria and require rich media for propagation. In milk-based media, they grow poorly, and nitrogen supplementation is required to produce high bacterial biomass levels. It has been reported that caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa peptide released from κ-casein during renneting or gastric digestion, exhibits some growth-promoting activity for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. During the digestive process, peptides derived from CMP are detected in the intestinal lumen The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of peptic and tryptic digests of CMP on probiotic lactic acid bacteria growth in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth (MRS) and in milk during fermentation at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. The study showed that pepsin-treated CMP used as supplements at 0.5 g/l can promote the growth of probiotics even in peptone-rich environments such as MRS. The effect was strain-dependent and evident for the strains that grow poorly in MRS, with an improvement of >1.5 times (P<0.05) by addition of pepsin-treated CMP. Trypsin-treated CMP was much less efficient as growth promoter. Moreover, pepsin-treated CMP was effective in promoting the growth in milk of all probiotic lactic acid bacteria tested, with biomass levels being improved significantly, by 1.7 to 2.6 times (P<0.05), depending on the strain. Thus, supplementation of MRS and of milk with pepsin-treated CMP would be advantageous for the production of high biomass levels for Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli.

  18. Role of pepsin and pepsinogen: linking laryngopharyngeal reflux with otitis media with effusion in children.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hua-Nan; Yang, Qi-Mei; Sheng, Ying; Wang, Zheng-Hui; Zhang, Qing; Yan, Jing; Hou, Jin; Zhu, Kang; Cheng, Ying; Wang, Bo-Tao; Xu, Ying-Long; Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Ren, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Min

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) represented by pepsin and pepsinogen, and pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). Prospective case-control study. Children with OME who required adenoidectomy and tympanostomy/tympanostomy tubes placement were enrolled in OME group, whereas children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) who required adenoidectomy and individuals who required cochlear implantation (CI) were enrolled in AH and CI groups, respectively. Pepsinogen mRNA and protein levels were assessed by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in adenoid specimens from the OME and AH groups. Pepsin and pepsinogen concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in middle ear fluid and plasma from the OME and CI groups. The levels of pepsinogen protein expressed in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and clearance under epithelial cells in adenoid specimens from the OME group were significantly higher than those in the AH group. Furthermore, the concentrations of pepsin and pepsinogen in the OME group were 51.93±11.58 ng/mL and 728±342.6 ng/mL, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the CI group (P<.001). In addition, the concentrations of pepsin in dry ears were significantly lower than those in serous and mucus ears in the OME group (F=22.77, P<.001).Finally, the concentration of pepsinogen in middle ear effusion was positively correlated with the expression intensity of pepsinogen protein in cytoplasm of epithelial cells (r=0.73, P<.05) in the OME group. Pepsin and pepsinogen in middle ear effusion are probably caused by LPR and may be involved in the pathogenesis of OME. 3b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Abilities of Oropharyngeal pH Tests and Salivary Pepsin Analysis to Discriminate Between Asymptomatic Volunteers and Subjects With Symptoms of Laryngeal Irritation.

    PubMed

    Yadlapati, Rena; Adkins, Christopher; Jaiyeola, Diana-Marie; Lidder, Alcina K; Gawron, Andrew J; Tan, Bruce K; Shabeeb, Nadine; Price, Caroline P E; Agrawal, Neelima; Ellenbogen, Michael; Smith, Stephanie S; Bove, Michiel; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-04-01

    It has been a challenge to confirm the association between laryngeal symptoms and physiological reflux disease. We examined the ability of oropharyngeal pH tests (with the Restech Dx-pH system) and salivary pepsin tests (with Peptest) to discriminate between asymptomatic volunteers (controls) and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms (laryngeal ± reflux). We performed a physician-blinded prospective cohort study of 59 subjects at a single academic institution. Adult volunteers were recruited and separated into 3 groups on the basis of GerdQ and Reflux Symptom Index scores: controls (n = 20), laryngeal symptoms (n = 20), or laryngeal + reflux symptoms (n = 19). Subjects underwent laryngoscopy and oropharyngeal pH tests and submitted saliva samples for analysis of pepsin concentration. Primary outcomes included abnormal acid exposure and composite (RYAN) score for oropharyngeal pH tests and abnormal mean salivary pepsin concentration that was based on normative data. Complete oropharyngeal pH data were available from 53 subjects and complete salivary pepsin data from 35 subjects. We did not observe any significant differences between groups in percent of time spent below pH 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, or RYAN scores or percent of subjects with positive results from tests for salivary pepsin (53% vs 40% vs 75%; P = .50, respectively). The laryngeal + reflux group had a significantly higher estimated mean concentration of salivary pepsin (117.9 ± 147.4 ng/mL) than the control group (32.4 ± 41.9 ng/mL) or laryngeal symptom group (7.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). By using current normative thresholds, oropharyngeal pH testing and salivary pepsin analysis are not able to distinguish between healthy volunteers and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of inactivation of viral contaminants in hyperimmune horse plasma against botulinum toxin by low pH alone and combined with pepsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Torgeman, Amram; Mador, Nurit; Dorozko, Marina; Lifshitz, Aliza; Eschar, Naomi; White, Moshe D; Wolf, Dana G; Epstein, Eyal

    2017-07-01

    Assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. We previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low pH to inactivate West Nile and Sindbis viruses in horse plasma. The present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: HSV-1 and BVDV (lipid-enveloped), BPV and Reo-3 (nonenveloped). These viruses were spiked into hyperimmunized horse plasma against botulinum toxin and subjected to low pH (3.2) alone or combined with pepsin digestion (1200 units/ml). Peptic digestion inactivated the lipid-enveloped viruses, whereas the nonenveloped viruses were unaffected. Interestingly, HSV-1 was rapidly inactivated by acidic pH alone (≥4.9 ± 0.6 log 10 ), whereas a non-robust but meaningful BVDV inactivation (2.9 ± 0.7 log 10 ) was achieved by combined low pH and pepsin. The current study demonstrated the ability of low pH alone and in combination with pepsin digestion to inactivate enveloped viral contaminants in anti-toxin horse plasma. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro Pepsin Digestibility of Cooked Proso Millet ( Pancium miliaceum L.) and Related Species from Around the World.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Paridhi; Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Holding, David Richard; Santra, Dipak; Rose, Devin Jerrold

    2018-06-20

    Thirty-three accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) with different countries of origin were screened for their pepsin digestibility after cooking to identify samples with high digestibility. The pepsin digestibility of all samples ranged from 26 to 57% (average 32%). There were no apparent differences in protein profiles (SDS-PAGE) of samples with the lowest, intermediate, and highest digestibilities. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed a negative correlation between pepsin digestibility and peptides that matched to high molecular weight proteins (24 kDa) from Panicum hallii with regions of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids. Low digestibility upon cooking was also observed for other species from the Panicum genus, such as little millet, switchgrass and panicgrass, which suggests a unique inherent property of the genus. The obtained results from this study may form a basis for in-depth analysis of proso proteins that may help in developing new cultivars with higher digestibility upon cooking.

  2. Effects of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, and methionine-enkephalin on gastric acid and pepsin secretion in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gascoigne, A D; Hirst, B H; Reed, J D; Shaw, B

    1980-07-01

    1 The effect of intravenous administration of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and methionine-enkephalin on gastric acid and pepsin secretions was investigated in conscious cats prepared with chronic gastric fistulae.2 TRH, 20 mug kg(-1) h(-1), did not influence unstimulated gastric acid secretion, nor gastric acid secretion stimulated by submaximal doses of pentagastrin or histamine. Pepsin secretion stimulated by pentagastrin was not influenced by TRH.3 TRH, 20 mug kg(-1) h(-1), significantly reduced the gastric acid and pepsin responses to intravenous infusion of insulin. TRH also significantly reduced the degree of hypoglycaemia seen in response to insulin. TRH, 20 mug kg(-1) h(-1), but not 5 mug kg(-1) h(-1), infused alone resulted in a significant hyperglycaemia.4 It is concluded that the reduction of insulin-stimulated gastric secretion by TRH is not dependent on the hyperglycaemic action of the peptide. The mechanism of action of TRH on insulin-stimulated secretion is discussed with respect to its site of action.5 Methionine-enkephalin or the potent analogue, D-Ala(2), Met-enkephalinamide were without effect on unstimulated gastric secretion, or secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, histamine, and insulin. The opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone, did not significantly alter the gastric acid or pepsin response to insulin.6 It is concluded that there is no evidence that opiates stimulate oxyntic glands directly, nor that the oxyntic cells may possess high affinity binding sites for opiates, nor that endogenous opiates are involved in the control of gastric secretion.

  3. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  4. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  5. The solubilization of bone and dentin collagens by pepsin. Effect of cross-linkages and non-collagen components.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, D J; Dodd, C M; Veis, A

    1977-03-28

    Bone and dentin collagen are less susceptible to solubilization by pepsin digestion then is skin collagen. Digestion at 4 degrees C for 72 h solubilized only 35.3% of bovine cortical bone and 5.6% of bovine dentin compared with nearly 100% dissolution of bovine skin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and molecular sieve chromatography showed that, for bone and dentin, intact alpha chains and cross-linked aggregates of beta, gamma and higher weight remained intact after pepsin solubilization but lower molecular weight fragments also were prevalent indicating chain scission in helical regions. Electron microscopic examination of segment long spacing precipitates of the soluble collagens confirmed the presence of solubilized polymerized collagen. The principal reducible cross-link in both bone and dentin was the precursor of dihydroxylsinonorleucine and this cross-link was also present in the solubilized collagens. Small amounts of non-collagenous proteins and glycosaminoglycans of different compositions in dentin and bone resisted extraction before pepsin digestion. However, the differences in solubilization of the collagens have been related to differences in cross-linkage placement.

  6. The role of an alginate suspension on pepsin and bile acids - key aggressors in the gastric refluxate. Does this have implications for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Strugala, Vicki; Avis, Jeanine; Jolliffe, Ian G; Johnstone, Lesley M; Dettmar, Peter W

    2009-08-01

    During a reflux event the oesophagus is exposed to a heterogeneous mixture of gastric juice components. The role of non-acid components of the refluxate in causing damage to the oesophagus is now well established but no therapeutic option exists to address this. The role of Gaviscon Advance (GA), a raft-forming alginate suspension, in protecting the oesophagus from damage by pepsin and bile acids (aggressors) was investigated using a series of in-vitro models. GA was able to dose-dependently inhibit pepsin activity over and above the neutralisation effect of the formulation. This was evident against both protein and collagen substrates using two distinct colorimetric assays. GA was able to retard the diffusion of pepsin and multiple bile acids using a Franz cell model. Using the raft-forming mode of action GA was able to remove both pepsin and multiple bile acids from a simulated reflux event. There was capacity in the GA raft to accommodate aggressors from multiple reflux events. GA can specifically remove both pepsin and bile acids from the refluxate, limit their diffusion and affect enzymatic activity of pepsin. There is a role for GA to reduce the damaging potential of the refluxate and thus protect the oesophagus.

  7. Role of Pepsin and Oropharyngeal pH-Monitoring to Assess the Postoperative Outcome of Patients with Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Weitzendorfer, Michael; Pfandner, Richard; Antoniou, Stavros A; Langsteger, Werner; Witzel, Kai; Emmanuel, Klaus; Koch, Oliver O

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of salivary pepsin and oropharyngeal pH-monitoring to assess the surgical outcome of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Twenty consecutive patients with LPR despite proton pump inhibitor treatment received laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Twenty-four hour esophageal pH-monitoring (multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring [MII]-pH) and esophageal manometry (high-resolution manometry) data were documented preoperatively and at 3-month follow-up. An ears, nose and throat (ENT) examination was performed, including assessment of Belafsky Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Belafsky Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Simultaneous to the MII-pH and collection of saliva samples, detection of oropharyngeal reflux events was performed. Treatment failure was defined as postoperative pathologic RFS or RSI score and improvement of GIQLI of <10 points, despite showing a normal DeMeester score. At baseline, all patients had a pathological ENT examination, RSI score, and MII-pH data. All patients showed postoperatively a normal DeMeester score (mean 6.39 ± 4.87). Five patients were defined as treatment failures with a change of pepsin concentration from median 157.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0-422) to 180.7 (95% CI: 0-500). In patients defined as treatment success, median pepsin value decreased from 206.3 (95% CI: 89-278) to 76.0 (95% CI: 55-205); (P = .093). Oropharyngeal pH-monitoring data showed no significant change in both groups. Salivary pepsin could be a marker for treatment success, while oropharyngeal pH-monitoring seems to be inadequate in these terms. However, larger studies are required to reach firm conclusions.

  8. Precursor forms of neurotensin (NT) in cat: processing with pepsin yields NT-(3-13) and NT-(4-13).

    PubMed

    Carraway, R E; Mitra, S P

    1987-08-17

    Basic proteins present in 0.1 N HCl extracts of feline CNS and intestine were found to liberate immunoreactive neurotensin (iNT) when treated with hog pepsin. These protein substrates were separated using Sephadex G-25, Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC. In a calibrated SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, the major substrate from cat ileum exhibited a molecular weight of ca 16 kDa and minor substrates were observed at 30, 40 and 65 kDa. As shown previously for synthetic NT, pepsin-treatment of feline ileal NT converted it into the fully immunoreactive NT-(4-13) fragment (yield, 95%). When treated with pepsin, the partially purified ileal substrates gave rise to 4 immunoreactive peptides, one of which (ca 15% of total) eluted with the same retention time as NT-(4-13) while the major peptide formed (ca 40% of total) eluted near to the position of NT-(3-13). Both these products reacted equally well with two different antisera towards the C-terminal 5- and 8-residues of NT and were not recognized by an N-terminal antiserum. Experiments using various proteases demonstrated that the NT-related sequence(s) were located internally in each substrate and suggested that they were bounded by double basic residues. Substrate activity in isotonic homogenates of feline spinal cord, brain, adrenal and ileum cosedimented with iNT during equilibrium centrifugation, apparently in association with vesicle and/or synaptosomal particles. These findings indicate that basic proteins, colocalized with NT in vesicle-like particles of CNS, adrenals and ileum, could serve as precursors to this peptide, being liberated by pepsin-related enzyme(s).

  9. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  10. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  11. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  12. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  13. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  14. Catalytic activity of various pepsin reduced Au nanostructures towards reduction of nitroarenes and resazurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Bhagwati; Mandani, Sonam; Sarma, Tridib K.

    2015-01-01

    Pepsin, a digestive protease enzyme, could function as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent for the synthesis of Au nanostructures of various size and shape under different reaction conditions. The simple tuning of the pH of the reaction medium led to the formation of spherical Au nanoparticles, anisotropic Au nanostructures such as triangles, hexagons, etc., as well as ultra small fluorescent Au nanoclusters. The activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited after its participation in the formation of Au nanoparticles due to conformational changes in the native structure of the enzyme which was studied by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and infra red spectroscopy. However, the Au nanoparticle-enzyme composites served as excellent catalyst for the reduction of p-nitrophenol and resazurin, with the catalytic activity varying with size and shape of the nanoparticles. The presence of pepsin as the surface stabilizer played a crucial role in the activity of the Au nanoparticles as reduction catalysts, as the approach of the reacting molecules to the nanoparticle surface was actively controlled by the stabilizing enzyme.

  15. Effects of processing method and solute interactions on pepsin digestibility of cooked proso millet flour.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Paridhi; Sabillón, Luis; Rose, Devin J

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h). To study the interaction of millet proteins with solutes, millet flour was heated with sucrose (3-7 M); NaCl (2-6 M); and CaCl 2 (0.5-3 M). All processing treatments failed to prevent the loss in pepsin digestibility except germination and treatment with transglutaminase, which resulted in 23 and 39% increases in digestibility upon cooking, respectively, when compared with unprocessed cooked flours. Heating in concentrated solutions of sucrose and NaCl were effective in preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility, an effect that was attributed to a reduction in water activity (a w ). CaCl 2 was also successful in preventing the loss in digestibility but its action was similar to chaotrops like urea. Thus, a combination of enzymatic modification and cooking of millet flour with either naturally low a w substances or edible sources of chaotropic ions may be useful in processing of proso millet for development of novel foods without loss in digestibility. However, more research is required to determine optimum processing conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  17. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics: An Automatable Alternative to Trypsin for Integrated Top-down Bottom-up Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.

    2011-02-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with online digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to highthroughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications (PTMs). Herein, we describe recent efforts towards efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LCMS based proteomic strategies. Since most proteomic platforms (i.e. LC systems) operate in acidic environments, we exploited themore » compatibility of the pepsin (i.e. the enzyme’s natural acidic activity) for the integration of bottom-up and top-down proteomics. Pressure enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an offline mode using a Barocycler or an online mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast online digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultra-rapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomic strategy employing a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome.« less

  18. Ani s 11-Like Protein Is a Pepsin- and Heat-Resistant Major Allergen of Anisakis spp. and a Valuable Tool for Anisakis Allergy Component-Resolved Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Caballero, Teresa; Dominguez-Ortega, Javier; Jurado-Palomo, Jesús; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms in humans. The Ani s 11-like protein has been proposed as an Anisakis allergen because its primary structure is similar to that of Ani s 11. The aims of this work were to analyse the frequency of detection of the Ani s 11-like protein and assess its diagnostic value. rAni s 11-like protein, rAni s 5 and rAni s 4 were expressed in Escherichia coli and rAni s 1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant allergen detection patterns in 37 Anisakis-sensitised patients were determined. The stability to pepsin digestion and heat treatment of rAni s 11-like protein was also analysed by IgE immunoblotting. Ani s 11-like protein is a major allergen detected by 78% of Anisakis-allergic patients, and 13.5% of patients detect only the rAni s 11-like allergen. This allergen is heat stable because it retains its capability of binding IgE after boiling for 30 min and it is resistant to pepsin digestion for 120 min. These data indicate that the Ani s 11-like protein is a pepsin- and heat-resistant major allergen (Ani s 11.0201) of Anisakis spp. and a valuable tool for Anisakis allergy component-resolved diagnosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Gene encoding the group B streptococcal protein R4, its presence in clinical reference laboratory isolates & R4 protein pepsin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Flores, A; Dechaine, J; Krepela, J; Bergdall, A; Ferrieri, P

    2004-05-01

    R proteins were first identified by Lancefield in group B Streptococcus (GBS) as resistant to trypsin at pH8 and sensitive to pepsin at pH2. The R4 protein found predominantly in type III and some type II and V invasive isolates conforms to these criteria. The Rib protein, although structurally and epidemiologically similar to R4, was reported as resistant to both proteases. We report here the gene encoding the R4 protein from a type III group B streptococcal isolate (76-043) well characterized in our laboratory. Trypsin extracted GBS proteins were assayed for protease sensitivities by double-diffusion Ouchterlony using varying conditions for the enzyme pepsin. Standard haemoglobin assay was used to examine pepsin enzymatic activity. Thirty clinical isolates of varying protein profiles identified by double-diffusion from our reference strain laboratory were screened by PCR and Southern technique. SDS-PAGE gel purified R4 amino acid sequences were determined and used to design oligonucleotide primers for screening a 76-043 genomic library. R4 was sensitive to pepsin at pH2 but appeared resistant at pH4, the reported pH used for Rib. By standard haemoglobin assay and trypsin extract studies of R4 protein, pepsin was shown to be active at pH2, yet easily inactivated; assays of GBS surface proteins are critical at pH2. Of the amino acids initially sequenced from R4, 88 per cent (61/69) showed identity to Rib; the r4 nucleotide sequence was identical to that of rib. All isolates with strong positive protein reactions for R4 were positive in both PCR and Southern technique, whereas isolates expressing alpha, beta, R1/R4, and R5 (BPS) protein profiles were not. Sequenced PCR products aligned with identity to the R4 and Rib nucleotide sequences and confirmed the identity of these proteins and their molecular sequences.

  20. Effect of dimeticone and pepsin on the bioavailability of metoclopramide in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, D F; Silva Leite, A L A e; de Moraes, R A; Camarão, G C; Bezerra, F A F; de Moraes, M O; de Moraes, M E A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the effect of dimeticone and pepsin on the bioavailability of metoclopramide (CAS 7232-21-5) in healthy volunteers. The study was conducted using a randomized, open, 2-period crossover design. The volunteers received single administration of 7-mg conventional metoclopramide capsule and a formulation containing metoclopramide (7 mg) plus dimeticone (40 mg) and pepsin (50 mg), with a 7-day interval between treatments. Serial blood samples were collected before dosing and during 24 h post-treatment. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetics parameters AUC(last) and C(max) were obtained from the metoclopramide plasma concentration vs. time curves. Metoclopramide's association was bioequivalent to conventional capsule; 90% CIs for geometric mean treatment ratios of C(max) [108.0% (90% CI, 100.4-116.3%)], AUC(last) [103.3% (90% CI, 99.5-107.4%)] were within the predefined range. The metoclopramide formulations were well tolerated at the administered doses and no significant adverse reactions were observed. Thus, these results confirm the good bioavailability of metoclopramide in the new formulation and rule out any impaired absorption when the drugs are formulated in combination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in addition to Bowman-Birk inhibitor influence stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Price, Samuel J; Pangloli, Philipus; Krishnan, Hari B; Dia, Vermont P

    2016-12-01

    Soybean contains several biologically active components and one of this belongs to the bioactive peptide group. The objectives of this study were to produce different lunasin-enriched preparations (LEP) and determine the effect of Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) concentrations on the stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis (PPH). In addition, the effect of KTI mutation on lunasin stability against PPH was determined. LEP were produced by calcium and pH precipitation methods of 30% aqueous ethanol extract from defatted soybean flour. LEP, lunasin-enriched commercially available products and KTI control and mutant flours underwent PPH and samples were taken after pepsin and pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis. The concentrations of BBI, KTI, and lunasin all decreased after hydrolysis, but they had varying results. BBI concentration ranged from 167.5 to 655.8μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 171.5 to 250.1μg/g after hydrolysis. KTI concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 122.3μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 9.0 to 18.7μg/g after hydrolysis. Lunasin concentrations ranged from 8.5 to 71.0μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 4.0 to 13.2μg/g after hydrolysis. In all products tested, lunasin concentration after PPH significantly correlated with BBI and KTI concentrations. Mutation in two KTI isoforms led to a lower concentration of lunasin after PPH. This is the first report on the potential role of KTI in lunasin stability against PPH and must be considered in designing lunasin-enriched products that could potentially survive digestion after oral ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    1996-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

  3. Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Nagahama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  4. Acidic digestion in a teleost: postprandial and circadian pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and pepsinogen and proton pump mRNAs expression.

    PubMed

    Yúfera, Manuel; Moyano, Francisco J; Astola, Antonio; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices.

  5. Optimization of the pepsin digestion method for anisakids inspection in the fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Llarena-Reino, María; Piñeiro, Carmen; Antonio, José; Outeriño, Luis; Vello, Carlos; González, Ángel F; Pascual, Santiago

    2013-01-31

    During the last 50 years human anisakiasis has been rising while parasites have increased their prevalence at determined fisheries becoming an emergent major public health problem. Although artificial enzymatic digestion procedure by CODEX (STAN 244-2004: standard for salted Atlantic herring and salted sprat) is the recommended protocol for anisakids inspection, no international agreement has been achieved in veterinary and scientific digestion protocols to regulate this growing source of biological hazard in fish products. The aim of this work was to optimize the current artificial digestion protocol by CODEX with the purpose of offering a faster, more useful and safer procedure for factories workers, than the current one for anisakids detection. To achieve these objectives, the existing pepsin chemicals and the conditions of the digestion method were evaluated and assayed in fresh and frozen samples, both in lean and fatty fish species. Results showed that the new digestion procedure considerably reduces the assay time, and it is more handy and efficient (the quantity of the resulting residue was considerably lower after less time) than the widely used CODEX procedure. In conclusion, the new digestion method herein proposed based on liquid pepsin format is an accurate reproducible and user-friendly off-site tool, that can be useful in the implementation of screening programs for the prevention of human anisakiasis (and associated gastroallergic disorders) due to the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimizing Carry-Over in an Online Pepsin Digestion System used for the H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometric Analysis of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Ranajoy; Manikwar, Prakash; Hickey, John M.; Arora, Jayant; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.; Weis, David D.

    2012-12-01

    Chromatographic carry-over can severely distort measurements of amide H/D exchange in proteins analyzed by LC/MS. In this work, we explored the origin of carry-over in the online digestion of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody using an immobilized pepsin column under quenched H/D exchange conditions (pH 2.5, 0 °C). From a consensus list of 169 different peptides consistently detected during digestion of this large, ~150 kDa protein, approximately 30 % of the peptic peptides exhibited carry-over. The majority of carry-over originates from the online digestion. Carry-over can be substantially decreased by washing the online digestion flow-path and pepsin column with two wash cocktails: [acetonitrile (5 %)/ isopropanol (5 %)/ acetic acid (20 %) in water] and [2 M guanidine hydrochloride in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5]. Extended use of this two-step washing procedure does not adversely affect the specificity or activity of the immobilized pepsin column. The results suggest that although the mechanism of carry-over appears to be chemical in nature, and not hydrodynamic, carry-over cannot be attributed to a single factor such as mass, abundance, pI, or hydrophobicity of the peptides.

  7. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    PubMed

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  8. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heated Sterilized Pepsin Hydrolysate Derived from Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ru; Wei, Rongbian; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Zuisu; Wang, Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H). Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the molecular weight distribution between the half-fin anchovy pepsin hydrolysate (HAHp) and HAHp-H. Results showed that heat sterilization on HAHp improved the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, the antiproliferative activities were all increased for HAHp-H on DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line, 1299 human lung cancer cell line and 109 human esophagus cancer cell line. The contents of free amino acid and reducing sugar of HAHp-H were decreased (P < 0.05). However, hydrophobic amino acid residues and the browning intensity of HAHp-H were increased. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that amide I and amide III bands of HAHp-H were slightly modified, whereas band intensity of amide II was reduced dramatically. Thermal sterilization resulted in the increased fractions of HAHp-H with molecular weight of 3000–5000 Da and below 500 Da. The enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of HAHp-H might be attributed to the Maillard reaction. PMID:21747752

  9. Neurotensin decreases pepsin output and gastrointestinal motility in chickens.

    PubMed

    Degolier, T F; Duke, G E; Carraway, R E

    1997-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of neurotensin on gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility in conscious chickens. Chickens were surgically fitted with a cannula to collect secretions from the proventriculus and strain gauge transducers sutured to the gizzard, duodenum, and ileum in order to detect contractions. Peripheral intravenous infusion of physiological levels of neurotensin inhibited pepsin output from the proventriculus, but had no effect on the volume or pH of gastric secretions. Neurotensin also inhibited both the frequency and strength of gastrointestinal contractions when compared to motility patterns following infusion of isotonic 0.9% (wt/vol) saline. The frequency of occurrence of small intestinal refluxes was not affected by neurotensin. These results coupled with our earlier work, which demonstrated that neurotensin is released by the presence of oleic acid in the duodenum, indicate that neurotensin may function as an enterogastrone released by lipids in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken. This overall inhibitory effect of neurotensin on the avian gut indicates that it is involved in the postprandial regulation of digestion, especially lipid digestion.

  10. Monitoring protein hydrolysis by pepsin using pH-stat: In vitro gastric digestions in static and dynamic pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Mat, Damien J L; Cattenoz, Thomas; Souchon, Isabelle; Michon, Camille; Le Feunteun, Steven

    2018-01-15

    This study intends to demonstrate that acid titration at low pH is very well adapted to the monitoring of pepsin activity. After a description of the underlying principles, this approach was used during in vitro gastric digestions of a model of complex food containing 15wt% of whey proteins, according to both static (2h at pH = 3, Infogest protocol) and dynamic pH conditions (from pH 6.3 down to 2 in 1h). Pepsin activity was quantitatively assessed in all experiments through the calculation of degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Final values of 3.7 and 3.0% were obtained in static and dynamic pH conditions, respectively, and validated using an independent method. Results also show that about 92% of the peptides were detected at pH = 3, and 100% for pH≤2.5. Overall, the proposed approach proved to be very worthy to study protein hydrolysis during in vitro gastric digestions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro cultivation of anisakis simplex: pepsin increases survival and moulting from fourth larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the in vitro cultivation of the 3rd-larval stage (L3) of Anisakis simplex to adulthood in a much simpler and easier to prepare medium than those described to date. The adult males obtained are between 3.8 and 6.5 cm long and the females between 4.5 and 8.0 cm. Some individually cultivated females laid eggs which had an average size of 44.4 x 50.5 microm. The culture conditions were as follows: medium RPMI-1640 supplemented with 20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and 1% commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0 and a temperature of 37 degrees C, and in air atmosphere with 5% CO2. The pepsin was found to be the key to the success of the culture. The average survival of the worms in the culture increased from 50 to 88 days, due to the fact that the survival of the adults practically doubled (increasing by 1.9 times). Furthermore, the number of worms that completed the 4th moulting (M4) increased by 4.2 times, from 22.9 to 95.6%. This culture medium may facilitate, due to its simplicity, the study of anisakids, or at least of A. simplex, constituting another step towards achieving a complete in vitro life-cycle for these parasites.

  12. Prediction of crude protein digestibility of animal by-product meals for dogs by the protein solubility in pepsin method.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Iris M; Sakomura, Nilva K; Pontieri, Cristiana F F; Rebelato, Aline; Putarov, Thaila C; Malheiros, Euclides B; Gomes, Márcia de O S; Castrillo, Carlos; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Animal by-product meals have large variability in crude protein (CP) content and digestibility. In vivo digestibility procedures are precise but laborious, and in vitro methods could be an alternative to evaluate and classify these ingredients. The present study reports prediction equations to estimate the CP digestibility of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PM) using the protein solubility in pepsin method (PSP). Total tract CP digestibility of eight MBM and eight PM samples was determined in dogs by the substitution method. A basal diet was formulated for dog maintenance, and sixteen diets were produced by mixing 70 % of the basal diet and 30 % of each tested meal. Six dogs per diet were used to determine ingredient digestibility. In addition, PSP of the MBM and PM samples was determined using three pepsin concentrations: 0·02, 0·002 and 0·0002 %. The CP content of MBM and PM ranged from 39 to 46 % and 57 to 69 %, respectively, and their mean CP digestibility by dogs was 76 (2·4) and 85 (2·6) %, respectively. The pepsin concentration with higher Pearson correlation coefficients with the in vivo results were 0·0002 % for MBM (r 0·380; P = 0·008) and 0·02 % for PM (r 0·482; P = 0·005). The relationship between the in vivo and in vitro results was better explained by the following equations: CP digestibility of MBM = 61·7 + 0·2644 × PSP at 0·0002 % (P = 0·008; R (2) 0·126); and CP digestibility of PM = 54·1 + 0·3833 × PSP at 0·02 % (P = 0·005; R (2) 0·216). Although significant, the coefficients of determination were low, indicating that the models were weak and need to be used with caution.

  13. Secondary Structure and Subunit Composition of Soy Protein In Vitro Digested by Pepsin and Its Relation with Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Zhongjiang; Wang, Rui; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Han, Feifei; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro digestibility and structure of soybean protein isolates (SPIs) prepared from five soybean varieties were investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), using FT-IR microspectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that β-conformations were prone to be hydrolyzed by pepsin preferentially and transformed to unordered structure during in vitro digestion, followed by the digestion of α-helix and unordered structure. A negative linear correlation coefficient was found between the β-conformation contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. The intensities of the protein bands corresponding to 7S and 11S fractions were decreased and many peptide bands appeared at 11~15 kDa during enzymatic hydrolysis. β-conglycinin was poorly hydrolyzed with pepsin, especially the β-7S subunit. On the other hand, basic polypeptides of glycinin degraded slower than acidic polypeptides and represented a large proportion of the residual protein after digestion. 11S-A3 of all SPIs disappeared after 1 h digestion. Moreover, a significant negative linear correlation coefficient (r = −0.89) was found between the β-7S contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. These results are useful for further studies of the functional properties and bioactive properties of these varieties and laid theoretical foundations for the development of the specific functional soy protein isolate. PMID:27298825

  14. Inhibition by somatostatin (growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone, GH-RIH) of gastric acid and pepsin and G-cell release of gastrin.

    PubMed Central

    Barros D'sa, A A; Bloom, S R; Baron, J H

    1978-01-01

    Somatostatin (cyclic growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone--GH-RIH) was infused into dogs with gastric fistulae. Somatostatin inhibited gastric acid response to four gastric stimulants--insulin, food, histamine, and pentagastrin. Histamine- and pentagastrin-stimulated pepsins were inhibited similarly to inhibition of acid. Somatostatin inhibited the gastrin response to insulin and food. PMID:348581

  15. In vitro pepsin resistance of proteins: Effect of non-reduced SDS-PAGE analysis on fragment observation.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Juliette; Rafiq, Samera; Cochrane, Stella A; Lalljie, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of novel proteins to food products carries with it the need to assess the potential allergenicity of such materials. Resistance to in vitro pepsin digestion is one parameter considered in such a risk assessment using a weight of evidence approach; however, the methodology used to investigate this has not been fully standardised. In vitro pepsin resistance assays typically involve SDS-PAGE performed under reducing conditions, with limited published data available on the assay using non-reducing conditions despite the need to consider non-reducing analysis techniques having been highlighted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The purpose of the work reported here was to investigate the applicability of (and additional insight provided by) non-reducing analyses, by digesting a set of proteins using a ring-trial validated method, with analysis by SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. In silico prediction of digest fragments was also investigated. Significant differences were observed between results under reduced and non-reduced conditions for proteins in which disulphide bonds have a major role in protein structure, such as ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO) and bovine serum albumin. For proteins with no or few disulphide bonds, no significant differences were seen in the results. Structural information such as disulphide bond numbers and positions should be considered during experimental design, as a non-reduced approach may be appropriate for some proteins. The in silico approach was a useful tool to suggest potential digest fragments, however the predictions were not always confirmed in vitro and should be considered a guide only.

  16. Isolation and characterization of natural Ara h 6: evidence for a further peanut allergen with putative clinical relevance based on resistance to pepsin digestion and heat.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Martin; Wicklein, Daniel; Lepp, Ute; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard

    2004-10-01

    Peanut allergy is a significant health problem because of its prevalence and the potential severity of the allergic reaction. The characterization of peanut allergens is crucial to the understanding of the mechanism of peanut allergy. Recently, we described cloning of the peanut allergen Ara h 6. The aim of this study was isolation and further characterization of nAra h 6. We purified nAra h 6 from crude peanut extract using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The preparation was further characterized by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) with subsequent immunoblotting. Stability of nAra h 6 was studied by an in vitro digestibility assay as well as by resistance against thermal processing. Sequencing of nAra h 6 identified the N-terminal amino acid sequence as MRRERGRQGDSSS. Further results clearly demonstrated stability of nAra h 6 against pepsin digestion and heating. Immunoglobulin G (IgE) binding analysis and its biological activity shown by RBL 25/30-test of natural Ara h 6 supported the importance of this peanut allergen. Investigation of nAra h 6 revealed evidence for a further peanut allergen with putative clinical relevance based on resistance to pepsin digestion and heat.

  17. Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) regulates cell cycle and the fibronectin synthesis in HaCaT cell migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Yeong; Lim, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Seogjae; Hwang, Hyeong Cheol; Cho, Somi K; Cho, Moonjae

    2012-05-01

    Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was studied with respect to its wound-healing effects on a human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Disaggregated collagen fibres were treated with 0.1M NaOH for 24h and digested with pepsin for 72h to reach maximum yield of 26.6%. The results of an in vitro wound-healing test showed that migration of HaCaT cells was 1.5-fold faster on PSC-coated plates than on untreated plates. The migration rate of sea cucumber PSC was similar to that of rat PSC, but five times higher than that of bovine gelatin. HaCaT cells grown on PSC-coated plates revealed increased fibronectin synthesis (6-fold and 3-fold compared to gelatin and rat PSC, respectively). Additionally, sea cucumber PSCs induced HaCaT cell proliferation by decreasing the G1 phase by 5% and maintaining a larger population (8%) of cells in mitosis. Collagen from Red Sea cucumber might be useful as an alternative to mammalian collagen in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate ameliorates metabolic syndrome in high-fat/high-dextrose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, S; Garcés-Rimón, M; González, C; Uranga, J A; López-Miranda, V; Vera, G; Miguel, M

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pepsin egg white hydrolysate (EWH) on metabolic complications using a high-fat/high-dextrose diet-induced Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) experimental model. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups which received: standard diet and water (C), standard diet and a solution with 1 g kg -1 day -1 of EWH (CH), high-fat/high-dextrose diet and water (MS), and high-fat/high-dextrose diet and a solution with 1 g kg -1 day -1 of EWH (MSH). EWH consumption normalized body weight gain; abdominal obesity and peripheral neuropathy developed in MetS animals, and adipose tissue and liver weight, as well as plasma glucose were reduced. Oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers were normalized in MSH animals. In conclusion, the oral administration of EWH could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve some complications associated with MetS induced by unhealthy diets.

  19. Characterization and antioxidant activities of marine pepsin soluble collagen from the skin of yellow goosefish Lophius litulon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Xiang, Xingwei; Zhou, Yufang; Yang, Huicheng; Luo, Hongyu; Liao, Miaofei; Wen, Zhengshun

    2017-05-01

    Characteristics and antioxidant activities of pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from yellow goosefish ( Lophius litulon) skins were investigated. PSC was characterized as a type I collagen, and its imino acid content was 193 residues/1 000 residues. PSC's denaturation temperature was 17.56°C and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence of triple helices. Solubility analysis showed good solubility at acidic pH (1-6) or low NaCl concentrations (≤2%). PSC showed scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PSC could protect D-galactose-induced skin aging by significantly controlling malondialdehyde formation and improving the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and hydroxyproline. PSC may be a promising antioxidant in appropriate applications.

  20. The effects of food components on the digestion of DNA by pepsin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Xingyu; Pan, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Wang, Hanqing; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-11-01

    Recently, our study found that naked nucleic acids (NAs) can be digested by pepsin. To better understand the fate of dietary DNA in the digestive tract, in this study we investigated the effects of several food compositions on its digestion. The results showed that protein inhibited the digestion of DNA when the protein:DNA ratio was higher than 80:1 (m/m). DNA found in nucleoprotein (NA), which more closely resembles the state of DNA in food, was as efficiently digested as naked DNA. When the carbohydrate:DNA ratio was 50:1-140:1 (m/m), mono-, di- and polysaccharides did not inhibit DNA digestion. NaCl exhibited an inhibitory effect at 300 mM, whereas divalent cations (Ca(2+ )and Mg(2+)) exerted a much stronger inhibitory effect even at 50 mM. The polycation compounds (e.g. chitosan and spermine) showed a significant inhibitory effect at N/P (NH3(+)/PO4(-)) = 10:1. The close relationship between food composition and DNA digestion suggests that dietary habits and food complexes are important for understanding the in vivo fate of the ingested DNA in the digestive tract.

  1. Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui; Huang, Lei; Song, Yujie; Regenstein, Joe M

    2014-05-01

    Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (α1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity.

  3. Experimental model of smoking and simulation of reflux with acid and pepsin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zen Junior, José Hélio; Del Negro, André; Colli Neto, José Alexandre; Araujo, Marina Rachel; Altemani, Albina Maria; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2012-01-01

    To develop experimental models to evaluate the effects of hydrochloric acid associated with the pepsin instilled in the mucosa of the upper esophagus and the esophagogastric junction of young male rats Wistar, simulating injury caused by gastroesophageal reflux on the mucosa of aero-digestive tract in humans as well as the action of the risk exposure of mucosa to cigarette smoke. Fifty young male Wistar rats divided in 5 groups with 10 animals each one, respectively simulating pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux, pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and smoking, smoking only, gastroesophageal reflux and control group. The histopathologic studies no recorded neoplasias, only mild changes and no significant alterations. The hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobim) and CO2 concentration confirm that the animals were submitted to high intensity of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco and its derivatives. The experimental models were highly efficient, practical, easy to use and economical and can be employed in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects by smoking and reflux.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic property of maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles and their protective coating with pepsin for bio-functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bandhu, A.; Sutradhar, S.; Mukherjee, S.

    Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were then successfully coated with pepsin for bio-functionlization. • XRD and Mössbauer spectra confirmed the maghemite phase of the nanoparticles. • Magnetic data were analysed to evaluate particle size, anisotropy etc. - Abstract: Maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are prepared by co-precipitation method. To obtain bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically controlled drug delivery, the prepared nanoparticles are successfully coated with pepsin, a bio-compatible polymer and digestive enzyme. Crystallographic phase of the nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffractograms (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and {sup 57}Femore » Mössbauer spectrometry. The average size of nanoparticles/nanocrystallites is estimated from the (3 1 1) peak of the XRD pattern using Debye–Scherrer formula. Results of HRTEM of coated and bare samples are in good agreement with those extracted from the XRD analysis. The dynamic magnetic properties are observed and different quantities viz., coercive field, magnetization, remanence, hysteresis losses etc., are estimated, which confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic relaxation of nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the samples recorded at both 300 and 77 K, confirmed that the majority of particles are maghemite together with a very small fraction of magnetite nanoparticles.« less

  5. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pepsin-digested bovine lactoferrin prevents Mozzarella cheese blue discoloration caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Leonardo; Quintieri, Laura; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Monaci, Linda; Visconti, Angelo; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to check the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin hydrolyzed by pepsin (LFH) to prevent blue discoloration of Mozzarella cheese delaying the growth of the related spoilage bacteria. Among 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from 105 Mozzarella samples, only ten developed blue discoloration in cold-stored Mozzarella cheese slices. When Mozzarella cheese samples from dairy were treated with LFH and inoculated with a selected P. fluorescens strain, no pigmentation and changes in casein profiles were found up to 14 days of cold storage. In addition, starting from day 5, the count of P. fluorescens spoiling strain was steadily ca. one log cycle lower than that of LFH-free samples. ESI-Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry analyses allowed to reveal the pigment leucoindigoidine only in the blue LFH-free cheese samples indicating that this compound could be considered a chemical marker of this alteration. For the first time, an innovative mild approach, based on the antimicrobial activity of milk protein hydrolysates, for counteracting blue Mozzarella event and controlling psychrotrophic pigmenting pseudomonads, is here reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and characteristics of acid and pepsin-solubilized collagens from the skin of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaokui; Yin, Juanjuan; Yang, Shuqi; Zhang, Chaohua; Yang, Ping; Wu, Wenlong

    2012-12-01

    Acid-solubilized collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) were extracted from the skin of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The yields of ASC and PSC were 35.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Based on the protein patterns and carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography, ASC and PSC were composed of α1α2α3 heterotrimers and were characterised as type I collagen with no disulfide bond. Their amounts of imino acids were 203 and 191 residues per 1000 residues, respectively. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the high sequences similarities of ASC and PSC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed that the amide I, II and III peaks of PSC were obtained at a lower wave number compared with ASC. The thermal denaturation temperatures of ASC and PSC, as measured by viscometry, were 34.62 and 33.97°C, respectively. The transition temperatures (T(max)) were 38.17 and 36.03°C, respectively, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both collagens were soluble at acidic pH and below 2% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping.

    PubMed

    Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

    2008-07-07

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin beta- and alpha-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

  9. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carol-Visser, Jeroen; van der Schans, Marcel; Fidder, Alex; Hulst, Albert G; van Baar, Ben L M; Irth, Hubertus; Noort, Daan

    2008-07-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the tool of choice in the analysis of such protein adducts, but the overall experimental procedure is quite elaborate. Therefore, an automated on-line pepsin digestion-LC-MS configuration has been developed for the rapid determination of CWA protein adducts. The utility of this configuration is demonstrated by the analysis of specific adducts of sarin and sulfur mustard to human butyryl cholinesterase and human serum albumin, respectively.

  10. Isolation and structural characterisation of acid- and pepsin-soluble collagen from the skin of squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson, 1830).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-01-01

    Acid-solubilised collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) were effectively isolated from squid skin with good yield and total protein content. ASC and PSC consist of two α-chains with an imino acid content of 182.6 and 184 imino acid residues/1000 residues. The molecular weight was determined to be between 73 and 107 kDa by using SDS-PAGE. For peptide mapping, collagens were digested with achromo endopeptidase, and all components, including α, β-chains, were markedly hydrolysed. Degradation peptides with molecular weights between 106.9 and 15.47 kDa were obtained. UV-vis absorption spectrum revealed distinct absorption at 220-240 nm. FT-IR spectra of collagens were almost similar when compared with standard. In differential scanning calorimetry profile, ASC and PSC exhibited a To of 59.10, 62.18°C and TP of 104.91, 98.10 °C, respectively. This investigation indicates that the collagen isolated from the squid skin, which is thrown as waste in the seafood-processing plant, might supplement the vertebrate collagen in industrial applications.

  11. Acid, pepsin, and mucus secretion in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer before and after colloidal bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol).

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J H; Barr, J; Batten, J; Sidebotham, R; Spencer, J

    1986-01-01

    Basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric secretion was measured in seven patients with duodenal, and six with gastric ulcers before and after four weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (as De-Nol), one tablet four times a day. Each duodenal and all but one of the gastric ulcers healed. After De-Nol there were no significant changes in basal, or pentagastrin stimulated volume, acid output, or primary parietal component. There were marked decreases in basal (duodenal ulcer -25%; gastric ulcer -16%) and pentagastrin stimulated total pepsin outputs, (duodenal ulcer -42%, gastric ulcer -36%). There were insignificant decreases in basal output of mucus, but postpentagastrin stimulated mucus output was significantly inhibited (p less than 0.05) in patients with duodenal (-16%) and with gastric ulcer (-27%). The drop in gastric proteolysis after De-Nol is unlikely to be because of the healing of the ulcers and is more likely to be because of the drug. The ulcer healing efficacy of De-Nol may be related to this decline in the proteolytic action of gastric juice, but is unlikely to be because of a quantitative change in mucus, or in acid secretion. PMID:3084345

  12. The characteristics of salivary pepsin in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Naoki; Fukahori, Suguru; Asagiri, Kimio; Ishii, Shinji; Saikusa, Nobuyuki; Higashidate, Naruki; Yoshida, Motomu; Masui, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Saki; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Yagi, Minoru; Yamashita, Yushiro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the utility of measuring the salivary pepsin level (SPL) as an objective assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) patients. This prospective study included 26 SMID patients who underwent simultaneous 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH measurement (pH/MII) and SPL evaluation. The enrolled patients were divided into GERD (+) or GERD (-) groups according to the pH/MII findings. The age, gender and pH/MII parameters were compared between the two groups. A correlation analysis was also conducted for the SPL following early-morning fasting and post-enteral feeding and the age, gender, presence of gastrostomy and tracheostomy and pH/MII parameters. The SPL was compared between the two sampling groups. Fifteen patients were classified as GERD (+), and 11 patients were classified as GERD (-). The mean SPL following early-morning fasting and post-enteral feeding among all patients were 104.3 (median: 38, 25th and 75th percentile: 12, 361) ng/ml and 222.2 (median: 152:0, 500) ng/ml, respectively. Regarding positivity, 76.9% and 73.1% of SPL values in early-morning fasting and post-enteral feeding SMID patients, respectively, were positive (≧16ng/ml). The SPL following early-morning fasting demonstrated a weak but significant positive correlation with age. In contrast, we noted no correlation between the pH/MII parameters and the SPL for either the early-morning fasting or post-enteral feeding patients, and no significant difference in the SPL was observed between the GERD (+) and (-) patients. The present study showed that a high proportion of SMID patients had a relatively high SPL, regardless of the presence of GERD. The SPL in SMID patients might be affected by several distinctive factors in addition to gastroesophageal reflux. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  14. Gastric reflux: association with aspiration and oral secretion pH as marker of reflux: a descriptive correlational study.

    PubMed

    Schallom, Marilyn; Orr, James A; Metheny, Norma; Kirby, John; Pierce, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Gastric reflux leading to pulmonary aspiration is a frequent event in mechanically ventilated, gastric-fed patients, which can lead to ventilator-associated complications and pneumonia. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between gastric reflux and aspiration using the presence of pepsin in oral or tracheal secretions as a marker of reflux or aspiration and to determine the association between the pH (range, 0-14) and the presence of pepsin in oral secretions. A descriptive correlational study was conducted in mechanically ventilated surgical or medical patients receiving gastric tube feedings. Oral secretions were suctioned hourly and tracheal secretions every 2 to 3 hours for 12-hour periods over 1 to 2 days in 15 patients. There were 142 paired samples of oral tracheal secretions. A majority of samples (60%) had the same results, with 32% both pepsin-positive and 27% both pepsin-negative. The range of pH measurements was 4 to 8, with a mean of 6.3 ± 0.05. Ninety oral specimens had a pH of 4 to 6. Forty-seven of the oral specimens with pH measures between 4 and 6 (52%) were pepsin-positive. The correlation of pH percent pepsin-positive oral secretions was not significant. Aspiration events were more frequent than reflux events. Measurement of actual pepsin concentration to detect new reflux and aspiration events is recommended in future studies. Bedside pH measures of oral secretions are not a valid marker of gastric reflux.

  15. A New Method for Xenogeneic Bone Graft Deproteinization: Comparative Study of Radius Defects in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Wang, Long; Zhou, Jialin; Wan, Lifei; Zhou, Tianjian; Hu, Yihe

    2015-01-01

    Deproteinization is an indispensable process for the elimination of antigenicity in xenograft bones. However, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) deproteinized xenograft, which is commonly used to repair bone defect, exhibits limited osteoinduction activity. The present study was designed to develop a new method for deproteinization and compare the osteogenic capacities of new pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones with those of conventional H2O2 deproteinized ones. Bones were deproteinized in H2O2 or pepsin for 8 hours. The morphologies were compared by HE staining. The content of protein and collagen I were measured by the Kjeldahl method and HPLC-MS, respectively. The physical properties were evaluated by SEM and mechanical tests. For in vivo study, X-ray, micro-CT and HE staining were employed to monitor the healing processes of radius defects in rabbit models transplanted with different graft materials. Compared with H2O2 deproteinized bones, no distinct morphological and physical changes were observed. However, pepsin deproteinized bones showed a lower protein content, and a higher collagen content were preserved. In vivo studies showed that pepsin deproteinized bones exhibited better osteogenic performance than H2O2 deproteinized bones, moreover, the quantity and quality of the newly formed bones were improved as indicated by micro-CT analysis. From the results of histological examination, the newly formed bones in the pepsin group were mature bones. Pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones show advantages over conventional H2O2 deproteinized bones with respect to osteogenic capacity; this new method may hold potential clinical value in the development of new biomaterials for bone grafting.

  16. A New Method for Xenogeneic Bone Graft Deproteinization: Comparative Study of Radius Defects in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Wang, Long; Zhou, Jialin; Wan, Lifei; Zhou, Tianjian; Hu, Yihe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Deproteinization is an indispensable process for the elimination of antigenicity in xenograft bones. However, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) deproteinized xenograft, which is commonly used to repair bone defect, exhibits limited osteoinduction activity. The present study was designed to develop a new method for deproteinization and compare the osteogenic capacities of new pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones with those of conventional H2O2 deproteinized ones. Methods Bones were deproteinized in H2O2 or pepsin for 8 hours. The morphologies were compared by HE staining. The content of protein and collagen I were measured by the Kjeldahl method and HPLC-MS, respectively. The physical properties were evaluated by SEM and mechanical tests. For in vivo study, X-ray, micro-CT and HE staining were employed to monitor the healing processes of radius defects in rabbit models transplanted with different graft materials. Results Compared with H2O2 deproteinized bones, no distinct morphological and physical changes were observed. However, pepsin deproteinized bones showed a lower protein content, and a higher collagen content were preserved. In vivo studies showed that pepsin deproteinized bones exhibited better osteogenic performance than H2O2 deproteinized bones, moreover, the quantity and quality of the newly formed bones were improved as indicated by micro-CT analysis. From the results of histological examination, the newly formed bones in the pepsin group were mature bones. Conclusions Pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones show advantages over conventional H2O2 deproteinized bones with respect to osteogenic capacity; this new method may hold potential clinical value in the development of new biomaterials for bone grafting. PMID:26719896

  17. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) exploits host signaling events to regulate inflammatory responses associated with lymphatic filarial infections.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Kirthika; Kalyanaraman, Haripriya; Babu, Subash; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged existence of filarial parasites and their molecules within the host modulate the host immune system to instigate their survival and induce inflammatory responses that contribute to disease progression. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) modulates the host immune responses by skewing towards Th1 responses characterized by secretion of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO). Here we also specified the molecular signaling events triggered by rBm33 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of filarial endemic normals (EN). rBm33 predominantly enhanced the levels of nitric oxide in cultured PBMCs but did not result in oxidative stress to the host cells. Further, rBm33 treatment of human PBMCs resulted in higher GSH/GSSG levels. MYD88 dependent activation was found to be associated with rBm33 specific inflammatory cytokine production. rBm33 triggered intracellular signaling events also involved JNK activation in host PBMCs. In addition, c-Fos and not NF-κB was identified as the transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rBm33 stimulated PBMCs. rBm33 marked its role in filarial pathology by altered levels of growth factors but did not have a significant impact on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) activity of host PBMCs. Thus, the study outlines the signaling network of rBm33 induced inflammatory responses within the host immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Koufman, Jamie A; Johnston, Nikki

    2012-07-01

    At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity. Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters. The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters. Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

  19. Histomorphology and proteolytic activity in the gastric apparatus of frugivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous species of birds.

    PubMed

    Jain, D K

    1976-01-01

    The histomorphology of the gastric apparatus, the pepsin level and the optimum pH for pepsin were investigated in Psittacula krameri (frugivore), Lanius schach (carnivore) and Acridotheres tristis (omnivore) species of birds. The proventricular glands were found to be made up of oxynticopeptic cells. The lobules of the oxynticopeptic cells are polyhedral; they are the largest in P. krameri, and the smallest in A. tristis. However, their greater number in A. tristis enables a higher secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. The villi are more developed in A. tristis than in L. schach and P. krameri. The gizzard is larger in A. tristis than in P. krameri and A. tritis than in the carnivore L. schach. Koilin lining is beset with horny cones, which were well developed in A. tristis, moderately developed in P. krameri and absent in L. schach. The pepsin activity is higher in the proventriculus of the carnivorous L. schach and the omnivorous A. tristis than in the frugivorous P. krameri. Slight pepsin activity was also observed in gizzard tissue extracts in all the three species. The optimum pH for pepsin was found to be 1.5 for P. krameri and 1.8 for both L. schach and A. tristis.

  20. Proteolysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins during in vitro gastric digestion of milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, A; Cui, J; Singh, H

    2011-06-01

    The influence of gastric proteolysis on the physicochemical characteristics of milk fat globules and the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in raw milk and cream was examined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing various pepsin concentrations at pH 1.6 for up to 2h. Apparent flocculation of the milk fat globules occurred in raw milk samples incubated in SGF containing pepsin, but no coalescence was observed in either raw milk samples or cream samples. The changes in the particle size of the fat globules as a result of the flocculation were dependent on the pepsin concentration. Correspondingly, the physical characteristics of the fat globules and the composition of the MFGM proteins in raw milk changed during incubation in SGF containing pepsin. The major MFGM proteins were hydrolyzed at different rates by the pepsin in the SGF; butyrophilin was more resistant than xanthine oxidase, PAS 6, or PAS 7. Peptides with various molecular weights, which altered with the time of incubation and the pepsin concentration, were present at the surfaces of the fat globules. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    PubMed Central

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  2. Fractionation of equine antivenom using caprylic acid precipitation in combination with cationic ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raweerith, Rutai; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2003-11-01

    A combined process of caprylic acid (CA) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose was studied as a means to fractionate pepsin-digested horse antivenom F(ab')(2) antibody. In the CA precipitation, the optimal concentration for fractionation of F(ab')(2) from pepsin-digested horse plasma was 2%, in which 89.61% of F(ab')(2) antibody activity was recovered in the supernatant with 1.5-fold purification. A significant amount of pepsin was not precipitated and remained active under these conditions. An analytical cation exchanger Protein-Pak SP 8HR HPLC column was tested to establish optimal conditions for the effective separation of IgG, albumin, pepsin and CA from the F(ab')(2) product. From these results, the supernatant from CA precipitation of pepsin-digested plasma was subjected to a SP-Sepharose column chromatography using a linear salt gradient. With stepwise elution, a peak containing F(ab')(2) antibody could be obtained by elution with 0.25 M NaCl. The total recovery of antibody was 65.56% with 2.91-fold purification, which was higher than that achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This process simultaneously and effectively removed residual pepsin, high molecular weight aggregates and CA in the final F(ab')(2) product, and should be suitable for large-scale fractionation of therapeutic equine antivenoms.

  3. Digestive enzymatic patterns as possible biomarkers of endocrine disruption in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus): A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella; De Pasquale, Francesca; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Micale, Valeria

    2016-04-15

    During two seasonal trawl surveys (April and October, 2012), red mullet specimens were caught from two sites of the northern Sicilian coast (Western Mediterranean), characterized by different degrees of pollution, to assess whether their digestive enzymes could be cost-effective diagnostic tools for endocrine disruption. Pepsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases A and B, amylase and lipase were measured in the digestive tract of each fish. During both samplings, significant differences in the digestive enzymatic patterns of fish collected from the two sites were found. In April, pepsin and lipase contents were significantly lower in fish from the most impacted site than in those from the reference site. In October, the enzymatic patterns showed trends different from spring, with controversial results for carboxypeptidases A and B and amylase. Pepsin and lipase patterns suggest a detrimental effect played by organic pollutants and the use of these enzymes as possible biomarkers of exposure to endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prior lactose glycation of caseinate via the Maillard reaction affects in vitro activities of the pepsin-trypsin digest toward intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, X P; Zhao, X H

    2017-07-01

    The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells. Two digests had proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, and reached the highest effects at 0.02 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 24 h. In comparison with caseinate digest, glycated caseinate digest always showed weaker proliferative (5.3-14.2%) and anti-apoptotic (5.9-39.0%) effects, and was more toxic to the cells at 0.5 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 48 h. However, glycated caseinate digest at 2 incubation times of 4 to 7 d showed differentiation induction higher than caseinate digest, as it could confer the cells with increased activities in lactase (16.3-26.6%), sucrase (22.4-31.2%), and alkaline phosphatase (17.4-24.8%). Transmission electron microscopy observation results also confirmed higher differentiation induction of glycated caseinate digest. Amino acid loss and lactose glycation partially contributed to these decreased and enhanced activities of glycated caseinate digest, respectively. The Maillard reaction of caseinate and lactose is thus shown in this study to have effects on the activities of caseinate digest to intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of gastrin-releasing peptide in pepsinogen secretion from the isolated perfused rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Skak-Nielsen, T; Holst, J J; Christensen, J D; Fjalland, B

    1988-10-01

    We studied the effects of the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide on pepsinogen secretion using an isolated perfused rat stomach with intact vagal innervation. Following electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves, the pepsin output to the luminal effluent increased from 94 +/- 7 to 182 +/- 24 units pepsin/min and the release of immunoreactive gastrin-releasing peptide to the venous effluent increased from 0.059 +/- 0.014 to 0.138 +/- 0.028 pmol/min. Infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide at 10(-8) M significantly increased pepsin output (from 87 +/- 17 to 129 +/- 22 units pepsin/min) and simultaneous infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide and carbachol at 10(-8) and 10(-6) M, respectively, resulted in an increase to almost 4 times the basal values. Atropine reduced but did not abolish the pepsin response to vagal stimulation and to infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide. Our results suggest that gastrin-releasing peptide participates in the vagal control of pepsinogen secretion.

  6. [Significance of pharyngeal biochemical indexes in the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wu, W; Wang, G

    2018-02-27

    Objective: To investigate the significance of the detection of pepsin in saliva and the pharyngeal pH monitoring in the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease(LPRD). Methods: A total of 176 patients (140 patients with simple pharyngitis and 36 patients with space-occupying lesions of larynx) who were suspected to have laryngopharyngeal reflux between February and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were evaluated with reflux symptom index (RSI), reflux finding score (RFS) and 24-hour pharyngeal pH monitoring(Dx-pH). Saliva of patients was collected and the pepsin in the saliva was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The positive rate of RSI (RSI>13) and/or RFS (RFS>7) was 56.8% (100/176). The positive rate of pepsin in saliva was 40.9% (72/176) and pepsin in saliva collected at the time of onset of symptom was much higher than that at other time points ( P <0.001). The positive rate of pepsin in saliva, Ryan score and the pH<6.0 laryngopharyngeal reflux in space-occupying lesions group [55.6%(20/36), 27.8% (10/36), 69.4%(25/36), respectively] were all higher than simple pharyngitis group [37.1% (52/140), 5.0% (7/140), 50% (70/140), respectively] ( P =0.045, P <0.001, P =0.037, respectively). Conclusions: The detection of pepsin in saliva and the pharyngeal pH monitoring reflected different reflux agents, and there was great significance for the diagnosis of LPRD by using two methods together. We found that the weak acid state and consequent pepsin damage played an important role in the occurrence and development of space-occupying lesions of larynx.

  7. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z < 849.2) with higher signal intensities. The number of unique peptides identified in every digestion product showed a positive correlation with their in vitro digestibility. Additionally, bioactive peptides such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive peptides were found present in egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-01-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37–38 kDa and 31–34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians. PMID:26711235

  10. [Study on the correlation between adenoid hypertrophy and laryngopharyngeal reflux in children].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y D; Tan, J J; Han, X Y; Zeng, F F; Li, Y F; Wang, L; Li, X P

    2018-06-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlation between adenoid hypertrophy and laryngopharyngeal reflux in children, and to determine the accuracy of reflux symptom index(RSI) and reflux finding score(RFS) in predicting adenoid hypertrophy and laryngopharyngeal reflux(LPR). Method: Assessment of RSI and RFS was performed in 71 children with adenoid hypertrophy who underwent surgery.The adenoid biopsy specimens were examined by pepsin immunohistochemical staining. According to the positive results of pepsin staining to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RSI and RFS to predict LPR. Result: Among the 71 children with adenoid hypertrophy, RSI was greater than 13 points in 4 cases (5.63%), RFS was greater than 7 points in 26 cases (36.62%), and 1(1.41%) was positive in both scores. Pepsin expression was detected in 52 cases of adenoid hypertrophy tissues, with a total positive rate of 73.24% (52/71),most were strong positive(15/71,21.13%)and positive(23/71,32.39%). The higher the adenoid hypertrophy grade, the higher the expression level of pepsin ( r =0.476, P <0.01).Define the positive rate of pepsin as the gold standard for the diagnosis of LPR, the sensitivity and specificity of RSI and RFS were 5.77%,34.62% and 94.74%,57.89% respectively. Pepsin staining intensity was positively correlated with troublesome or annoying cough( r =0.356, P =0.002)and was negatively correlated with ventricular obliteration( r =-0.212, P =0.038). Conclusion: There is a correlation between adenoid hypertrophy and LPR in children,LPR plays an important role in the development of adenoid and the role and mechanism of pepsin in adenoid hypertrophy needs further studyAs the low sensitivity of RSI and RFS, it is not suitable for the screening of adenoid hypertrophy in children with LPR. Children with adenoid hypertrophy cough for a long time and the laryngoscopy shows the ventricular obliteration, the presence of LPR should be warned. Copyright© by the Editorial

  11. Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A

    2013-01-01

    Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P < 0.001) with SIAAD for each AA. Multiple linear regression of PC IDEA and pepsin digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.

  12. Somatostatin, prostaglandin E2 and atropine inhibition of the gastric actions of bombesin in the dog.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I; Molina, E

    1984-01-01

    Bombesin, acetylcholine, prostaglandins and somatostatin are all thought to be involved in the regulation of gastrin release and gastric secretion. We have studied the effects of low doses of atropine, 16-16(Me)2-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and somatostatin-14 on bombesin-stimulated gastrin release and gastric acid and pepsin secretion in conscious fistula dogs. For reference, synthetic gastrin G-17 was studied with and without somatostatin. Bombesin, in a dose-related manner, increased serum gastrin, which in turn stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in a serum gastrin, concentration-dependent manner. Somatostatin inhibited gastrin release by bombesin as well as the secretory stimulation by G-17; the combination of sequential effects resulted in a marked inhibition of bombesin-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion. PGE2 also strongly inhibited gastrin release and acid and pepsin secretion. Atropine had no significant effect on gastrin release, but greatly inhibited gastric secretion. Thus somatostatin and PGE2 inhibited at two sites, gastrin release and gastrin effects, while atropine affected only the latter.

  13. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-04-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37-38 kDa and 31-34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Esophageal Epithelial Resistance and Lower Esophageal Sphincter Muscle Contraction Increase in a Chronic Diabetic Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Capanoglu, Doga; Coskunsever, Deniz; Olukman, Murat; Ülker, Sibel; Bor, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal motility disorders and possibly gastroesophageal reflux disease are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to investigate both the electrophysiological characteristics of the esophageal epithelium and the contractility of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) muscle in alloxane-induced diabetic rabbits. Electrophysiological properties were measured using an Ussing chamber method. An acid-pepsin model was employed with pH 1.7 or weakly acidic (pH 4) Ringer and/or pepsin. Smooth muscle strips of the LES were mounted in an isolated organ bath. Contractile responses to an electrical field stimulation and cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine were recorded. Contractility of the muscle strips were tested in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) and nonspecific nitric oxide inhibitor (L-NAME). The resistance of diabetic tissue perfused in the pH 1.7 Ringer decreased 17 %; pepsin addition decreased it by 49 %. The same concentrations caused a more distinct loss of resistance in the control tissues (22 and 76 %, p < 0.05). The perfusion of tissues in increased concentrations of luminal and serosal glucose did not change the tissue resistance and voltage. Diabetes significantly increased both the electrical field stimulation and acetylcholine-induced contractions in the LES muscle strips (p < 0.01). Incubation with Y-27632 significantly decreased the acetylcholine-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.01). The acid-pepsin model in the diabetic rabbit esophageal tissue had less injury compared with the control. The diabetic rabbit LES muscle had higher contractility, possibly because of the activation of the Rho-Rhokinase pathway. Our results show that in a chronic diabetic rabbit model the esophagus resists reflux by activating mechanisms of mucosal defense and increasing the contractility of the LES.

  15. Collagen extraction from mussel byssus: a new marine collagen source with physicochemical properties of industrial interest.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Morán, L; González, G; Troncoso, E; Zúñiga, R N

    2017-04-01

    Mussel byssus is a by-product of mussel production and is a potential source of collagen. The goal of this study was to extract collagen from the byssus of Chilean mussel using an enzymatic method and characterize it. A pepsin-aided extraction method was employed where first an enzymatic hydrolysis at two pepsin/substrate ratios (1:50 or 4:50) and times (4 or 24 h) was done. Extraction was conducted at 80 °C for 24 h, in a 0.5 N acetic acid solution. All samples were analyzed for collagen content, amino acid profile, turbidity, viscosity, solubility, denaturation temperature and surface tension. Hydrolysis time had significant effect on collagen content, hydroxyproline content and extraction yield. Hydrolysis with a pepsin/byssus ratio of 4:50 for 24 h gave the better extraction performance with values of 69 mg/g protein, 1.8 mg/g protein and 30%, for collagen content, hydroxyproline content and extraction yield, respectively. No differences were found for the viscosity and surface tension of collagen dispersions, suggesting that the enzymatic hydrolysis did not affect the integrity of the collagen molecule. Denaturation temperature of freeze-dried byssus collagen presented a high value (83-91 °C), making this kind of collagen a very interesting material for encapsulation of bioactive molecules and for biomedical applications.

  16. Disintegration kinetics of food gels during gastric digestion and its role on gastric emptying: an in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Ferrua, Maria; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the disintegration and gastric emptying of foods in the stomach is important for designing functional foods. In this study, a dynamic stomach model (human gastric simulator, HGS) was employed to investigate the disintegration and subsequent emptying of two differently structured whey protein emulsion gels (soft and hard gels).The gels were mechanically ground into fragments to reproduce the particle size distribution of an in vivo gel bolus. The simulated gel bolus was prepared by mixing gel fragments and artificial saliva, and exposed to 5 hours of simulated gastric digestion in the presence and absence of pepsin. Results showed that regardless of pepsin, the soft gel always disintegrated faster than the hard gel. The presence of pepsin significantly accelerated the disintegration of both gels. In particular, it enhanced abrasion of the soft gel into fine particles (<0.425 mm) after 180 min of processing. The emptying of the gels was influenced by the combined effects of the original particle size of the gel boluses and their disintegration kinetics in the HGS. In the presence or absence of pepsin, the larger particles of the soft gel emptied slower than the hard one during the first 120 min of process. However, in the presence of pepsin, the soft gel emptied faster than the hard one after 120 min because of a higher level of disintegration. These findings highlight the role of food structure, bolus properties and biochemical effects on the disintegration and gastric emptying patterns of gels during gastric digestion.

  17. Proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Button, Brenda M; Denehy, Linda; Roberts, Stuart J; Bamford, Tiffany L; Ellis, Samantha J; Mu, Fi-Tjen; Heine, Ralf G; Stirling, Robert G; Wilson, John W

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this observational study were (i) to examine the prevalence of symptomatic and clinically silent proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis, (ii) the presence of gastric aspiration, and (iii) to explore the possible clinical significance of this comorbidity in these conditions. Twenty-seven participants with COPD, 27 with bronchiectasis and 17 control subjects completed reflux symptom evaluation and dual-channel 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. In those with lung disease, pepsin levels in sputum samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with disease severity (lung function and high-resolution computed tomography) also measured. The prevalence of GOR in COPD was 37%, in bronchiectasis was 40% and in control subjects was 18% (P = 0.005). Of those diagnosed with GOR, clinically silent reflux was detected in 20% of participants with COPD and 42% with bronchiectasis. While pepsin was found in 33% of COPD and 26% of bronchiectasis participants, the presence of pepsin in sputum was not related to a diagnosis of GOR based on oesophageal pH monitoring in either condition. Neither a diagnosis of GOR nor the presence of pepsin was associated with increased severity of lung disease in COPD or bronchiectasis. The prevalence of GOR in COPD or bronchiectasis is twice that of the control population, and the diagnosis could not be based on symptoms alone. Pepsin was detected in sputum in COPD and bronchiectasis, suggesting a possible role of pulmonary aspiration, which requires further exploration. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Plasma cholesterol reduction by defatted soy ontjom (fermented with Neurospora intermedia) in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, M

    2000-02-01

    To popularize defatted soy ontjom (DSB-ontjom, soy product fermented with Neurospora intermedia) as a new food, I examined the plasma cholesterol-reducing effects of DSB-ontjom and DSB in rats fed cholesterol-free diets and compared the efficiencies of these effects. DSB-ontjom greatly reduced the plasma cholesterol level and increased fecal steroid excretion as compared to DSB. DSB-ontjom was rich in pepsin-resistant protein having a high bile acid binding capacity and was abundant in isoflavone-aglycones, especially daizein. The dietary fiber (DF) of DSB-ontjom stimulated the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by intestinal microflora. The effect of DSB-ontjom on plasma cholesterol reduction was attributed to the collaborative effects of pepsin-resistant-protein, isoflavone-aglycones and SCFA-producing DF in DSB-ontjom.

  19. Optimization of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lupin (Lupinus) Proteins for Producing ACE-Inhibitory Peptides.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-26

    Recently, the enzymatic hydrolysis of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius proteins with pepsin was showed to produce peptides able to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The objective of the present work was to test different hydrolytic enzymes and to investigate three lupin species (L. albus, L. angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) with the final goal of selecting the best enzyme/species combination for an efficient production of ACE-inhibitory peptide mixtures. Pepsin gave peptides with the best IC50 values (mean value on three species 186 ± 10 μg/mL), followed by pepsin + trypsin (198 ± 16 μg/mL), chymotrypsin (213 ± 83 μg/mL), trypsin (405 ± 54 μg/mL), corolase PP (497 ± 32 μg/mL), umamizyme (865 ± 230 μg/mL), and flavourzyme (922 ± 91 μg/mL). The three species showed similar activity scales, but after pepsin + trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, L. luteus peptide mixtures resulted to be significantly the most active. This investigation indicates that lupin proteins may be a valuable source of ACE-inhibitory peptides, which may explain the activity observed in experimental and clinical studies and foresee the application of lupin proteins into functional foods or dietary supplements.

  20. Local dynamics measured by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry of creatine kinase digested by two proteases.

    PubMed

    Mazon, Hortense; Marcillat, Olivier; Forest, Eric; Vial, Christian

    2005-12-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to investigate the structure and dynamics of native dimeric cytosolic muscle creatine kinase. The protein was incubated in D2O for various time. After H/D exchange and rapid quenching of the reaction, the partially deuterated protein was cleaved in parallel by two different proteases (pepsin or type XIII protease from Aspergillus saitoi) to increase the sequence coverage and spatial resolution of deuterium incorporation. The resulting peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In comparison with the 3D structure of MM-CK, the analysis of the two independent proteolysis deuteration patterns allowed us to get new insights into CK local dynamics as compared to a previous study using pepsin [Mazon et al. Protein Science 13 (2004) 476-486]. In particular, we obtained more information on the kinetics and extent of deuterium exchange in the N- and C-terminal extremities represented by the 1-22 and 362-380 pepsin peptides. Indeed, we observed a very different behaviour of the 1-12 and 13-22 type XIII protease peptides, and similarly for the 362-373 and 374-380 peptides. Moreover, comparison of the deuteration patterns of type XIII protease segments of the large 90-126 pepsin peptide led us to identify a small relatively dynamic region (108-114).

  1. PHOS-Select Iron Affinity beads enrich peptides for detection of organophosphorus adducts on albumin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Dubrovskii, Yaroslav A; Podolskaya, Ekaterina P; Murashko, Ekaterina A; Babakov, Vladimir; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Albumin is covalently modified by organophosphorus toxicants (OP) on tyrosine 411, but less than 1% of albumin is modified in humans by lethal OP doses that inhibit 95% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase. A method that enriches OP-modified albumin peptides could aid analysis of low dose exposures. Soman or chlorpyrifos oxon treated human plasma was digested with pepsin. Albumin peptides were enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads at pH 11 and eluted with pH 2.6 buffer. Similarly, mouse and guinea pig albumin modified by chlorpyrifos oxon were digested with pepsin and enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads. Peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. PHOS-select Iron Affinity beads specifically enriched albumin peptides VRY411TKKVPQVST and LVRY411TKKVPQVST in a pepsin digest of human plasma. The unmodified as well as OP-modified peptides bound to the beads. The binding capacity of 500 μl beads was the pepsin digest of 2.1 μL human plasma. The limit of detection was 0.2% of OP-modified albumin peptide in 0.43 μL plasma. Enrichment of OP-modified albumin peptides by binding to Fe3+ beads is a method with potential application to diagnosis of OP pesticide and nerve agent exposure in humans, mice, and guinea pigs. PMID:24187955

  2. Developmental changes in digestive enzyme activity in American shad, Alosa sapidissima, during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Guan, Chang-Tao; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin; Li, Juan; Guo, Zheng-Long; Wang, Yao-Hui; Hong, Lei

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the digestive physiological capacity of the American shad Alosa sapidissima and to establish feeding protocols that match larval nutritional requirements, we investigated the ontogenesis of digestive enzymes (trypsin, amylase, lipase, pepsin, alkaline phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase) in larvae, from hatching to 45 days after hatching (DAH). We found that all of the target enzymes were present at hatching, except pepsin, which indicated an initial ability to digest nutrients and precocious digestive system development. Trypsin rapidly increased to a maximum at 14 DAH. Amylase sharply increased until 10 DAH and exhibited a second increase at 33 DAH, which coincided with the introduction of microdiet at 30 DAH, thereby suggesting that the increase was associated with the microdiet carbohydrate content. Lipase increased until 14 DAH, decreased until 27 DAH, and then increased until 45 DAH. Pepsin was first detected at 27 DAH and then sharply increased until 45 DAH, which suggested the formation of a functional stomach. Both alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase markedly increased until 18 DAH, which indicated intestinal maturation. According to our results, we conclude that American shad larvae possess the functional digestive system before mouth opening, and the significant increases in lipase, amylase, pepsin, and intestinal enzyme activities between 27 and 33 DAH suggest that larvae can be successfully weaned onto microdiets around this age.

  3. Traces of pFc' in IVIG interact with human IgG Fc domains and counteract aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rispens, Theo; Himly, Martin; Ooievaar-De Heer, Pleuni; den Bleker, Tamara H; Aalberse, Rob C

    2010-04-16

    To prevent multimer formation, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is often treated with traces of pepsin. So far, the mechanism behind this treatment has been unclear. Recently, we reported that human IgG4 binds other IgG molecules via Fc-Fc interactions. Here we show that IVIG treated with traces of pepsin (Nanogam) inhibits these interactions. We found that--besides IgG4--peptides corresponding to IgG1 and IgG2 pFc' (products of limited pepsin digestion) are responsible for the inhibitory action. Using radiolabeled pFc', it was found that pFc' binds directly to IgG1. Furthermore, recombinant CH3 fragments were found to also possess binding activity, and potencies of inhibition varied over 3 orders of magnitude amongst the subclasses, IgG4 being most potent. We propose that pFc' formation explains how limited pepsin digestion diminishes adverse effects of IVIG. In particular, the presence of this fragment can enhance the stability of IgG products including IVIG and therapeutical monoclonal antibodies. Indeed, using a model system it was found that acid-induced aggregation of IgG is reduced in the presence of pFc', suggesting a 'chaperone-like' activity of this fragment. Thus, pFc' can modulate Fc interactions and may therefore reduce adverse effects of IVIG, in particular by preventing oligomerization. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro digestion of purified β-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, β-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated β-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at λ=280nm were determined. β-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ≈4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from β-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated β-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ≈1.7-fold for the 4 β-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory

  5. Quantitative measurement of protein digestion in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Korjagin, Valerie A; Schafer, Barry W

    2005-04-01

    The digestibility of novel proteins in simulated gastric fluid is considered to be an indicator of reduced risk of allergenic potential in food, and estimates of digestibility for transgenic proteins expressed in crops are required for making a human-health risk assessment by regulatory authorities. The estimation of first-order rate constants for digestion under conditions of low substrate concentration was explored for two protein substrates (azocoll and DQ-ovalbumin). Data conformed to first-order kinetics, and half-lives were relatively insensitive to significant variations in both substrate and pepsin concentration when high purity pepsin preparations were used. Estimation of digestion efficiency using densitometric measurements of relative protein concentration based on SDS-PAGE corroborated digestion estimates based on measurements of dye or fluorescence release from the labeled substrates. The suitability of first-order rate constants for estimating the efficiency of the pepsin digestion of novel proteins is discussed. Results further support a kinetic approach as appropriate for comparing the digestibility of proteins in simulated gastric fluid.

  6. Gelatin based bio-films prepared from grey triggerfish' skin influenced by enzymatic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Nabil; Abdelhedi, Ola; Mbarek, Aïcha; Kammoun, Wassim; Kechaou, Hela; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-12-01

    Gelatins from grey triggerfish skin were extracted with different methods. The treatment by pepsin (PG) improved the yield of extraction when compared with untreated gelatin (UG) and acidic gelatin (AG). The outputs of gelatins AG, UG and PG, obtained respectively, with acitic acid, glycine buffer and glycine buffer added with 5U of pepsin/g of the skin beforehand treated by alkali, were 6.9%, 7.9% and 9.7%, respectively. The enzymatic treatment of the alkali-pretreated skin of grey triggerfish altered the electrophoresis profile, biophysical, gellification, rheological and thermal properties of the prepared gelatins extracted under acidic condition. However, the untreated gelatin obtained without pepsin exhibited the highest transition and enthaply temperatures. In addition, the properties of the prepared films were interconnected to their microstructure as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, films with PG and UG had a regular surface and a more condensed structure, whereas films prepared with AG had rougher surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elements for optimizing a one-step enzymatic bio-refinery process of shrimp cuticles: Focus on enzymatic proteolysis screening.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Socol, M; Kaas, R; Arhaliass, A; Rodriguez Del Pino, J; Le Roux, K; Donnay-Moreno, C; Bergé, J P

    2017-09-01

    This article complements an earlier work published in 2015 Baron et al. (2015) that showed the interest of a shrimp shells bio-refining process. We compare here the effect of eleven commercial proteases at pH 3.5 or 4.0 on a residual amount of shrimp shells proteins after 6 h at 50 °C. The two pH are obtained when respectively 40 and 25 mmol of formic acid are added to 5 g of mild dried shell. Deproteinisation yield above 95% are obtained. Residual amino acids profile in the solid phase was identical for the eleven proteases except for pepsin which was similar to the raw material profile. A significant relative increase in the proportion of Glycine is observed for the ten other cases. Likewise, shapes of size exclusion chromatograms of the dissolved phase are similar except with pepsin.

  9. Accuracy of alpha amylase in diagnosing microaspiration in intubated critically-ill patients.

    PubMed

    Dewavrin, Florent; Zerimech, Farid; Boyer, Alexandre; Maboudou, Patrice; Balduyck, Malika; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Amylase concentration in respiratory secretions was reported to be a potentially useful marker for aspiration and pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy of α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration in critically ill patients. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data collected in a medical ICU. All patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h, and included in a previous randomized controlled trial were eligible for this study, provided that at least one tracheal aspirate was available for α-amylase measurement. As part of the initial trial, pepsin was quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during a 48-h period. All tracheal aspirates were frozen, allowing subsequent measurement of α-amylase for the purpose of the current study. Microaspiration was defined as the presence of at least one positive tracheal aspirate for pepsin (>200 ng.mL-1). Abundant microaspiration was defined as the presence of pepsin at significant level in >74% of tracheal aspirates. Amylase was measured in 1055 tracheal aspirates, collected from 109 patients. Using mean α-amylase level per patient, accuracy of α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration was moderate (area under the receiver operator curve 0.72±0.05 [95%CI 0.61-0.83], for an α-amylase value of 1685 UI.L-1). However, when α-amylase levels, coming from all samples, were taken into account, area under the receiver operator curve was 0.56±0.05 [0.53-0.60]. Mean α-amylase level, and percentage of tracheal aspirates positive for α-amylase were significantly higher in patients with microaspiration, and in patients with abundant microaspiration compared with those with no microaspiration; and similar in patients with microaspiration compared with those with abundant microaspiration. α-amylase and pepsin were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.305, p = 0.001). Accuracy of mean α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration is moderate. Further, when all α-amylase levels

  10. Pepsin-pancreatin protein hydrolysates from extruded amaranth inhibit markers of atherosclerosis in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages-like human cells by reducing expression of proteins in LOX-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is considered a progressive disease that affects arteries that bring blood to the heart, to the brain and to the lower end. It derives from endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which play an important role in the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death around the world and one factor that can contribute to its progression and prevention is diet. Our previous study found that amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth protein hydrolysates in both cell lines, probably attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the anti-atherosclerotic potential of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates from unprocessed and extruded amaranth in THP-1 lipopolysaccharide-induced human macrophages and suggest the mechanism of action. Results Unprocessed amaranth hydrolysate (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysate (EAH) showed a significant reduction in the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (69% and 100%, respectively), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (64% and 52%, respectively), interleukin-22 (IL-22) (55% and 70%, respectively). Likewise, UAH and EAH showed a reduction in the expression of monocyte-chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (35% and 42%, respectively), transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) (48% and 61%, respectively), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (59% and 63%, respectively), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (60% and 63%, respectively). Also, EAH reduced the expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) (27%), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (28%) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (19%), important molecular markers in the atherosclerosis pathway. EAH, led to a reduction of 58, 52 and 79% for

  11. The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors.

    PubMed

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Particular peptides generated from the vicilin-class(7S) globulin of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis during cocoa fermentation are essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes. As revealed by in vitro studies, the formation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors depends on the particular cleavage specificity of the cocoa aspartic protease, which cannot be substituted by pepsin. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of aspartic protease inhibitors on both enzymes and comparatively studied their cleavage specificities using different protein substrates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses of the generated oligopeptides. Three classes of cleavage sites have been identified and characterized: (I) sequences exclusively cleaved by the cocoa enzyme, (II) sequences cleaved by both pepsin and the cocoa enzyme, and (III) those cleaved exclusively by pepsin. In contrast to most aspartic proteases from other origins, basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, were found to be abundant in the specific cleavage sites of the cocoa enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bombesin and G-17 dose responses in duodenal ulcer and controls.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I; Tim, L O; Helman, C A; Molina, E

    1985-11-01

    Gastric acid and pepsin secretion and serum gastrin concentrations were measured in nine patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer (DU) and 10 normal controls in the fasting state and in response to graded doses of bombesin, a tetradecapeptide gastrin releaser, and, for reference, synthetic gastrin G-17. Serum gastrin with bombesin stimulation was significantly greater in duodenal ulcer (maximum 467 pg/ml) than in controls (153 pg/ml), while in seven of the DU group tested gastrin levels after a meal were not different from that seen in five of the normal controls. Gastric acid concentrations and outputs were greater in duodenal ulcer with both stimuli. Secretory responses were then related to serum gastrin levels; despite increasing gastrin levels with bombesin stimulation, peak outputs achieved with bombesin were only 50% of G-17 maximum in normals and up to 90% of maximum in duodenal ulcer. Up to the point of peak response to bombesin, acid and pepsin outputs were the same with exogenous and endogenous gastrin, ie, bombesin acted only via G-17. Furthermore, in direct comparison of duodenal ulcer and normals with G-17 infusion, acid and pepsin outputs related to serum gastrin were congruent up to 75% of duodenal ulcer maximum, at which point normals reached their maximum level. These data have shown that duodenal ulcer patients are not more sensitive to either exogenous or endogenous gastrin; we have also shown regulatory defects in duodenal ulcer patients not previously described: an exaggerated release of gastrin with bombesin stimulation, and a defective inhibition of acid and pepsin secretion with higher doses of bombesin.

  13. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenanthrene binding by humic acid-protein complexes as studied by passive dosing technique.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ghosh, Saikat; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the binding behavior of phenanthrene by humic acids (HA-2 and HA-5), proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), lysozyme and pepsin), and their complexes using a passive dosing technique. All sorption isotherms were fitted well with Freundlich model and the binding capability followed an order of HA-5 > HA-2 > BSA > pepsin > lysozyme. In NaCl solution, phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA complexes was much higher than the sum of binding to individual HA and BSA, while there was no enhancement for HA-pepsin. Positively charged lysozyme slightly lowered phenanthrene binding on both HAs due to strong aggregation of HA-lysozyme complexes, leading to reduction in the number of binding sites. The binding enhancement by HA-BSA was observed under all tested ion species and ionic strengths. This enhancement can be explained by unfolding of protein, reduction of aggregate size and formation of HA-BSA complexes with favorable conformations for binding phenanthrene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological properties of collagen fibers in porcine lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Johanes, Iecun; Mihelc, Elaine; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Collagen influences the biomechanical properties of vocal folds. Altered collagen morphology has been implicated in dysphonia associated with aging and scarring. Documenting the morphological properties of native collagen in healthy vocal folds is essential to understand the structural and functional alterations to collagen with aging and disease. Our primary objective was to quantify the morphological properties of collagen in the vocal fold lamina propria. Our secondary exploratory objective was to investigate the effects of pepsin exposure on the morphological properties of collagen in the lamina propria. Design Experimental, in vitro study with porcine model. Methods Lamina propria was dissected from 26 vocal folds and imaged with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Morphological data on d-periodicity, diameter, and roughness of collagen fibers were obtained. To investigate the effects of pepsin exposure on collagen morphology, vocal fold surface was exposed to pepsin or sham challenge prior to lamina propria dissection and AFM imaging. Results The d-periodicity, diameter, and roughness values for native vocal fold collagen are consistent with literature reports for collagen fibers in other body tissue. Pepsin exposure on vocal fold surface did not appear to change the morphological properties of collagen fibers in the lamina propria. Conclusions Quantitative data on collagen morphology were obtained at nanoscale resolution. Documenting collagen morphology in healthy vocal folds is critical for understanding the physiological changes to collagen with aging and scarring, and for designing biomaterials that match the native topography of lamina propria. PMID:20171830

  16. Spatial characterization of proteolytic enzyme activity in the foregut region of the adult necrophagous fly, Protophormia terraenovae.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the adult foregut of Protophormia terraenovae was studied in the context of protein digestion and regurgitation. Based on substrate specificity, pH optima, and use of specific protease inhibitors, all adults tested displayed enzyme activity in the foregut consistent with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like enzyme activity were detected in all gut fluids and tissues tested, with chymotrypsin displaying the highest activity in saliva and salivary gland tissue, whereas maximal trypsin activity was evident in the crop. Pepsin-like activity was only evident in crop fluids and tissues. The activity of all three enzymes was low or undetectable (pepsin) in the fluids and tissue homogenates derived from the esophagus and cardia of any of the adults assayed. Fed adult females displayed higher enzyme activities than fed males, and the activity of all three enzymes were much more prevalent in fed adults than starved. The pH optimum of the trypsin-like enzyme was between pH 7.0 and 8.0; chymotrypsin was near pH 8.0; and maximal pepsin-like activity occurred between pH 1.0 and 2.0. Regurgitate from fed adult females displayed enzyme activity consistent with the proteolytic enzymes detected in crop gut fluids. Enzymes in regurgitate were not derived from food sources based on assays of bovine liver samples. These latter observations suggest that adult flies release fluids from foregut when encountering dry foods, potentially as a means to initiate extra-oral digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Geroprotectors on Age-Related Changes in Proteolytic Digestive Enzyme Activities at Different Lighting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morozov, A V; Khizhkin, E A; Svechkina, E B; Vinogradova, I A; Ilyukha, V A; Anisimov, V N; Khavinson, V Kh

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effect of melatonin and epithalon on age-related changes in proteolytic digestive enzyme activity in the pancreas and gastric mucosa of rats kept under different lighting conditions. In rats kept under standard illumination, pepsin activity and the total proteolytic activity in the stomach and pancreas increased by the age of 12 months, but then decreased. Constant and natural lighting disturbed the age dynamics of proteolytic digestive enzyme activity. Administration of melatonin and epithalon to animals exposed to constant lighting restored age dynamics of pepsin activity and little affected total proteolytic activity.

  18. Molecular characterization and bio-functional property determination using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC of protein fractions from two Nigella species.

    PubMed

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Alodat, Moh'd; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Kubow, Stan

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular and bio-functional properties of protein fractions from Nigella damascena and Nigella arvensis, including the albumin, globulin, glutein-1, glutein-2 and prolamin fractions. Protein subunits were not observed in globulin and prolamin fractions. No peaks appeared in RP-HPLC chromatograms of globulin for either species. Two predominant peaks were observed in the RP-HPLC profiles of all protein fractions. Proteins separated by RP-HPLC have potential inhibitory and antioxidant activities in all fractions. Optimum ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of proteins separated by RP-HPLC were observed in glutein-2 and albumin, respectively, for both species. For pepsin and combined pepsin-trypsin hydrolyses, the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was obtained in glutein-2 fraction of Nigella arvensis. Highest ACE-inhibitory activity of hydrolyzed protein fractions was found at 4h via pepsin hydrolysis in globulin fraction of Nigella damascena. Highest antioxidant activities of hydrolyzed protein fractions were found in glutelin-2 for both species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nepenthesin from monkey cups for hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rey, Martial; Yang, Menglin; Burns, Kyle M; Yu, Yaping; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Schriemer, David C

    2013-02-01

    Studies of protein dynamics, structure and interactions using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) have sharply increased over the past 5-10 years. The predominant technology requires fast digestion at pH 2-3 to retain deuterium label. Pepsin is used almost exclusively, but it provides relatively low efficiency under the constraints of the experiment, and a selectivity profile that renders poor coverage of intrinsically disordered regions. In this study we present nepenthesin-containing secretions of the pitcher plant Nepenthes, commonly called monkey cups, for use in HDX-MS. We show that nepenthesin is at least 1400-fold more efficient than pepsin under HDX-competent conditions, with a selectivity profile that mimics pepsin in part, but also includes efficient cleavage C-terminal to "forbidden" residues K, R, H, and P. High efficiency permits a solution-based analysis with no detectable autolysis, avoiding the complication of immobilized enzyme reactors. Relaxed selectivity promotes high coverage of disordered regions and the ability to "tune" the mass map for regions of interest. Nepenthesin-enriched secretions were applied to an analysis of protein complexes in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway. The analysis of XRCC4 binding to the BRCT domains of Ligase IV points to secondary interactions between the disordered C-terminal tail of XRCC4 and remote regions of the BRCT domains, which could only be identified with a nepenthesin-based workflow. HDX data suggest that stalk-binding to XRCC4 primes a BRCT conformation in these remote regions to support tail interaction, an event which may be phosphoregulated. We conclude that nepenthesin is an effective alternative to pepsin for all HDX-MS applications, and especially for the analysis of structural transitions among intrinsically disordered proteins and their binding partners.

  20. Effect of somatostatin on meal-induced gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Swierczek, J; Kwiecień, N; Mikoś, E; Oleksy, J; Wierzbicki, Z

    1977-11-01

    The effect of somatostatin, a growth hormone releasing-inhibiting hormone (GH-RIH) on basal and meal-, pentagastrin-, or histamine-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion was studied in six duodenal ulcer patients. Intravenous GH-RIH infused in graded doses ranging from 0.62 to 5.0 microgram/kg/hr produced a dose-related inhibition of pentagastrin-induced acid secretion reaching about 15% of control level at the dose of 5.0 microgram/kg/hr. Acid inhibition was paralleled by a decrease in the pepsin output and accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in serum growth hormone and insulin levels measured by radioimmunoassay. GH-RIH used in a single dose of 2.5 microgram/kg/hr produced about 85% inhibition of acid secretion induced by a meal (measured by intragastric titration) accompanied by a significant decrease in serum gastrin and insulin levels. The effect of GH-RIH on histamine-stimulated secretion was very modest and observed only after stopping the GH-RIH infusion. Thus GH-RIH suppressed acid and pepsin secretion induced by pentagastrin and a meal, and this effect was accompanied by a suppression of serum growth hormone and gastrin levels which may contribute to the inhibition of gastric secretion observed.

  1. Sustainable efficient way for opioid peptide LVV-h7 preparation from enzymatic proteolysis in a microfluidic-based reaction-extraction process with solvent recycling.

    PubMed

    Elagli, Adil; Belhacene, Kalim; Dhulster, Pascal; Froidevaux, Renato

    2016-05-01

    LVV-h7 (LVVYPWTQFR) is a bioactive peptide that can be obtained from blood as waste of food industry, more precisely from hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin. This opioid peptide belongs to the hemorphins family and have strong physiological effects that bring its use in pharmaceutics and various therapeutic treatments attractive, in particular for substituting its costly chemically synthetized analogous. Hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin generates a huge variety of peptides among whose LVV-h7 can be purified by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Herein, selective preparation of this peptide is proposed by a microfluidic-based continuous reaction-separation process. Hemoglobin hydrolysis in microreactor was firstly coupled to LVV-h7 LLE in octan-1-ol and then coupled to LVV-h7 back LLE in acidic water. This continuous process allowed to prepare pure LVV-h7, as confirmed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The microfluidic circuit also allowed octan-1-ol recycling in a closed loop, making this method more sustainable than similar biphasic batch process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction and characterization of collagen from Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic squid and its potential application in hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rui C G; Marques, Ana L P; Oliveira, Sara M; Diogo, Gabriela S; Pirraco, Rogério P; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Xavier, José C; Reis, Rui L; Silva, Tiago H; Mano, João F

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals and it exhibits a low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability when compared with others natural polymers. For this reason, it has been explored for the development of biologically instructive biomaterials with applications for tissue substitution and regeneration. Marine origin collagen has been pursued as an alternative to the more common bovine and porcine origins. This study focused on squid (Teuthoidea: Cephalopoda), particularly the Antarctic squid Kondakovia longimana and the Sub-Antarctic squid Illex argentinus as potential collagen sources. In this study, collagen has been isolated from the skins of the squids using acid-based and pepsin-based protocols, with the higher yield being obtained from I. argentinus in the presence of pepsin. The produced collagen has been characterized in terms of physicochemical properties, evidencing an amino acid profile similar to the one of calf collagen, but exhibiting a less preserved structure, with hydrolyzed portions and a lower melting temperature. Pepsin-soluble collagen isolated from I. argentinus was selected for further evaluation of biomedical potential, exploring its incorporation on poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) 3D printed scaffolds for the development of hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering, exhibiting hierarchical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in gastric pH may determine kiwifruit's effect on functional GI disorder: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Young, Owen; Winger, Ray

    2014-04-11

    Consumption of kiwifruit is reported to relieve symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. The effect may be related to the proteases in kiwifruit. This in vitro study aimed to measure protein hydrolysis due to kiwifruit protease under gastric and duodenal conditions. A sequence of experiments incubated meat protein, with and without kiwifruit, with varying concentrations of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, at 37 °C for 60 min over the pH range 1.3-6.2 to simulate gastric digestion. Duodenal digestion was simulated by a further 120 min incubation at pH 6.4. Protein digestion efficiency was determined by comparing Kjeldahl nitrogen in pre- and post-digests. Where acid and pepsin concentrations were optimal for peptic digestion, hydrolysis was 80% effective and addition of kiwifruit made little difference. When pH was increased to 3.1 and pepsin activity reduced, hydrolysis decreased by 75%; addition of kiwifruit to this milieu more than doubled protein hydrolysis. This in vitro study has shown, when gastric pH is elevated, the addition of kiwifruit can double the rate of hydrolysis of meat protein. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that consumption of kiwifruit with a meal can increase the rate of protein hydrolysis, which may explain how kiwifruit relieves functional GI disorder.

  4. A novel hydrolytic product from flesh of Mactra veneriformis and its bioactivities in calcium supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2012-09-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides, the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates, pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases. The pepsin hydrolyzate (PHM) was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition, which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa. The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium. The peptides existing in the PHM-3 fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu, Ala and Leu, and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions. PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests. Additionally, symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats, such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  5. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  6. Role for ion transport in porcine vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenge.

    PubMed

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2012-02-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Laboratory. Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury.

  7. Immunolocalization of type X collagen in normal fetal and adult osteoarthritic cartilage with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Girkontaite, I; Frischholz, S; Lammi, P; Wagner, K; Swoboda, B; Aigner, T; Von der Mark, K

    1996-09-01

    For studies on processing and tissue distribution of type X collagen, monoclonal antibodies were prepared against human recombinant collagen type X (hrCol X) and tested by ELISA, immunoblotting and immunohistology. Forty-two clones were obtained which were grouped into four different subsets based on their reactivity against native and denatured hrCol X, pepsin-treated hrCol X, and the C-terminal NC-1 domain. Here we present results obtained with four monoclonal antibodies: Clone X 53, a representative of group I, binds with high affinity to both native and pepsin-digested hrCol X but with low affinity to the NC-1 dimer; monoclonal antibodies of group II and III recognized native and denatured hrCol X but not NC-1; antibodies of group II, but not III, reacted to some extent with pepsin treated hrCol X; one antibody (X 34) was obtained that reacted strongly with the isolated NC-1 dimer and native hrCol X but not with the NC-1 monomer or pepsin-digested hrCol X (group IV). Antibodies of all groups stained specifically the hypertrophic zone of fetal human epiphyseal cartilage. Mab X 53 stained the peri- and extracellular matrix of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the lower hypertrophic zone and in the calcified cartilage core in endochondral bone trabecules, while clone X 34 stained intracellularly and the pericellular matrix. All other tissues or cells of the epiphysis were negative. Antibody X 53 reacted also with canine, murine and guinea pig hypertrophic cartilage in tissue sections, but not with bovine or porcine type X collagen. In sections of osteoarthritic cartilage, clusters of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the deep zone were stained, confirming previous observations on enhanced chondrocyte hypertrophy and type X collagen expression in osteoarthritic articular cartilage.

  8. [An association between adenoid hypertrophy and exstra-gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianjun; Zhao, Yu; Ren, Xue

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy is a disease that mostly occurs among children of 3-5 years old. It is caused by repeated inflammation and infection of nasopharynx and its adjoin parts, or the adenoid itself, which will finally leads to pathological hyperplasia of adenoid. With so much information we have acquired about this disease, its specific mechanism remains unknown. In recent years, some researches have indicated that adenoid hypertrophy may have something to do with extra-gastroesophageal reflux, in which pepsin plays a very important role, and pepsin will do a series of pathological damages to the upper airway as it reaches the upper respiratory tract. Based on relative domestic and foreign literature, this paper attempts to make a review about the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and adenoid hypertrophy.

  9. Acidic mammalian chitinase is a proteases-resistant glycosidase in mouse digestive system.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Onuki, Riho; Nemoto, Chiyuki; Tabata, Eri; Wakita, Satoshi; Kashimura, Akinori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2016-11-24

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc) 2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2.0. The AMCase mRNA levels were much higher than those of four major gastric proteins and two housekeeping genes and comparable to the level of pepsinogen C in the mouse stomach tissues. Furthermore, AMCase was expressed in the gastric pepsinogen-synthesizing chief cells. The enzyme was also stable and active in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.6, where pepsin C was completely degraded. Mouse AMCase degraded polymeric colloidal and crystalline chitin substrates in the gastrointestinal environments in presence of the proteolytic enzymes. Thus, AMCase can function as a protease-resistant major glycosidase under the conditions of stomach and intestine and degrade chitin substrates to produce (GlcNAc) 2 , a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy.

  10. Acidic mammalian chitinase is a proteases-resistant glycosidase in mouse digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Onuki, Riho; Nemoto, Chiyuki; Tabata, Eri; Wakita, Satoshi; Kashimura, Akinori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Bauer, Peter O.; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2016-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2.0. The AMCase mRNA levels were much higher than those of four major gastric proteins and two housekeeping genes and comparable to the level of pepsinogen C in the mouse stomach tissues. Furthermore, AMCase was expressed in the gastric pepsinogen-synthesizing chief cells. The enzyme was also stable and active in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.6, where pepsin C was completely degraded. Mouse AMCase degraded polymeric colloidal and crystalline chitin substrates in the gastrointestinal environments in presence of the proteolytic enzymes. Thus, AMCase can function as a protease-resistant major glycosidase under the conditions of stomach and intestine and degrade chitin substrates to produce (GlcNAc)2, a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. PMID:27883045

  11. Effect of bombesin on gastric secretion and motility in the cat.

    PubMed

    Vagne, M; Gelin, M L; McDonald, T J; Chayvialle, J A; Minaire, Y

    1982-01-01

    The effect of bombesin on acid and pepsin secretion and antral motility was compared to that of pentagastrin in conscious cats. Bombesin stimulated acid secretion to 65% of the maximal response to pentagastrin but induced a stronger pepsin secretion than any dose of pentagastrin. As to antral motility, bombesin first induced an effect comparable to that of pentagastrin, with an increase of low-amplitude and a decrease of high-amplitude contractions. After about 30 min of continuous infusion, the effect of bombesin changed with a return to basal frequency for the low-amplitude contractions and an increase of high-amplitude contractions. This effect was not observed with pentagastrin nor cholecystokinin and was not explained by the variations of plasma insulin concentration.

  12. Production and Characterization of F(Ab')2 Fragments Obtained by Enzymatic Digestion from Murine Anti-MRSA PBP2a Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Anna Erika Vieira; de Souza, Natalia Plinio; de Sousa, Alvaro Paiva Braga; Lara, Flavio Alves; Senna, Jose Procopio Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a worldwide health problem. In a previous study, a murine monoclonal antibody (mMAB), capable of binding to PBP2a within MRSA strains, was generated. F(ab') 2 antibody fragments are widely described in the literature as immunochemical tools and reagents for diagnostics and therapeutics, particularly because of their low immunogenicity and rapid pharmacokinetics. In this study, F(ab') 2 fragments from mMAB were generated by enzymatic digestion, using pepsin. They were purified by affinity chromatography using protein A and concentrated by a MWCO 50 kDa filtration unit. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain F(ab') 2 fragments by pepsin digestion. ELISA, western blotting, and fluorescence microscopy data demonstrated that F(ab') 2 affinity for PBP2a is not lost even after the enzymatic digestion process. As expected, in the pharmacokinetics tests, F(ab') 2 presented a faster elimination (between 12 and 18 h) compared to IgG. These F(ab') 2 fragments could be used in future immunodiagnostic applications, including in vitro or in situ radiolabeling and in the treatment of infections caused by this important pathogen.

  13. Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Hossain Ali; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Majumder, Pralay; Roy, Pampa; Roy, Amit; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta; Das, Sampa

    2011-01-01

    Background Mannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Following the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, the source of the gene, its sequence homology with potent allergens, clinical tests on mammalian systems, and the pepsin resistance and thermostability of the protein were considered to address the issue. No significant homology to the ASAL sequence was detected when compared to known allergenic proteins. The ELISA of blood sera collected from known allergy patients also failed to show significant evidence of cross-reactivity. In vitro and in vivo assays both indicated the digestibility of ASAL in the presence of pepsin in a minimum time period. Conclusions/Significance With these experiments, we concluded that ASAL does not possess any apparent features of an allergen. This is the first report regarding the monitoring of the allergenicity of any mannose-binding monocot lectin having insecticidal efficacy against hemipteran insects. PMID:22110739

  14. Dynamic gastric digestion of a commercial whey protein concentrate†.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Beatriz; Del Barrio, Roberto; Cueva, Carolina; Recio, Isidra; Amigo, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    A dynamic gastrointestinal simulator, simgi ® , has been applied to assess the gastric digestion of a whey protein concentrate. Samples collected from the outlet of the stomach have been compared to those resulting from the static digestion protocol INFOGEST developed on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. Progress of digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By SDS-PAGE, serum albumin and α-lactalbumin were no longer detectable at 30 and 60 min, respectively. On the contrary, β-lactoglobulin was visible up to 120 min, although in decreasing concentrations in the dynamic model due to the gastric emptying and the addition of gastric fluids. Moreover, β-lactoglobulin was partly hydrolysed by pepsin probably due to the presence of heat-denatured forms and the peptides released using both digestion models were similar. Under dynamic conditions, a stepwise increase in number of peptides over time was observed, while the static protocol generated a high number of peptides from the beginning of digestion. Whey protein digestion products using a dynamic stomach are consistent with those generated with the static protocol but the kinetic behaviour of the peptide profile emphasises the effect of the sequential pepsin addition, peristaltic shaking, and gastric emptying on protein digestibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Divergent effects of bombesin and bethanechol on stimulated gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer and in normal men.

    PubMed

    Helman, C A; Hirschowitz, B I

    1987-06-01

    To further investigate differences in the responses of normals and patients with duodenal ulcer with respect to gastrin release and acid and pepsin secretion, we infused bombesin (1 microgram/kg X h) or bethanechol (40 micrograms/kg X h) during the middle hour of a 3-h infusion of pentagastrin and compared the results with a pentagastrin infusion without added drug. Pentagastrin dosage (0.1 microgram/kg X h) was set to give about half-maximal response, to detect either inhibition or further stimulation of gastric secretion, whereas the dose of bombesin was chosen to give maximal gastrin but less than maximal acid secretion. Serum gastrin and somatostatin were also measured. In all subjects tested, bethanechol produced no effects on acid, gastrin, or somatostatin release but increased pepsin output. By contrast, bombesin inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated acid output in all 6 normal men by an average of 55%, whereas it inhibited acid output in only 2 of the 9 men with duodenal ulcer. Serum gastrin increases after bombesin in duodenal ulcer were three to four times greater than in normals. Although bombesin stimulates acid only by releasing gastrin, we postulate that bombesin may also simultaneously limit acid and pepsin secretion and speculate that this effect could be mediated by bombesin-induced somatostatin release. The cause for differences between duodenal ulcer and normal remain speculative.

  16. Role for Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objective The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Study Design Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Results Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. Conclusion The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury. PMID:22086905

  17. Enzyme immobilization and biocatalysis of polysiloxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poojari, Yadagiri

    Lipases have been proven to be versatile and efficient biocatalysts which can be used in a broad variety of esterification, transesterification, and ester hydrolysis reactions. Due to the high chemo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivity and the mild conditions of lipase-catalyzed reactions, the vast potential of these biocatalysts for use in industrial applications has been increasingly recognized. Polysiloxanes (silicones) are well known for their unique physico-chemical properties and can be prepared in the form of fluids, elastomers, gels and resins for a wide variety of applications. However, the enzymatic synthesis of silicone polyesters and copolymers is largely unexplored. In the present investigations, an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) on macroporous acrylic resin beads (Novozym-435 RTM) has been successfully employed as a catalyst to synthesize silicone polyesters and copolymers under mild reaction conditions. The silicone aliphatic polyesters and the poly(dimethylsiloxane)--poly(ethylene glycol) (PDMS-PEG) copolymers were synthesized in the bulk (without using a solvent), while the silicone aromatic polyesters, the silicone aromatic polyamides and the poly(epsilon-caprolactone)--poly(dimethylsiloxane)--poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PDMS-PCL) triblock copolymers were synthesized in toluene. The synthesized silicone polyesters and copolymers were characterized by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD). This dissertation also describes a methodology for physical immobilization of the enzyme pepsin from Porcine stomach mucosa in silicone elastomers utilizing condensation-cure room temperature vulcanization (RTV) of silanol-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The activity and the stability of free pepsin and pepsin immobilized in silicone elastomers were studied with respect to p

  18. Detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in patients with obstructive lung disease using exhaled breath profiling.

    PubMed

    Timms, Chris; Thomas, Paul S; Yates, Deborah H

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) has been implicated in the worsening of several respiratory disorders. Current methods of diagnosis lack accuracy, are invasive and can be costly. Recently, novel methods of analysing lung pathophysiology have been developed including the use of an electronic nose and analysis of components of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). We hypothesised that these methods would distinguish patients with GORD from those without GORD in the common obstructive lung diseases and healthy controls. In a cross-sectional study, exhaled breath was analysed using the Cyranose 320 electronic nose, using principal components and canonical discriminant analyses. EBC pH and pepsin were quantified using a pH meter and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. A standardized reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) was used to assess reflux symptoms. The Cyranose 320 distinguished exhaled breath profiles of obstructive lung disease patients without GORD from obstructive lung disease patients with GORD (p = 0.023, accuracy 67.6%), asthmatic patients with reflux from asthmatics without GORD (85%, p = < 0.015, interclass M distance > 2.8), but did not produce as robust a profile for patients with COPD and COPD with GORD (p = 0.047, accuracy 64%). Patients with obstructive lung disease and GORD had significantly higher levels of EBC pepsin (9.81 ± interquartile range (IQR) 4.38 ng ml(-1)) than those without GORD (4.6 ± IQR 6.95 ng ml(-1)), as well as healthy controls (3.44 ± IQR 7.87 ng ml(-1); p = < 0.013). EBC pH was not significantly related to the presence of GORD in any group. The RDQ results correlated significantly with the presence of EBC pepsin. This pilot study has shown that exhaled breath profiling can be used for detecting GORD in obstructive lung diseases. While the electronic nose was useful in asthma, EBC pepsin was more helpful in COPD. In this study, several different confounders could potentially have affected results and larger

  19. Estimation of intestinal protein digestibility of protein supplements for ruminants using a three-step enzymatic in vitro procedure.

    PubMed

    Hippenstiel, Friederike; Kivitz, Andre; Benninghoff, Jens; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This study included 33 samples with main focus on unprotected or rumen-protected rapeseed and soybean feedstuffs, which were analysed using an enzymatic in vitro procedure (EIVP) in order to determine intestinal crude protein (CP) digestibility (IPD) of ruminally undegraded CP. The EIVP involved the sequential digestion of samples with a protease from Streptomyces griseus, pepsin-HCl and pancreatin. Briefly, the EIVP started with determination of true protein. Feeds were incubated for 18 h in a buffer solution at a constant ratio (41 U/g) of S. griseus protease activity to feed true protein. The dried residues were incubated in pepsin-HCl solution for 1 h, and residues from this step were incubated in pancreatin solution for 24 h. Results appeared to have lower IPD dimensions than literature data of previous studies. In addition, a negative correlation became apparent between acid detergent fibre and IPD, as well as a positive correlation between CP, true protein and IPD. The EIVP in its current, strictly standardised form can be applied to develop a database that can be used for protein evaluation systems for establishing tabular values of IPD. Nevertheless, future studies may be hindered since sufficient reference values, i.e. in vivo data, are completely missing.

  20. Pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a role for mucosa integrity?

    PubMed

    Farré, R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very prevalent and has a high burden on health security system costs. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and not well-understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, impaired esophageal clearance, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), increased acid, and pepsin secretion, pyloric incompetence provoking duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux of bile acids and trypsin. Independent of the relevance of each mechanism, the ultimate phenomenon is that mucosal epithelium is exposed for a longer time to agents as acid and pepsin or is in contact to luminal agents not commonly present in gastric refluxate as trypsin or bile acids. This leads to a visible damage of the epithelium (erosive esophagitis -EE) or impairing mucosal integrity without any sign of macroscopic alteration as occurs in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Luminal factors are not the only responsible for such impairment; more recent data indicate that endogenous factors may also play a role. This review will update the most recent findings on the putative pathophysiological mechanisms and specially will focus on the role of esophageal mucosal integrity in GERD. Methodologies used for the evaluation of mucosal integrity, its relevance in EE and NERD, its involvement in symptoms perception and the effect of luminal and endogenous factors will be discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Characterization of heterotrimeric collagen molecules in a sea-pen (Cnidaria, Octocorallia).

    PubMed

    Tillet-Barret, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

    1992-01-15

    The collagen of a primitive invertebrate, the sea-pen Veretillum Cnidaria, Octocorallia), was studied with respect to its molecular-chain composition. The soft extracellular tissues (mesoglea) were solubilized by limited pepsin proteolysis and the collagen was isolated by selective precipitation at 0.7 M NaCl under acidic conditions. The pepsinized molecules were 260 nm in length, as demonstrated by electron microscope studies of rotary-shadowed molecules and of the segment-long-spacing crystallites obtained by dialysis against ATP. SDS/PAGE of the extract produced two main bands susceptible to bacterial collagenase, designated as the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain, which were differentiated clearly by their CNBr cleavage products and the higher glycosylation rate of the alpha 2 chain. The latter finding corresponds with the high hydroxylysine content of the alpha 2 chain. The alpha 1/alpha 2 chain ratio observed in SDS/PAGE and the fact that only one peak was obtained by concanavalin-A affinity chromatography of a non-denatured 0.7 M NaCl extract demonstrate the alpha 1 [alpha 2]2 molecular structure of this collagen. These results contrast with data on the structure of other coelenterates (i.e. [alpha]3 for sea anemone collagen molecules and alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 for jellyfish collagen molecules). They are discussed in relation to the evolution of collagen.

  2. Effect of peptide YY on gastric, pancreatic, and biliary function in humans.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Savage, A P; Sagor, G R; Allen, J M; Bacarese-Hamilton, A J; Tatemoto, K; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1985-09-01

    The effect of peptide YY (PYY) on gastric and pancreatico-biliary secretion was studied in humans. Peptide YY was infused into groups of 6 healthy volunteers at doses of 0.59, 0.20, and 0.064 pmol X kg-1 X min-1. The two higher doses caused a significant suppression of gastric acid and pepsin output during background stimulation with pentagastrin. The middle dose of PYY (0.20 pmol X kg-1 X min-1) that increased plasma PYY levels by 27 +/- 2 pM caused a 90% +/- 18% (mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001) reduction in the incremental gastric volume response to pentagastrin. Similarly this dose of PYY caused a substantial inhibition of the acid (77% +/- 14%; p less than 0.005) and pepsin (96% +/- 22%; p less than 0.01) response to pentagastrin; in 2 subjects, pepsin output fell to below basal levels. In contrast, the highest dose of PYY (0.62 pmol X kg-1 X min-1) had no significant influence on duodenal juice volume, output of bicarbonate, trypsin, or bilirubin during low dose stimulation with secretin (0.25 pmol X kg-1 X min-1) and cholecystokinin-8 (0.15 pmol X kg-1 X min-1). Thus PYY concentrations in the circulation similar to those seen after the ingestion of food cause a marked reduction in gastric secretion. This peptide should therefore be considered as one of the possible candidates for the classical enterogastrone.

  3. Gastric secretory function in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Marcello, U; Deganello, A; Consolaro, G; Zoppi, G

    1979-01-18

    Volume, total titrable acidity, total proteolytic activity and pepsin activity have been determined in 14 coeliac patients and in 8 controls of comparable ages and body weights. Basal secretion (B.O.), total outputs (T. O.) and peak outputs (P.O.) after pentagastrin injection have been determined. Peak outputs (values 60 min/kg) of these parameters are as follows: volume 5.0+/-1.7 ml in coeliacs, 4.3+/-1.2 ml in controls; total titrable acidity 406.1+/-155.0 mEq in patients, 296.1+/-182.4 in conttrols; total proteolytic activity 962.1+/-501.1 micronEq in coeliacs, 569.6+/-272.2 in controls; pepsin activity 789.1+/-521.8 micronEq in patients, 447.6+/-150.4 in controls.

  4. HYDROLYTIC BREAKDOWN OF LACTOFERRICIN BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferricin is a 25 amino acid antimicrobial peptide domain that is liberated by pepsin digestion of lactoferrin in bovine milk. Along with its antibacterial properties, lactoferricin has also been reported to have immunostimulatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic effects. There is substantial ...

  5. Multiple Diphtheria Antigen-Antibody Systems Investigated by Passive Haemagglutination Techniques and Other Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fulthorpe, A. J.

    1962-01-01

    A fair degree of correlation has been found between the in vivo antitoxin content of sera from horses immunized with crude Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture filtrates and the direct agglutinin titre of the sera when tested with sheep cells sensitized with diphtheria toxoid. Haemagglutination inhibition tests at the LA level of test with the same sera showed some rather large discrepancies from the in vivo and further tests with special agglutinin inhibiting toxins suggested that specific antitoxin free from other accessory antibodies might be non-agglutinating, and therefore not titratable by haemagglutination inhibition. The phosphate-stable, pepsin-stable and trypsin-stable antigens isolated from culture filtrates of C. diphtheriae were found to contain extremely small quantities of specific toxoid, and cross titration of each of the three antigen preparations showed that there was very little contamination by other antigens within the group. Absorption of diphtheria antiserum with red cells sensitized with each of the three accessory antigens individually, showed that the antibodies were highly specific and distinct. Absorption of diphtheria antiserum with a mixture of red cells sensitized with the three different antigens removed all demonstrable accessory antibodies, and the absorbed serum would no longer agglutinate cells sensitized with complete diphtheria toxoid. The absorbed serum, however, retained a large proportion of its neutralizing capacity for diphtheria toxin, when titrated in vivo. Titration of each of the accessory antibodies in a number of horse sera by haemagglutination inhibition demonstrated a correlation between the values for the accessory antibodies to the phosphate-stable and pepsin-stable antigens, but no correlation with the values for the antibody to the trypsin-stable antigen, when compared with results of the flocculation test. The relative proportions of diphtheria toxin and of the phosphate-stable and pepsin-stable antigens

  6. A gastrin releasing peptide from the porcine nonantral gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T J; Nilsson, G; Vagne, M; Ghatei, M; Bloom, S R; Mutt, V

    1978-09-01

    This paper presents evidence for the existence in extracts from porcine non-antral gastric tissue of a peptide capable of causing substantial rises of plasma immunoreactive gastrin levels in a dose dependent manner and of stimulation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Obtained data show that the peptide is basic and that its gastrin releasing properties are at least partially resistant to atropinisation and beta-receptor blockade. Antrectomy almost eliminates the rise in plasma IRGa when the peptide is administered. The possible relationship of this peptide to amphibian bombesin is discussed.

  7. A gastrin releasing peptide from the porcine nonantral gastric tissue.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, T J; Nilsson, G; Vagne, M; Ghatei, M; Bloom, S R; Mutt, V

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents evidence for the existence in extracts from porcine non-antral gastric tissue of a peptide capable of causing substantial rises of plasma immunoreactive gastrin levels in a dose dependent manner and of stimulation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Obtained data show that the peptide is basic and that its gastrin releasing properties are at least partially resistant to atropinisation and beta-receptor blockade. Antrectomy almost eliminates the rise in plasma IRGa when the peptide is administered. The possible relationship of this peptide to amphibian bombesin is discussed. PMID:361511

  8. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H(+)K(+)ATPase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in ethanol-administered rats. The ulcer score was found to be low in HAEAP-pretreated rats. Among the doses studied, 200 mg/kg b.wt was found to be optimum for significant ulcer reduction. The test drug significantly reduced the acidity, pepsin concentration, myeloperoxidase and H(+)K(+)ATPase activities in ethanol-administered rats. The elevated TBARS and decreased glutathione (GSH) and mucin levels observed during ulcerogenesis were found to be altered in HAEAP-received animals. The ulcer preventing effect of HAEAP may partly be due to its regulating effect on H(+)K(+)ATPase activity and /or mucin preserving effects. The flavonoids present in the HAEAP might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidants and thiol status in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Evaluation of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit for the digestion and recovery of larvae in pork, horse meat and wild meat.

    PubMed

    Konecsni, Kelly; Scheller, Cheryl; Scandrett, Brad; Buholzer, Patrik; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2017-08-30

    The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite. The present study was conducted to determine the performance of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit compared to the conventional pepsin/HCl digestion. Replicate paired 115g samples of Trichinella-negative pork diaphragm and masseter, and of horse tongue and masseter, were used to compare the two methods for tissue digestibility. Similarly, paired 100g samples of pork diaphragm and horse tongue were spiked with proficiency samples containing known numbers of Trichinella spiralis first stage larvae to compare larval recoveries for the two methods. Masseter samples from wild bears and wolves naturally infected with Trichinella nativa or T6 were also used to compare the performance of the methods. The results of the study showed that the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit, when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, was effective in detecting Trichinella infection in all samples that contained 0.05 or more larvae per gram of tissue. Although there was no significant difference between the Kit method and the standard pepsin/HCl digestion procedure in the average number of larvae recovered from spiked pork diaphragm, 38% fewer larvae were recovered from similarly spiked samples of horse tongue by digestion using serine protease (one way ANOVA, P value <0.001). Additional clarification was also more often required for both horse meat and pork when using the Kit compared to the pepsin/HCl method. The results of testing wildlife samples were

  10. Changes in digestive enzyme activities during larval development of Chinese loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Dabry de Thiersant, 1872).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Long; Wu, Qiao-Wan; Hu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Bo; He, Hui; Shao, Wei-Han; Fan, Qi-Xue

    2015-12-01

    The digestive physiology of Chinese loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus) was studied by assessing the specific and total activities of different pancreatic (trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase), gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (alkaline phosphatase and leucine-aminopeptidase) enzymes from hatching to 40 days after hatching (DAH). Larvae were reared at 24.4 ± 0.4 °C and fed with rotifers from mouth opening (4 DAH) to 15 DAH, from 10 to 35 DAH with Cladocera and from 30 to 40 DAH with compound diet. Enzyme activities for trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase were detected before the onset of exogenous feeding, indicating that these enzymes were genetically pre-programmed. Most of the pancreatic enzyme specific activities increased until 20 DAH and decreased thereafter. The pepsin activity of Chinese loach was firstly detected at 30 DAH, indicating the appearance of functional gastric gland. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was detected from hatching onward, showed marked increase and reached the second peak at 20 DAH, while a gradual increase in specific leucine-aminopeptidase activity was observed until the end of the experiment. Accordingly, the larvae of Chinese loach possess a functional digestive system before the onset of exogenous feeding and the digestive capacity gradually increases as development progresses. The abrupt increase in intestinal enzyme activities between 10 and 20 DAH demonstrates onset of juvenile-like digestive mode in Chinese loach larvae. The increase in pepsin activity after 30 DAH indicates the shift from alkaline to acidic digestion in Chinese loach larvae, which may be considered as the onset of weaning.

  11. Effect of the structure of gallic acid and its derivatives on their interaction with plant ferritin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qunqun; Zhou, Kai; Ning, Yong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-12-15

    Gallic acid and its derivatives co-exist with protein components in foodstuffs, but there is few report on their interaction with proteins. On the other hand, plant ferritin represents not only a novel class of iron supplement, but also a new nanocarrier for encapsulation of bioactive nutrients. However, plant ferritin is easy to be degraded by pepsin in the stomach, thereby limiting its application. Herein, we investigated the interaction of gallic acid and its derivatives with recombinant soybean seed H-2 ferritin (rH-2). We found that these phenolic acids interacted with rH-2 in a structure-dependent manner; namely, gallic acid (GA), methyl gallate (MEGA) and propyl gallate (PG) having three HO groups can bind to rH-2, while their analogues with two HO groups cannot. Consequently, such binding largely inhibited ferritin degradation by pepsin. These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of phenolic acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  13. Unusual loss of chymosin in mammalian lineages parallels neo-natal immune transfer strategies.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Fonseca, Elza; Teixeira, Ana; Castro, L Filipe C

    2017-11-01

    Gene duplication and loss are powerful drivers of evolutionary change. The role of loss in phenotypic diversification is notably illustrated by the variable enzymatic repertoire involved in vertebrate protein digestion. Among these we find the pepsin family of aspartic proteinases, including chymosin (Cmy). Previous studies demonstrated that Cmy, a neo-natal digestive pepsin, is inactivated in some primates, including humans. This pseudogenization event was hypothesized to result from the acquisition of maternal immune immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer. By investigating 94 mammalian subgenomes we reveal an unprecedented level of Cmy erosion in placental mammals, with numerous independent events of gene loss taking place in Primates, Dermoptera, Rodentia, Cetacea and Perissodactyla. Our findings strongly suggest that the recurrent inactivation of Cmy correlates with the evolution of the passive transfer of IgG and uncovers a noteworthy case of evolutionary cross-talk between the digestive and the immune system, modulated by gene loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H+K+ATPase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in ethanol-administered rats. Results: The ulcer score was found to be low in HAEAP-pretreated rats. Among the doses studied, 200 mg/kg b.wt was found to be optimum for significant ulcer reduction. The test drug significantly reduced the acidity, pepsin concentration, myeloperoxidase and H+K+ATPase activities in ethanol-administered rats. The elevated TBARS and decreased glutathione (GSH) and mucin levels observed during ulcerogenesis were found to be altered in HAEAP-received animals. Conclusions: The ulcer preventing effect of HAEAP may partly be due to its regulating effect on H+K+ATPase activity and /or mucin preserving effects. The flavonoids present in the HAEAP might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidants and thiol status in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21844994

  15. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  16. In vitro digestion of soluble cashew proteins and characterization of surviving IgE-reactive peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stability of food allergens to digestion varies; and the ability of food proteins to cause an allergic reaction may be affected by the susceptibility of the allergen to digestion by proteases, including pepsin and trypsin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cashew nut allergens are often a ca...

  17. Improved collagen extraction from jellyfish (Acromitus hardenbergi) with increased physical-induced solubilization processes.

    PubMed

    Khong, Nicholas M H; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Jamilah, B; Basri, Mahiran; Maznah, I; Chan, Kim Wei; Armania, Nurdin; Nishikawa, Jun

    2018-06-15

    Efficiency and effectiveness of collagen extraction process contribute to huge impacts to the quality, supply and cost of the collagen produced. Jellyfish is a potential sustainable source of collagen where their applications are not limited by religious constraints and threats of transmittable diseases. The present study compared the extraction yield, physico-chemical properties and toxicology in vitro of collagens obtained by the conventional acid-assisted and pepsin-assisted extraction to an improved physical-aided extraction process. By increasing physical intervention, the production yield increased significantly compared to the conventional extraction processes (p < .05). Collagen extracted using the improved process was found to possess similar proximate and amino acids composition to those extracted using pepsin (p > .05) while retaining high molecular weight distributions and polypeptide profiles similar to those extracted using only acid. Moreover, they exhibited better appearance, instrumental colour and were found to be non-toxic in vitro and free of heavy metal contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values (<26.0%) comparable to that of intact NaCas (13.8 ± 2.0%, P > 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. IX. Mitteilung: Experimente mit Enzymen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. IX. Communication: Experiments on Enzymes),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    some enzymes to trichomonas. The following enzymes were used for experiment: pepsin, trypsin, distaste, urease and lysozyme. Tests were performed...obtained in the experiments with urease . Trichomonas growth under addition of lysozyme was within the range of the control cultures. (Modified author abstract)

  20. Novel Protection and Decontamination Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    microscopy of HMAb complexed to dengue virus particles. Fab fragments of the HMAb D11C were prepared by digestion with pepsin and purified by removal...of the heavy chain tails using a protein A column. Fab fragments were complexed with gradient purified DENV 2 NG-C particles and subjected to flash

  1. Effects of beta-glucanase and xylanase supplementation on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets fed a barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Fan, C L; Han, X Y; Xu, Z R; Wang, L J; Shi, L R

    2009-04-01

    The effects of supplementing a barley-based diet for weaned piglets withexogenous beta-glucanase and xylanase on gastrointestinal digestiveenzyme activities were investigated. Thirty-six cross-bred weaned pigletswere randomly assigned to two groups with three pens based on sexand mass. Each group was fed on the diet based on barley with or withoutadded beta-glucanase and xylanase (0.15%) for a 4-week period. Theresults showed that enzyme supplementation improved growth performanceof piglets significantly (p < 0.05), but had no effect (p = 0.091)on average daily feed intake. The results also showed that supplementationof beta-glucanase and xylanase had no effect on pepsin activity in gastriccontents but slightly decreased (p = 0.092) the pepsin activity ingastric mucosa. Meanwhile, no effect of enzyme supplementation ontrypsin activity in duodenal contents was observed. However, the activitiesof amylase and lipase in duodenal contents were significantly(p < 0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of maltase, sucrase andgamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) in jejunal and ileal mucosa wereenhanced significantly (p < 0.05). The improvement of disaccharidaseand gamma-GT activity may be attributed to the positive impacts of exogenousenzymes on digestion and absorption of the nutrients. In conclusion,the current results indicated that supplementation with enzymes in barley-based diets could improve the growth performance of piglets,decrease the activities of amylase and lipase in duodenal contents andincrease the activities of disaccharidase and gamma-GT in jejunal and ilealmucosa.

  2. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  3. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water.

    PubMed

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, "ready for use" MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours.

  4. Extraction and identification of α-amylase inhibitor peptides from Nephelium lappacheum and Nephelium mutabile seed protein using gastro-digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Evaristus, Natashya Anak; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    The potential of N. lappacheum and N. mutabile seed as a source of α-amylase inhibitor peptides was explored based on the local traditional practice of using the seed. Different gastro-digestive enzymes (i.e. pepsin or chymotrypsin) or a sequential digestion were used to extract the peptides. The effects of digestion time and enzyme to substrate (E:S) ratio on the α-amylase inhibitory activity were investigated. Results showed that chymotrypsin was effective in producing the inhibitor peptides from rambutan seed protein at E:S ratio 1:20 for 1 h, whereas pepsin was more effective for pulasan seed protein under the same condition. A total of 20 and 31 novel inhibitor peptides were identified, respectively. These peptides could bind with the subsites of α-amylase (i.e. Trp58, Trp59, Tyr62, Asp96, Arg195, Asp197, Glu233, His299, Asp300, and His305) and formed a sliding barrier that preventing the formation of enzyme/substrate intermediate leading to lower α-amylase activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of processing and in vitro proteolytic digestion on soybean and yambean hemagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, P C; Onuoha, C C; Obanu, Z A

    1995-06-01

    Some conventional processing methods were applied on yambean and soybean seeds and flour samples. They include soaking fermentation, cooking whole seeds in the presence and absence of trona, autoclaving and dry heat treatment of flour samples. Hemagglutinating activity was assayed for after processing treatments. The hemagglutinating proteins from these seeds were classified based on their solubility properties. Effects of the presence of 0.01% concentration of trypsin, pepsin and proteases on agglutination of human red blood cells were also evaluated. Most processing methods, particularly cooking whole seeds for 1-2 h, soaking and fermentation, reduced hemagglutinating activity on cow red blood cells. Size reduction accompanied by heat treatment was effective in eliminating hemagglutination. Both the albumin and globulin fractions of the soybean showed hemagglutinating activity but only the albumin fraction of the yambean had agglutinating properties. Proteolytic action of proteases was more effective in reduction of hemagglutinating activity than that of trypsin and pepsin.

  6. Optimization of process parameters for the production of collagen peptides from fish skin (Epinephelus malabaricus) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Hema, G S; Joshy, C G; Shyni, K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Ninan, George; Mathew, Suseela

    2017-02-01

    The study optimized the hydrolysis conditions for the production of fish collagen peptides from skin of Malabar grouper ( Epinephelus malabaricus ) using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis was done with enzymes pepsin, papain and protease from bovine pancreas. Effects of process parameters viz: pH, temperature, enzyme substrate ratio and hydrolysis time of the three different enzymes on degree of hydrolysis were investigated. The optimum response of degree of hydrolysis was estimated to be 10, 20 and 28% respectively for pepsin, papain and protease. The functional properties of the product developed were analysed which showed changes in the properties from proteins to peptides. SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI TOF method was successfully applied to determine the molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysate. The electrophoretic pattern indicated that the molecular weights of peptides formed due to hydrolysis were nearly 2 kDa. MALDI TOF spectral analysis showed the developed hydrolysate contains peptides having molecular weight in the range below 2 kDa.

  7. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yi; Niu, Jun; Liu, Shuying

    2012-12-01

    Walnut proteins were hydrolyzed separately using three different proteases to obtain antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Among hydrolysates, pepsin hydrolysate obtained by 3h exhibited the highest antioxidant activities, which could also quench the hydroxyl radical, chelate ferrous ion, exhibit reducing power and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Then, 3-h pepsin hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The sequence of the peptide with the highest antioxidative activity was identified to be Ala-Asp-Ala-Phe (423.23 Da) using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which was identified for the first time from walnut protein hydrolysates. Last, the inhibition of the peptide on lipid peroxidation was similar with that of reduced glutathione (GSH). These results indicate that the protein hydrolysates and/or its isolated peptides may be effectively used as food additives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Digestive proteinases of Brycon orbignyanus (Characidae, Teleostei): characteristics and effects of protein quality.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, Fernando L; Albuquerque-Cavalcanti, Cristiane; Navarrete del Toro, M Angeles; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2002-06-01

    Juvenile piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, in the wild consume protein from both plant and animal sources. Digestion of protein in piracanjuba begins in the stomach with pepsin, at low pH, and is followed by hydrolysis at alkaline pH in the lumen of the intestine. The digestive system in piracanjuba was evaluated to characterize the enzymes responsible for the digestion of feed protein and their composition. The gastric tissue synthesizes pepsin and the intestine tissues trypsin and chymotrypsin. Operational variables were evaluated and defined for future studies of the digestive system physiology. The enzymatic activity in the intestine and the relative concentration of enzymes were heavily influenced by the composition of the feed and the feeding regime, as detected by substrate-SDS-PAGE. Piracanjuba possess a mechanism of enzyme adaptation responding to food quality and regime, by varying the amount and composition of digestive proteases. This is a requisite study to determine the enzymes digesting protein in food and their characteristics and to gain some clues about the possible regulation mechanisms of enzyme synthesis in piracanjuba.

  9. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI‐TOF‐MS and nano‐LC‐MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428

  10. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, “ready for use” MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours. PMID:26722622

  11. Detoxification of Hg(II) from aqueous and enzyme media: Pristine vs. tailored calcium alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kangkana; Ansari, Zarina; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-10-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) hydrogels were tailored using phenolic compounds (PC) like, thymol, morin, catechin, hesperidin, during their preparation. The PC incorporated gels show modified surface features as indicated by scanning electron microscopic images (SEM). The rheological studies show that excepting the hesperidin incorporated gels all the other kinds including calcium alginate pristine have similar mechanical strength. The hesperidine incorporated CA gels had the maximum capacity to adsorb Hg. The Freundlich adsorption isotherms show higher values of adsorption capacity for all PC incorporated CA beads than the pristine CA (PCA). The hesperidin incorporated CA gels were found to show the best adsorption condition at neutral pH and an optimum contact time of 2.5h at 25°C. Considering the possibility of ingested Hg detoxification from human alimentary tract, the hesperidin and morin incorporated CA beads were further modified through incorporation of cod liver oil as the digestion time of fat in stomach is higher. In vitro uptake capacities of Hg in pepsin and pancreatin containing enzyme media were studied with hesperidin and morin incorporated beads and their corresponding fat incorporated beads also. In the pepsin medium, there was no uptake by hesperidin and fat-hesperidin incorporated beads, which is possibly due to the higher acidity of the medium. But in pancreatin medium Hg was taken up by both kinds of beads. Morin and morin-fat incorporated beads were efficient to uptake Hg from both the pepsin and pancreatin medium. The tailored CA beads may therefore serve as efficient scaffolds to rescue Hg ingested individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P < 0.05), while the opposite was for cooked ham (P < 0.05). Nano-LC–MS/MS analysis revealed that dry-cured ham samples had the greatest number of 750–3,500 Da Mw peptides in pepsin-digested products. In the digested products of cooked ham and emulsion-type sausage, a lot of peptides were matched with soy protein that was added in the formulations. In addition, protein oxidation was also observed in different meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  13. Nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (Channa argus) and banded grouper (Epinephelus awoara).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Wu, Wei; Cao, Minjie; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-02-01

    Dietary nucleic acids (NAs) were important nutrients. However, the digestion of NAs in stomach has not been studied. In this study, the digestion of NAs by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. The snakehead pepsins (SP) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. The purity of SP was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The snakehead pepsin 2 (SP2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and NAs digestion activity. SP2 could digest NAs, including λ DNA and salmon sperm DNA. Interestingly, the digestion could be inhibited by treatment of alkaline solution at pH 8.0 and pepstatin A, and the digestion could happen either in the presence or absence of hemoglobin (Hb) and BSA as the protein substrates. Similarly, the stomach enzymes of banded grouper also showed the NAs digestion activity. NAs could be digested by the stomach enzymes of snakehead and banded grouper. It may be helpful for understanding both animal nutrition and NAs metabolic pathway.

  14. Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bochao; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a multicellular edible blue-green alga with abundant proteins (∼ 60%). No report is available on the antitumor polypeptides from the whole proteins of S. platensis. In this study, for the first time, an antitumor polypeptide Y2 from trypsin digest of S. platensis proteins was obtained by using freeze-thawing plus ultrasonication extraction, hydrolysis with four enzymes (trypsin, alcalase, papain, and pepsin), and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis can be ordered as: trypsin (38.5%) > alcalase (31.2%) > papain (27.8%) > pepsin (7.1%). For MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, at 250 µg/mL, the maximum inhibitory rate of Y2 was 97%, while standard drug 5-FU was 55 and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of Y2 with chitosan (CS) was also investigated. After nanoencapsulation, the maximum encapsulation efficiency and polypeptides contents are 49 and 15%, respectively; and the antitumor activity is basically not lost. These data demonstrated the potential of nanopolypeptides (Y2-CS) in food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Use of murine models to detect the allergenicity of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shen-Shih; Liu, Chin-Feng; Ku, Ting-Wei; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-04-27

    By introducing aprN into Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, the genetically modified L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK successfully expressed the nattokinase. The safety assessment of this novel strain was based on allergenicity of pepsin digestion stability and murine model serologic identity. Subjecting to the GM strain and host to pepsin digestion, the soluble fractions and cell debris were fast degraded completely. Feeding with ovalbumin resulted in significantly higher production of IgG1 and IgE as compared to that of L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK or L. lactis NZ9000. Further, the serum IgG2a level increased dose-dependently at week 2 and induced immune reaction toward Th1 pathway. Secretion of cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 fed with lactococci was significantly lower than that of the OVA group. L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK did not increase the proliferation of type 2 helper T cells in spleen or induce allergenicity in BALB/c mice. On the basis of the results, the new GM lactic acid bacterium is regarded as safe to use.

  16. Aggravation by paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, of antral lesions generated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Tanaka, Akiko; Nukui, Kazuo; Kojo, Azusa; Gyenge, Melinda; Amagase, Kikuko

    2011-09-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested a risk of adverse gastric reactions from the concomitant use of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We examined the adverse effects of SSRIs on antral lesions produced by indomethacin in rats. Rats fasted for 24 h were refed for 1 h, then administered indomethacin (30 mg/kg s.c.) 1 h after the refeeding and killed 6 h later. Paroxetine (1-10 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before indomethacin. Indomethacin caused antral lesions in refed rats. Paroxetine dose-dependently aggravated these lesions, despite provoking no damage by itself. Similar results were obtained when other NSAIDs such as diclofenac, flurbiprofen, and loxoprofen were coadministered with paroxetine or when indomethacin was coadministered with other antidepressants such as fluvoxamine and milnacipran, but not imipramine or maprotiline. Exogenous 5-HT also worsened the indomethacin-induced antral damage, whereas the aggravating effect of paroxetine was attenuated by ondansetron, a selective 5-HT(3) antagonist, but not antagonists for other 5-HT receptor subtypes. Indomethacin plus paroxetine had no effect on gastric secretion but significantly decreased mucosal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as GSH content. The antral damage induced by indomethacin plus paroxetine was significantly prevented by antisecretory (acid or pepsin) agents and mucosal protective agents as well as SOD and allopurinol. These results suggest that SSRIs aggravate NSAID-induced antral lesions, probably via the activation of 5HT(3) receptors, and the mechanism of aggravation may involve the corrosive action of acid/pepsin as well as an impaired antioxidative system.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic Potential of Halotolerant Lactobacilli Isolated from a Ripened Tropical Mexican Cheese.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Lalanne, Guiomar; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Reyes Méndez, Ana Itzel; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2013-12-01

    Three halotolerant lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. acidipiscis) isolated from a ripened Mexican tropical cheese (double cream Chiapas cheese) were evaluated as potential probiotics and compared with two commercial probiotic strains (L. casei Shirota and L. plantarum 299v) from human origin. All the strains survived the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation from the oral cavity to the ileum. During the stomach simulation, all the strains survived in satiety conditions (60 min, pH 3.0, 3 g/L pepsin, 150 rpm) and only L. pentosus could not survive under fasting conditions (60 min, pH 2.0, 3 g/L pepsin, 150 rpm). All the strains showed a strong hydrophilic character with low n-hexadecane and a variable chloroform affinity. L. plantarum showed a mucin adhesion rate similar to that of L. plantarum 299v and L. casei Shirota, while L. pentosus and L. acidipiscis had a lower mucin adhesion. The isolated halotolerant lactobacilli exhibited similar antimicrobial activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens in comparison with the two commercial strains. In addition, the proteinaceous character of the antimicrobial agents against the most pathogenic strains was demonstrated. The compounds showed a low molecular weight (less than 10 kDa). Besides, L. plantarum and L. acidipiscis were able to produce the enzyme β-galactosidase. Finally, L. pentosus was able to deconjugate taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids better than the two commercial strains analyzed. All these results suggest that the halotolerant lactobacilli isolated from this ripened Mexican cheese could be potentially probiotic. This is the first time that halotolerant lactic acid bacteria have been shown to have probiotic properties.

  18. Structure of the aspartic protease from Rous sarcoma retrovirus refined at 2-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Jaskólski, M; Miller, M; Rao, J K; Leis, J; Wlodawer, A

    1990-06-26

    The structure of Rous sarcoma virus protease has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement in the crystal form belonging to space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.95 A and c = 78.90 A. The enzyme belongs to the family of aspartic proteases with two identical subunits composing the active homodimer. The noncrystallographic dyad relating these two subunits was identified after preliminary tracing in the MIR map and was used for phase improvement by electron-density averaging. Structure refinement resulted in a model that included 1772 protein atoms and 252 water molecules, with an R factor of 0.144 for data extending to 2 A. The secondary structure of a retroviral protease molecule closely resembles that of a single domain in pepsin-like aspartic proteases and consists of several beta-strands and of one well-defined and one distorted alpha-helix. The dimer interface is composed of the N- and C-terminal chains from both subunits which are intertwined to form a well-ordered four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. In each monomer, the catalytic triad (Asp-Ser-Gly) is located in a loop that forms a part of the psi-structure characteristic to all aspartic proteases. The position of a water molecule between the active-site aspartate residues and the general scheme of H bonding within the active site bear close resemblance to those in pepsin-like aspartic proteases and therefore suggest a similar enzymatic mechanism. The binding cleft over the active site is covered by two flap arms, one from each monomer, which are partially disordered. The retroviral protease dimer has been compared with several enzymes of cellular origin, with chains aligning to an rms deviation of 1.90 A or better.

  19. Prolonged ingestion of prehydrolyzed whey protein induces little or no change in digestive enzymes, but decreases glutaminase activity in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia C; Carvalho, Iara R; Amaya-Farfán, Jaime; Abecia-Soria, Maria Inés; Miyasaka, Célio K; Ferreira, Clécio da S

    2010-08-01

    Because consumption of whey protein hydrolysates is on the increase, the possibility that prolonged ingestion of whey protein hydrolysates affect the digestive system of mammals has prompted us to evaluate the enzymatic activities of pepsin, leucine-aminopeptidase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and glutaminase in male Wistar rats fed diets containing either a commercial whey isolate or a whey protein hydrolysate with medium degree of hydrolysis and to compare the results with those produced by physical training (sedentary, sedentary-exhausted, trained, and trained-exhausted) in the treadmill for 4 weeks. The enzymatic activities were determined by classical procedures in all groups. No effect due to the form of the whey protein in the diet was seen in the activities of pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine-aminopeptidase. Training tended to increase the activity of glutaminase, but exhaustion promoted a decrease in the trained animals, and consumption of the hydrolysate decreased it even further. The results are consistent with the conclusion that chronic consumption of a whey protein hydrolysate brings little or no modification of the proteolytic digestive system and that the lowering of glutaminase activity may be associated with an antistress effect, counteracting the effect induced by training in the rat.

  20. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    PubMed

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and herpes simplex virus type 2 are possible risk factors for adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (prospective case-control study).

    PubMed

    Formánek, M; Jančatová, D; Komínek, P; Matoušek, P; Zeleník, K

    2017-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Although HPV prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than HPV infection probably contribute to RRP. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis (ChT) and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs in this group of patients more often. Prospective case-control study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital. The study included 20 patients with adult-onset RRP and 20 adult patients with vocal cord cyst and no pathology of laryngeal mucosa (control group). Immunohistochemical analysis of pepsin, HPV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and ChT was performed in biopsy specimens of laryngeal papillomas and of healthy laryngeal mucosa (control group) obtained from medial part of removed vocal cord cyst during microlaryngoscopy procedures. Pathologic LPR (pepsin in tissue) was diagnosed in 8/20 (40.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .003). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was present in 9/20 (45.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .001). Five specimens were positive for both pepsin and herpes simplex virus type 2. No samples were positive for ChT. There were no significant differences between groups for age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Tobacco exposure was not more frequent in RRP group either (P = .01). Results show that LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 are significantly more often present in patients with RRP. LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 might activate latent HPV infection and thereby be possible risk factors for RRP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide on gastric secretion and motility and the release of hormonal peptides in conscious cats.

    PubMed

    Vagne, M; Collinet, M; Cuber, J C; Bernard, C; Chayvialle, J A; McDonald, T J; Mutt, V

    1987-01-01

    The effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) was compared to those of bombesin (BBS) and pentagastrin (PG) in conscious cats. GRP and BBS augmented acid and pepsin secretions, as well as antral motility with an early effect comparable to that produced by pentagastrin with an elevation of low amplitude contractions and a diminution of high amplitude contractions. BBS and GRP increased plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels and decreased motilin levels measured by a C terminus-directed antiserum. In all cases, BBS and GRP displayed parallel dose-response curves. PG showed slight differences in the slopes of the dose-response curves slopes of the dose-response curves except for acid secretion stimulation where no difference was noted (PG was the most effective) and for pepsin stimulation where the difference was large (PG was much less effective). According to the different targets studied, BBS was 4 to 9 times more potent than GRP, 6 to 200 times more than PG. Gastrin release, elicited by the lowest ED50 of both BBS and GRP, should be considered as their primary effect in the cat.

  3. Involvement of a phosphoramidon-sensitive endopeptidase in the processing of big endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Pons, F; Touvay, C; Lagente, V; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Braquet, P

    1992-06-24

    In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs, i.v. injection of 1 nmol/kg big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) did not evoke significant changes in pulmonary inflation pressure (PIP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), whereas injection of the same dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced marked and rapid bronchoconstrictor and pressor responses. Administered at the dose of 10 nmol/kg, big ET-1 provoked significant increases in PIP and MBP, which developed slowly and were long-lasting as compared to those evoked by ET-1. When big ET-1 was incubated for 45 min at 37 degrees C with alpha-chymotrypsin (2 mU/nmol) or pepsin (1 microgram/nmol) and then injected into guinea-pigs at the dose of 1 nmol/kg, marked bronchoconstrictor and pressor responses were observed, with kinetics similar to those noted after administration of the same dose of ET-1. The magnitude of the alpha-chymotrypsin- or pepsin-treated big ET-1 responses was similar to that induced by ET-1, incubated or not with the enzymes. Injected i.v. at the dose of 5 mg/kg, 5 min before the challenge, phosphoramidon almost totally inhibited the bronchoconstrictor and pressor responses induced by 10 nmol/kg big ET-1, whereas thiorphan (5 mg/kg) partially reduced the increase in PIP and exerted a minimal effect on the changes in MBP. Administered at the dose of 20 mg/kg per os, 1 h before i.v. administration of 10 nmol/kg big ET-1, enalapril maleate and captopril did not significantly alter the bronchoconstriction and the hypertensive response evoked by the peptide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  5. Preparation and mass spectrometric study of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Mo, W; Ji, Y; Liu, S

    2001-01-01

    Rabies virus was used as the antigen to immunize laying chickens. Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin Y(IgY) was isolated from yolks of the eggs laid by these chickens using a two-step salt precipitation and one-step gel filtration protocol. The purified IgY was reduced with dithiothreitol, and heavy chains (HC) and light chains (LC) were obtained. In addition, the purified IgY was digested with pepsin and the fragment with specific antigen binding properties (Fab) was produced. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), the average molecular weights of IgY, HC, LC, and Fab were determined as 167 250, 65 105, 18 660, and 45,359 Da, respectively. IgY has two structural differences compared with mammalian IgGs. First, the molecular weight of the heavy chain of IgY is larger than that of its mammalian counterpart, while the molecular weight of the light chain of IgY is smaller. Second, upon pepsin digestion, anti-rabies virus IgY is degraded into Fab, in contrast to mammalian IgG, which has been reported to be degraded into F(ab')(2) under the same conditions. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult.

  7. Extensive in vitro gastrointestinal digestion markedly reduces the immune-toxicity of Triticum monococcum wheat: implication for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Gianfrani, Carmen; Camarca, Alessandra; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Di Stasio, Luigia; Giardullo, Nicola; Ferranti, Pasquale; Picariello, Gianluca; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Picascia, Stefania; Troncone, Riccardo; Pogna, Norberto; Auricchio, Salvatore; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2015-09-01

    The ancient diploid Triticum monococcum is of special interest as a candidate low-toxic wheat species for celiac disease patients. Here, we investigated how an in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion, affected the immune toxic properties of gliadin from diploid compared to hexaploid wheat. Gliadins from Triticum monococcum, and Triticum aestivum cultivars were digested using either a partial proteolysis with pepsin-chymotrypsin, or an extensive degradation that used gastrointestinal enzymes including the brush border membrane enzymes. The immune stimulatory properties of the digested samples were investigated on T-cell lines and jejunal biopsies from celiac disease patients. The T-cell response profile to the Triticum monococcum gliadin was comparable to that obtained with Triticum aestivum gliadin after the partial pepsin-chymotrypsin digestion. In contrast, the extensive gastrointestinal hydrolysis drastically reduced the immune stimulatory properties of Triticum monococcum gliadin. MS-based analysis showed that several Triticum monococcum peptides, including known T-cell epitopes, were degraded during the gastrointestinal treatment, whereas many of Triticum aestivum gliadin survived the gastrointestinal digestion. The pattern of Triticum monococcum gliadin proteins is sufficiently different from those of common hexaploid wheat to determine a lower toxicity in celiac disease patients following in vitro simulation of human digestion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Removing Cross-Linked Telopeptides Enhances the Production of Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptides from Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hui; Chaplot, Shreyak; Chalamaiah, Meram; Roy, Bimol C; Bruce, Heather L; Wu, Jianping

    2017-08-30

    The low-molecular-weight (LMW) peptides derived from collagen have shown a potential for various nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. However, production of LMW peptides from vertebrate collagen remains a challenge. Herein, we report a new method to produce LMW collagen peptides using pepsin pretreatment that removed cross-linked telopeptides in collagen molecules. After the pretreatment, the proportion of LMW collagen peptides (<1.4 kDa) that were obtained from pepsin-soluble collagen increased to 32.59% compared to heat-soluble collagen peptides (16.10%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that telopeptide cleavage retained the triple-helical conformation of collagen. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis suggested that Gly-X-Y (X is often proline, while Y is either hydroxyproline or hydroxylysine) repeats were not the main factors that hindered the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen molecules. However, cross-link quantification demonstrated that trivalent cross-links that included pyridinolines and pyrroles were the primary obstacles to producing small peptides from collagen of spent hens. This study demonstrated for the first time that removing cross-linked telopeptides could enhance the production of LMW peptides from spent hen collagen, which is also of interest to manufacturers who produce LMW collagen peptides from other vertebrate animals, such as bovids and porcids.

  9. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2017-05-05

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β -Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca , Scyliorhinus canicula , Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass.

  10. Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Sairam, K; Rao, C V; Babu, M D; Goel, R K

    2001-11-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation. BME in the dose of 20 mg/kg, given for 10 days, twice daily showed healing effects against 50% acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Further work was done to investigate the possible mechanisms of its action by studying its effect on various mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion and defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell shedding, cell proliferation and antioxidant activity in rats. BME 20 mg/kg showed no effect on acid-pepsin secretion, increased mucin secretion, while it decreased cell shedding with no effect on cell proliferation. BME showed significant antioxidant effect per se and in stressed animals. Thus, the gastric prophylactic and curative effects of BME may be due to its predominant effect on mucosal defensive factors.

  11. Biological characteristics and probiotic effect of Leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingqi; Dai, Xianjun

    2013-01-01

    A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, Sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low pH, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. But the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. The isolate was resistant to several antibiotics, including Cephalothin, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Tobramycin. The isolate could auto-aggregate itself and coaggregate with other bacteria in vitro. The autoaggregation percentage increased to 23.29% after 20 h of incubation. The percentage of coaggregation were respectively 31.21%, 29.44%, 10.74%, 16.49%, 24.36%, 24.41% and 20.99% for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteusbacillus vulgaris after 20 h incubation of a mixed suspension. The supernatant of the strain inhibited the growth of several pathogens, such as V.parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Shigella. These results indicated that the isolate, Leuconostoc lactis, might be an attractive candidate for perspectival strain for probiotics in marine aquaculture. PMID:24516418

  12. Development of digestive enzymes in larvae of Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus.

    PubMed

    López-Ramírez, G; Cuenca-Soria, C A; Alvarez-González, C A; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Ortiz-Galindo, J L; Perales-García, N; Márquez-Couturier, G; Arias-Rodríguez, L; Indy, J R; Contreras-Sánchez, W M; Gisbert, E; Moyano, F J

    2011-03-01

    The development of digestive enzymes during the early ontogeny of the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) was studied using biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. From yolk absorption (6 days after hatching: dah), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii until 15 dah, afterward they were fed with commercial microparticulated trout food (45% protein and 16% lipids) from 16 to 60 dah. Several samples were collected including yolk-sac larvae (considered as day 1 after hatching) and specimens up to 60 dah. Most digestive enzymes were present from yolk absorption (5-6 dah), except for the specific acid proteases activity (pepsin-like), which increase rapidly from 8 dah up to 20 dah. Three alkaline proteases isoforms (24.0, 24.8, 84.5 kDa) were detected at 8 dah using SDS-PAGE zymogram, corresponding to trypsin, chymotrypsin and probably leucine aminopeptidase enzymes, and only one isoform was detected (relative electromobility, Rf = 0.54) for acid proteases (pepsin-like) from 3 dah onwards using PAGE zymogram. We concluded that C. urophthamus is a precocious fish with a great capacity to digest all kinds of food items, including artificial diets provided from 13 dah.

  13. [Control of toxicity of Sarcocystis fayeri in horsemeat by freezing treatment and prevention of food poisoning caused by raw consumption of horsemeat].

    PubMed

    Harada, Seiya; Furukawa, Masato; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Jiro; Saito, Morihiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Irikura, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    More than 27 outbreaks per year of food poisoning caused by consuming horse meat were reported in Kumamoto Prefecture (including Kumamoto City) from January 2009 to September 2011. It was found that the causative agent of the outbreaks was a protein with a molecular weight of 15 kDa that had originated from bradyzoites of Sarcocystis fayeri parasitizing the horse meat. Rabit ileal loop tests showed that pepsin treatment of homogenates of frozen horse meat containing the cysts of S. fayeri induced loss of toxicity, presumably by digestion of the proteinous causative agent(s). Slices of horse meat containing the cysts were frozen at below -20°C for various periods. The cysts were collected after thawing the slices, then treated in an artificial stomach juice containing pepsin. The bradyzoites of the cysts kept at -20°C for 48 hr or more completely disappeared. Simultaneously, the 15 kDa protein also disappeared in the frozen cysts. After notifying the public and recommending freezing treatment of horse meat, no subsequent cases of food poisoning were reported. This indicates that freezing of horse meat is effective to prevent the occurrence of food poisoning caused by consuming raw horse meat containing S. fayeri.

  14. Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, A C; Tuomola, E M; Tölkkö, S; Salminen, S

    2001-02-28

    Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PELI, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media on adhesion was tested. The properties of the four strains were compared to the well-investigated probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG. Three of the tested strains showed significant adhesion properties in the mucus model, while L. brevis PELI had intermediate adhesion and L. rhamnosus LC-705 adhered poorly. Pretreatment with different milks decreased the adhesion and low pH and pepsin treatment reduced the adhesion of all tested strains except L. rhamnosus LC-705. No competitive exclusion of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli SfaII was observed. The results indicate that major differences exist between tested proposed probiotic strains. The growth media and the food matrix significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. This has previously not been taken into account when selecting novel probiotic strains.

  15. Aluminium sulfate exposure: A set of effects on hydrolases from brain, muscle and digestive tract of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vagne Melo; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Costa, Helane Maria Silva; Silva, Raquel Pereira Freitas; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium is a major pollutant due to its constant disposal in aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities. The physiological effects of this metal in fish are still scarce in the literature. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of aluminium sulfate on the activity of enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscle cholinesterases (AChE-like and BChE-like activities), pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase. Fish were in vivo exposed during 14days when the following experimental groups were assayed: control group (CG), exposure to Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 at 1μg·mL -1 (G1) and 3μg·mL -1 (G3) (concentrations compatible with the use of aluminium sulfate as coagulant in water treatment). In vitro exposure was performed using animals of CG treatment. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure increased cholinesterase activity in relation to controls. The highest cholinesterase activity was observed for muscle BChE-like enzyme in G3. In contrast, the digestive enzymes showed decreased activity in both in vivo and in vitro exposures. The highest inhibitory effect was observed for pepsin activity. The inhibition of serine proteases was also quantitatively analyzed in zymograms using pixel optical densitometry as area under the peaks (AUP) and integrated density (ID). These results suggest that the inhibition of digestive enzymes in combination with activation of cholinesterases in O. niloticus is a set of biochemical effects that evidence the presence of aluminium in the aquatic environment. Moreover, these enzymatic alterations may support further studies on physiological changes in this species with implications for its neurological and digestive metabolisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of tracheal cuff shape on microaspiration of gastric contents in intubated critically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jaillette, Emmanuelle; Brunin, Guillaume; Girault, Christophe; Zerimech, Farid; Chiche, Arnaud; Broucqsault-Dedrie, Céline; Fayolle, Cyril; Minacori, Franck; Alves, Isabelle; Barrailler, Stephanie; Robriquet, Laurent; Tamion, Fabienne; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Thellier, Damien; Delcourte, Claire; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2015-09-25

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection in intubated critically ill patients. Microaspiration of the contaminated gastric and oropharyngeal secretions is the main mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of VAP. Tracheal cuff plays an important role in stopping the progression of contaminated secretions into the lower respiratory tract. Previous in vitro studies suggested that conical cuff shape might be helpful in improving tracheal sealing. However, clinical studies found conflicting results. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of conical tracheal cuff shape on the microaspiration of gastric contents in critically ill patients. This prospective cluster randomized controlled crossover open-label trial is currently being conducted in ten French intensive care units (ICUs). Patients are allocated to intubation with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) standard (barrel)-shaped or a PVC conical-shaped tracheal tube. The primary objective is to determine the impact of the conical shaped tracheal cuff on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions, tracheobronchial colonization, VAP and ventilator-associated events. Abundant microaspiration is defined as the presence of pepsin at significant level (>200 ng/ml) in at least 30 % of the tracheal aspirates. Pepsin and amylase are quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during the 48 h following inclusion. Quantitative tracheal aspirate culture is performed at inclusion and twice weekly. We plan to recruit 312 patients in the participating ICUs. BEST Cuff is the first randomized controlled study evaluating the impact of PVC tracheal-cuff shape on gastric microaspirations in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Enrollment began in June 2014 and is expected to end in October 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01948635 (registered 31 August 2013).

  17. Impact of gastric pH profiles on the proteolytic digestion of mixed βlg-Xanthan biopolymer gels.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, B L; Kolodziejczyk, E; Acquistapace, S; Engmann, J; Wooster, T J

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of how foods are digested and metabolised is essential to enable the design/selection of foods as part of a balanced diet. Essential to this endeavour is the development of appropriate biorelevant in vitro digestion tools. In this work, the influence of gastric pH profile on the in vitro digestion of mixtures of β-lactoglobulin (βlg) and xanthan gum prior to and after heat induced gelation was investigated. A conventional highly acidic (pH 1.9) gastric pH profile was compared to two dynamic gastric pH profiles (initial pH of 6.0 vs. 5.2 and H(+) secretion rates of 60 vs. 36 mmol h(-1)) designed to mimic the changes in gastric pH observed during clinical trials with high protein meals. In moving away from the pH 1.9 model, to a pH profile reflecting in vivo conditions, the initial rate and degree of protein digestion halved during the first 45 minutes. After 90 minutes of gastric digestion, all three pH profiles caused similar extents of protein digestion. Given that 50% gastric emptying times of (test) meals are in range of 30-90 min, it would seem highly relevant to use a dynamic pH gastric model rather than a pH 1.9 (USP) or pH 3 model (INFOGEST) in assessing the impact of food structuring approaches on protein digestion. The impact that heat induced gelation had on the degree of gel digestion by pepsin was also investigated. Surprisingly, it was found that heat induced gelation of βlg-xanthan mixtures at 70-90 °C for 20 minutes lead to a considerable decrease in the rate of proteolysis, which contrasts many studies of dispersed aggregates and gels of βlg alone whose heating accelerates pepsin activity due to unfolding. In the present case, the formation of a dense protein network created a fine pore structure which restricted pepsin access into the gel thereby slowing proteolysis. This work not only has implications for the in vitro assessment of protein digestion, but also highlights how protein digestion might be slowed, learnings that

  18. Evaluating Potential Risks of Food Allergy and Toxicity of Soy Leghemoglobin Expressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuan; He, Xiaoyun; Andoh‐Kumi, Kwame; Fraser, Rachel Z.; Lu, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Scope The Soybean (Glycine max) leghemoglobin c2 (LegHb) gene was introduced into Pichia pastoris yeast for sustainable production of a heme‐carrying protein, for organoleptic use in plant‐based meat. The potential allergenicity and toxicity of LegHb and 17 Pichia host‐proteins each representing ≥1% of total protein in production batches are evaluated by literature review, bioinformatics sequence comparisons to known allergens or toxins, and in vitro pepsin digestion. Methods and results Literature searches found no evidence of allergenicity or toxicity for these proteins. There are no significant sequence matches of LegHb to known allergens or toxins. Eleven Pichia proteins have modest identity matches to minor environmental allergens and 13 Pichia proteins have significant matches to proteins from toxic sources. Yet the matched allergens and toxins have similar matches to proteins from the commonly consumed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, without evidence of food allergy or toxicity. The demonstrated history of safe use indicates additional tests for allergenicity and toxicity are not needed. The LegHb and Pichia sp. proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin at pH 2. Conclusion These results demonstrate that foods containing recombinant soy LegHb produced in Pichia sp. are unlikely to present an unacceptable risk of allergenicity or toxicity to consumers. PMID:28921896

  19. Inhibitory properties of bambara groundnut protein hydrolysate and peptide fractions against angiotensin-converting enzymes, renin and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-07-01

    An increased rate of high blood pressure has led to critical human hypertensive conditions in most nations. In the present study, bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs) obtained using three different proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin) and their peptide fractions (molecular weight: 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa) were investigated for antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Alcalase hydrolysate contained the highest amount of low molecular weight (LMW) peptides compared to pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates. LMW peptides fractions (<1 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) for all the enzymes hydrolysates. For renin inhibition, alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest inhibition at 59% compared to other hydrolysates and their corresponding membrane fractions. The antioxidant power of bambara protein hydrolysates and peptide fractions was evaluated through the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and ABTS scavenging activity. Among the hydrolysates, alcalase exhibited the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Furthermore, all BPHs were able to scavenge ABTS •+ to a three-fold greater extent compared to the isolate. BPH and LMW peptide fractions could potentially serve as useful ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals against high blood pressure and oxidative stress. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The protective role of the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in soybean lunasin digestion: the effect of released peptides on colon cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Huerta, Elvia; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Arques, M Carmen; Amigo, Lourdes; Recio, Isidra; Clemente, Alfonso; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2015-08-01

    Lunasin is a naturally-occurring peptide demonstrating chemopreventive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To exhibit these activities, orally ingested lunasin needs to survive proteolytic attack of digestive enzymes to reach target tissues in active form/s. Preliminary studies suggested the protective role of protease inhibitors, such as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor and Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor, against lunasin's digestion by both pepsin and pancreatin. This work describes in depth the behaviour of lunasin under conditions simulating the transit through the gastrointestinal tract in the absence or presence of soybean Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor 1 (IBB1) in both active and inactive states. By liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), the remaining lunasin at the end of gastric and gastro-duodenal phases was quantified. Protection against the action of pepsin was independent of the amount of IBB1 present in the analyzed samples, whereas an IBB1 dose-dependent protective effect against trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed. Peptides released from lunasin and inactive IBB1 were identified by MS/MS. The remaining lunasin and IBB1 as well as their derived peptides could be responsible for the anti-proliferative activity against colon cancer cells observed for the digests obtained at the end of simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

  1. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lunasin, with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid motif, causes apoptosis to L1210 leukemia cells by activation of caspase-3.

    PubMed

    de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Wang, Wenyi; Dia, Vermont P

    2010-03-01

    Lunasin is a novel chemopreventive peptide featuring a cell adhesion motif composed of arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) which has been associated to cytotoxicity to established cell lines. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of lunasin on the viability of L1210 leukemia cells and to understand the underlying mechanisms involved. Pure lunasin and lunasin enriched soy flour (LES) caused cytotoxicity to L1210 leukemia cells with IC(50) of 14 and 16 microM (lunasin equivalent), respectively. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion showed that 25% of the original amount of lunasin survived 3 h of pepsin digestion and 3% of lunasin remained after sequential pepsin-pancreatin digestion for a total of 6 h. Cell cycle analysis showed that lunasin caused a dose-dependent G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of L1210 leukemia cells with 1 mg/mL of LES for 18 h led to an increase in the amount of apoptotic cells from 2 to 40%. Compared to untreated cells, treatment with 1 mg/mL LES showed a 6-fold increase on the expressions of caspases-8 and -9, and and a 12-fold increase on the expression of caspase-3. These results showed for the first time that lunasin, a naturally occurring peptide containing an RGD motif, caused apoptosis to L1210 leukemia cells through caspase-3 activation.

  3. Isolation and purification of novel peptides derived from Sepia ink: Effects on apoptosis of prostate cancer cell PC‑3.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangfang; Jing, Yinwen; Ding, Guofang; Yang, Zuisu

    2017-10-01

    Novel prostate cancer therapeutics are in high demand. In order to identify potential therapeutic targets, protein from sepia ink was hydrolyzed by utilizing pepsin in an orthogonal array design. Pepsin hydrolysate (SH) obtained at optimal conditions exhibited the highest antitumor activity. Subsequently, a novel antitumor peptide, which was termed SHP, was isolated through ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high‑performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of SHP was identified as Leu‑Lys‑Glu‑Glu‑Asn‑Arg‑Arg‑Arg‑Arg‑Asp with a molecular mass of 1371.53 Da. The results of the proliferation assay revealed that SHP significantly inhibited the proliferation of PC‑3 cells in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining indicated significant SHP‑induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Annexin V/PI double‑staining assays revealed that the percentage of early‑ stage apoptotic cells increased from 8.85 to 29% following PC‑3 exposure to 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml SHP for 24 h. SHP‑induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of cellular tumor antigen p53 and caspase‑3, the upregulation of apoptosis regulator BAX, and the downregulation of apoptosis regulator Bcl‑2. These findings suggest that SHP is a novel inducer of apoptosis in vitro and merits further investigation as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and current trends in therapy.

    PubMed

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally drugs used in peptic ulcer have been directed mainly against a single luminal damaging agent i.e. hydrochloric acid and a plethora of drugs like antacids, anticholinergics, histamine H2-antagonists etc. have flooded the market. An increase in 'aggressive' factors like acid and pepsin is found only in a minority of peptic ulcer patients. These factors do not alter during or after spontaneous healing. It is well-known that the gastric mucosa can resist auto-digestion though it is exposed to numerous 'insults' like high concentration of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, reflux of bile, spicy food, microorganisms and at times alcohol and irritant drugs. It is thus evident that the integrity of the gastric mucosa is maintained by defense mechanisms against these 'aggressive' damaging factors. Recently, attention has been focused more on gastroduodenal defense mechanisms leading to the concept of 'Cytoprotection'. The old dictum "no acid--no ulcer" now extends to "if acid--why ulcer"? as a fundamental question. During last decade more information has poured in about the prevalence and changing pattern of the disease, the influence of environmental factors and speculation on the role of a recently characterized bacterial organism, Helicobacter pylori which colonizes in the gastric mucosa, particularly the antral region. This review briefly describes current knowledge about the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and discusses strategies for its treatment.

  5. Tolerability of a Fully Maturated Cheese in Cow’s Milk Allergic Children: Biochemical, Immunochemical, and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Claudia; Sforza, Stefano; Palazzo, Paola; Lambertini, Francesca; Paolella, Sara; Zennaro, Danila; Rafaiani, Chiara; Ferrara, Rosetta; Bernardi, Maria Livia; Santoro, Mario; Zuzzi, Sara; Giangrieco, Ivana; Dossena, Arnaldo; Mari, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    Background From patients’ reports and our preliminary observations, a fully maturated cheese (Parmigiano-Reggiano; PR) seems to be well tolerated by a subset of cow’s milk (CM) allergic patients. Objective and Methods To biochemically and immunologically characterize PR samples at different maturation stage and to verify PR tolerability in CM allergic children. Seventy patients, with suspected CM allergy, were enrolled. IgE to CM, α-lactalbumin (ALA), β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and caseins (CAS) were tested using ImmunoCAP, ISAC103 and skin prick test. Patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with CM, and an open food challenge with 36 months-maturated PR. Extracts obtained from PR samples were biochemically analyzed in order to determine protein and peptide contents. Pepsin and trypsin-chymotrypsin-pepsin simulated digestions were applied to PR extracts. Each PR extract was investigated by IgE Single Point Highest Inhibition Achievable assay (SPHIAa). The efficiency analysis was carried out using CM and PR oral challenges as gold standards. Results The IgE binding to milk allergens was 100% inhibited by almost all PR preparations; the only difference was for CAS, mainly αS1-CAS. Sixteen patients sensitized to CM tolerated both CM and PR; 29 patients tolerated PR only; 21 patients, reacted to both CM and PR, whereas 4 patients reactive to CM refused to ingest PR. ROC analysis showed that the absence of IgE to BLG measured by ISAC could be a good marker of PR tolerance. The SPHIAa using digested PR preparations showed a marked effect on IgE binding to CAS and almost none on ALA and BLG. Conclusions 58% of patients clinically reactive to CM tolerated fully maturated PR. The preliminary digestion of CAS induced by PR maturation process, facilitating a further loss of allergenic reactivity during gut digestion, might explain the tolerance. This hypothesis seems to work when no IgE sensitization to ISAC BLG is detected. PMID:22829901

  6. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I.; Sotelo, Carmen G.

    2017-01-01

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β-Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus canicula, Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass. PMID:28475143

  7. Jellyfish mesogloea collagen. Characterization of molecules as alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers.

    PubMed

    Miura, S; Kimura, S

    1985-12-05

    The mesogloea collagen of a primitive animal, the jellyfish Stomolophus nomurai, belonging to the class Scyphozoa in the Coelenterata, was studied with respect to its chain structure. Most of the mesogloea collagen was solubilized by limited digestion with pepsin and isolated by selective precipitation at 0.9 m NaCl in 0.5 M acetic acid. Upon denaturation, the pepsin-solubilized collagen produced three distinct alpha chains, alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3, in comparable amounts which were separable by CM-cellulose chromatography. The nonidentity of these alpha chains was confirmed by amino acid and carbohydrate analyses and peptide mapping. Furthermore, the introduction of intramolecular cross-links into native molecules by formaldehyde yielded a large proportion of gamma 123 chain with chain structure alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3, as judged by chromatographic behavior and peptide maps. We concluded that mesogloea collagen is comprised of alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers and is chemically like vertebrate Type V collagen. On the other hand, sea anemone mesogloea collagen from the class Anthozoa was previously reported to comprise (alpha)3 homotrimers (Katzman, R. L., and Kang, A. H. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 5486-5489). On the basis of these findings, we assume that alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers arose in evolution with the divergence of Scyphozoa and Anthozoa.

  8. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  9. Evaluating Potential Risks of Food Allergy and Toxicity of Soy Leghemoglobin Expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuan; He, Xiaoyun; Andoh-Kumi, Kwame; Fraser, Rachel Z; Lu, Mei; Goodman, Richard E

    2018-01-01

    The Soybean (Glycine max) leghemoglobin c2 (LegHb) gene was introduced into Pichia pastoris yeast for sustainable production of a heme-carrying protein, for organoleptic use in plant-based meat. The potential allergenicity and toxicity of LegHb and 17 Pichia host-proteins each representing ≥1% of total protein in production batches are evaluated by literature review, bioinformatics sequence comparisons to known allergens or toxins, and in vitro pepsin digestion. Literature searches found no evidence of allergenicity or toxicity for these proteins. There are no significant sequence matches of LegHb to known allergens or toxins. Eleven Pichia proteins have modest identity matches to minor environmental allergens and 13 Pichia proteins have significant matches to proteins from toxic sources. Yet the matched allergens and toxins have similar matches to proteins from the commonly consumed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, without evidence of food allergy or toxicity. The demonstrated history of safe use indicates additional tests for allergenicity and toxicity are not needed. The LegHb and Pichia sp. proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin at pH 2. These results demonstrate that foods containing recombinant soy LegHb produced in Pichia sp. are unlikely to present an unacceptable risk of allergenicity or toxicity to consumers. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [The effect of carbon tetrachloride poisoning on the activity of digestive proteases in rats and correction of the disorders with vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Esaulenko, E E; Khil'chuk, M A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The results of the study of activity of digestive proteases (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin) in homogenates of stomach, pancreas and duodenum in experimental animals have been presented. Rats were exposed to intoxication with carbon tetrachloride (subcutaneous administration of a 50% oil solution of CCl4 in the dose of 0.5 ml per 100 g body weight) for three days and then they were given analysed oils (black nut, walnut and flax oil) intragastrically by gavage at a dose of 0.2 ml per day within 23 days. Pepsin level in gastric mucosa homogenates and chymotrypsin activity in pancreatic homogenates were determined by method of N.P. Pyatnitskiy based on on the ability of enzymes to coagulate dairy-acetate mixture, respectively, at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Trypsin activity in homogenates of pancreatic was determined by method of Erlanger - Shaternikova colorimetrically. It has been established that intoxication with CCl4 decreased the synthesis of proteolytic enzymes of the stomach (by 51%) and pancreas (by 70-78%). Injections of analysed vegetable oils to animals contributed to the normalization of proteolytic enzymes synthesis. The conclusion that there are prospects of using the analysed vegetable oils containing large quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) for the correction of detected biochemical abnormalities has been done.

  11. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  12. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of bacteriocin producer strains of lactic acid bacteria from a dairy environment.

    PubMed

    Lasagno, M; Beoleito, V; Sesma, F; Raya, R; Font de Valdez, G; Eraso, A

    2002-01-01

    Two strains showing bacteriocin production were selected from a total of 206 lactic acid bacteria isolated from samples of milk, milk serum, whey and homemade cheeses in Southern Cordoba, Argentina. This property was detected by means of well diffusion assays. The strains were identified as Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus durans. The protein nature of those substances was proved by showing their sensitivity to type IV and XXV proteases, papaine, trypsin, pepsin and K proteinase. The bacteriocins inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringes and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, an A-enterotoxin and a B-enterotoxin producers. All of these bacteria are common pathogens usually associated with food borne diseases (ETA). These lactic acid bacteria or their bacteriocins could be suitable candidates for food preservation and specially useful in the our regional dairy industry.

  14. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Hashemi-Bajgani, Seyed-Mehdi; Karbasi, Asharaf; Jafari, Mahvash; Aslani, Jafar; Salehi, Maryam; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Conclusion: Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment. PMID:23798946

  15. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder.

    PubMed

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Hashemi-Bajgani, Seyed-Mehdi; Karbasi, Asharaf; Jafari, Mahvash; Aslani, Jafar; Salehi, Maryam; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-08-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment.

  16. [The primary structure of the alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A from Streptomyces tendae 4158. A new class of inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Aschauer, H; Vértesy, L; Nesemann, G; Braunitzer, G

    1983-10-01

    The native or modified alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A - isolated from the culture medium of Streptomyces tendae 4158 - and overlapping peptides were degraded by the automatic Edman technique. The oxidized or aminoethylated or oxidized and maleoylated inhibitor was digested with trypsin and the native inhibitor with pepsin. Further digestion with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase was also carried out. After peptic digestion two cystin peptides were isolated, which allowed the establishment of the disulfide bonds. The alpha-amylase inhibitor is a polypeptid consisting of 74 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 7958 Da. The inhibitor is composed of all naturally occurring amino acids except methionine and phenylalanine and shows no sequence homology to known inhibitors. The clinical and pharmacological importance in respect to the inhibitors ability for inactivation of human salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase is discussed. Especially the proteinase resistance of the inhibitor enables a clinical application in human (e.g. Diabetes mellitus) per os.

  17. Electrophoretic mobility patterns of collagen following laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Lawrence S.; Moazami, Nader; Pocsidio, Joanne O.; Oz, Mehmet C.; LoGerfo, Paul; Treat, Michael R.

    1991-06-01

    Clinical application of laser vascular anastomosis in inhibited by a lack of understanding of its mechanism. Whether tissue fusion results from covalent or non-covalent bonding of collagen and other structural proteins is unknown. We compared electrophoretic mobility of collagen in laser treated and untreated specimens of rat tail tendon (>90% type I collagen) and rabbit aorta. Welding was performed, using tissue shrinkage as the clinical endpoint, using the 808 nm diode laser (power density 14 watts/cm2) and topical indocyanine green dye (max absorption 805 nm). Collagen was extracted with 8 M urea (denaturing), 0.5 M acetic acid (non-denaturing) and acetic acid/pepsin (cleaves non- helical protein). Mobility patterns on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after urea or acetic acid extraction were identical in the lasered and control tendon and vessel (confirmed by optical densitometry), revealing no evidence of formation of novel covalent bonds. Alpha and beta band intensity was diminished in pepsin incubated lasered specimens compared with controls (optical density ratio 0.00 +/- 9 tendon, 0.65 +/- 0.12 aorta), indicating the presence of denatured collagen. With the laser parameters used, collagen is denatured without formation of covalent bonds, suggesting that non-covalent interaction between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the weld. Based on this mechanism, welding parameters can be chosen which produce collagen denaturation without cell death.

  18. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collagen Hydrolysates of Skin Shavings Prepared by Enzymatic Hydrolysis as a Natural Flocculant and Their Flocculating Property.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ruijie; Yao, Kai; Zhang, Qisheng; Jia, Dongying; Zhao, Jiayuan; Chi, Yuanlong

    2017-05-01

    A series of collagen hydrolysates (CHs) were prepared from pigskin shavings by using pepsin (PCH), trypsin (TCH), Alcalase (ACH), HCl (HCH), and NaOH (NCH). Their physicochemical properties, including degree of collagen hydrolysis, molecular weight distribution, electric charge, and microstructure, were investigated, and their flocculation performance was evaluated in a kaolin suspension, at varied pHs and concentrations. PCH exhibited high flocculation capability under acidic and neutral conditions, and its efficiency for removing suspended particles was approximately 80% at a concentration of 0.05 g/L. TCH, ACH, HCH, and NCH showed almost no flocculation capability. The flocculation capability of PCH could be mainly due to a combination of optimal molecular weight distribution and electric charge. This study could provide an environment-friendly natural flocculant and also proposes a promising approach for the reuse of collagen wastes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Optimization of Feasibility Stage for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Coales, Stephen J.

    2018-03-01

    The practice of HDX-MS remains somewhat difficult, not only for newcomers but also for veterans, despite its increasing popularity. While a typical HDX-MS project starts with a feasibility stage where the experimental conditions are optimized and the peptide map is generated prior to the HDX study stage, the literature usually reports only the HDX study stage. In this protocol, we describe a few considerations for the initial feasibility stage, more specifically, how to optimize quench conditions, how to tackle the carryover issue, and how to apply the pepsin specificity rule. Two sets of quench conditions are described depending on the presence of disulfide bonds to facilitate the quench condition optimization process. Four protocols are outlined to minimize carryover during the feasibility stage: (1) addition of a detergent to the quench buffer, (2) injection of a detergent or chaotrope to the protease column after each sample injection, (3) back-flushing of the trap column and the analytical column with a new plumbing configuration, and (4) use of PEEK (or PEEK coated) frits instead of stainless steel frits for the columns. The application of the pepsin specificity rule after peptide map generation and not before peptide map generation is suggested. The rule can be used not only to remove falsely identified peptides, but also to check the sample purity. A well-optimized HDX-MS feasibility stage makes subsequent HDX study stage smoother and the resulting HDX data more reliable. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Validation of the TrichinEasy® digestion system for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fish products.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Chetta, Michele; Costa, Antonella; Graci, Stefania; Collura, Rosaria; Buscemi, Maria Drussilla; Cusimano, Maria; Alongi, Angelina; Principato, Deborah; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Anisakis and other parasites belonging to the Anisakidae family are organisms of interest for human health, because of their high zoonotic potential. Parasites belonging to this family can cause Anisakiasis, a parasitological disease caused by the ingestion of raw, infested fish products. Furthermore, evidence from the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority; EFSA 2010) has highlighted the allergological potential of nematodes belonging to the Anisakis genre. The detection and identification of Anisakidae larvae in fish products requires an initial visual inspection of the fish sample, as well as other techniques such as candling, UV illumination and artificial digestion. The digestion method consists of the simulation of digestive mechanics, which is made possible by the utilization of HCl and pepsin, according to EC Regulation 2075/2005. In this study, a new Anisakidae larvae detection method using a mechanical digestion system called Trichineasy® was developed. A total of 142 fish samples, belonging to 14 different species, were examined to validate the method. A reaction mixture with 100 g of sample, 10 g of pepsin (1:10000 NF) and 50 ml of 10% HCl at 36 ± 1°C for 20 minutes was evaluated to be the best condition for the digestion of fish samples. These parameters have also allowed the detection of viable larvae after digestion. The results confirm this instrumentation as a valuable and safe tool for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fishery products.

  2. Digested wheat gluten inhibits binding between leptin and its receptor.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Tommy; Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Olsson, Stefan; Nalla, Amarnadh; Bauer, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2015-01-20

    Leptin resistance is considered a primary risk factor for obesity. It has been hypothesized that dietary cereal grain protein could cause leptin resistance by preventing leptin from binding to its receptor. Non-degraded dietary wheat protein has been found in human serum at a mean level of 41 ng/mL. Here, we report our findings from testing whether enzymatically digested gluten from wheat prevents leptin from binding to the leptin receptor in vitro. Gluten from wheat was digested with pepsin and trypsin under physiological conditions. Pepsin and trypsin activity was removed from the gluten digest with a 10 kDa spin-filter or by heat treatment at 100°C for 30 min. Binding to the leptin receptor of leptin mixed with gluten digest at a series of concentrations was measured using surface plasmon resonance technology. Binding of the gluten digest to the leptin receptor was not detected. Spin-filtered gluten digest inhibited binding of leptin to the leptin receptor, with 50% inhibition at a gluten digest concentration of ~10 ng/mL. Heat-treated gluten digest did not inhibit leptin binding. Digested wheat gluten inhibits binding of leptin to the leptin receptor, with half-maximal inhibition at 10 ng/mL. The inhibition is significant at clinically relevant concentrations and could therefore serve as a novel pathway to investigate to understand the molecular basis of leptin resistance, obesity and associated disorders.

  3. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-09

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten.

  4. Lactoferrin and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein and a member of the transferrin family. LF and lysozyme in breast milk kill bacteria. In the stomach, pepsin digests and releases a potent peptide antibiotic called lactoferricin from native LF. The antimicrobial characteristics of LF may facilitate a healthy intestinal microbiome. LF is the major whey in human milk; its highest concentration is in colostrum. This fact highlights early feeding of colostrum and also fresh mature milk as a way to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heat and enzymatic treatments on human IgE and rabbit IgG sensitivity to white bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Amal; Lotfi, Aarab

    2013-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the population of Fez and Casablanca in Morocco to dry white beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) and to investigate the effect of food processing (heat and/or enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin) on this sensitivity. Work was based on a bank consisting of 146 sera from patients with atopic hypersensitivity in order to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to native and processed white bean proteins by ELISA. Under the same conditions, we assessed the immunoreactivity of rabbit IgG obtained by immunization with native white bean proteins.Evaluation of specific IgE to the white bean proteins showed that 51% of children and 39% of adults had positive values. The heat treatment and pepsin hydrolysis of dry bean proteins showed a reduction of 68% of IgE binding recognition in more than 65% of all patients. After heating, all patients indicated a reduction greater than 36%. With rabbit IgG, we observed a decrease by 25% of binding under heat treatment while enzymatic digestion reduced IgG recognition by 46.6%.These findings suggest that epitopes recognized by IgE in the studied population were conformational sites whereas those recognized by rabbit IgG were probably sequential. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the Moroccan population was very sensitive to white beans and this sensitivity could be reduced after heat treatment or enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. Cold-set hydrogels made of whey protein nanofibrils with different divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Mehdi; Madadlou, Ashkan

    2016-08-01

    Whey protein nanofibrils are gaining interest to fabricate cold-set hydrogels due to their ability to gel at lower concentrations than parent proteins. In the present research, fibrillated protein solution was gelled with three different divalent cation salts including CaCl2, MnCl2 and ZnCl2 and the textural and functional characteristics of the resulting hydrogel samples were studied. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the flexible micron-scaled fibrils with nanometric thickness (up to 8.0nm) that formed at pH 2.0 underwent breaking in length upon post-formation pH rise to 7.5. Whilst heat-denatured protein solution failed to form self-supporting gel at pH 7.5, fibrillated protein solution gelled by all three types of cations. Fibrillation increased the protein solution consistency coefficient (K) much more than heat denaturation. It was suggested based on Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra that some hydrogen bonds were disrupted by fibrillation. Zn(2+)-induced gel was firmer, had a higher water holding capacity and a more compact microstructure, as well, required a higher compressive stress to fracture than its counterparts. Nonetheless, the Mn(2+)- and Ca(2+)-induced gels disintegrated to a much lesser extent in both pepsin-free and pepsin-present simulated gastric juice than Zn(2+)-induced sample. Chitosan coating approximately halved the simulated degradability of all gel samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of Polyphenols Epigallocatechin Gallate and Pentagalloyl Glucose in a Simulated Digestive System

    PubMed Central

    Krook, Melanie A.; Hagerman, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols found in foods and beverages are under intense scrutiny for their potential beneficial effects on human health. We examined the stability of two bioactive polyphenols, epigallocatechin-O-gallate (EGCg) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG), in a model digestive system at low oxygen tension with and without added digestive components and foods. Both compounds were stable at pH values of 5–6 and below, indicating gastric stability. Both compounds decomposed at pH 7.0. PGG was stabilized in a model system containing pepsin, pancreatin, bile and lipase, and/or baby food, but was not stabilized by dry cereal. EGCg was not stabilized by the addition of any biomolecule. The effects of polyphenols on human health should be evaluated in the context of their stability in the digestive tract with and without added digestive components and/or food. PMID:23028206

  8. [Agreement between animal and vegetable protein digestibility measured in vivo and in vitro and its effect on the chemical score].

    PubMed

    Carias, D; Cioccia, A M; Hevia, P

    1995-06-01

    Protein digestibility is a key factor in the determination of protein quality using the chemical score. Since there are several methods available for determining protein digestibility the purpose of this study was to compare three methods in vitro (pH drop, pH stat and pepsin digestibility) and two methods in vivo (true and apparent digestibility in rats) in the determination of the protein digestibility of: casein, soy protein isolate, fish meal, black beans, corn meal and wheat flour. The results showed that in the case of highly digestible proteins all methods agreed very well. However, this agreement was much less apparent in the case of protein with digestibilities below 85%. As a result, the chemical score of these proteins varied substantially depending upon the method used to determine its digestibility. Thus, when the chemical score of the proteins analyzed was corrected by the true protein digestibility measured in rats, they ranked as: casein 83.56, soy 76.11, corn-beans mixtures (1:1) 58.14, fish meal 55.25, black beans 47.93, corn meal 46.06 and wheat flour 32.77. In contrast, when the chemical score of these proteins was corrected by the pepsin digestibility method, the lowest quality was assigned to fish meal. In summary, this results pointed out that for non conventional proteins of for known proteins which have been subjected to processing, protein digestibility should be measured in vivo.

  9. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  11. Catesbeianin-1, a novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog).

    PubMed

    Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Yang; Feng, Xin; Tie, Kunyuan; Cao, Yuan; Han, Wenyu

    2017-06-01

    To identify and characterize a novel antimicrobial peptide, catesbeianin-1. Catesbeianin-1 is 25 amino acids long and is α-helical, cationic and amphipathic. It had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was resistant against trypsin and pepsin. Catesbeianin-1 exhibited moderate hemolytic activity (approx 8%) at 100 μg/ml, and its HC 50 (50% hemolytic concentration) was 300 μg/ml. Its cytotoxicity was approx 10-20% at 100 μg/ml, and its CC 50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) was >100 μg/ml. The LD 50 of catesbeianin-1 in mice was 80 mg/kg. At 3.1 µg/ml, catesbeianin-1 significantly inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A new antimicrobial peptide from the skin of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog) may represent a template for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  12. STRANDEDNESS OF VICIA FABA CHROMOSOMES AS REVEALED BY ENZYME DIGESTION STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Trosko, James E.; Wolff, Sheldon

    1965-01-01

    Chromosomes and nuclei isolated from neutral formalin-fixed Vicia faba lateral roots were treated with trypsin, pepsin, RNase, or DNase. Only trypsin affected the morphology of the chromosomes and nuclei. The appearance of the chromosomes after trypsin digestion indicated that each chromatid contained four strands that could be seen with an ordinary light microscope. The experiments are interpreted as indicating that mitotic chromosomes of Vicia faba are multistranded and that the linear continuity of the chromosome is dependent on protein. PMID:5323605

  13. A review of the design and modification of lactoferricins and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ya; Yang, Na; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Mao, Ruoyu; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-06-01

    Lactoferricin (Lfcin), a multifunction short peptide with a length of 25 residues, is derived from the whey protein lactoferrin by acidic pepsin hydrolysis. It has potent nutritional enhancement, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review describes the research advantages of the above biological functions, with attention to the molecular design and modification of Lfcin. In this examination of design and modification studies, research on the identification of Lfcin active derivatives and crucial amino acid residues is also reviewed. Many strategies for Lfcin optimization have been studied in recent decades, but we mainly introduce chemical modification, cyclization, chimera and polymerization of this peptide. Modifications such as incorporation of D-amino acids, acetylation and/or amidation could effectively improve the activity and stability of these compounds. Due to their wide array of bio-functions and applications, Lfcins have great potential to be developed as biological agents with multiple functions involved with nutritional enhancement, as well as disease preventive and therapeutic effects.

  14. Effect of SQ29,852, a new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a phosphonic acid group, on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme from human kidney.

    PubMed

    Hiwada, K; Inoue, Y; Kokubu, T

    1990-01-01

    1. An in vitro experiment was carried out to compare the inhibitory effect of SQ29,852 on human renal angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) with those of captopril, enalapril and enalaprilat. 2. SQ29,852 strongly inhibited human renal ACE; its IC50 value was 1.5 x 10(-8) M. In terms of the IC50, SQ29,852's efficacy was about 1/10 of that of captopril and 1/28 of that of enalaprilat, but it was about 14 times more potent than enalapril. 3. SQ29,852 showed no inhibitory effects on cathepsin D, urinary kallikrein, renal renin, pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Its ACE-specificity was higher than that of captopril. 4. ACE inhibition by SQ29,852 was shown to be competitive, as revealed by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The affinity of SQ29,852 to ACE was shown to be high by a Ki value of 1.2 x 10(-8) M.

  15. The effect of enzyme predigestion on the nutritional quality of prepressed turkey feather meal.

    PubMed

    Barbour, G W; Werling, M; Yersin, A G; Lilburn, M S

    2002-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the protein efficiency ratio (PER), pepsin digestibility, TMEn, and true amino acid availability (TAAA) of prepressed turkey feather meal (PFM), enzyme-digested PFM (EPFM), and commercial feather meal (CFM). Turkey feathers from a commercial processing plant were mechanically pressed alone or mechanically pressed, followed by treatment with a mixture of protease, lipase, and amylase prior to autoclaving. In the first study, feather meal diets containing 16,20, or 24% CP from PFM, EPFM, or CFM were fed to starter poults for 10 d. All diets resulted in negative or negligible growth. In a second study, PFM, EPFM, and CFM were again the primary sources of CP, but dietary protein levels were increased to 20, 24, and 28% CP, and all diets contained 20% corn and 10% soybean meal (PFMCS, EPFMCS, CFMCS), respectively, to allow for a basal level of growth. Performance and PER of the poults fed the diets with PFMCS, EPFMCS, and CFMCS were similar. The efficiency of use of the PFMCS diet was numerically lower (P < or = 0.1) when compared with the EPFMCS and CFMCS diets. Similarly, pepsin digestibilities of EPFM and CFM were higher than PFM. The TAAA of PFM (82.1%) and EPFM (80.6%) were not significantly higher than that of CFM (71.4%); however, the availabilities of lysine, threonine, aspartate, glutamate, proline, and histidine were significantly higher. Digestion of pressed turkey feathers with an enzyme mixture prior to autoclaving could have a positive impact on its protein and amino acid nutritional values.

  16. Release of antioxidant capacity from five plant foods during a multistep enzymatic digestion protocol.

    PubMed

    Papillo, Valentina Azzurra; Vitaglione, Paola; Graziani, Giulia; Gokmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-05-07

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both solubilized and insoluble materials was measured at each step. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment, whereas in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value, which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore, the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.

  17. Development of a Sono-Assembled, Bifunctional Soy Peptide Nanoparticle for Cellular Delivery of Hydrophobic Active Cargoes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanhong; Zhao, Mouming; Ning, Zhengxiang; Yu, Shujuan; Tang, Ning; Zhou, Feibai

    2018-04-25

    Soy proteins are prone to aggregate upon proteolysis, hindering their sustainable development in food processing. Here, a continuous work on the large insoluble peptide aggregates was carried out, aiming to develop a new type of soy peptide-based nanoparticle (SPN) for active cargo delivery. Sono-assembled SPN in spherical appearance and core-shell structure maintained by noncovalent interactions was successfully fabricated, exhibiting small particle size (103.95 nm) in a homogeneous distribution state (PDI = 0.18). Curcumin as a model cargo was efficiently encapsulated into SPN upon sonication, showing high water dispersity (129.6 mg/L, 10 4 higher than its water solubility) and storage stability. Additionally, the pepsin-resistant SPN contributed to the controlled release of curcumin at the intestinal phase and thus significantly improved the bioaccessibility. Encapsulated curcumin was effective in protecting glutamate-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, where the matrix SPN can simultaneously reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate antioxidant enzymes levels, innovatively demonstrating its bifunctionality during cellular delivery.

  18. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  19. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  20. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A multi-protease, multi-dissociation, bottom-up-to-top-down proteomic view of the Loxosceles intermedia venom

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Bednaski, Aline V.; Fischer, Juliana S.G.; Veiga, Silvio S.; Bandeira, Nuno; Guthals, Adrian; Marchini, Fabricio K.; Leprevost, Felipe V.; Barbosa, Valmir C.; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Carvalho, Paulo C.

    2017-01-01

    Venoms are a rich source for the discovery of molecules with biotechnological applications, but their analysis is challenging even for state-of-the-art proteomics. Here we report on a large-scale proteomic assessment of the venom of Loxosceles intermedia, the so-called brown spider. Venom was extracted from 200 spiders and fractioned into two aliquots relative to a 10 kDa cutoff mass. Each of these was further fractioned and digested with trypsin (4 h), trypsin (18 h), pepsin (18 h), and chymotrypsin (18 h), then analyzed by MudPIT on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL ETD mass spectrometer fragmenting precursors by CID, HCD, and ETD. Aliquots of undigested samples were also analyzed. Our experimental design allowed us to apply spectral networks, thus enabling us to obtain meta-contig assemblies, and consequently de novo sequencing of practically complete proteins, culminating in a deep proteome assessment of the venom. Data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD005523. PMID:28696408

  2. A novel enterocin T1 with anti-Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Han, Xue; Gao, Wei; Chi, Chunliang; Song, Wei; Li, Haiying; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80-100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0-10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Take together, these results suggest that enterocin T1 is a novel bacteriocin with the potential to be used as a bio-preservative to control Pseudomonas spp. in food.

  3. Interactions of collagen molecules in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) as a crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wu, Kun; Li, Guoying

    2011-11-01

    The effect of crosslinking agent on pepsin-soluble bovine collagen solution was examined using N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) as a crosslinker. Electrophoretic patterns indicated that crosslinks formed when NHS-AA was added. A higher polarity level deduced from the changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum of pyrene in the crosslinked collagen solution indicated that the formation of well-ordered aggregates was suppressed. The random aggregation of collagens was also observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the association of collagens into fibrils was influenced by crosslinking. Self-assembly was suppressed at 37°C; however, as temperature was increased to 39°C, a small amount of NHS-AA leaded to an improvement in the ability of self-aggregation. Although more random structure was brought about by crosslinking, self-aggregation might still be promoted as temperature was increased, accompanying by the thermal stability improvement of fibrils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-04

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  5. Saponin Isolation as Main Ingredients of Insecticide and Collagen Type I From Crown of Thorn-Starfish (Acanthaster planci)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijanarko, Anondho; Januardi Ginting, Mikael; Sahlan, Muhamad; Krisanta Endah Savitri, Imelda; Florensia, Yunita; Sudiarta, Maria Regina; Pastika, Satria; Rafiki, Fakhri; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-10-01

    The outbreaks of crown of thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) resulted in the severe destruction of coral reefs in a large number of Indonesia’s marine ecosystem, especially in the western part. At the moment, control efforts are proven to be ineffective because of its high cost and labor intensive. Recent research found that A. planci contain saponins that act as cytotoxic compound and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide to eradicate Kalotermitidae pest. Saponins extracted by maceration using ethanol 96.0% with a total yield of saponins 9.04% and 4.66% for two test. Purification of saponin was achieved by utilization of activated carbon with a mass of carbon:volume sample 1:2 (w/v) and stirred for 20 minutes. Sapogenin can be isolated by hydrolyzing using hydrochloric acid, and thus 168.4 mg sapogenin is obtained. In addition to saponins, A. planci also contains collagen Type I. Collagen isolation by multistage extraction began with extracting the collagen with alkaline solvent, with water, NaOH 0.1 M, and Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the solvent variations. The second step is acid-enzymatic extraction by pepsin digestion in 0.5 M acetic acid. Collagen extract will be further purified by salting out and dialysis method to obtain pure collagen yield called Pepsin Solubilized Collagens (PSC). Characterization of PSC consists of quantitative and qualitative analysis such as Lowry method, gel electrophoresis, UV spectroscopy, amino acid composition analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result shows Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the best extraction solvent with 2.26% yield of PSC.

  6. A thermostable Gloeophyllum trabeum xylanase with potential for the brewing industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Huiying; Yu, Wangning; Ma, Rui; You, Shuai; Liu, Weina; Hou, Lingyu; Zheng, Fei; Xie, Xiangming; Yao, Bin

    2016-05-15

    A xylanase gene of glycoside hydrolase family 10, GtXyn10, was cloned from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS 900.73 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Purified recombinant GtXyn10 exhibited significant activities to xylan (100.0%), lichenan (11.2%), glucan (15.2%) and p-nitrophenol-β-cellobiose (18.6%), demonstrated the maximum xylanase and glucanase activities at pH 4.5-5.0 and 75°C, retained stability over the pH range of 2.0-7.5 and at 70°C, and was resistant to pepsin and trypsin, most metal ions and SDS. Multiple sequence alignment and modeled-structure analysis identified a unique Gly48 in GtXyn10, and site-directed mutagenesis of Gly48 to Lys improved the temperature optimum up to 80°C. Under simulated mashing conditions, GtXyn10 (80U) reduced the mash viscosity by 12.8% and improved the filtration rate by 31.3%. All these properties above make GtXyn10 attractive for potential applications in the feed and brewing industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Orally administered L-arginine and glycine are highly effective against acid reflux esophagitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagahama, Kenji; Nishio, Hikaru; Yamato, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Material/Methods After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus under ether anesthesia, and the animals were killed 4 h later. The severity of esophagitis was reduced by the oral administration of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor. Results The development of esophageal lesions was dose-dependently prevented by L-arginine and glycine, given intragastrically (i.g.) after the ligation, with complete inhibition obtained at 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg, respectively, and these effects were not influenced by the prior s.c. administration of indomethacin or L-NAME. By contrast, both L-alanine and L-glutamine given i.g. after the ligation aggravated these lesions in a dose-dependent manner. These amino acids had no effect on acid secretion but increased the pH of the gastric contents to 1.8~2.3 due to their buffering action. Conclusions The results confirmed an essential role for acid and pepsin in the pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in the rat model and further suggested that various amino acids affect the severity of esophagitis in different ways, due to yet unidentified mechanisms; L-alanine and L-glutamine exert a deleterious effect on the esophagitis, while L-arginine and glycine are highly protective, independent of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide. PMID:22207112

  8. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F P

    1985-11-01

    Heterogeneity is the most important consideration in the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease. Acute ulcers and erosions present clinically with gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation. If they heal there is no predictable recurrence. Factors concerned with mucosal defense are relatively more important than aggressive factors such as acid and pepsin. Local ischemia is the earliest recognizable gross lesion. The gastric mucosa is at least as vulnerable as the duodenal mucosa and probably more so. Most drug-induced ulcers occur in the stomach. Chronic or recurrent true peptic ulcers (penetrating the muscularis mucosae) usually present with abdominal pain. Many duodenal ulcer patients report that the pain occurs when the stomach is empty or is relieved by food, and follows a pattern of relatively long periods of freedom from symptoms between recurrences. Approximately 50% of patients experience a recurrence within a year if anti-ulcer medication is stopped. In most western countries recurrent duodenal ulcer is more common than gastric ulcer. Peptic ulcer disease is also more common in men. Recent evidence indicates genetic and familial factors in duodenal ulcer and increased acid-pepsin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli. However, it is also becoming clear that of all the abnormal functions noted, few are present in all subjects and many are clustered in subgroups. In chronic gastric ulcer of the corpus, defective defense mechanisms, such as duodenogastric reflux and atrophic gastritis, seem to be more important than aggressive factors. Nevertheless, antisecretory medications accelerate the healing of such ulcers. It remains to be seen whether prostaglandins, mucus secretion, or gastric mucosal blood flow are impaired in chronic ulcer disease.

  9. Modulating in vitro gastric digestion of emulsions using composite whey protein-cellulose nanocrystal interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Zhang, Shuning; Murray, Brent; Russell, Jessica A; Boxal, Sally

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we designed emulsions with an oil-water interface consisting of a composite layer of whey protein isolate (WPI, 1wt%) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (1-3wt%). The hypothesis was that a secondary layer of CNCs at the WPI-stabilized oil-water interface could protect the interfacial protein layer against in vitro gastric digestion by pepsin at 37°C. A combination of transmission electron microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, interfacial shear viscosity measurements and theoretical surface coverage considerations suggested the presence of CNCs and WPI together at the O/W interface, owing to the electrostatic attraction between complementarily charged WPI and CNCs at pH 3. Microstructural analysis and droplet sizing revealed that the presence of CNCs increased the resistance of the interfacial protein film to rupture by pepsin, thus inhibiting droplet coalescence in the gastric phase, which occurs rapidly in an emulsion stabilized by WPI alone. It appeared that there was an optimum concentration of CNCs at the interface for such barrier effects. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results further confirmed that the presence of 3wt% of CNCs reduced the rate and extent of proteolysis of protein at the interface. Besides, evidence of adsorption of CNCs to the protein-coated droplets to form more rigid layers, there is also the possibility that network formation by the CNCs in the bulk (continuous) phase reduced the kinetics of proteolysis. Nevertheless, structuring emulsions with mixed protein-particle layers could be an effective strategy to tune and control interfacial barrier properties during gastric passage of emulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rice: another potential cause of food allergy in patients sensitized to lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Asero, Riccardo; Amato, Stefano; Alfieri, Beatrice; Folloni, Silvia; Mistrello, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that the lipid transfer protein (LTP), the major Rosaceae allergen in patients not sensitized to birch pollen, is a largely cross-reacting allergen. Moreover, it is a potentially hazardous allergen due to its stability upon thermal treatment and pepsin digestion. The present study reports 3 cases of rice-induced anaphylaxis in LTP-allergic patients. In vitro inhibition studies, carried out using LTP purified from both rice and apple as well as whole peach extract, show that LTP was the relevant allergen in these patients and demonstrate the cross-reactivity between rice LTP and peach/apple LTP. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A novel angiotensin-І converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15μM, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties of cellulase as template molecule on chitosan—methyl methacrylate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xuefang; Wu, Haixia; Song, Shitao; Wang, Dongjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel molecular imprinting membrane made of chitosan and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was fabricated with cellulase as template molecule and the thermal response to cellulase was characterized. The film was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the permeation experiment. The results showed that the space structure of the film was as similar as the cellulase. Moreover, the membrane had advanced molecular imprinting capability to cellulase comparing to pepsin and pectinase at any temperature and the film had excellent ability to identify specific template molecule (cellulase) at the synthesis temperature compared to other temperatures.

  13. [Fecal sIgS and lysozyme excretion in breast feeding and formula feeding].

    PubMed

    Eschenburg, G; Heine, W; Peters, E

    1990-05-01

    The bioavailability of sIgA and lysozyme from human milk was investigated in a total of 41 infants by radial immunodiffusion and by the Micrococcus lysodeicticus method, respectively. In four different pools of human milk used for balance studies the sIgA concentrations ranged between 2,200 and 17,850 mg/l. The lysozyme concentration varied from 64.5 to 283.5 mg/l. On human milk feeding the excretion of sIgA in 19 infants was 3,200 (0-8,200) mg per litre and 9.7 (0-131) mg lysozyme per litre, respectively. Corresponding values on formula feeding in 22 infants were 1030 (0-6400) and 2.6 (0-9) mg/l. Fecal sIgA excretion was significantly higher on human milk than on formula feeding. Balances of sIgA and lysozyme intake and excretion as performed in 9 infants revealed a less than 1% fecal excretion of both the protective substances. In vitro digestion of raw human milk with pepsin at pH 2 and 3 resulted in a rapid disappearance of immunologically reactive sIgA within 30 minutes after starting the incubation, while no changes in sIgA content were detectable at pH 4. Lysozyme proved to be resistant against peptic digestion. Tryptic digestion at pH 8 did not result in a decrease of human milk sIgA within 120 minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C while under analogous conditions lysozyme concentration approached to 0. These results point at the full bioavailability of both sIgA and lysozyme from human milk. The differing resistance of these protective substances against pepsin and trypsin is apparently adapted to physiological particularities of the digestive tract in early infancy.

  14. Molecular characterization of a thermophilic endo-polygalacturonase from Thielavia arenaria XZ7 with high catalytic efficiency and application potential in the food and feed industries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tao; Meng, Kun; Huang, Huoqing; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Ma, Rui; Su, Xiaoyun; Shi, Pengjun; Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

    2014-12-31

    Thermophilic endo-polygalacturonases with high catalytic efficiency are of great interest in the food and feed industries. This study identified an endo-polygalacturonase gene (pg7fn) of glycoside hydrolase family 28 in the thermophilic fungus Thielavia arenaria XZ7. Recombinant PG7fn produced in Pichia pastoris is distinguished from other enzyme counterparts by its high functional temperature (60 °C) and specific activity (34382 ± 351 U/mg toward polygalacturonic acid). The enzyme exhibited good pH stability (pH 3.0-8.0) and resistance to pepsin and trypsin digestion and had a significant effect on disaggregation of soybean meal. Addition of 1 U/g PG7fn increased the pectin bioavailability by 19.33%. The excellent properties described above make PG7fn valuable for applications in the food and feed industries. Furthermore, a comparative study showed that N-glycosylation improved the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of PG7fn.

  15. 99mTc-tagged chicken liver as a marker of solid food in the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J H; MacGregor, I L; Gueller, R; Martin, P; Cavalieri, R

    1976-04-01

    Past measurement of gastric emptying of solid food in man has depended on external counting of surface-absorbed isotopes without verification that isotopic labels remain attached to solid food in the stomach. In this study chicken liver was isotopically labeled with 99mTc incorporated uniformly and intracellularly throughout the liver substance. In vitro studies showed less than 10% loss of 99mTc from liver incubated with pepsin HC1. By contrast, up to 90% of 51Cr absorbed to scrambled eggs became detached under similar conditions. In feeding experiments less than 10% of 99mTc was liberated from fed 99mTc liver, while significantly more 51Cr became detached from egg under identical intragastric conditions. We conclude that 99mTc-tagged chicken liver is an adequate marker of the rate of emptying of solid food and appears to be more reliable than 51Cr-labeled scrambled eggs from which 51Cr dissociates in the stomach.

  16. The Evolution of Pepsinogen C Genes in Vertebrates: Duplication, Loss and Functional Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Wilson, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases comprise a large group of enzymes involved in peptide proteolysis. This collection includes prominent enzymes globally categorized as pepsins, which are derived from pepsinogen precursors. Pepsins are involved in gastric digestion, a hallmark of vertebrate physiology. An important member among the pepsinogens is pepsinogen C (Pgc). A particular aspect of Pgc is its apparent single copy status, which contrasts with the numerous gene copies found for example in pepsinogen A (Pga). Although gene sequences with similarity to Pgc have been described in some vertebrate groups, no exhaustive evolutionary framework has been considered so far. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining phylogenetics and genomic analysis, we find an unexpected Pgc diversity in the vertebrate sub-phylum. We were able to reconstruct gene duplication timings relative to the divergence of major vertebrate clades. Before tetrapod divergence, a single Pgc gene tandemly expanded to produce two gene lineages (Pgbc and Pgc2). These have been differentially retained in various classes. Accordingly, we find Pgc2 in sauropsids, amphibians and marsupials, but not in eutherian mammals. Pgbc was retained in amphibians, but duplicated in the ancestor of amniotes giving rise to Pgb and Pgc1. The latter was retained in mammals and probably in reptiles and marsupials but not in birds. Pgb was kept in all of the amniote clade with independent episodes of loss in some mammalian species. Lineage specific expansions of Pgc2 and Pgbc have also occurred in marsupials and amphibians respectively. We find that teleost and tetrapod Pgc genes reside in distinct genomic regions hinting at a possible translocation. Conclusions We conclude that the repertoire of Pgc genes is larger than previously reported, and that tandem duplications have modelled the history of Pgc genes. We hypothesize that gene expansion lead to functional divergence in tetrapods, coincident with the invasion of

  17. Current codex guidelines for assessment of potential protein allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Ladics, G S

    2008-10-01

    A rigorous safety assessment process exists for GM crops. It includes evaluation of the introduced protein as well as the crop containing such protein with the goal of demonstrating the GM crop is "as-safe-as" non-transgenic crops in the food supply. One of the major issues for GM crops is the assessment of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. Currently, no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity. Therefore, a weight-of-evidence approach, which takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential, is conducted [Codex Alimentarious Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarious Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity, pp. 47-60]. This assessment is based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; protein structure (e.g., amino acid sequence identity to human allergens); stability to pepsin digestion in vitro [Thomas, K. et al., 2004. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39, 87-98]; an estimate of exposure of the novel protein(s) to the gastrointestinal tract where absorption occurs (e.g., protein abundance in the crop, processing effects); and when appropriate, specific IgE binding studies or skin prick testing. Additional approaches may be considered (e.g., animal models; targeted sera screening) as the science evolves; however, such approaches have not been thoroughly evaluated or validated for predicting protein allergenicity.

  18. Structure-activity relationships in the fusion of small unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles induced by a model peptide.

    PubMed

    da Costa, M H; Chaimovich, H

    1997-09-01

    Limited proteolysis of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin by pepsin yields several well characterized peptides, one of which (P9, M(r) 9,000), induces fusion of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of phosphatidylcholine at pH 3.6. Circular dichroism (CD) of P9 solutions confirmed that the peptide undergoes a reversible transition between pH 7 and pH 3.6. The spectral changes observed with CD suggest that in the low pH conformation there is a decrease in the alpha-helical contents and an exposure of hydrophobic residues. CD and differential ultraviolet spectroscopy demonstrated that P9 binds to micelles of hexadecylphosphorylcholine and the binding produces changes in the tertiary structure of the peptide. Reduction and carboxymethylation of the two disulfide bridges of P9 produced loss of the ability to induce fusion of SUV, although the reduced peptide binds to vesicles, induces loss of entrapped marker and produces vesicle disruption. In the active form P9 exposes hydrophobic groups, one amphiphilic alpha-helix and requires the integrity of the disulfide bridge-stabilized tertiary structure.

  19. Skin Collagen Glycation, Glycoxidation, and Crosslinking Are Lower in Subjects With Long-Term Intensive Versus Conventional Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Vincent M.; Bautista, Oliver; Kenny, David; Sell, David R.; Fogarty, John; Dahms, William; Cleary, Patricia A.; Lachin, John; Genuth, Saul

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N∊-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the primary prevention and secondary intervention cohorts of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. By comparison with conventional treatment, 5 years of intensive treatment was associated with 30–32% lower furosine, 9% lower pentosidine, 9–13% lower CML, 24% higher acid-soluble collagen, and 50% higher pepsin-soluble collagen. All of these differences were statistically significant in the subjects of the primary prevention cohort (P < 0 .006–0.001) and also of the secondary intervention cohort (P < 0.015–0.001) with the exception of CML and acid-soluble collagen. Age- and duration-adjusted collagen variables were significantly associated with the HbA1c value nearest the biopsy and with cumulative prior HbA1c values. Multiple logistic regression analyses with six nonredundant collagen parameters as independent variables and various expressions of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy outcomes as dependent variables showed that the complications were significantly associated with the full set of collagen variables. Surprisingly, the percentage of total variance (R2) in complications explained by the collagen variables ranged from 19 to 36% with the intensive treatment and from 14 to 51% with conventional treatment. These associations generally remained significant even after adjustment for HbA1c, and, most unexpectedly, in conventionally treated subjects, glycated collagen was the parameter most consistently associated with diabetic complications. Continued monitoring of these subjects may determine whether glycation products in the skin, and especially the early Amadori product (furosine), have the potential to be predictors of the future risk of developing

  20. Influence of sweet whey protein concentrate and its hydrolysates on host-pathogen interactions in the emerging foodborne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, K; Hayes, J; Kealey, C; Brady, D

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant global healthcare predicament. An attractive approach to the dilemma of drug-resistant bacteria is the development and use of agents that interfere with the ability of pathogens to adhere to human tissue. The influence of sweet whey protein concentrate (SWPC), and selected hydrolysates of this material, on host-pathogen interactions of Cronobacter sakazakii (ATCC 29544) was investigated. CaCo-2 cell line was selected as a suitable model for the human intestinal epithelium. Cronobacter sakazakiiATCC 29544 was identified as the strain with the highest adhesion efficiency. SWPC reduced its association by 80% (P < 0·01), invasion 35% (P < 0·01), and translocation >95% (P < 0·001). SWPC enzymatically modified with lipase, trypsin and pepsin had variable effects on these behaviours with the most significant effect exhibited with the lipase treatment. SWPC produced an almost total inhibition of translocation of C. sakazakii across a CaCo-2 cell monolayer. Lipase and pepsin treated SWPC also reduced translocation by 75% and 90% respectively. However, trypsin treatment nullified the effect SWPC had on translocation. The presence of viable bacterial cells and SWPC both increased expression of IL-8 following Cronobacter invasion into CaCo-2 cells. Factors governing adherence, invasion and translocation of Cronobacter spp. to human intestinal cells are multi-factorial and digested milk products exhibit varying effects dependant on their enzyme modification and protein lipid content. These findings contribute to our, as yet, incomplete understanding of Cronobacter pathogenesis, and suggest that SWPC in whole and enzymatically hydrolysed forms, may provide a cost-effective source of bioactive materials with inhibitory effects on bacterial virulence. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of a novel collagen from Catostylus tagi.

    PubMed

    Calejo, M T; Morais, Z B; Fernandes, A I

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary biochemical approach to the study of collagen isolated from the medusa Catostylus tagi is reported and results are discussed in view of its use as a natural matrix for biomedical applications. Collagen from the jellyfish umbrella was isolated by pepsin digestion and purified by dialysis and salt precipitation. As expected, glycine represented almost one-third of the total amino acids. Aromatic amino-acid content was very low and imino acids were fewer than in collagens from fish and mammalian sources. Results from SDS-PAGE, ion-exchange chromatography and N-terminal amino-acid sequencing revealed an alpha1alpha2alpha3 heterotrimer, similar to vertebrate type V/XI. The molecular mass of two of the polypeptide chains was close to 85 kDa and 100 kDa for the third. However, the two chains presenting similar molecular mass, showed differences in charge and primary structure. Further characterisation showed a glycosylated protein with the carbohydrate moiety comprising almost 7% of the total mass, a denaturation temperature of 29.9 degrees C and multiple isoelectric points. Incubation with glutamyl endopeptidase resulted in significant digestion, in agreement with the protein's high content of Asp and Glu.

  2. Stability and Immunogenicity of Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Complexes During In Vitro Pepsin Digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated d...

  3. PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS ANTI-γ-GLOBULIN FACTORS IN HUMAN SERA

    PubMed Central

    Harboe, Morten; Rau, Barbara; Aho, Kimmo

    1965-01-01

    The serological and physicochemical properties of the following three forms of human anti-γ-globulin factors were compared: (a) rheumatoid factors; (b) Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors; and (c) factors directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin that is hidden in the intact molecule and revealed by enzymatic digestion at low pH. The property common to these factors is ability to interact with human γG-globulin; they are distinguishable because they react with different antigenic groups on this molecule. In all of five sera, the Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were γM-globulins. They reacted with various human γG-globulin antibodies but failed to interact with γM-globulin type antibodies in agglutination and absorption experiments. When isolated from other anti-γ-globulin factors, they agglutinated red cells coated with intact anti-Rh antibodies, but failed to react with cells cells coated with pepsin-digested anti-Rh antibody. These observations indicate that the agglutinator reacts with the crystallizable, inert fragment of γG-globulin. Anti-γ-globulin activity directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin revealed by pepsin digestion was demonstrated in γG-, γA-, and γM-globulins. This anti-γ-globulin factor could be absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody, which shows that the hidden antigen in human γG-globulin is revealed not only by enzymatic digestion at low pH, but also when γG-globulin is present as antibody in an antigen-antibody precipitate. Rheumatoid factors and Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were also absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody. The results indicate that the three distinct forms of antiγ-globulin factors may all be produced as a result of antigenic stimulation by autologous antigen-antibody complexes. PMID:14276773

  4. Probiotic preparation has the capacity to hydrolyze proteins responsible for wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Scala, Enrico; De Simone, Claudio; Farris, Giovanni A; Turrini, Francesco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at showing the capacity of probiotic VSL#3 to hydrolyze wheat flour allergens. Hydrolysis was investigated either by the use of baker's yeast bread treated with digestive enzymes and VSL#3, an experimental design that mimicked the activity of probiotics during gut colonization, or by the use of VSL#3 as a starter for dough fermentation, an experimental design that mimicked the predigestion of wheat flour proteins during food processing. Albumins, globulins, and gliadins extracted from wheat flour and chemically acidified and started dough and total proteins extracted from breads were analyzed by immunoblotting with pooled sera from patients with an allergy to wheat. Hydrolysis of wheat flour proteins was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight was used to identify some immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding proteins. As shown by immunoblotting with sera from allergic patients, several IgE-binding proteins persisted after treatment of baker's yeast bread by pepsin and pancreatin. The signal of all these IgE-binding proteins disappeared after further treatment by VSL#3. As shown by SDS-PAGE and related immunoblotting and 2DE analyses, when VSL#3 was used as a starter for bread making, it caused a marked degradation of wheat proteins, including some IgE-binding proteins such as the putative transcription factor APFI and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitors. Indeed, the IgE-binding profile of the bread manufactured by VSL#3 was largely different from that of baker's yeast bread. The IgE-binding proteins that persisted in the bread made with VSL#3 were completely degraded by pepsin and pancreatin.

  5. Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-04-01

    Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass.

  6. Cough hypersensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cuiqin; Liang, Siwei; Xu, Xianghuai; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Lan; Yu, Li; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2018-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cough hypersensitivity and its potential mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Fifteen OSAHS patients, 12 simple snoring patients, and 15 healthy volunteers received cough sensitivity test and induced sputum cytology. Cough thresholds C2 and C5 (the minimum of capsaicin inducing ≥ 2 and ≥ 5 coughs, respectively), total cell count, cell differentials and the levels of bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E 2 , substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pepsin, and interleukin-2 in the induced sputum detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared. The linear correlation between lgC2 and lgC5 and apnea hypopnea index, cell differentials, and inflammatory mediators in the induced sputum was calculated in OSAHS patients. OSAHS patients presented with a significant lower C2 and C5 (P < 0.01), increased lymphocyte but decreased macrophage and neutrophil proportions in the induced sputum (P < 0.01), and higher contents of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and interleukin-2 (P < 0.01) but similar levels of bradykinin, pepsin, prostaglandin E 2 , and histamine (P > 0.05) in the supernatant of induced sputum, when compared with simple snoring patients and healthy volunteers. However, theses variable were comparable between simple snoring patients and healthy volunteers (P > 0.05). Finally, lgC2 or lgC5 was negatively related to apnea hypopnea index, lymphocyte percentage, and the levels of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide or interleukin-2 in the sputum (P < 0.01). There was a positive linear correlation between lymphocyte percentage and interleukin-2 level in the induced sputum (r = 0.63, P = 0.00). OSAHS patients have a predisposition of cough hypersensitivity associated with airway inflammation.

  7. Characterization of the nutritive value of tropical legume grains as alternative ingredients for small-scale pork producers using in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Muñoz, L S; Peters, M; Montoya, C A

    2013-12-01

    In the tropic, the small-scale pork production is negatively influenced by the low availability of high protein ingredients. The study aimed to compare the protein and starch hydrolysis as well as fibre fermentation of five tropical legume grains (Canavalia brasiliensis, CB; Lablab purpureus, LP; Vigna unguiculata, white WVU; pink PVU and red RVU) and a control (extruded full-fat soybean (SB)), using an in vitro model that simulated digestion in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. A sequential in vitro hydrolysis was carried out with pepsin (120 min) and pancreatin (240 min) to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of protein and starch. The indigestible residue was fermented in vitro with pig faecal inoculum to compare the modelled kinetics of gas production over 72 h and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). After 360 min of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, SB and WVU had the highest protein hydrolysis (76% and 66%) and PVU and WVU the highest starch hydrolysis (70% and 64%) (p < 0.01). The in vitro fermentation of the indigestible residue of WVU resulted in the highest (482 ml/g DM; p < 0.001) and CB the lowest (335 ml/g DM) gas production. These data were consistent with the SCFA production. Butyrate, propionate and total SCFA were higher (or tended) for RVU and WVU when compared with CB and SB (p = 0.015-0.085). In conclusion, the high DH of protein and starch as well as the high gas and SCFA production obtained with raw WVU makes it an interesting alternative to SB as a feedstuff for swine nutrition in the tropic. Other legume grains (LP and CB) cannot be used by pigs in their raw form. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The structure of the antimicrobial active center of lactoferricin B bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Schibli, D J; Hwang, P M; Vogel, H J

    1999-03-12

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released from bovine lactoferrin upon pepsin digestion. The antimicrobial center of LfcinB consists of six residues (RRWQWR-NH2), and it possesses similar bactericidal activity to LfcinB. The structure of the six-residue peptide bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics refinement. The peptide adopts a well defined amphipathic structure when bound to SDS micelles with the Trp sidechains separated from the Arg residues. Additional evidence demonstrates that the peptide is oriented in the micelle such that the Trp residues are more deeply buried in the micelle than the Arg and Gln residues.

  10. Cellulose-dependent expression and antibacterial characteristics of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from the giant panda

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhijun; Su, Huaiyi; Li, Jin; Li, Haozhou; Feng, Fan; Lan, Jingchao; Zhang, Zhihe; Fu, Hualin; Hu, Yanchun; Cao, Suizhong; Chen, Weigang; Deng, Jiabo; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    Surfactin secreted by Bacillus subtilis can confer strong, diverse antipathogenic effects, thereby benefitting the host. Carbon source is an important factor for surfactin production. However, the mechanism that bacteria utilize cellulose, the most abundant substance in the intestines of herbivores, to produce surfactin remains unclear. Here, we used B. subtilis HH2, isolated from the feces of a giant panda, as a model to determine changes in surfactin expression in the presence of different concentrations of cellulose by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography. We further investigated the antimicrobial effects of surfactin against three common intestinal pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica) and its resistance to high temperature (60–121°C), pH (1–12), trypsin (100–300 μg/mL, pH 8), and pepsin (100–300 μg/mL, pH 2). The results showed that the surfactin expressed lowest in bacteria cultured in the presence of 1% glucose medium as the carbon source, whereas increased in an appropriate cellulose concentration (0.67% glucose and 0.33% cellulose). The surfactin could inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but did not affect efficiently for Salmonella enterica. The antibacterial ability of surfactin did not differ according to temperature (60–100°C), pH (2–11), trypsin (100–300 μg/mL), and pepsin (100–300 μg/mL; P > 0.05), but decreased significantly at extreme environments (121°C, pH 1 or 12; P < 0.05) compared with that in the control group (37°C, pH = 7, without any protease). In conclusion, our findings indicated that B. subtilis HH2 could increase surfactin expression in an appropriate cellulose environment and thus provide benefits to improve the intestinal health of herbivores. PMID:29385201

  11. Cellulose-dependent expression and antibacterial characteristics of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Furui; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Zhong, Zhijun; Su, Huaiyi; Li, Jin; Li, Haozhou; Feng, Fan; Lan, Jingchao; Zhang, Zhihe; Fu, Hualin; Hu, Yanchun; Cao, Suizhong; Chen, Weigang; Deng, Jiabo; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Wenping; Peng, Guangneng

    2018-01-01

    Surfactin secreted by Bacillus subtilis can confer strong, diverse antipathogenic effects, thereby benefitting the host. Carbon source is an important factor for surfactin production. However, the mechanism that bacteria utilize cellulose, the most abundant substance in the intestines of herbivores, to produce surfactin remains unclear. Here, we used B. subtilis HH2, isolated from the feces of a giant panda, as a model to determine changes in surfactin expression in the presence of different concentrations of cellulose by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography. We further investigated the antimicrobial effects of surfactin against three common intestinal pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica) and its resistance to high temperature (60-121°C), pH (1-12), trypsin (100-300 μg/mL, pH 8), and pepsin (100-300 μg/mL, pH 2). The results showed that the surfactin expressed lowest in bacteria cultured in the presence of 1% glucose medium as the carbon source, whereas increased in an appropriate cellulose concentration (0.67% glucose and 0.33% cellulose). The surfactin could inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but did not affect efficiently for Salmonella enterica. The antibacterial ability of surfactin did not differ according to temperature (60-100°C), pH (2-11), trypsin (100-300 μg/mL), and pepsin (100-300 μg/mL; P > 0.05), but decreased significantly at extreme environments (121°C, pH 1 or 12; P < 0.05) compared with that in the control group (37°C, pH = 7, without any protease). In conclusion, our findings indicated that B. subtilis HH2 could increase surfactin expression in an appropriate cellulose environment and thus provide benefits to improve the intestinal health of herbivores.

  12. Highly Efficient Gluten Degradation by Lactobacilli and Fungal Proteases during Food Processing: New Perspectives for Celiac Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo G.; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Camarca, Alessandra; Silano, Marco; Losito, Ilario; De Vincenzi, Massimo; De Bari, Maria D.; Palmisano, Francesco; Maurano, Francesco; Gianfrani, Carmen; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the only effective treatment for celiac disease is a life-long gluten-free diet. In this work, we used a new mixture of selected sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases to eliminate the toxicity of wheat flour during long-time fermentation. Immunological (R5 antibody-based sandwich and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and R5 antibody-based Western blot), two-dimensional electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, strong-cation-exchange-liquid chromatography/capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight [SCX-LC/CapLC-ESI-Q-TOF], and high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry) analyses were used to determine the gluten concentration. Assays based on the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and gamma interferon production by PBMCs and intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs) from 12 celiac disease patients were used to determine the protein toxicity of the pepsin-trypsin digests from fermented wheat dough (sourdough). As determined by R5-based sandwich and competitive ELISAs, the residual concentration of gluten in sourdough was 12 ppm. Albumins, globulins, and gliadins were completely hydrolyzed, while ca. 20% of glutenins persisted. Low-molecular-weight epitopes were not detectable by SCX-LC/CapLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry and R5-based Western blot analyses. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of the 33-mer by lactobacilli were highly efficient. All proteins extracted from sourdough activated PBMCs and induced gamma interferon production at levels comparable to the negative control. None of the iTCLs demonstrated immunoreactivity towards pepsin-trypsin digests. Bread making was standardized to show the suitability of the detoxified wheat flour. Food processing by selected sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases may be considered an efficient approach to eliminate gluten toxicity

  13. The role of protein characteristics in the formation and fluorescence of Au nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yaolin; Sherwood, Jennifer; Qin, Ying; Crowley, Dorothy; Bonizzoni, Marco; Bao, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    Protein-encapsulated gold nanoclusters have shown many advantages over other gold nanocluster systems, including green synthesis, biocompatibility, high water solubility, and the ease of further conjugation. In this article, we systematically investigated the effects of the protein size and amino acid content on the formation and fluorescent properties of gold nanoclusters using four model proteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, trypsin, and pepsin). We discovered that the balance of amine and tyrosine/tryptophan containing residues was critical for the nanocluster formation. Protein templates with low cysteine contents caused blue shifts in the fluorescent emissions and difference in fluorescent lifetimes of the gold nanoclusters. Furthermore, the protein size was found to be a critical factor for the photostability and long-term stability of gold nanoclusters. The size of the protein also affected the Au nanocluster behaviour after immobilization.Protein-encapsulated gold nanoclusters have shown many advantages over other gold nanocluster systems, including green synthesis, biocompatibility, high water solubility, and the ease of further conjugation. In this article, we systematically investigated the effects of the protein size and amino acid content on the formation and fluorescent properties of gold nanoclusters using four model proteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, trypsin, and pepsin). We discovered that the balance of amine and tyrosine/tryptophan containing residues was critical for the nanocluster formation. Protein templates with low cysteine contents caused blue shifts in the fluorescent emissions and difference in fluorescent lifetimes of the gold nanoclusters. Furthermore, the protein size was found to be a critical factor for the photostability and long-term stability of gold nanoclusters. The size of the protein also affected the Au nanocluster behaviour after immobilization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available See DOI: 10

  14. Influence of peanut matrix on stability of allergens in gastric-simulated digesta: 2S albumins are main contributors to the IgE reactivity of short digestion-resistant peptides.

    PubMed

    Prodic, I; Stanic-Vucinic, D; Apostolovic, D; Mihailovic, J; Radibratovic, M; Radosavljevic, J; Burazer, L; Milcic, M; Smiljanic, K; van Hage, M; Cirkovic Velickovic, T

    2018-06-01

    Most food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are stable proteins that are resistant to pepsin digestion, in particular major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Survival of their large fragments is essential for sensitizing capacity. However, the immunoreactive proteins/peptides to which the immune system of the gastrointestinal tract is exposed during digestion of peanut proteins are unknown. Particularly, the IgE reactivity of short digestion-resistant peptides (SDRPs; <10 kDa) released by gastric digestion under standardized and physiologically relevant in vitro conditions has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify digestion products of major peanut allergens and in particular to examine IgE reactivity of SDRPs released by pepsin digestion of whole peanut grains. Two-dimensional gel-based proteomics and shotgun peptidomics, immunoblotting with allergen-specific antibodies from peanut-sensitized patients, enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay and ImmunoCAP tests, including far ultraviolet-circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to identify and characterize peanut digesta. Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 remained mostly intact, and SDRPs from Ara h 2 were more potent in inhibiting IgE binding than Ara h 1 and Ara 3. Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 exhibited sequential digestion into a series of digestion-resistant peptides with preserved allergenic capacity. A high number of identified SDRPs from Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 were part of short continuous epitope sequences and possessed substantial allergenic potential. Peanut grain digestion by oral and gastric phase enzymes generates mixture of products, where the major peanut allergens remain intact and their digested peptides have preserved allergenic capacity highlighting their important roles in allergic reactions to peanut. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Preliminary tests on nisin and pediocin production using waste protein sources. Factorial and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J A; González, M P; Murado, M A

    2006-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, the object of current interest as bacteriocin producers, are microorganisms with complex requirements for peptidic sources, making them appropriate indicators for testing the suitability of formulations based on proteinaceous wastes for use as microbiological media. Different peptones obtained from visceral and fish muscle residues promoted growth of lactic acid bacteria when applied individually or in combination. Kinetic parameters and bacteriocin production were similar and, in some cases (pediocin), far superior (>500%) to those obtained with bactopeptones and commercial media specifically recommended for lactic acid bacteria growth. Visceral residues, especially when subjected to a brief process of autohydrolysis at 20 degrees C, were more efficient for bacterial growth than muscle, even when muscle was treated with pepsin.

  16. Production, characteristics and applications of phytase from a rhizosphere isolated Enterobacter sp. ACSS.

    PubMed

    Chanderman, Ashira; Puri, Adarsh Kumar; Permaul, Kugen; Singh, Suren

    2016-10-01

    Optimization of process parameters for phytase production by Enterobacter sp. ACSS led to a 4.6-fold improvement in submerged fermentation, which was enhanced further in fed-batch fermentation. The purified 62 kDa monomeric phytase was optimally active at pH 2.5 and 60 °C and retained activity over a wide range of temperature (40-80 °C) and pH (2.0-6.0) with a half-life of 11.3 min at 80 °C. The kinetic parameters K m, V max, K cat, and K cat/K m of the pure phytase were 0.21 mM, 131.58 nmol mg(-1) s(-1), 1.64 × 10(3) s(-1), and 7.81 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was fairly stable in the presence of pepsin under physiological conditions. It was stimulated by Ca(+2), Mg(+2) and Mn(+2), but inhibited by Zn(+2), Cu(+2), Fe(+2), Pb(+2), Ba(+2) and surfactants. The enzyme can be applied in dephytinizing animal feeds, and the baking industry.

  17. Evaluation of the impact on food safety of a Lactobacillus coryniformis strain from pickled vegetables with degradation activity against nitrite and other undesirable compounds.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Feng, Tingting; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Four strains of lactic acid bacteria showing antimicrobial activity against some food-spoilage microorganisms or pathogens, including both Gram-negative and -positive strains, were isolated from naturally fermented pickled vegetables and a traditional cheese product. Among these isolates, Lactobacillus coryniformis strain BBE-H3, characterised previously to be a non-biogenic amine producer, showed a high level of activity in degrading sodium nitrite and exhibited the ability to eliminate ethyl carbamate and one of its precursors, urea. The antimicrobial substance produced by L. coryniformis BBE-H3 was found to be active at an acidic pH range of 4.0-4.5. The antimicrobial activity of this strain decreased differentially after treatment with proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, papain, trypsin and proteinase K), implying this growth inhibitory compound is either a protein or a polypeptide. The results of this study show the suitability of L. coryniformis BBE-H3 as a starter in food manufacturing processes, and demonstrate its potential role in eliminating food origin carcinogens such as sodium nitrite and ethyl carbamate.

  18. From the “hungry acid” to pepsinogen: a journey through time in quest for the stomach’s secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kousoulis, Antonis A.; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Armenis, Iakovos; Marineli, Filio; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2012-01-01

    The stomach’s secretion has been a mystery for centuries. Even after the first indications of its function and role appeared, every formulated idea on the nature of the gastric liquid remained open to controversy. After the ancient Greek perceptions which identified acids as bitter-sour liquids, the physicians of the Iatrochemical School, under the influence of Paracelsus and the alchemists, were the first to point out the physiologic chemistry of secretion. Experiments on animals and humans during the 17th-18th centuries, which mainly included swallowing various substances and observing the process, enhanced knowledge, with Stevens and Spallanzani playing the leading part. Any existing objections ceased in 1823, when Prout clearly identified hydrochloric acid as the acid agent of the stomach. Later on, the role of pepsin and pepsinogen was also judged to be important in digestion. In addition, the tremendous contribution of French scientists, experienced in the science of nutrition, must not be underestimated. It took centuries of research, and the involvement of many notable figures from many nations and countries, to form modern concepts of gastric secretion. PMID:24713892

  19. Identification of Potent ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Wild Almond Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mirzapour, Mozhgan; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the production, fractionation, purification and identification of ACE (angiotensin-I-converting enzyme) inhibitory peptides from wild almond (Amygdalus scoparia) proteins were investigated. Wild almond proteins were hydrolyzed using 5 different enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alcalase and flavourzyme) and assayed for their ACE inhibitory activities. The degree of ACE inhibiting activity obtained after hydrolysis was found to be in the following order: alcalase > chymotrypsin > trypsin/pepsin > flavourzyme. The hydrolysates obtained from alcalase (IC 50 = 0.8 mg/mL) were fractionated by sequential ultrafiltration at 10 and 3 kDa cutoff values and the most active fraction (<3 kDa) was further separated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Peptide sequence identifications were carried out on highly potential fractions obtained from RP-HPLC by means of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Sequencing of ACE inhibitory peptides present in the fraction 26 of RP-HPLC resulted in the identification of 3 peptide sequences (VVNE, VVTR, and VVGVD) not reported previously in the literature. Sequence identification of fractions 40 and 42 from RP-HPLC, which showed the highest ACE inhibitory activities (84.1% and 86.9%, respectively), resulted in the identification of more than 40 potential ACE inhibitory sequences. The results indicate that wild almond protein is a rich source of potential antihypertensive peptides and can be suggested for applications in functional foods and drinks with respect to hindrance and mitigation of hypertension after in vivo assessment. This study has shown the potential of wild almond proteins as good sources for producing ACE-inhibitory active peptides. According to this finding, peptides with higher ACE inhibitory activities could be released during the gastrointestinal digestion and contribute to the health- promoting

  20. Enhanced enzymatic stability and antitumor activity of daunorubicin-GnRH-III bioconjugates modified in position 4.

    PubMed

    Manea, Marilena; Leurs, Ulrike; Orbán, Erika; Baranyai, Zsuzsa; Öhlschläger, Peter; Marquardt, Andreas; Schulcz, Ákos; Tejeda, Miguel; Kapuvári, Bence; Tóvári, József; Mezo, Gábor

    2011-07-20

    Here, we report on the synthesis, enzymatic stability, and antitumor activity of novel bioconjugates containing the chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin attached through an oxime bond to various gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) derivatives. In order to increase the enzymatic stability of the bioconjugates (in particular against chymotrypsin), (4)Ser was replaced by N-Me-Ser or Lys(Ac). A compound in which (4)Lys was not acetylated was also prepared, with the aim of investigating the influence of the free ε-amino group on the biochemical properties. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the bioconjugates was determined on MCF-7 human breast, HT-29 human colon, and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Their stability/degradation (1) in human serum, (2) in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, and (3) in the presence of digestive enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin) was analyzed by liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. The results showed that (1) all synthesized bioconjugates had in vitro cytostatic effect, (2) they were stable in human serum at least for 24 h, and (3) they were hydrolyzed in the presence of lysosomal homogenate. All compounds were stable in the presence of (1) pepsin and (2) trypsin (except for the (4)Lys containing bioconjugate). In the presence of chymotrypsin, all bioconjugates were digested; the degradation rate strongly depending on their structure. The bioconjugates in which (4)Ser was replaced by N-Me-Ser or Lys(Ac) had the highest enzymatic stability, making them potential candidates for oral administration. In vivo tumor growth inhibitory effect of two selected bioconjugates was evaluated on orthotopically developed C26 murine colon carcinoma bearing mice. The results indicated that the compound containing Lys(Ac) in position 4 had significantly higher antitumor activity than the parent bioconjugate.

  1. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  2. Development and testing of a human collagen graft material.

    PubMed

    Quteish, D; Singh, G; Dolby, A E

    1990-06-01

    Human Type I collagen was extracted from placenta using pepsin and salt fractionation. The collagen was characterized by SDS-PAG electrophoresis dispersed in acidic medium, freeze-dried, and cross-linked in an 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution pH 4.5 for 2 days. After washing for 7 days and freeze drying the resultant collagen sponge was tested with regard to mechanical, physical, enzymatic degradation properties and biological responses. The modulus of elasticity was found to be 289 +/- 10 g/mm2 and the sponge was insoluble in water, buffered saline, or tissue culture medium over a period of 6 weeks with swelling occurring at less than 5% of volume. The sponge had a high fluid binding capacity, amounting to 56 +/- 5 mL tissue culture medium per gram of dry weight. Bacterial collagenase produced slow degradation of the sponge with complete disappearance by 24 h only when high concentrations (200 units enzyme per mg of the collagen sponge) were used. Cytotoxicity studies using human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts revealed less than 5% apparent cytotoxicity or proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation was followed by resorption and vascularization over a period of 6-8 weeks. It was concluded that the collagen sponge prepared from human Type I collagen has potential as a graft material in oral surgical procedures.

  3. Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review.

    PubMed

    Mazorra-Manzano, M A; Ramírez-Suarez, J C; Yada, R Y

    2017-04-10

    Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization, and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been the process most commonly used for bioactive peptide production. Most commercial enzymatic preparations frequently used are from animal (e.g., trypsin and pepsin) and microbial (e.g., Alcalase® and Neutrase®) sources. Although the use of plant proteases is still relatively limited to papain and bromelain from papaya and pineapple, respectively, the application of new plant proteases is increasing. This review presents the latest knowledge in the use and diversity of plant proteases for bioactive peptides release from food proteins including both available commercial plant proteases as well as new potential plant sources. Furthermore, the properties of peptides released by plant proteases and health benefits associated in the control of disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer are reviewed.

  4. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B on Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii, a food-borne pathogen, to several metal-bound forms of bovine lactoferrin (LF), pepsin-hydrolyzed LF (LF-hyd), and LF-derived peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) was tested. MIC and MBC testing revealed that 4 strains of E. sakazakii show susceptibility to apo- and Cu-LF, LF-hyd, and LFcin B, but not to Fe-LF, similarly to Escherichia coli. A growth curve test indicated that E. sakazakii was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by apo-LF at 0.5 to 8 mg/ml. Even after being heated at 80 degrees C, LF at above 1 mg/ml inhibited the bacterial growth. These results suggest that bovine LF-related compounds may be useful for the inhibition of E. sakazakii in foods.

  5. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    PubMed

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of prebiological and biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navale, Vivek

    The detection and identification of prebiological and biological molecules are of importance for understanding chemical and biological processes occurring within the solar system. Molecular mass measurements, peptide mapping, and disulfide bond analysis of enzymes and recombinant proteins are important in the development of therapeutic drugs for human diseases. Separation of hydrocarbons (C1 to C6) and nitriles was achieved by 14%-cyanopropylphenyl-86%- dimethylpolysiloxane (CPPS-DMPS) stationary phase in a narrow bore metal capillary column. The calculation of modeling numbers enabled the differentiation of the C4 hydrocarbon isomers of 1-butene (cis and trans). The modeled retention time values for benzene, toluene, xylene, acetonitrile, propane, and propene nitriles were in good agreement with the measurements. The separation of C2 hydrocarbons (ethane and ethene) from predominantly N2 matrix was demonstrated for the first time on wall coated narrow bore low temperature glassy carbon column. Identification and accurate mass measurements of pepsin, an enzymatic protein with less number of basic amino acid residues were successfully demonstrated by matrix- assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The molecular mass of pepsin was found to be 34,787 Da. Several decomposition products of pepsin, in m/z range of 3,500 to 4,700 were identified. Trypsin, an important endopeptidase enzyme had a mass of 46829.7 Da. Lower mass components with m/z 8047.5, 7776.6, 5722, 5446.2 and 5185 Da were also observed in trypsin spectrum. Both chemokine and growth factor recombinant proteins were mass analyzed as 8848.1 ± 3.5 and 16178.52 ± 4.1 Da, respectively. The accuracy of the measurements was in the range of 0.01 to 0.02%. Reduction and alkylation experiments on the chemokine showed the presence of six cysteines and three disulfide bonds. The two cysteines of the growth factor contained the free sulfhydryl groups and the accurate average mass of the

  7. Antiulcer properties of fruits and vegetables: A mechanism based perspective.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2017-10-01

    Gastric ulcer is the damage caused to mucosal layer of the stomach under the action of various factors like high levels of acid and pepsin, invasion by Helicobacter pylori, etc. Although most cases have been controlled and the rate of ulcer occurrence has reduced over the last few decades, gastric ulcer still holds a prime concern today. A range of palliative medicines comprising proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) is widely in use and patients have also been administered with acid suppression therapies. But these remedies aggravate the condition of patients causing severe side effects, or rather impart temporary relief. Therefore, it is highly imperative to develop safe and effective therapies for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Nature provides us various fruits and vegetables that can combat gastric ulcer through multiple mechanisms; predominantly via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antisecretory, antimicrobial, anticholinergic and cytoprotective activity, inhibition of small intestinal propulsion etc. Various phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponins play a vital role in the prevention and cure of gastric ulcer. This review is a compendium of all fruits and vegetables known for their profound antiulcer effect and their underlying mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new gastroprotective effect of limonoid compounds xyloccensins x and y from xylocarpus molluccensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Vijai; Mishra, Vaibhav; Palit, Gautam

    2014-10-01

    Gastric ulcer is a very common gastrointestinal disorder affecting a large number of people worldwide. It arises due to an imbalance between aggressive (acid, pepsin and Helicobacter pylori infection) and protective (mucin secretion, prostaglandin, epidermal growth factors and bicarbonate) factors in the stomach. In this study, the gastroprotective activity has been investigated of the active constituents from Xylocarpus molluccensis. Antiulcer activity of xyloccensins X+Y was investigated and found to be active in various ulcer models in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To understand the mechanism of action of active constituent of natural products, the effects of the compounds on antisecretory and cytoprotective activities were studied. Air dried fruits were extracted with ethanol and fractionated into four fractions. Xyloccensins X+Y were isolated from the active fraction and was tested against different ulcer models. Xyloccensins X+Y were found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity. The antiulcer activity might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. The present study has helped us in identifying a new lead in the form of xyloccensins that could be exploited in the treatment of gastric ulcer disease.

  9. Enterocin HZ produced by a wild Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from a traditional, starter-free pickled cheese.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zeliha; Bilgin, Harun; Isleroglu, Hilal; Tokatli, Kader; Sahingil, Didem; Yildirim, Metin

    2014-05-01

    Bacteriogenic Enterococcus faecium HZ was identified by using biochemical (Strep-API 20, API-50 CHL, fatty acid profile) and 16S rRNA analysis (99·99 %). Ent. faecium HZ was sensitive to clinically important antibiotics such as vancomycin, and did not have gelatinase and haemolysis activities. Enterocin HZ, a bacteriocin from Ent. faecium HZ, was sensitive to papain and tyripsin, but resistant to pepsin, lipase, catalase, α-amylase, organic solvents, detergents, ß-mercaptoethanol, and heat treatment (90 °C/30 min). It was biologically active at pH 2·0-9·0 and synthesised at the highest level in MRS or M17 broth at 32 or 37 °C with an inoculum amount of 0·1-0·5 % and an initial pH of 6·0-7·0. Enterocin HZ production reached maximum level at middle and late logarithmic phase and its molecular weight was ∼4·5 kDa. It was active against some Gram-positive foodborne bacteria. Ent. faecium HZ or its bacteriocin enterocin HZ is a good candidate to be studied as a food biopreservative since enterocin HZ showed strong bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes in UHT milk and also Ent. faecium HZ grew very well in milk and produced enterocin HZ at maximum level.

  10. GC-MS analysis and gastroprotective evaluations of crude extracts, isolated saponins and essential oil from Polygonum hydropiper L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Shahid, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Ullah, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Syed, Nawazish-i.-Husain

    2017-08-01

    Peptic ulceration is among the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders characterized by pepsin and gastric acid mediated mucosal damage, as result of imbalance between defensive and offensive processes. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the antiulcer potentials of Polygonum hydropiper crude methanolic ectract (Ph.Cr) in aspirin induced ulcerogenesis using pylorus ligated rat model. In-vitro urease and Proteus mirabilis inhibitory potentials were evaluated using standard protocols. All fractions were analyzed using GC-MS to identify major components. The aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat model was associated with significant changes in the mean ulcer score (F5,30 = 7.141, P = 0.0002), gastric juice volume (F5,30 = 8.245, P < 0.0001), gastric juice pH (F5,30 = 5.715, P = 0.0008), free acidity (F5,30 = 4.544, P = 0.0033), total acidity (F5,30 = 2.740, P = 0.0373) and pepsin concentration (F5,30 = 2.335, P = 0.0664). Pre treatment with Ph.Cr at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dose exhibited marked gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect in the aspirin induced pyloric ligation ulcerogenesis model at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg as indicated by ulcerative biochemical parameters. In urease inhibition assay, leaves essential oil (Ph.Lo), saponins (Ph.Sp) and chloroform extract (Ph.Chf) exhibited highest activities with IC50 of 90, 98 and 520 µg/ml respectively. Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc) and Ph.Cr showed MICs of 25, 30, 32.25 and 40.50 µg/ml respectively against Proteus mirabilis. Several compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis of samples. Significant in-vivo antiulcer, urease inhibitory as well as anti-proteus potentials of P. hydropiper solvent extracts, signify its potential use for the management of peptic ulcers and may provide scientific bases for the traditional uses of the plant.

  11. Interference of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B with the action of various antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vorland, L H; Osbakk, S A; Perstølen, T; Ulvatne, H; Rekdal, O; Svendsen, J S; Gutteberg, T J

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, can be generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the interaction of lactoferricin of bovine origin, Lf-cin B, with the antibiotics penicillin G, vancomycin, gentamicin, colistin, D-cycloserine and erythromycin against E. coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. We demonstrated synergism between Lf-cin B and erythromycin against E. coli, and partial synergism between Lf-cin B and penicillin G, vancomycin and gentamicin against E. coli. Only penicillin G acted in partial synergism with Lf-cin B against S. aureus. Lf-cin B antagonized vancomycin and gentamicin against S. aureus in low concentration. We conclude that Lf-cin B may facilitate the uptake of antibiotics across the cell envelope.

  12. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  13. Studies on the mucin derived from human colloid breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    1. A non-diffusible mucoid, showing a single peak in the ultracentrifuge, was isolated from human colloid breast carcinoma by treatment with trypsin and pepsin. The material contained threonine, leucine (isoleucine), valine, proline, glycine and glutamic acid in the approximate molar proportions 5:1:1:2:1:1. Smaller amounts of aspartic acid and serine were also found. For each 5 threonine residues, 6 N-acetylgalactosamine and 3–4 galactose residues were present. 2. The mucoid possessed reducing properties by the Park & Johnson (1949) procedure; these were attributable to the action of mild alkali, as employed in this procedure. Mild alkaline treatment by the Aminoff, Morgan & Watkins (1952) procedure gave rise to a diffusible N-acetylgalactosamine chromophore that gave an enhanced colour with Ehrlich's reagent. That galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosamine residues were liberated was supported by periodate studies. 3. Alkaline liberation of hexosamine residues was accompanied by a specific destruction of threonine. After 40 min. at 100° in 0·18 n-lithium hydroxide, both moieties had almost completely disappeared from the ninhydrin-positive components formed on subsequent acid hydrolysis. Glycine and α-oxobutyric acid were present in the acid hydrolysate, showing that both possible pathways of a β-elimination reaction were involved. Formation of diffusible peptide on very mild alkaline treatment was attributable to the rupture of the original peptide core, necessitated by the second of these two pathways. 4. Hydroxamate formation on treatment with hydroxylamine showed the presence of carbohydrate linkage to glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues or both. This could account for the single N-acetylgalactosamine residue not linked to threonine. 5. The native mucin contained sialic acid, which was cleaved by the acid environment used in the treatment with pepsin. A statistical model of the mucin would require each prosthetic group to be linked, via N

  14. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    PubMed

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-07-03

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.

  15. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  16. Survival of Anisakis simplex in microwave-processed arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias).

    PubMed

    Adams, A M; Miller, K S; Wekell, M M; Dong, F M

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between survival and temperature of nematodes of the species Anisakis simplex in microwave-processed arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias). Ten fillets (each 126 to 467 g, 0.5 to 1.75 cm thick), with an average of five larvae of Anisakis simplex per fillet, were processed to target temperatures on high (100%) power using a commercial 700-W microwave oven. Fillets were neither covered nor rotated and had a temperature probe inserted to two-thirds depth into the thickest portion. After the fillet was digested using a 1% pepsin solution, the viability of nematodes was determined by viewing them under a dissecting microscope. Survival rates were 31% at 140 degrees F (60 degrees C), 11% at 150 degrees F (65 degrees C), 2% at 160 degrees F (71 degrees C), 3% at 165 degrees F (74 degrees C), and 0% at 170 degrees F (77 degrees C). Microwave processing of standardized fillet "sandwiches," 14 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, and approximately 1.75 cm high, each of which was preinoculated with 10 live nematodes, resulted in no survival at either 160 degrees F or 170 degrees F. Using ultraviolet light to detect both viable and nonviable nematodes in fillet sandwiches as an alternative method to pepsin digestion resulted in survival rates of 1% at 140 degrees F (60 degrees C), 3% at 145 degrees F (63 degrees C), and 0% at 150 degrees F (65 degrees C). Smaller fillet sandwiches, which most likely had fewer cold spots during microwave processing, required 150 degrees F (65 degrees C), whereas larger whole fillets required 170 degrees F (77 degrees C) to kill larvae of Anisakis simplex. The parasites were most likely inactivated by a thermal mechanism of microwave treatment. Damage to the nematodes was often evident from ruptured cuticles that were no longer resistant to digestive enzymes. The high hydrostatic pressure and low chloride content of the pseudocoelomic fluid probably contributed greatly to the damage incurred by the

  17. Experimental basis for a role for sulfhydryls and dopamine in ulcerogenesis: a primer for cytoprotection--organoprotection.

    PubMed

    Szabo, S

    1986-01-01

    This brief review presents the evolution of the concept of cytoprotection which was originally described by Robert (1979) to represent prevention of chemically induced hemorrhagic gastric erosions without inhibiting acid secretion. Prostaglandins (PG) and sulfhydryls (SH) protect only against deep hemorrhagic necrosis in the mucosa without altering the initial damage to surface epithelial cells. Organ integrity and function are thus maintained (i.e., organoprotection) despite the loss of several layers of mucosal cells. While both PG and SH are natural products it must be stressed that only SH compounds can enter directly into protective reactions (e.g., free radical scavenging, modification of receptor SH groups, oxidation of certain structural and enzyme proteins). In addition, SH compounds also stimulate PG synthesis. A major target of gastroprotection by either PG or SH is the preservation of mucosal microvasculature to maintain blood flow for rapid restitution and cell proliferation. Dopamine-related compounds are reviewed because of their possible role in duodenal ulceration. Dopamine and dopamine agonists are antiulcerogens in duodenal ulcer models. Dopamine antagonists are proulcerogens and the dopamine neurotoxin MPTP causes duodenal ulcer in experimental animals. The mechanism of duodenal antiulcerogenic effect involves inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion, correction of duodenal dysmotility, and maybe increased blood flow. Because of their multiple beneficial effects, SH compounds and dopamine drugs are good models for gastroenteroprotection.

  18. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on gastric secretion and gastrin release in the dog.

    PubMed

    Soldani, G; Del Tacca, M; Bambini, G; Polloni, A; Bernardini, C; Martinotti, E; Martino, E

    1982-01-01

    The effects of GnRH on gastric secretion and gastrin release from dogs provided with gastric fistulae and Heidenhain pouches have been investigated. A transient yet significant inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated secretion from gastric fistulae was observed, while secretion from Heidenhain pouches was unchanged. The maximal inhibitory effect of GnRH on both acid and pepsin secretion stimulated by 2-deoxy-D-glucose was obtained from gastric fistulae. On the contrary, GnRH failed to affect either acid secretion stimulated by bethanechol or acid secretion and gastrin release induced by bombesin. The present results indicate that GnRH possesses an inhibitory action on gastric secretion from the vagally innervated stomach of the dog. The most likely inhibitory mechanism seems to be represented by a decrease of the vagal activity.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin ZJ5, a New Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5

    PubMed Central

    Song, Da-Feng; Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Gu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5, a strain isolated from fermented mustard with a broad range of inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the peptide plantaricin ZJ5 (PZJ5), which is an extreme pH and heat-stable. However, it can be digested by pepsin and proteinase K. This peptide has strong activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PZJ5 has been purified using a multi-step process, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interactions and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was found to be 2572.9 Da using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The primary structure of this peptide was determined using amino acid sequencing and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that the DNA sequence translated as a 44-residue precursor containing a 22-amino-acid N-terminal extension that was of the double-glycine type. The bacteriocin sequence exhibited no homology with known bacteriocins when compared with those available in the database, indicating that it was a new class IId bacteriocin. PZJ5 from a food-borne strain may be useful as a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25147943

  20. Purification and characterization of Plantaricin ZJ5, a new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5.

    PubMed

    Song, Da-Feng; Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Gu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5, a strain isolated from fermented mustard with a broad range of inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the peptide plantaricin ZJ5 (PZJ5), which is an extreme pH and heat-stable. However, it can be digested by pepsin and proteinase K. This peptide has strong activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PZJ5 has been purified using a multi-step process, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interactions and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was found to be 2572.9 Da using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The primary structure of this peptide was determined using amino acid sequencing and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that the DNA sequence translated as a 44-residue precursor containing a 22-amino-acid N-terminal extension that was of the double-glycine type. The bacteriocin sequence exhibited no homology with known bacteriocins when compared with those available in the database, indicating that it was a new class IId bacteriocin. PZJ5 from a food-borne strain may be useful as a promising probiotic candidate.

  1. Ferritin glycosylated by chitosan as a novel EGCG nano-carrier: Structure, stability, and absorption analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuqian; Gao, Yunjing; Wang, Yongjin; Blanchard, Chris; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-12-01

    Ferritin is a shell-like carrier protein with an 8nm diameter cavity which endows a natural space to encapsulate food and drug components. In this work, phytoferritin was unprecedentedly glycosylated by chitosan to fabricate ferritin-chitosan Maillard reaction products (FCMPs) (grafting degree of 26.17%, 24h, 55°C). Results indicated that the amide I and II bands of ferritin were altered due to the chitosan grafting, whereas the ferritin spherical structure were retained. Simulated digestion analysis showed that the FCMPs were more resistant to pepsin and trypsin digestion as compared with ferritin alone. Furthermore, FCMPs were employed as carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules with an encapsulation ratio of 12.87% (w/w), and the resulting FCMPs-EGCG complexes showed a slow release of EGCG in simulated gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different types of food components displayed different effects in EGCG release behavior from the FCMPs, wherein proanthocyanidin, milk and soy protein inhibited the EGCG release. In addition, the absorption of EGCG encapsulated in FCMPs in Caco-2 monolayer model was significantly improved as compared with free EGCG. This work provides a novel nano-vehicle for fabricating core-shell systems in food and drug delivery domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A multiwell format assay for heparanase.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Farhad; Brenchley, Paul E C

    2003-09-15

    This assay employs a biotinylated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HSGAG) substrate that is covalently linked to the surface of 96-well immunoassay plates. The ratio of biotin:HSGAG and the coating concentration of substrate bound to the wells have been optimized and allow removal of biotin HSGAG within 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in assay buffer with a standard dilution of bacterial heparitinase or platelet heparanase. Loss of biotin signal from the well surface is detected on incubation with peroxidase-streptavidin followed by color development using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the peroxidase substrate. The new assay allows specific detection of heparanase activity in multiple samples in a total time of 3 h including a 1-h substrate digestion step and is a significant improvement with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and ease of handling of multiple samples compared to other described assays. Heparanase specifically degrades the biotinylated HSGAG substrate, when used with an optimized assay buffer. A range of enzymes including collagenase, trypsin, plasmin, pepsin, chondroitinases, hyaluronidase, and neuraminidase show no effect on the substrate under optimized assay conditions. The covalent linkage of the substrate to the well prevents leaching of substrate and allows preparation and long-term storage of substrate-coated plates. The assay can be used to detect heparanase levels in clinical samples and cell culture supernatants and is ideal as a screening method for antagonists of enzyme activity.

  3. Protein-tannic acid multilayer films: A multifunctional material for microencapsulation of food-derived bioactives.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hooi Hong; Murney, Regan; Yakovlev, Nikolai L; Novoselova, Marina V; Lim, Su Hui; Roy, Nicole; Singh, Harjinder; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Haigh, Brendan; Kiryukhin, Maxim V

    2017-11-01

    The benefits of various functional foods are often negated by stomach digestion and poor targeting to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Layer-by-Layer assembled protein-tannic acid (TA) films are suggested as a prospective material for microencapsulation of food-derived bioactive compounds. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-TA and pepsin-TA films demonstrate linear growth of 2.8±0.1 and 4.2±0.1nm per bi-layer, correspondingly, as shown by ellipsometry. Both multilayer films are stable in simulated gastric fluid but degrade in simulated intestinal fluid. Their corresponding degradation constants are 0.026±0.006 and 0.347±0.005nm -1 min -1 . Milk proteins possessing enhanced adhesion to human intestinal surface, Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and β-Lactoglobulin (BLG), are explored to tailor targeting function to BSA-TA multilayer film. BLG does not adsorb onto the multilayer while IgG is successfully incorporated. Microcapsules prepared from the multilayer demonstrate 2.7 and 6.3 times higher adhesion to Caco-2 cells when IgG is introduced as an intermediate and the terminal layer, correspondingly. This developed material has a great potential for oral delivery of numerous active food-derived ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Whey-Protein-Stabilized Astaxanthin Nanodispersion and Its Transport via a Caco-2 Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xue; Zhao, Changhui; Lu, Jing; Guo, Mingruo

    2018-02-14

    Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification-evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated, and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm, respectively), negative ζ potential (-19.3 ± 1.5 and -35.0 ± 2.2 mV, respectively), and high encapsulation efficiency (92.1 ± 2.9 and 93.5 ± 2.4%, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry curves indicated that amorphous astaxanthin existed in both astaxanthin nanodispersions. Whey-protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion showed resistance to pepsin digestion but readily released astaxanthin after trypsin digestion. The nanodispersions showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a protein concentration below 10 mg/mL. WPI- and PWP-stabilized nanodispersions improved the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of Caco-2 cells to astaxanthin by 10.3- and 16.1-fold, respectively. The results indicated that whey-protein-stabilized nanodispersion is a good vehicle to deliver lipophilic bioactive compounds, such as astaxanthin, and to improve their bioavailability.

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: increased solubility of skin collagen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the solubility of skin collagen from six patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and six controls. The amount of collagen extracted with neutral salt solution was significantly greater in patients with ALS than in controls. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of collagen extracted from ALS patients with increased duration of illness. The collagen solubilized by pepsin and cyanogen bromide treatments was significantly higher in ALS patients than in controls, and its proportion was positively and significantly associated with duration of illness in ALS patients. These results indicate that the metabolism of skin collagen may be affected in the disease process of ALS, causing an increase in immature soluble collagen in the tissue, which is the opposite to that which occurs in the normal aging process.

  6. Optimum conditions for extracting collagen from the tunica albuginea of immunologically castrated pig testes and the functional properties of the isolated collagen.

    PubMed

    Simões, Gislaine Silveira; Silveira, Expedito Tadeu Facco; de Oliveira, Simone Raymundo; Poleze, Evandro; Allison, Jim R D; Ida, Elza Iouko; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated alternative methods for extracting collagen from the tunica albuginea of pig testes and characterized the functional properties of the isolated collagen. Using the statistical tools of factorial design (2⁴⁻¹) and a central composite rotatable design (2³), it was concluded that the best conditions were 0.83 mol L⁻¹ acetic acid, 0.24% pepsin and 28 h of hydrolysis to isolate 82.54 g of collagen per 100g of sample. This purified collagen had improved functional properties in relation to bovine skin collagen, including water solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability. These results suggest that isolated collagen from the tunica albuginea can be used in pharmaceutical and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of protein oxidation on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng

    2013-12-01

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) oxidation pretreatment, and the in vitro digestibility of oxidised SPI was investigated. Results indicated that oxidation induced amino acid modification. The amount of most amino acids decreased, accompanied by decreasing digestive proteolysis susceptibility. Peptide size distribution implied that oxidation generated protein aggregates that could not be degraded by pepsin, but could be digested by pancreatin. Oxidation induced a maximum of 16.6% and 14.6% loss, respectively, for free essential and free total amino acid in the digests of oxidised SPI. Antioxidant activities evaluation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and DPPH scavenging activity showed that oxidation deteriorated the antioxidant activities of the digests from oxidised SPI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin by high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    An, Meichen; Liu, Ning

    2010-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) method was developed for the separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB). Bovine lactoferrin was hydrolyzed by pepsin and then separated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The antibacterial activities of the fractions from RP-LC separation were determined and the protein concentration of the fraction with the highest activity was measured, whose sequence was indentified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The relative molecular mass of LfcinB was 3 124.89 and the protein concentration was 18.20 microg/mL. The method of producing LfcinB proposed in this study has fast speed, high accuracy and high resolution.

  9. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  10. A new ELISA for determination of potency in snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Rial, A; Morais, V; Rossi, S; Massaldi, H

    2006-09-15

    A competitive ELISA for potency determination of bothropic equine antivenom was developed and compared to the conventional in vivo ED(50) assay, with the aim of partially substituting the in vivo assay in the monitoring of antivenom immunoglobulin levels. On this purpose, blood samples were taken at different times during and after the immunization protocol of the lot of horses used for production of snake antivenom at the Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay. Both the competitive ELISA and the ED(50) assay were performed on those samples. In addition, a group of five commercial pepsin-digested antivenoms were tested by both methods. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (Pearson's r=0.957) was found between the ELISA titres and the corresponding ED(50) values, indicating that the in vitro test can estimate the neutralizing antibody capacity of the sera as well as the in vivo assay. By means of this new ELISA, it was found that the immunized animals maintained good venom antibody titres, in the order of 20-50% of the maximum achieved, even 10 month after the end of the immunization schedule. The main advantage of our ELISA design is its ability to correctly estimate the neutralization capacity of crude hyperimmune plasma and antivenom sera independently of their antibody composition in terms of whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragment.

  11. Gut pH as a limiting factor for digestive proteolysis in cultured juveniles of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Lorenzo; Robles, Rocío; Morales, Gabriel A; Moyano, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    After the development of the gastric function in juvenile fish, dietary proteins enter a two-phase digestive process comprising an acidic gastric phase followed by an alkaline intestinal phase. However, the main gastric protease, pepsin, is strictly dependent on the existence of a low-enough environmental pH. In 20-g gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, the mean minimal gastric pH is close to 4.5, while the mean pH in the duodenal portion of the intestine was nearly fixed at 6.5. The mean maximal gastric content of HCl was approximately 20 microEq for a low-buffering diet. Gastric proteases were more severely affected than intestinal proteases when assayed at actual sub-optimal pH values, 4.5 and 6.5, respectively. When the gastric proteases of juvenile fish were pre-incubated with a citric acid buffer at pH 6.0, the activity at pH 4.5 was very low, whereas when they were pre-incubated with the same buffer at pH 3.0, the activity at pH 4.5 was significantly increased; this fact suggests a deficient activation of zymogens during the gastric digestion and points to a potential approach to improve protein digestion in juvenile gilthead sea bream.

  12. Influence of enzymes and surfactants on the disintegration behavior of cross-linked hard gelatin capsules during dissolution.

    PubMed

    Pennings, F H; Kwee, B L S; Vromans, H

    2006-01-01

    Gelatin exhibits cross-linking upon storage at stress conditions. Capsules stored at these conditions fail to show appropriate in vitro dissolution. The aim of this study is to show the effect of surfactants in the medium on the disintegration of the gelatin capsule. This is demonstrated in the presence and absence of the enzymes pancreatin and pepsin, the function of which is to improve the dissolution. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 are tested as surfactants. When SLS is used in the medium, dissolution is significantly hampered due to the formation of a less soluble precipitate of gelatin. Compared to SLS, Tween 80 shows far better disintegration and solubility results in dissolution media with neutral or low pH. Therefore, it is concluded in this study that Tween 80 is preferred when a surfactant is necessary to comply with sink condition requirements.

  13. Identification and partial characterization of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Lb. Bulgaricus K41 isolated from indigenous yogurts.

    PubMed

    Zaeim, Davood; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Forty-two strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus isolated from locally made yogurts were examined and compared for bacteriocin producing ability using spot on lawn assay which improved by taking photo and image processing. Lb. bulgaricus K41 exhibited the highest inhibition level against indicators. K41 Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin) but α-amylase makes slight reduction in its activity and it is resistant to lipase. This antibacterial peptide is extremely heat-stable (121 °C for 15 min) and remains active over a wide pH range (pH = 2 to 10); also nonionic detergents (Tween-20, Tween-80, and Triton X100) showed no effect on its activity. The inhibitory spectrum is against Gram-positive bacteria (except Staphylococcus aureus) with extremely antilisterial activity and it is almost ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria. The mode of its action was identified as bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes. The properties of K41 bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance add to its safety as a biopreservative produced by a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacterium suggesting it can be used in hurdle technology for ready-to-eat foods as one of the main sources of Listeria contaminations. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Inhibition of cell growth by a hypothalamic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1982-01-01

    A fraction purified from acetic acid extracts of porcine hypothalami was found to contain significant antimitogenic activity when tested in normal and neoplastic cell lines. Addition of this hypothalamic material (1-100 micrograms/ml) to culture media significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA in several cell lines. Amino acid incorporation into pituitary proteins and uridine incorporation into RNA were also significantly reduced by this factor(s). Addition to the culture media of this hypothalamic material at 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml per day decreased by 17% and 36%, respectively, cell numbers of 3T6 fibroblast cell cultures. Time-response curves showed that the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in 3T6 fibroblast cells begins within 2 hr after adding this fraction to the culture medium. The inhibitory action cannot be explained by a direct cytotoxic effect since 3T6 cells labeled with 51Cr and incubated for 6 hr in the presence of this hypothalamic fraction fail to show an increase in the release of 51Cr into the medium as compared with controls. Incubation with trypsin and chymotrypsin completely abolished the antimitogenic activity of this material and pepsin decreased it. This strongly suggests that the antimitogenic activity exhibited by this fraction is due to a polypeptide(s). These observations provide evidence for the presence in the mammalian hypothalamus of an antimitogenic peptide(s) that may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:6757925

  15. A lead discovery strategy driven by a comprehensive analysis of proteases in the peptide substrate space

    PubMed Central

    Sukuru, Sai Chetan K; Nigsch, Florian; Quancard, Jean; Renatus, Martin; Chopra, Rajiv; Brooijmans, Natasja; Mikhailov, Dmitri; Deng, Zhan; Cornett, Allen; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Hommel, Ulrich; Davies, John W; Glick, Meir

    2010-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive analysis of proteases in the peptide substrate space and demonstrate its applicability for lead discovery. Aligned octapeptide substrates of 498 proteases taken from the MEROPS peptidase database were used for the in silico analysis. A multiple-category naïve Bayes model, trained on the two-dimensional chemical features of the substrates, was able to classify the substrates of 365 (73%) proteases and elucidate statistically significant chemical features for each of their specific substrate positions. The positional awareness of the method allows us to identify the most similar substrate positions between proteases. Our analysis reveals that proteases from different families, based on the traditional classification (aspartic, cysteine, serine, and metallo), could have substrates that differ at the cleavage site (P1–P1′) but are similar away from it. Caspase-3 (cysteine protease) and granzyme B (serine protease) are previously known examples of cross-family neighbors identified by this method. To assess whether peptide substrate similarity between unrelated proteases could reliably translate into the discovery of low molecular weight synthetic inhibitors, a lead discovery strategy was tested on two other cross-family neighbors—namely cathepsin L2 and matrix metallo proteinase 9, and calpain 1 and pepsin A. For both these pairs, a naïve Bayes classifier model trained on inhibitors of one protease could successfully enrich those of its neighbor from a different family and vice versa, indicating that this approach could be prospectively applied to lead discovery for a novel protease target with no known synthetic inhibitors. PMID:20799349

  16. Mechanism of action of a novel recombinant peptide, MP1102, against Clostridium perfringens type C.

    PubMed

    Zong, Lifen; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Mao, Ruoyu; Yang, Na; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    This work is the first to report the antibacterial characteristics and antibacterial mechanisms of MP1102, which is a variant of NZ2114, against pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. MP1102 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens strains CVCC 61, CVCC 1163, and CVCC 2032 at a low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.91 μM. MP1102 showed anti-C. perfringens activity over a wide pH range of 2.0 and 10.0, high thermal stability from 20 to 80 °C, and remarkable resistance to pepsin. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indicated an additive or synergic effect between MP1102 and bacitracin zinc, nisin, vancomycin, virginiamycin, aureomycin, and ampicillin against C. perfringens (FICI = 0.3125-1.0). To further elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of MP1102, its effect on the C. perfringens CVCC 61 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was studied. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that MP1102 treatment resulted in the release of cellular contents by damaging the membrane. A DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that MP1102 interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that MP1102 affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. These results suggested that MP1102 exhibited potential as a new antimicrobial agent against C. perfringens infections.

  17. Preparation and characterisation of a novel hydrogel based on Auricularia polytricha β-glucan and its bio-release property for vitamin B12 delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Da; He, Yue; Song, Guanglei

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates a novel hydrogel synthesis method and its bio-release property. This hydrogel, with a three-dimensional network structure based on Auricularia polytricha β-glucan, was characterised by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1 H NMR and scanning electron microscopy. Vitamin B 12 (VB 12 , cobalamin) as a hydrophilic functional food component was entrapped into these hydrogels. The in vitro release profile of VB 12 was established in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The results showed that the hydrogel had medium pore size from 30 to 300 µm, and the swelling ratio increased with the degree of substitution. The hydrogel demonstrated good stability in SGF and bio-release capability in SIF for VB 12 . The accumulated release rate is about 80% in SIF and below 20% in SGF, which indicated the significant different release property in stomach and intestine. The Auricularia polytricha β-glucan-based hydrogel has a good swelling ratio, pepsin stability and pancrelipase-catalysed biodegradation property. The bio-release rate is significantly different in SIF and SGF, which indicated that this hydrogel could be a good intestinal target carrier of VB 12 . © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera on anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and accumulation of prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Babu, M Dora; Tavares, I A; Raman, A

    2003-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is an Indian tratidional medicine widely used to improve intellectual functions. Earlier, we had reported the prophylactic and curative effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BME) in various gastric ulcer models. The effect was due to augmentation of the defensive mucosal factors like increase in mucin secretion, life span of mucosal cells and gastric antioxidant effect rather than on the offensive acid-pepsin secretion. The present study includes evaluation of standardized BME (bacoside A content--35.5 +/- 0.9) on other contributing factors towards ulcerogenesis. BME in the dose of 1000 microg/ml showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitrol and in the dose of 10 microg/ml increased in vitro of prostanoids (PGE and PGI2) in human colonic mucosal incubates. It may be concluded that these factors may contribute to antiulcerogenic activity of BME.

  19. Preclinical Development of a Novel, Orally-Administered Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Domain Antibody for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Crowe, J Scott; Roberts, Kevin J; Carlton, Timothy M; Maggiore, Luana; Cubitt, Marion F; Clare, Simon; Harcourt, Katherine; Reckless, Jill; MacDonald, Thomas T; Ray, Keith P; Vossenkämper, Anna; West, Michael R

    2018-03-21

    TNFα is an important cytokine in inflammatory bowel disease. V565 is a novel anti-TNFα domain antibody developed for oral administration in IBD patients, derived from a llama domain antibody and engineered to enhance intestinal protease resistance. V565 activity was evaluated in TNFα-TNFα receptor-binding ELISAs as well as TNFα responsive cellular assays and demonstrated neutralisation of both soluble and membrane TNFα with potencies similar to those of adalimumab. Although sensitive to pepsin, V565 retained activity after lengthy incubations with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatin, as well as mouse small intestinal and human ileal and faecal supernatants. In orally dosed naïve and DSS colitis mice, high V565 concentrations were observed in intestinal contents and faeces and immunostaining revealed V565 localisation in mouse colon tissue. V565 was detected by ELISA in post-dose serum of colitis mice, but not naïve mice, demonstrating penetration of disrupted epithelium. In an ex vivo human IBD tissue culture model, V565 inhibition of tissue phosphoprotein levels and production of inflammatory cytokine biomarkers was similar to infliximab, demonstrating efficacy when present at the disease site. Taken together, results of these studies provide confidence that oral V565 dosing will be therapeutic in IBD patients where the mucosal epithelial barrier is compromised.

  20. GC-MS Analysis and Gastroprotective Evaluations of Crude Extracts, Isolated Saponins, and Essential Oil from Polygonum hydropiper L.

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Shahid, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Ullah, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Syed, Nawazish-i-Husain

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulceration is among the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders characterized by pepsin and gastric acid mediated mucosal damage, as result of imbalance between defensive and offensive processes. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the antiulcer potentials of Polygonum hydropiper crude methanolic ectract (Ph.Cr) in aspirin induced ulcerogenesis using pylorus ligated rat model. In-vitro urease and Proteus mirabilis inhibitory potentials were evaluated using standard protocols. All fractions were analyzed using GC-MS to identify major components. The aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat model was associated with significant changes in the mean ulcer score [F(5, 30) = 7.141, P = 0.0002], gastric juice volume [F(5, 30) = 8.245, P < 0.0001], gastric juice pH [F(5, 30) = 5.715, P = 0.0008], free acidity [F(5, 30) = 4.544, P = 0.0033], total acidity [F(5, 30) = 2.740, P = 0.0373], and pepsin concentration [F(5, 30) = 2.335, P = 0.0664]. Pre-treatment with Ph.Cr at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose exhibited marked gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect in the aspirin induced pyloric ligation ulcerogenesis model at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg as indicated by ulcerative biochemical parameters. In urease inhibition assay, leaves essential oil (Ph.Lo), saponins (Ph.Sp), and chloroform extract (Ph.Chf) exhibited highest activities with IC50 of 90, 98, and 520 μg/ml, respectively. Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), and Ph.Cr showed MICs of 25, 30, 32.25, and 40.50 μg/ml, respectively against P. mirabilis. Several compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis of samples. Significant in-vivo antiulcer, urease inhibitory as well as anti-proteus potentials of P. hydropiper solvent extracts, signify its potential use for the management of peptic ulcers and may provide scientific bases for the traditional uses of the plant. PMID:28824906

  1. CE-microreactor-CE-MS/MS for protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Ye, Mingliang; Vannatta, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present a proof-of-principle for a fully automated bottom-up approach to protein characterization. Proteins are first separated by capillary electrophoresis. A pepsin microreactor is incorporated into the distal end of this capillary. Peptides formed in the reactor are transferred to a second capillary, where they are separated by capillary electrophoresis and characterized by mass spectrometry. While peptides generated from one digestion are being separated in the second capillary, the next protein fraction undergoes digestion in the microreactor. The migration time in the first dimension capillary is characteristic of the protein while migration time in the second dimension is characteristic of the peptide. Spot capacity for the two-dimensional separation is 590. A MS/MS analysis of a mixture of cytochrome C and myoglobin generated Mascot MOWSE scores of 107 for cytochrome C and 58 for myoglobin. The sequence coverages were 48% and 22%, respectively. PMID:17295444

  2. Rice-based mucosal vaccine as a global strategy for cold-chain- and needle-free vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nochi, Tomonori; Takagi, Hidenori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Yang, Lijun; Masumura, Takehiro; Mejima, Mio; Nakanishi, Ushio; Matsumura, Akiko; Uozumi, Akihiro; Hiroi, Takachika; Morita, Shigeto; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Capable of inducing antigen-specific immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments without the use of syringe and needle, mucosal vaccination is considered ideal for the global control of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a rice-based oral vaccine expressing cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) under the control of the endosperm-specific expression promoter 2.3-kb glutelin GluB-1 with codon usage optimization for expression in rice seed. An average of 30 μg of CTB per seed was stored in the protein bodies, which are storage organelles in rice. When mucosally fed, rice seeds expressing CTB were taken up by the M cells covering the Peyer's patches and induced CTB-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies with neutralizing activity. When expressed in rice, CTB was protected from pepsin digestion in vitro. Rice-expressed CTB also remained stable and thus maintained immunogenicity at room temperature for >1.5 years, meaning that antigen-specific mucosal immune responses were induced at much lower doses than were necessary with purified recombinant CTB. Because they require neither refrigeration (cold-chain management) nor a needle, these rice-based mucosal vaccines offer a highly practical and cost-effective strategy for orally vaccinating large populations against mucosal infections, including those that may result from an act of bioterrorism. PMID:17573530

  3. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  4. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K.; Berean, Kyle J.; Ward, Stephanie A.; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R.; Gibson, Peter R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K; Berean, Kyle J; Ward, Stephanie A; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G; Harrison, Christopher J; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R; Gibson, Peter R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-09-16

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders.

  6. Potential of in vivo real-time gastric gas profiling: a pilot evaluation of heat-stress and modulating dietary cinnamon effect in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Ha, Nam; Pillai, Naresh; Yao, Chu K.; Berean, Kyle J.; Ward, Stephanie A.; Grando, Danilla; Muir, Jane G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Wijesiriwardana, Udani; Dunshea, Frank R.; Gibson, Peter R.; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model. We characterise the real-time alterations of gastric-gas in response to environmental heat-stress and dietary cinnamon and use the gas profiles for understanding the bio-physiological changes. Under no heat-stress, feeding increases gastric CO2 concentration, while dietary cinnamon reduces it due to decrease in gastric acid and pepsin secretion. Alternatively, heat-stress leads to hyperventilation in pigs, which reduces CO2 concentration and with the cinnamon treatment, CO2 diminishes even more, resulting in health improvement outcomes. Overall, a good repeatability in gas profiles is also observed. The model demonstrates the strong potential of real-time gas profiler in providing new physiological information that will impact understanding of therapeutics, presenting a highly reliable device for monitoring/diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27633400

  7. Effect of the yeast and bacteria biomass on the microbiota in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Vamanu, E; Vamanu, A; Popa, O; Vassu, Tatiana; Ghindea, Raluca; Pelinescu, Diana; Nita, Sultana; Babeanu, Narcisa

    2008-09-15

    This study aims at obtaining a probiotic product based on viable biomass from 6 yeast strains and 2 strains of lactic bacteria used for nutrition of animals. The strains are subjected to some resistance tests, at temperature, pH, pepsin, pancreatin and biliary salts so as to make obvious their viability. Tests were done by comparison to the witness strain and respectively a protective solution based on mucin and casein. Based on the resulted viabilities 2 products are formulated. Their effect is tested by inoculating fresh rumen content and supervising the microbic balance for a period of 12 days. After the final tests, it resulted that the product Fpl (20% Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1-29, 10% Kluyveromyces marxianus R-CS, 20% Issatchenkia orientalis R-BC, 30% Lactobacillus paracasei CMGB16, 20% Enterococcus faecium GM8) was chosen because anaerobic strains were preponderant as a consequence of the tests performed with rumen.

  8. The energy and protein value of wheat, maize and blend DDGS for cattle and evaluation of prediction methods.

    PubMed

    De Boever, J L; Blok, M C; Millet, S; Vanacker, J; De Campeneere, S

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition inclusive amino acids (AAs) and the energy and protein value of three wheat, three maize and seven blend (mainly wheat) dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS) were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The digestible protein in the intestines (DVE) and the degraded protein balance (OEB) were determined by nylon bag incubations in the rumen and the intestines of cannulated cows. Additional chemical parameters like acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), protein solubility in water, in borate-phosphate buffer and in pepsin-HCl, in vitro digestibility (cellulase, protease, rumen fluid) and colour scores (L*, a*, b*) were evaluated as potential predictors of the energy and protein value. Compared to wheat DDGS (WDDGS), maize DDGS (MDDGS) had a higher NEL-value (8.49 v. 7.38 MJ/kg DM), a higher DVE-content (216 v. 198 g/kg DM) and a lower OEB-value (14 v. 66 g/kg DM). The higher energy value of MDDGS was mainly due to the higher crude fat (CFA) content (145 v. 76 g/kg DM) and also to better digestible cell-walls, whereas the higher protein value was mainly due to the higher percentage of rumen bypass protein (RBP: 69.8 v. 55.6%). The NEL-value of blend DDGS (BDDGS) was in between that of the pure DDGS-types, whereas its DVE-value was similar to MDDGS. Although lower in CP and total AAs, MDDGS provided a similar amount of essential AAs as the other DDGS-types. Lysine content was most reduced in the production of WDDGS and cysteine in MDDGS. Fat content explained 68.6% of the variation in NEL, with hemicellulose and crude ash as extra explaining variables. The best predictor for RBP as well as for OEB was the protein solubility in pepsin-HCl (R 2=77.3% and 83.5%). Intestinal digestibility of RBP could best be predicted by ADF (R 3=73.6%) and the combination of CFA and NDF could explain 60.2% of the variation in the content of absorbable microbial protein. The availability of

  9. First isolation and antinociceptive activity of a lipid transfer protein from noni (Morinda citrifolia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Campos, Dyély C O; Costa, Andrea S; Lima, Amanda D R; Silva, Fredy D A; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Leal, Luzia K A M; Miron, Diogo; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, Hermógenes D

    2016-05-01

    In this study a novel heat-stable lipid transfer protein, designated McLTP1, was purified from noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) seeds, using four purification steps which resulted in a high-purified protein yield (72 mg McLTP1 from 100g of noni seeds). McLTP1 exhibited molecular masses of 9.450 and 9.466 kDa, determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence of McLTP1 (AVPCGQVSSALSPCMSYLTGGGDDPEARCCAGV), as analysed by NCBI-BLAST database, revealed a high degree of identity with other reported plant lipid transfer proteins. In addition, this protein proved to be resistant to pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion. McLTP1 given intraperitoneally (1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) and orally (8 mg/kg) caused an inhibition of the writhing response induced by acetic acid in mice. This protein displayed thermostability, retaining 100% of its antinociceptive activity after 30 min incubation at 80 °C. Pretreatment of mice with McLTP1 (8 mg/kg, i.p. and p.o.) also decreased neurogenic and inflammatory phases of nociception in the formalin test. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonised the antinociceptive effect of McLTP1 suggesting that the opioid mechanisms mediate the analgesic properties of this protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Marr, A K; Jenssen, H; Moniri, M Roshan; Hancock, R E W; Panté, N

    2009-01-01

    Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin (BLf and BLfcin) against the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In comparison to the untreated infected control cells, both the BLf- and BLfcin-treated cells showed a significant reduction in HSV-1 cellular uptake. The few virus particles that were internalized appeared to have a delayed intracellular trafficking. Thus, in addition to their interference with the uptake of the virus into host cells, Lf and Lfcin also exert their antiviral effect intracellularly.

  11. In vitro digestibility of individual amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein: the modified three-step procedure and the immobilized digestive enzyme assay.

    PubMed

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stern, M D; Moreno, M Ruiz; Vázquez-Añón, M; Schwab, C G

    2009-08-01

    Three soybean meal, 3 SoyPlus (West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 distillers dried grains with solubles, and 5 fish meal samples were used to evaluate the modified 3-step in vitro procedure (TSP) and the in vitro immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA; Novus International Inc., St. Louis, MO) for estimating digestibility of AA in rumen-undegraded protein (RUP-AA). In a previous experiment, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and in vivo digestibility of AA in the intact samples and in the rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) was obtained for all samples using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. For the modified TSP, 5 g of RUR was weighed into polyester bags, which were then heat-sealed and placed into Daisy(II) incubator bottles. Samples were incubated in a pepsin/HCl solution followed by incubation in a pancreatin solution. After this incubation, residues remaining in the bags were analyzed for AA, and digestibility of RUP-AA was calculated based on disappearance from the bags. In vitro RUP-AA digestibility estimates obtained with this procedure were highly correlated to in vivo estimates. Corresponding intact feeds were also analyzed via the pepsin/pancreatin steps of the modified TSP. In vitro estimates of AA digestibility of the feeds were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility, which suggests that the feeds may not need to be ruminally incubated before determining RUP-AA digestibility in vitro. The RUR were also analyzed via the IDEA kits. The IDEA values of the RUR were good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal, SoyPlus, and distillers dried grains with solubles, but the IDEA values were not as good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in fish meal. However, the IDEA values of intact feed samples were also determined and were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility for all feed types, suggesting that the IDEA value of intact feeds may be a better predictor of RUP-AA digestibility than the IDEA

  12. Variability in tannin content, chemistry and activity in a diverse group of tannin containing sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Rhett C; Herald, Thomas J; Bean, Scott R; Wilson, Jeff D; Tuinstra, Mitch R

    2013-03-30

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers and are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility, but are also excellent antioxidants. Numerous studies investigating the functional properties of sorghum tannin have been conducted by comparing grain samples from different sorghum lines without considering the other intrinsic characteristics of the grain. The purpose of this study was to remove the confounding intrinsic factors present in the endosperm so the effect of the tannins could be evaluated utilizing a unique decortication/reconstitution procedure. The tannin content of the 14 cultivars tested ranged from 2.3 to 67.2 catechin equivalents. The bran fractions were studied for their impact on protein binding and antioxidant capacity. Protein digestibility by pepsin ranged from 8% to 58% at the highest tannin level addition. Protein binding ranged from 3.11 to 16.33 g blue bovine serum albumin kg⁻¹ bran. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 81.33 to 1122.54 µmol Trolox equivalents g⁻¹ bran. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography detailed molecular size distributions of the tannin polymers and relationship to tannin functionality. The tannin content and composition play a significant role in determining tannin functionality. These differences will allow for selections of high-tannin sorghums with consideration of the biological activities of the tannins. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in addition to Bowman-Birk inhibitor influence stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean contains several biologically active components and one of this belongs to the bioactive peptide group. The objectives of this study were to produce different lunasin-enriched preparations (LEP) and determine the effect of Bowman-Birk inhibitor and Kunitz trypsin concentrations on the stabil...

  14. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  15. Bacteriocinogenic potential of a probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans [BDU3] from Ngari.

    PubMed

    Abdhul, Kaja; Ganesh, Mohan; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Vanithamani, Shanmugam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriocin producing strain BDU3 was isolated from a traditional fermented fish of Manipur Ngari. The strain BDU3 was identified as Bacillus coagulans by phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The BDU3 produced novel bacteriocin, which showed an antimicrobial spectrum toward a wide spectrum of food borne, and closely related pathogens with a MIC that ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 μg/mL. The isolate was able to tolerate pH as low as 2.0 and up to 0.2% bile salt concentration. Three step purification was employed to increase the specific activity of the antimicrobial compound. The fractions were further chromatographed by Rp-HPLC C-18 column and the purified bacteriocin had a specific activity of ∼8500 AU/mg. However, the potency of bacteriocin was susceptible to digestion with Proteinase K, Pepsin, SDS, EDTA and Urea. Molecular mass of purified bacteriocin was found to be 1.4 kDa using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). The functional group was revealed by FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity assay (MTT) using purified bacteriocin showed 2 times lower EC50 values compared to SDS. This is the smaller bacteriocin ever reported before from B. coagulans with greater antimicrobial potency with lower cytotoxicity. This bacteriocin raises the possibilities to be used as a biopreservative in food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in upper gastrointestinal physiology with age.

    PubMed

    Newton, J L

    2004-12-01

    Diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract such as peptic ulceration and gastric cancer become more common and more severe with advancing age. In the normal stomach and duodenum, there is a balance between mucosal protective mechanisms and endogenous (gastric acid and pepsin) and exogenous aggressive factors. The high incidence of gastrointestinal pathology seen in older age groups is not related to increase in the secretion of endogenous aggressive factors. Recent work suggests that gastrointestinal mucosal protective mechanisms are impaired with age. The roles in the gastrointestinal tract of molecules that have been implicated in mucosal repair, such as trefoil peptides and matrix components, are beginning to be elucidated and their study in older people is essential to ensure appropriate, efficient, cost-effective management of gastric pathology in the elderly. Strategies to improve the management of upper gastrointestinal diseases in older people will reduce mortality and improve quality of life.

  17. Chitosan but Not Chitin Activates the Inflammasome by a Mechanism Dependent upon Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Chelsea L.; Lee, Chrono K.; Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Healy, Gloria J.; Taron, Christopher H.; Specht, Charles A.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1β. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome activator, acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of activity. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL-1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. In contrast, chitin is relatively inert. PMID:21862582

  18. Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Chelsea L; Lee, Chrono K; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Healy, Gloria J; Taron, Christopher H; Specht, Charles A; Levitz, Stuart M

    2011-10-14

    Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance because of frequent natural exposure and their use in medical applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the end point measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. We prepared highly purified chitosan and chitin and examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate murine macrophages to release the inflammasome-associated cytokine IL-1β. We found that although chitosan was a potent NLRP3 inflammasome activator, acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of activity. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL-1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. In contrast, chitin is relatively inert.

  19. Discriminative Dissolution Method for Benzoyl Metronidazole Oral Suspension.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline Santos; da Rosa Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Paula, Fávero Reisdorfer; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos

    2016-06-01

    A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ) oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation speeds. The sample insertion mode in dissolution media was also evaluated. The best conditions were obtained using a paddle, 50 rpm stirring speed, simulated gastric fluid (without pepsin) as the dissolution medium, and sample insertion by a syringe. These conditions were suitable for providing sink conditions and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, and robust. The dissolution profiles of five samples were compared using the similarity factor (f 2) and dissolution efficiency. The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical formulation, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations.

  20. The involvement of the cysteine proteases of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in excystment.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunyu; Chung, Young-Bae; Chung, Byung-Suk; Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2004-05-01

    The effects of trypsin, bile, trypsin-bile, pepsin, dithiothreitol (DTT) and metacercarial excretory-secretory product (ESP) on the in vitro excystment of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were investigated. The majority of metacercariae excysted immediately in trypsin-bile in PBS solution, a process which was complete after 30 min of incubation. When incubated in metacercarial ESP in PBS, excystment was potentiated in the presence of 5 mM DTT, but was inhibited dose-dependently by a cysteine protease inhibitor, iodoacetic acid. Two active protease bands of 28 and 40 kDa were identified in the ESP of metacercariae by gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the larvae in solutions of DTT and ESP migrated through a small hole on the metacercarial wall, whereas larvae were liberated by entire wall disruption in trypsin solution. These results suggest that trypsin is a major extrinsic factor of the rapid excystment of C. sinensis metacercariae, and that endogenous cysteine proteases are also involved in metacercarial excystment. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  1. Fractionation and antioxidant properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates stimulated by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Phongthai, Suphat; D'Amico, Stefano; Schoenlechner, Regine; Homthawornchoo, Wantida; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran was used as a starting material to prepare protein concentrate through enzyme-assisted extraction. The hydrolysis of protein concentrate under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin-trypsin system) greatly improved the antioxidant properties. Rice bran protein hydrolysate was further fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration (UF, F1: molecular weight (MW) <3kDa, F2: MW 3-5kDa, and F3: MW 5-10kDa). Peptides with smaller MW possessed higher antioxidant activities (P<0.05). UF showed a great efficacy to selectively separate the metal-chelating peptides. Tyrosine and phenylalanine had positive correlations with their DPPH & ABTS radicals scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (r>0.831). A major peptide fragment was detected at m/z 1088 by a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. There is high potential that antioxidative peptides from rice bran might also be produced in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Signal amplification of FISH for automated detection using image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Truong, K; Boenders, J; Maciorowski, Z; Vielh, P; Dutrillaux, B; Malfoy, B; Bourgeois, C A

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the detection of FISH signals, in order that spot counting by a fully automated image cytometer be comparable to that obtained visually under the microscope. Two systems of spot scoring, visual and automated counting, were investigated in parallel on stimulated human lymphocytes with FISH using a biotinylated centromeric probe for chromosome 3. Signal characteristics were first analyzed on images recorded with a coupled charge device (CCD) camera. Number of spots per nucleus were scored visually on these recorded images versus automatically with a DISCOVERY image analyzer. Several fluochromes, amplification and pretreatments were tested. Our results for both visual and automated scoring show that the tyramide amplification system (TSA) gives the best amplification of signal if pepsin treatment is applied prior to FISH. Accuracy of the automated scoring, however, remained low (58% of nuclei containing two spots) compared to the visual scoring because of the high intranuclear variation between FISH spots.

  3. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    PubMed

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  4. The Fate of Major Royal Jelly Proteins during Proteolytic Digestion in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Mureşan, Carmen I; Schierhorn, Angelika; Buttstedt, Anja

    2018-04-25

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a beehive product with a complex composition, major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) being the most abundant proteins. Cell culture and animal studies suggest various biological activities for the full-length/native MRJPs. In the field of apitherapy, it is assumed that MRJPs can positively affect human health. However, whenever RJ is administered orally, the availability for assimilation in the gastrointestinal tract is a prerequisite for MRJPs to have any effect on humans. We here show that MRJPs vary in resistance to pepsin digestion with MRJP2 being most stable and still present as full-length protein after 24 h of digestion. In the intestinal phase, using trypsin and chymotrypsin, MRJPs are rapidly digested with MRJP2 again showing longest stability (40 min), suggesting that MRJPs can reach the small intestine as full-length proteins but then have to be resorbed quickly if full-length proteins are to fulfill any biological activity.

  5. Influence of hydrolysis behaviour and microfluidisation on the functionality and structural properties of collagen hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yehui; Zhang, Yousheng; Liu, Xueming; Huang, Lihua; Chen, Zhiyi; Cheng, Jingrong

    2017-07-15

    The functionality and structural properties of pig skin hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH, 10% and 20%) and microfluidisation (120MPa), prepared by pepsin and Alcalase® have been investigated in this study. Extensive hydrolysis can significantly improve the absolute value of the zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. The particle distribution of hydrolysates decreased with increasing DH. The numbers of free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bonds (SS) were significantly increased with increasing DH (p<0.05). Hydrolysates with a lower DH showed a better emulsifying property than those with a higher DH. Microfluidisation led to the transformation of structural and interfacial properties of the hydrolysates and increased the value of the zeta potential, S 0 , and gel strength. Microfluidisation results in limited breakage of chemical bonds, the number of SS and SH bonds unchanged in the treatment. These results reflect the functionality and structural properties of collagen-rich pig skin hydrolysates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl 2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unfolding/Refolding Study on Collagen from Sea Cucumber Based on 2D Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Bi, Jing-Ran; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Zi-Yuan; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-11-16

    We aimed to explore the differences of thermal behaviors between insoluble collagen fibrils (ICFs) and pepsin-solubilized collagens (PSCs) from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus . The unfolding/refolding sequences of secondary structures of ICFs and PSCs during the heating and cooling cycle (5 → 70 → 5 °C) were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with curve-fitting and 2D correlation techniques. ICFs showed a higher proportion of α-helical structures and higher thermostability than PSCs, and thus had more-stable triple helical structures. The sequences of changes affecting the secondary structures during heating were essentially the same between ICFs and PSCs. In all cases, α-helix structure was the most important conformation and it disappeared to form a β-sheet structure. In the cooling cycle, ICFs showed a partially refolding ability, and the proportion of β-sheet structure rose before the increasing proportion of α-helix structure. PSCs did not obviously refold during the cooling stage.

  8. Designing dairy desserts for weight management: Structure, physical properties and in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Jennifer; Llorca, Empar; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to observe the effect of adding dairy proteins and reducing the cream content in order to obtain healthier dairy desserts for use in weight management. The extra-whey protein low-cream sample had the densest, firmest matrix, which is related to increased satiety. The second aim was to investigate the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of whey and casein proteins in a heat-treated semisolid real food. The extra-casein protein sample matrix broke down more slowly than the others because the caseins clotted at the gastric pH. Despite being heated, the whey proteins in the panna cottas were more resistant to pepsin digestion than caseins; this is related with a higher satiety capacity. These findings suggest that the combination of reducing fat content (to obtain a reduced energy density product) and adding whey protein (to increase satiety capacity) allows obtaining dairy desserts for weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Lactoferrin Peptides with Stimulatory Effect on Osteoblast Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fengjiao; Tu, Maolin; Liu, Meng; Shi, Pujie; Wang, Yun; Wu, Di; Du, Ming

    2017-08-23

    Lactoferrin is reported to be a potential food protein with osteogenic activity. However, the activity of lactoferrin peptides is questionable. In the present study, we isolated and characterized peptides from lactoferrin with stimulatory effect on osteoblast proliferation. Peptides from the lactoferrin pepsin hydrolysate were purified using cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Effects of different hydrolysates and peptides on the proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were compared by MTT assay. Results showed that fraction P5-a from Superdex Peptide 10/300 GL gel chromatography showed better activity. Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that two peptides components of P5-a corresponded to fractions of 20-78 and 191-277 amino acids in Bos taurus lactoferrin molecule (GI: 221706349). These results will provide some theoretical and practical data for the preparation and application of osteogenic peptides in functional food industry.

  10. Dental erosion, an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The experience of a center for digestive physiology in Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Roesch-Ramos, Laura; Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Remes-Troche, José María; Romero-Sierra, Graciela; Mata-Tovar, Carlos de Jesús; Azamar-Jácome, Amyra Ali; Barranca-Enríquez, Antonia

    2014-02-01

    Dental erosion (DE) is the loss of the hard tissues of the tooth produced by the action of gastric juice, pepsin and acid on the dental enamel, its frequency ranges from 5 to 53.41 %. In Mexico there are no reports on the frequency and possible association. To establish the prevalence of dental erosion and its relationship to GERD. Prospective, observational, descriptive and comparative study was conducted in 60 patients diagnosed with GERD and 60 healthy patients at the Institute of Medical and Biological Research of the Universidad Veracruzana in Veracruz city. Anthropometric characteristics, dietary habits, oral hygiene, alcohol consumption, smoking, ED index and Index of decayed/missing dental pieces/sealed and correlation between severity of ED and GERD were analyzed. 78.67 % of patients with GERD had ED, 23.33 % corresponded to grade 0, 41.67 % to N1, N2 and 23.33 % to 11.67 % to N3. Predominance of females (2,3:1). The mean age was 50.92 +/- 13.52 years. The severity of dental erosion was significantly related to the severity of reflux, halitosis, CPO index and poor eating habits. There was no statistically significant difference in the other variables analyzed. Dental erosion has a high frequency in patients with GERD and reflux characteristics are directly related to their severity and therefore should be considered as a manifestation of GERD extraesophageal.

  11. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Absorption mechanism of whey-protein-delivered curcumin using Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cui, Jie; Ngadi, Michael O; Ma, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Curcumin (CCM) is a bioactive polyphenolic compound that suffers a low bioavailability because of its low water solubility. In this work β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and nanoemulsion were used as carriers to deliver curcumin. The pH stability of β-Lg-CCM was investigated. The digestion of β-Lg-CCM and the nanoemulsion was studied using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The effect of different carriers on the permeability of curcumin was assessed using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results revealed that the water solubility and the pH stability of curcumin significantly increased by binding with β-Lg. In SDS-PAGE experiments the β-Lg-CCM complex and nanoemulsion were found to be resistant to pepsin digestion but sensitive to trypsin. In the permeability experiment it was shown that the digested nanoemulsion and β-Lg-CCM improved significantly the permeation rate of curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amino acid sequence of tyrosinase from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, K

    1978-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of tyrosinase from Neurospora crassa (monophenol,dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) is reported. This copper-containing oxidase consists of a single polypeptide chain of 407 amino acids. The primary structure was determined by automated and manual sequence analysis on fragments produced by cleavage with cyanogen bromide and on peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, or chymotrypsin. The amino terminus of the protein is acetylated and the single cysteinyl residue 96 is covalently linked via a thioether bridge to histidyl residue 94. The formation and the possible role of this unusual structure in Neurospora tyrosinase is discussed. Dye-sensitized photooxidation of apotyrosinase and active-site-directed inactivation of the native enzyme indicate the possible involvement of histidyl residues 188, 192, 289, and 305 or 306 as ligands to the active-site copper as well as in the catalytic mechanism of this monooxygenase. PMID:151279

  14. Susceptibility of phaseolin to in vitro proteolysis is highly variable across common bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Leterme, Pascal; Victoria, Nestor F; Toro, Orlando; Souffrant, Wolfgang B; Beebe, Stephen; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2008-03-26

    A study was conducted to investigate the amino acid (AA) composition and the susceptibility to in vitro proteolysis (pepsin, 120 min and pancreatin, 240 min) of a collection of purified phaseolins ( n = 43) in unheated or heat-treated form. The AA composition of phaseolin varied little across bean varieties. At 360 min of in vitro proteolysis, the degree of hydrolysis varied from 11 to 27% for unheated and from 57 to 96% for heated phaseolins ( P < 0.001). Heat treatment markedly increased the susceptibility of phaseolin to proteolysis ( P < 0.001). The AA scores (AAS) and the protein digestibility corrected for AAS indicated S-containing AA as the limiting AA (39 +/- 3 and 30 +/- 5%, respectively). In conclusion, susceptibility to proteolysis of heat-treated phaseolin rather than its AA composition affects the nutritional value of phaseolin estimated in vitro. Therefore, it should be the criterion of choice in breeding programs aimed at improving the nutritional value of common beans for humans.

  15. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions <1 kDa obtained from PP and Alcalase®-Flavourzyme® hydrolysate (AF) at a dose of 15 mg kg(-1) of animal weight. PF > 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  16. Detection of immune deposits in glomeruli: the masking effect on antigenicity of formalin in the presence of proteins.

    PubMed

    Hed, J; Eneström, S

    1981-01-01

    Formalin is known to mask the antigenicity of immune deposits in glomeruli but not of surface immunoglobulins of isolated lymphocytes. We have shown in mice with experimental passive anti-GBM glomerulonephritis that formalin masks the antigenicity of GBM-bound immunoglobulins only if the tissue is fixed before sectioning. The presence of a high concentration of normal bovine serum during fixation of cryostat sections masks the antigenicity of immune deposits, whereas formalin alone has no obvious effect. The same results were obtained with human immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) bound to tissue sections. Protease treatment with pepsin and trypsin restored the ability of the immunoglobulins to be stained. The masking effect seems to be due to extensive cross-linking of environmental proteins which prevents fluorescent conjugates reaching their antigens. Methods for detecting immunoglobulins in tissues must, therefore, take into consideration the influence of fixatives not only on epitopes but also on the environment in which the antigenic determinants are localised.

  17. Bioavailability of iron from spinach using an in vitro/human Caco-2 cell bioassay model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutzke, Corinne J.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Rutzke, Michael A.; Welch, Ross M.; Langhans, Robert W.; Albright, Louis D.; Combs, Gerald F Jr; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cv Whitney was tested for iron bioavailabilty using an in vitro human intestinal cell culture ferritin bioassay technique previously developed. Spinach was cultured in a growth chamber for 33 days, harvested, and freeze-dried. Total iron in the samples was an average of 71 micrograms/g dry weight. Spinach was digested in vitro (pepsin and 0.1 M HCl followed by pancreatin and 0.1 M NaHCO3) with and without the addition of supplemental ascorbic acid. Caco-2 cell cultures were used to determine iron bioavailability from the spinach mixtures. Production of the iron-binding protein ferritin in the Caco-2 cells showed the supplemental ascorbic acid doubled bioavailability of iron from spinach. The data show fresh spinach is a poor source of iron, and emphasize the importance of evaluation of whole meals rather than single food items. The data support the usefulness of the in vitro/Caco-2 cell ferritin bioassay model for prescreening of space flight diets for bioavailable iron.

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Miansong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Changheng

    2012-10-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates (RPH) from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum were investigated. R. esculentum was hydrolysed sequentially with pepsin and papain, and then the hydrolysate was ultrafiltered with a 2000 Da cut-off membrane. It was found that RPH contained high levels of Gly, Glu, Pro, Asp and Ala, having potential ACE inhibitory activity in vitro with an IC(50) of 1.28 mg/ml. It was also found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in spontaneously hypertensive rats after single and chronic oral administration of RPH, indicating that RPH had an antihypertensive effect. In addition, oral administration of RPH decreased total serum cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with high-fat diet. These results indicate that RPH may prove to be a promising functional food for the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of microbial multi-species biofilms from the paper industry by enzymatic treatments.

    PubMed

    Marcato-Romain, C E; Pechaud, Y; Paul, E; Girbal-Neuhauser, E; Dossat-Létisse, V

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize biofilms from the paper industry and evaluate the effectiveness of enzymatic treatments in reducing them. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from six industrial biofilms were studied. EPS were mainly proteins, the protein to polysaccharide ratio ranging from 1.3 to 8.6 depending on where the sampling point was situated in the paper making process. Eight hydrolytic enzymes were screened on a 24-h multi-species biofilm. The enzymes were tested at various concentrations and contact durations. Glycosidases and lipases were inefficient or only slightly efficient for biofilm reduction, while proteases were more efficient: after treatment for 24 h with pepsin, Alcalase® or Savinase®, the removal exceeded 80%. Savinase® appeared to be the most adequate for industrial conditions and was tested on an industrial biofilm sample. This enzyme led to a significant release of proteins from the EPS matrix, indicating its potential efficiency on an industrial scale.

  20. Isolation and purification of two bacteriocins 3D produced by Enterococcus faecium with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bayoub, Kaoutar; Mardad, Ilham; Ammar, Emna; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2011-02-01

    Strain 3D, isolated from fermented traditional Moroccan dairy product, and identified as Enterococcus faecium, was studied for its capability to produce two bacteriocins acting against Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins 3 Da and 3Db were heat stable inactivated by proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin but not when treated with catalase. The evidenced bacteriocins were stable in a wide pH range from 2 to 11 and bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C. However, the combination of temperature and pH exhibited a stability of the bacteriocins. RP-HPLC purification of the anti-microbial compounds shows two active fractions eluted at 16 and 30.5 min, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that E. faecium 3D produce two bacteriocins Enterocin 3 Da (3893.080 Da) and Enterocin 3Db (4203.350 Da). This strain is food-grade organism and its bacteriocins were heat-stable peptides at basic, neutral, and acid pH: such bacteriocins may be of interest as food preservatives.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-06

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry.

  2. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition by a peptide isolated from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (box jellyfish) venom hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    So, Pamela Berilyn T; Rubio, Peter; Lirio, Stephen; Macabeo, Allan Patrick; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Corpuz, Mary Jho-Anne T; Villaflores, Oliver B

    2016-09-01

    The anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme activity of box jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel venom hydrolysate was studied. The venom extract was obtained by centrifugation and ultrasonication. Protein concentration of 12.99 μg/mL was determined using Bradford assay. The pepsin and papain hydrolysate was tested for its toxicity by Limit test following the OECD Guideline 425 using 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the hydrolysate is nontoxic with an LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was determined using ACE kit-WST. Isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using column chromatography with SP-Sephadex G-25 yielded 8 pooled fractions with fraction 3 (86.5%) exhibiting the highest activity. This was followed by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an octadecyl silica column (Inertsil ODS-3) using methanol:water 15:85 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Among the 13 fractions separated with the RP-HPLC, fraction 3.5 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (84.1%). The peptide sequence ACPGPNPGRP (IC50 2.03 μM) from fraction 3.5 was identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure modification and functionality of whey proteins: quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Nakai, S; Li-Chan, E

    1985-10-01

    According to the original idea of quantitative structure-activity relationship, electric, hydrophobic, and structural parameters should be taken into consideration for elucidating functionality. Changes in these parameters are reflected in the property of protein solubility upon modification of whey proteins by heating. Although solubility is itself a functional property, it has been utilized to explain other functionalities of proteins. However, better correlations were obtained when hydrophobic parameters of the proteins were used in conjunction with solubility. Various treatments reported in the literature were applied to whey protein concentrate in an attempt to obtain whipping and gelling properties similar to those of egg white. Mapping simplex optimization was used to search for the best results. Improvement in whipping properties by pepsin hydrolysis may have been due to higher protein solubility, and good gelling properties resulting from polyphosphate treatment may have been due to an increase in exposable hydrophobicity. However, the results of angel food cake making were still unsatisfactory.

  4. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  5. Digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber and its effects on digestive enzymes under simulated salivary and gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longyan; Qin, Yujing; Guan, Ruowei; Zheng, Wenqi; Liu, Jikai; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-04-15

    The digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) and its effects on digestive enzymes were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. Results showed that the molecular weight and the reducing sugar content of FG were not significantly changed, and no free monosaccharides released from FG were detected after the salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion, indicating that both the backbone and the sulfated fucose branches of FG are resistant to be cleaved in the saliva and gastrointestinal tract environments. Furthermore, FG can dose-dependently inhibit digestive enzymes such as α-amylase, pepsin and pancreatic lipase in different degrees under the simulated digestion conditions due to the sulfate and carboxyl groups. These physiological effects of FG may help control the postprandial glucose concentration and have the potential in the prevention or treatment of reflux disease and obesity. The findings may provide information on the digestibility and beneficial physiological effects of FG as a potential natural product to promote human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of heat treatment on oil-binding ability of rice flour.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Aya; Nakagawa, Mariko; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Heat-treated (120 °C for 120 min) rice flour showed high affinity to oil (oil-binding ability). This oil-binding ability could be observed by shaking the heat-treated rice flour (2.0 g), oil (4.0 mL), and water (20 mL) vigorously in a test tube, and the oil bound to the rice flour sank into the water. To examine the time-dependent levels of the oil-binding ability, rice flour was heat-treated at 120 °C for 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min, and the precipitated volume of oil/rice flour complex increased with an increase of the heating time. The oil-binding ability of the rice flour was not affected by the treatments with diethyl ether or boiled chloroform/methanol (2:1) solutions, which suggested no relationship to the oil in the rice flour, but was lost upon alkali (0.2% NaOH solution) or pepsin treatment, which suggested its relationship to the rice proteins.

  7. In situ demonstration of tissue proliferative activity using anti-bromo-deoxyuridine monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, S; Gambacorta, M; Falini, B

    1989-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with anti-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) monoclonal antibody was performed on a variety of human tissues following in vitro incubation with BrdU. The effect of different fixatives and DNA denaturation techniques on the reactivity with anti-BrdU was investigated. Optimal preservation of the antigenicity of BrdU incorporated into the DNA of proliferating cells was seen in tissues fixed in Bouin's fluid, while samples which had been fixed with cross-linking reagents, such as formalin, were usually unreactive. Positivity for BrdU was restored in formalin fixed tissues after digestion with pepsin, but this was usually associated with loss of morphological details. Acid and thermal DNA denaturation techniques gave similar results. It is concluded that Bouin fixation followed by acid or thermal denaturation of DNA is the method of choice for the in situ detection of cells in S-phase using anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody. Images Fig 1 Fig 1 PMID:2475528

  8. Structural changes of bovine milk fat globules during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, S; Ye, A; Singh, H

    2012-07-01

    An in vitro digestion model that simulated gastric and intestinal fasting conditions was used to monitor the physical, chemical, and structural changes of fat globules from raw bovine milk. During in vitro gastric digestion, the fat globules were stable under low-acidic conditions. Some peptides and β-lactoglobulin were resistant to proteolysis by pepsin. Phospholipids, proteins, and peptides stabilized the globules in the stomach model. During in vitro intestinal digestion, most of the β-lactoglobulin and residual peptides were hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the lipolytic products, released from the hydrolysis of the triglyceride core of the globules, led to destabilization and coalescence of the globules. By accumulating at the surface of the fat globules, the lipolytic products formed a lamellar phase and their solubilization by bile salts resulted in the formation of disk-shaped micelles. This study brings new interesting insights on the digestion of bovine milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Eudragit S100 nanoparticles and alginate chitosan encapsulation on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fereshteh; Pourjafar, Hadi; Jodat, Vahid; Sahebi, Javad; Ataei, Amir

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we examined a novel method of microencapsulation with calcium alginate-chitosan and Eudragit S100 nanoparticles for the improving viability of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Extrusion technique was carried out in microencapsulation process. The viability of two probiotics in single coated beads (with only chitosan), double coated beads (with chitosan and Eudragit nanoparticles), and as free cells (unencapsulated) were conducted in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.55, without pepsin) followed by incubation in simulated intestinal juice (pH 7.5, with 1% bile salt). In case of single coated beads, presumably, lack of sufficient strength of chitosan under simulated gastric condition was the main reason of 4-log and 5-log reduction of the counts of the L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus respectively. The results showed that with the second coat forming (Eudragit nanoparticles) over the first coat (chitosan), the strength of the beads and then viability rate of the bacteria were increased in comparison with the single coated beads.

  10. Changes in type I collagen following laser welding.

    PubMed

    Bass, L S; Moazami, N; Pocsidio, J; Oz, M C; LoGerfo, P; Treat, M R

    1992-01-01

    Selection of ideal laser parameters for tissue welding is inhibited by poor understanding of the mechanism. We investigated structural changes in collagen molecules extracted from rat tail tendon (> 90% type I collagen) after tissue welding using an 808 nm diode laser and indocyanine green dye applied to the weld site. Mobility patterns on SDS-PAGE were identical in the lasered and untreated tendon extracts with urea or acetic acid. Pepsin incubation after acetic acid extraction revealed a reduction of collagen alpha and beta bands in lasered compared with untreated specimens. Circular dichroism studies of rat tail tendon showed absence of helical structure in collagen from lasered tendon. No evidence for covalent bonding was present in laser-treated tissues. Collagen molecules are denatured by the laser wavelength and parameters used in this study. No significant amount of helical structure is regenerated on cooling. We conclude that non-covalent interactions between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the creation of tissue welding.

  11. Combined techniques for characterising pasta structure reveals how the gluten network slows enzymic digestion rate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G; Warren, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise the influence of gluten structure on the kinetics of starch hydrolysis in pasta. Spaghetti and powdered pasta were prepared from three different cultivars of durum semolina, and starch was also purified from each cultivar. Digestion kinetic parameters were obtained through logarithm-of-slope analysis, allowing identification of sequential digestion steps. Purified starch and semolina were digested following a single first-order rate constant, while pasta and powdered pasta followed two sequential first-order rate constants. Rate coefficients were altered by pepsin hydrolysis. Confocal microscopy revealed that, following cooking, starch granules were completely swollen for starch, semolina and pasta powder samples. In pasta, they were completely swollen in the external regions, partially swollen in the intermediate region and almost intact in the pasta strand centre. Gluten entrapment accounts for sequential kinetic steps in starch digestion of pasta; the compact microstructure of pasta also reduces digestion rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The occurrence of Trichinella species in the cougar Puma concolor couguar from the state of Colorado and other regions of North and South America.

    PubMed

    Reichard, M V; Logan, K; Criffield, M; Thomas, J E; Paritte, J M; Messerly, D M; Interisano, M; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2017-05-01

    Trichinella species are zoonotic nematodes that infect wild carnivores and omnivores throughout the world. We examined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) from Colorado, United States. Tongues from cougars were examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion to detect Trichinella spp. larvae. The species or genotype of individual worms was identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 17 of 39 cougars (43.6% (28.7-59.5%)). Five of the cougars (12.8%) were infected with T. murrelli, 3 (7.7%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, and 1 (2.6%) had Trichinella genotype T6. Trichinella spp. larvae from eight cougars were not identified at the species level, due to degraded DNA. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. in cougars from Colorado and reports of the parasite in other populations of Puma spp. suggest that this large predator is a key mammalian reservoir.

  13. Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Sitthiya, Kewalee; Devkota, Lavaraj; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of protein from banana flower was optimized using response surface methodology. The extracted proteins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. The maximum protein yield of 252.25 mg/g was obtained under optimized extraction conditions: temperature 50 °C, 30 min extraction time and 1 M NaOH concentration. The alkaline extraction produced a significantly high protein yield compared to enzymatic extraction of banana flower. Chemical finger printing of proteins showed the presence of tyrosine, tryptophan and amide bonds in extracted protein. Alkaline and pepsin assisted extracted banana flower proteins showed characteristic bands at 40 and 10 kDA, respectively. The extracted proteins showed antibacterial effects against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The high protein content and antimicrobial activity indicate the potential applications of banana flower in the food and feed industry.

  14. Effect of irradiation on the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in tissues of mice and pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, J.P.; Brake, R.J.; Murrell, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    Muscles from tongue, heart, and limbs of 14 pigs inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were irradiated with 10, 20, 25, and 30 krad of gamma (cesium-137 and cobalt-60) irradiation. Viability of T gondii cysts was assayed by feeding porcine muscles to T gondii-free cats and/or by inoculation of sediment from acid-pepsin digested porcine muscle into mice. Cats fed 500-g samples of muscles irradiated with up to 20 krad shed T gondii oocysts. Cats fed muscles irradiated with 25 or 30 krad did not shed oocysts. Mice were inoculated with 8 isolates of T gondii, and tissue cysts in theirmore » brains irradiated with up to 40 krad were infective to mice; however, there was a 10,000-fold reduction in the viability of organisms in tissue cysts irradiated with 40 krad, compared with that in nonirradiated cysts. At 50 krad of gamma irradiation, there were no detectable infective organisms in infected mouse brains.« less

  15. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  16. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-α associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.

  17. Expression of plectasin in Pichia pastoris and its characterization as a new antimicrobial peptide against Staphyloccocus and Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yalin; Teng, Da; Tian, Zigang; Wang, Shaoran; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant plectasin, the first fungus defensin, was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified, and its physical, chemical and antimicrobial characteristics were studied. Following a 120 h induction of recombinant yeast, the amount of total secreted protein reached 748.63 μg/ml. The percentage of recombinant plectasin was estimated to be 71.79% of the total protein. After purification with a Sephadex G-25 column and RP-HPLC, the identity of plectasin was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Plectasin exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphyloccocusaureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus suis. At a concentration of 2560 μg/ml, this peptide showed approximately equal activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. suis, and S. pneumoniae, when compared to 320 μg/ml vancomycin, 640 μg/ml penicillin, 320 μg/ml vancomycin and 160 μg/ml vancomycin, respectively. In addition, plectasin showed anti-S. aureus activity over a wide pH range of 2.0 and 10.0, a high thermal stability at 100 °C for 1h and remarkable resistance to papain and pepsin. The expression and characterization of recombinant plectasin in P. pastoris has potential to treat Streptococcus and Staphyloccocus infections when most traditional antibiotics show no effect on them. Our results indicate that plectasin can be produced in large quantities, and that it has pharmaceutical importance for the prevention and clinical treatment of Staphyloccocus and Streptococcus infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  19. [Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Belostotskiĭ, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

    2009-01-01

    This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group.

  20. Purification and characterization of enterocin 62-6, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by a vaginal strain of Enterococcus faecium: Potential significance in bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Dezwaan, Diane C.; Mequio, Michael J.; Littell, Julia S.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Rossbach, Silvia; Pybus, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    A bacteriocin produced by a vaginal isolate of Enterococcus faecium strain 62-6, designated enterocin 62-6, was characterized following purification and DNA sequence analysis and compared to previously described bacteriocins. Enterocin 62-6 was isolated from brain heart infusion (BHI) culture supernatants using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by elution from a Sepharose cation exchange column using a continuous salt gradient (0.1–0.7 M NaCl). SDS-PAGE of an active column fraction resulted in an electrophoretically pure protein, which corresponded to the growth inhibition of the sensitive Lactobacillus indicator strain in the gel overlay assay. Purified enterocin 62-6 was shown to be heat- and pH-stable, and sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results from mass spectrometry suggested that it comprised two peptides of 5206 and 5219±1 Da, which was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The characteristics of enterocin 62-6 as a small, heat- and pH-stable, cationic, hydrophobic, two-peptide, plasmid-borne bacteriocin, with an inhibitory spectrum against a broad range of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, were consistent with its classification as a class IIc bacteriocin. Furthermore, its wide spectrum of growth inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria of vaginal origin including lactobacilli, and stability under the acidic conditions of the vagina, are consistent with our hypothesis that it could have potential significance in disrupting the ecology of the vaginal tract and pave the way for the establishment of the abnormal microbiota associated with the vaginal syndrome bacterial vaginosis. This is the first class IIc bacteriocin produced by a strain of E. faecium of vaginal origin to be characterized. PMID:19578555

  1. Gastroprotective activity of ethanolic root extract of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook.

    PubMed

    Laloo, Damiki; Prasad, Satyendra K; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Hemalatha, Siva

    2013-03-27

    Potentilla fulgens (Wall.) ex Hook. (Rosaceae) is a potent medicinal plant of the Western Himalayas, known under the name "Himalayan Cinquefoil or Bajradanti", and has been used traditionally to treat ailments including peptic ulcers, mouth ulcers, diarrhea, diabetes and cancer. The aim of the present study was to scientifically evaluate the gastric-ulcer protective effect of P. fulgens ethanolic root extract (EPF) on experimental rats. The gastroprotective activity of EPF was evaluated on four gastric-ulcer models such as pyloric ligation (PL), ethanol (EtOH), cold restrain stress (CRS) and aspirin (ASP)-induced gastric ulcers. The gastric acid obtained from 4h PL-induced gastric ulcer rats was determined for total volume content, pH and total acid-pepsin output. Total carbohydrates and protein ratio, expressed as index of mucin activity, and DNA content were estimated in the gastric juice and gastric mucosal tissue. The microvascular permeability, H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, gastric mucus and histamine content were also determined. The levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione) and malondialdehyde in the stomach tissue (mucosal scrapings) were quantified. A histopathological study of the stomach was evaluated using eosin-haematoxylin stain. EPF (200-400mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant protection against acute gastric-ulcer induced by EtOH, PL and CRS (400mg/kg, p.o.), but was found to be ineffective against ASP-induced ulcerogens. The effect of EPF on gastric juice studies in 4h PL rats significantly produced an increased level in gastric pH, whereas the effect on gastric volume and acid-pepsin output was observed to decrease significantly. However, EPF was found to have no significant effect on the defensive factors, thus revealing its antisecretory property by inhibiting the aggressive factors. EPF, significantly decreased the histamine level, inhibited the H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity and prevented the microvascular injury caused

  2. In vitro digestion method for estimation of copper bioaccessibility in Açaí berry.

    PubMed

    Ruzik, Lena; Wojcieszek, Justyna

    Copper is an essential trace element for humans and its deficiency can lead to numerous diseases. A lot of mineral supplements are available to increase intake of copper. Unfortunately, only a part of the total concentration of elements is available for human body. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine bioaccessibility of copper in Açai berry, known as a "superfood" because of its antioxidant qualities. An analytical methodology was based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) and on capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS). To extract various copper compounds, berries were treated with the following buffers: ammonium acetate, Tris-HCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The best extraction efficiency of copper was obtained for SDS extract (88 %), while results obtained for Tris-HCl and ammonium acetate were very similar (47 and 48 %, respectively). After SEC-ICP-MS analysis, main signal was obtained for all extracts in the region of molecular mass about 17 kDa. A two-step model simulated gastric (pepsin) and gastrointestinal (pancreatin) digestion was used to obtain the knowledge about copper bioaccessibility. Copper compounds present in Açai berry were found to be highly bioaccessible. The structures of five copper complexes with amino acids such as aspartic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, were proposed after µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis. Obtained results show that copper in enzymatic extracts is bound by amino acids and peptides what leads to better bioavailability of copper for human body.

  3. Maize 27 kDa gamma-zein is a potential allergen for early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kerley, Monty S; Allee, Gary L; Jang, Sungchan; Kim, Won-Seok; Fu, Chunjiang J

    2010-06-23

    Soybean and maize are extensively used in animal feed, primarily in poultry, swine, and cattle diets. Soybean meal can affect pig performance in the first few weeks following weaning and elicit specific antibodies in weaned piglets. Though maize is a major component of pig feed, it is not known if any of the maize proteins can elicit immunological response in young pigs. In this study, we have identified a prominent 27 kDa protein from maize as an immunodominant protein in young pigs. This protein, like some known allergens, exhibited resistance to pepsin digestion in vitro. Several lines of evidence identify the immunodominant 27 kDa protein as a gamma-zein, a maize seed storage protein. First, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of different solubility classes of maize seed proteins revealed the presence of an abundant 27 kDa protein in the prolamin (zein) fraction. Antibodies raised against the purified maize 27 kDa gamma-zein also reacted against the same protein recognized by the young pig serum. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides generated by trypsin digestion of the immunodominant 27 kDa protein showed significant homology to the maize 27 kDa gamma-zein. Since eliminating the allergenic protein will have a great impact on the nutritive value of the maize meal and expand its use in the livestock industry, it will be highly desirable to develop maize cultivars completely lacking the 27 kDa allergenic protein.

  4. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  5. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  6. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145

  7. Protein oxidative changes in whole and skim milk after ultraviolet or fluorescent light exposure.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D; Pecora, R P; Radici, P M; Kivatinitz, S C

    2010-11-01

    We investigated how protein changes occur, at the primary or higher structural levels, when proteins are exposed to UV or fluorescent (FL) light while in the complex matrix, milk. Whole milk (WM) or skim milk (SM) samples were exposed to FL or UV light from 0 to 24h at 4°C. Protein oxidation was evaluated by the formation of protein carbonyls (PC), dityrosine bond (DiTyr), and changes in molecular weight (protein fragmentation and polymerization). Oxidative changes in AA residues were measured by PC. Dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine (NFK), a carbonylation derivative of Trp, were measured by fluorometry. Protein carbonyls increased as a function of irradiation time for both WM and SM. The initial rate for PC formation by exposure to FL light (0.25 or 0.27 nmol/h for WM and SM, respectively) was slower than that following exposure to UV light (1.95 or 1.20 nmol/h, respectively). The time course of NFK formation resembled that of PC. After 24h of UV exposure, SM had significantly higher levels of NFK than did WM. In contrast, WM samples irradiated with UV had higher levels of DiTyr than did SM samples, indicating different molecular pathways. The formation of intra- or intermolecular DiTyr bonds could be indicative of changes in the tertiary structure or oligomerization of proteins. The existence of NFK suggests the occurrence of protein fragmentation. Thus, proteolysis and oligomerization were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After 24h of exposing WM to UV or FL light, all the proteins were affected by both types of light, as evidenced by loss of material in most of the bands. Aggregates were produced only by UV irradiation. Hydrolysis by pepsin and enzyme-induced coagulation by rennet were performed to evaluate altered biological properties of the oxidized proteins. No effect on pepsin digestion or rennet coagulation was found in irradiated SM or WM. The oxidative status of proteins in milk and dairy products is of interest to the dairy industry and

  8. A novel deletion/insertion mutation in the mRNA transcribed from one {alpha}1(I) collagen allele in a family with dominant type III OI and germline mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.; Masters, C.; Lewis, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    In an 8-year-old girl and her father, both of whom have severe type III OI, we have previously used RNA/RNA hybrid analysis to demonstrate a mismatch in the region of {alpha}1(I) mRNA coding for aa 558-861. We used SSCP to further localize the abnormality to a subregion coding for aa 579-679. This region was subcloned and sequenced. Each patient`s cDNA has a deletion of the sequences coding for the last residue of exon 34, and all of exons 35 and 36 (aa 604-639), followed by an insertion of 156 nt from the 3{prime}-end of intron 36. PCR amplification of leukocytemore » DNA from the patients and the clinically normal paternal grandmother yielded two fragments: a 1007 bp fragment predicted from normal genomic sequences and a 445 bp fragment. Subcloning and sequencing of the shorter genomic PCR product confirmed the presence of a 565 bp genomic deletion from the end of exon 34 to the middle of intron 36. The abnormal protein is apparently synthesized and incorporated into helix. The inserted nucleotides are in frame with the collagenous sequence and contain no stop codons. They encode a 52 aa non-collagenous region. The fibroblast procollagen of the patients has both normal and electrophoretically delayed pro{alpha}(I) bands. The electrophoretically delayed procollagen is very sensitive to pepsin or trypsin digestion, as predicted by its non-collagenous sequence, and cannot be visualized as collagen. This unique OI collagen mutation is an excellent candidate for molecular targeting to {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} a dominant mutant allele.« less

  9. Evaluation of protease resistance and toxicity of amyloid-like food fibrils from whey, soy, kidney bean, and egg white.

    PubMed

    Lassé, Moritz; Ulluwishewa, Dulantha; Healy, Jackie; Thompson, Dion; Miller, Antonia; Roy, Nicole; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2016-02-01

    The structural properties of amyloid fibrils combined with their highly functional surface chemistry make them an attractive new food ingredient, for example as highly effective gelling agents. However, the toxic role of amyloid fibrils in disease may cause some concern about their food safety because it has not been established unequivocally if consumption of food fibrils poses a health risk to consumers. Here we present a study of amyloid-like fibrils from whey, kidney bean, soy bean, and egg white to partially address this concern. Fibrils showed varied resistance to proteolytic digestion in vitro by either Proteinase K, pepsin or pancreatin. The toxicity of mature fibrils was measured in vitro and compared to native protein, early-stage-fibrillar protein, and sonicated fibrils in two immortalised human cancer cell lines, Caco-2 and Hec-1a. There was no reduction in the viability of either Caco-2 or Hec-1a cells after treatment with a fibril concentration of up to 0.25 mg/mL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser interferometry of the hydrolytic changes in protein solutions: the refractive index and hydration shells.

    PubMed

    Sarimov, R M; Matveyeva, T A; Binhi, V N

    2018-05-11

    Using an original laser interferometer of enhanced sensitivity, an increase in the refractive index of a protein solution was observed during the reaction of proteolysis catalyzed by pepsin. The increase in the refractive index of the protein solution at a concentration of 4 mg/ml was [Formula: see text] for bovine serum albumin and [Formula: see text] for lysozyme. The observed effect disproves the existing idea that the refractive index of protein solutions is determined only by their amino acid composition and concentration. It is shown that the refractive index also depends on the state of protein fragmentation. A mathematical model of proteolysis and a real-time method for estimating the state of protein hydration based on the measurement of refractive index during the reaction are proposed. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated time dependences of the refractive index shows that the growth of the surface of protein fragments and the change in the number of hydration cavities during proteolysis can be responsible for the observed effect.

  11. Efficiency of a pneumatic device in controlling cuff pressure of polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of a pneumatic device in controlling cuff pressure (Pcuff) in patients intubated with polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes. Secondary objectives were to determine the impact of continuous control of Pcuff, and cuff shape on microaspiration of gastric contents. Methods Prospective randomized controlled study. All patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation ≥48 h were eligible. The first 32 patients were intubated with tapered polyurethane-cuffed, and the 32 following patients were intubated with cylindrical polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes. Patients randomly received 24 h of continuous control of Pcuff using a pneumatic device (Nosten®), and 24 h of routine care of Pcuff using a manometer. Target Pcuff was 25 cmH2O. Pcuff was continuously recorded, and pepsin was quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during these periods. Results The pneumatic device was efficient in controlling Pcuff (med [IQ] 26 [24, 28] vs 22 [20, 28] cmH2O, during continuous control of Pcuff and routine care, respectively; p = 0.017). In addition, percentage of patients with underinflation (31% vs 68%) or overinflation (53% vs 100%) of tracheal cuff, and percentage of time spent with underinflation (0.9 [0, 17] vs 14% [4, 30]) or overinflation (0 [0, 2] vs 32% [9, 54]) were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced during continuous control of Pcuff compared with routine care. No significant difference was found in microaspiration of gastric content between continuous control of Pcuff compared with routine care, or between patients intubated with tapered compared with cylindrical polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes. Conclusion The pneumatic device was efficient in controlling Pcuff in critically ill patients intubated with polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes. Trial registration The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (NCT01351259) PMID:24369057

  12. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilski, Miroslaw; Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan; Kazmierczyk, Maciej

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of Mason–Pfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. Mason–Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerizationmore » of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup α} deviations are large and the active-site ‘DTG’ loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 Å from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 Å) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral

  13. Short communication: Inhibition of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme by peptides derived from variants of bovine β-casein upon apical exposure to a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, Bjørn; Le, Thao T; Møller, Hanne S; Larsen, Lotte B; Young, Jette F

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the consequence of genetically contingent amino acid substitutions in bovine β-casein (CN) genetic variants A 1 , A 2 , B, and I on the structure and bioactive potential of peptides following in vitro digestion. The β-CN variants were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin, and a peptide profile was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing among others, the β-casomorphin precursor peptides VYPFPGPIHN and VYPFPGPIPN, derived from variant A 1 /B and from A 2 /I, respectively. These 2 peptides were synthesized and assessed for angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity before and after incubation with a monolayer of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The VYPFPGPIHN was a stronger ACE inhibitor than VYPFPGPIPN, with the concentration needed to reach half-maximal inhibition (IC 50 ) of 123 ± 14.2 μM versus 656 ± 7.6 μM. Exposure to a Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer did not affect ACE inhibition by VYPFPGPIHN, but resulted in an almost 2-fold increase in inhibition by VYPFPGPIPN after incubation. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometric analysis identified the truncated peptide VYPFPGPIP, suggesting hydrolysis by a cell membrane associated peptidase. Thus, genetic variation in bovine β-CN results in the generation of peptides that differ in bioactivity, and are differently affected by intestinal brush border peptidases. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular dynamic simulation of Trastuzumab F(ab’)2 structure in corporation with HER2 as a theranostic agent of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, S.; Yusuf, M.; Mutalib, A.; Hudiyono, S.

    2017-05-01

    Trastuzumab as intact IgG are well researched for theranostic agent in HER2 overexpressed breast cancer. However, due to the relatively large of molecules it is slowly moved and weak penetration of the target cells. Fragmentation of trastzumab has been developed by pepsin cleavages to get the F(ab’)2 fragments. To observe the stability and accessibility of F(ab’)2 structure in corporation with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2), the structure of antibody modeling had been developed with 1IGT as a template. Molecular dynamics (MD) of the F(ab’)2 structure simulation has been done in the aqueous phase with AMBER trajectories for 20 ns. Computational visualization by VMD (Visual Molecular Dynamics) were applied to identify binding site interaction details between trastuzumab F(ab’)2 and HER2 receptor. The results of MD simulations indicated that the fragmentation of trastuzumab F(ab’)2 did not change the structure and conformation of F(ab’)2 as a whole, especially in the CDR (Complementarity Determining Region) area. SASA (solvent accessibility surface area) analysis on lysine residues showed that formation of conjugate DOTA-F(ab’)2 predicted occur on outside of the CDR regions so its not interfered with binding affinity for the HER2 receptor. The molecular dynamic simulation of DOTA-F(ab’)2 with HER2 receptor in aqueous system generated ΔGbinding more highly (15.5066 kkal/mol) than positive control HER2-Fab (-45.1446 kkal/mol).

  15. Production of an antimicrobial peptide derived from slaughterhouse by-product and its potential application on meat as preservative.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Rémi; Firdaous, Loubna; Châtaigné, Gabrielle; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar, Naïma

    2016-11-15

    Bovine cruor, a slaughterhouse by-product, contains mainly hemoglobin, broadly described as a rich source of antimicrobial peptides. In the current context of food safety, bioactive peptides could be of interest as preservatives in the distribution of food products. The aim of this work was to study the α137-141 fragment of hemoglobin (Thr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Arg), a small (653Da) and hydrophilic antimicrobial peptide. Its production was fast, with more 65% finally produced at 24h already produced after 30min of hydrolysis with pepsin. Moreover, increasing substrate concentration (from 1 to 8% (w/v)) resulted in a proportional augmentation of α137-141 production (to 807.95±41.03mgL(-1)). The α137-141 application on meat as preservative (0.5%, w/w) reduced the lipid oxidation about 60% to delay meat rancidity. The α137-141 peptide also inhibited the microbial growths under refrigeration during 14days. These antimicrobial effects were close to those of the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Dimerization of Lipopeptide Laur-Orn-Orn-Cys-NH2 and an N-terminal Peptide of Human Lactoferricin on Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Kamysz, Elżbieta; Sikorska, Emilia; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Tyszkowski, Rafał; Kamysz, Wojciech

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide that is cleaved by pepsin to lactoferricin (LFcin). LFcin has an enhanced antimicrobial activity as compared to that of LF. Recently several hetero- and homodimeric antimicrobial peptides stabilized by a single disulfide bond linking linear polypeptide chains have been discovered. We have demonstrated that the S-S bond heterodimerization of lipopeptide Laur-Orn-Orn-Cys-NH 2 (peptide III) and the synthetic N -terminal peptide of human lactoferricin (peptide I) yields a dimer (peptide V), which is almost as microbiologically active as the more active monomer and at the same time it is much less toxic. Furthermore, it has been found that the S-S bond homodimerization of both peptide I and peptide III did not affect antimicrobial and haemolytic activity of the compounds. The homo- and heterodimerization of peptides I and III resulted in either reduction or loss of antifungal activity. This work suggests that heterodimerization of antimicrobial lipopeptides via intermolecular disulfide bond might be a powerful modification deserving consideration in the design of antimicrobial peptides.

  17. Human prorenin structure sheds light on a novel mechanism of its autoinhibition and on its non-proteolytic activation by the (pro)renin receptor.

    PubMed

    Morales, Renaud; Watier, Yves; Böcskei, Zsolt

    2012-08-03

    Antibodies and prorenin mutants have long been used to structurally characterize prorenin, the inactive proenzyme form of renin. They were designed on the basis of homology models built using other aspartyl protease proenzyme structures since no structure was available for prorenin. Here, we present the first X-ray structure of a prorenin. The current structure of prorenin reveals that, in this zymogene, the active site of renin is blocked by the N-terminal residues of the mature version of the renin molecule, which are, in turn, covered by an Ω-shaped prosegment. This prevents access of substrates to the active site. The departure of the prosegment on activation induces an important global conformational change in the mature renin molecule with respect to prorenin: similar to other related enzymes such as pepsin or gastricsin, the segment that constitutes the N-terminal β-strand in renin is displaced from the renin active site by about 180° straight into the position that corresponds to the N-terminal β-strand of the prorenin prosegment. This way, the renin active site will become completely exposed and capable of carrying out its catalytic functions. A unique inactivation mechanism is also revealed, which does not make use of a lysine against the catalytic aspartates, probably in order to facilitate pH-independent activation [e.g., by the (pro)renin receptor]. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Process analytical technology (PAT) approach to the formulation of thermosensitive protein-loaded pellets: Multi-point monitoring of temperature in a high-shear pelletization.

    PubMed

    Kristó, Katalin; Kovács, Orsolya; Kelemen, András; Lajkó, Ferenc; Klivényi, Gábor; Jancsik, Béla; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2016-12-01

    In the literature there are some publications about the effect of impeller and chopper speeds on product parameters. However, there is no information about the effect of temperature. Therefore our main aim was the investigation of elevated temperature and temperature distribution during pelletization in a high shear granulator according to process analytical technology. During our experimental work, pellets containing pepsin were formulated with a high-shear granulator. A specially designed chamber (Opulus Ltd.) was used for pelletization. This chamber contained four PyroButton-TH® sensors built in the wall and three PyroDiff® sensors 1, 2 and 3cm from the wall. The sensors were located in three different heights. The impeller and chopper speeds were set on the basis of 3 2 factorial design. The temperature was measured continuously in 7 different points during pelletization and the results were compared with the temperature values measured by the thermal sensor of the high-shear granulator. The optimization parameters were enzyme activity, average size, breaking hardness, surface free energy and aspect ratio. One of the novelties was the application of the specially designed chamber (Opulus Ltd.) for monitoring the temperature continuously in 7 different points during high-shear granulation. The other novelty of this study was the evaluation of the effect of temperature on the properties of pellets containing protein during high-shear pelletization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers overcoming multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Tong, Zaizai; Kong, Xiangdong; Yao, Juming

    2017-01-01

    To overcome multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers modified by L-valine (LV, used as a target ligand to facilitate the absorption of the small intestine) and phenylboronic acid (PBA, used as a glucose-responsive unit) have been designed and evaluated in this study. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited low cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. The chemical stability of loaded insulin against digestive enzyme were established in presence of simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) containing pancreatin, respectively. The uptake behavior of HT-29 cells was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, an effective hypoglycemic effect was obtained compared with subcutaneous injection of insulin. This work suggests that L-valine modified chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers may be a promising drug delivery carrier for oral administration of insulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathophysiological responses to meals in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Paradoxical postprandial inhibition of gastric secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Malagelada, J R

    1978-01-01

    The gastric acid, pepsin, and secretory volume output in response to a mixed meal were measured in six patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrin-producing tumour proved subsequently at surgery. The patients were all normocalcaemic, and none had previous abdominal surgery. In four of the six patients, ingestion of the meal markedly inhibited the gastric secretory output, which decreased to below fasting levels, returning later to basal values. In two other patients, whose fasting acid output was considerably lower, the secretory output increased after the meal, but some inhibiton of gastric secretion was also apparent for variable intervals of time. The serum gastrin concentration in all patients remained essentially unchanged or increased after the meal. Two patients were restudied after successful removal of the duodenal gastrin-producing tumour, and in each the normal gastric secretory and gastrin-releasing responses were completely restored. Our studies suggest that, in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrinoma, physiological regulatory mechanisms triggered by food reduce the continuous stimulation of gastric secretion caused by their tumoural hypergastrinaemia. PMID:25828

  1. Pathophysiological responses to meals in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Paradoxical postprandial inhibition of gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Malagelada, J R

    1978-04-01

    The gastric acid, pepsin, and secretory volume output in response to a mixed meal were measured in six patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrin-producing tumour proved subsequently at surgery. The patients were all normocalcaemic, and none had previous abdominal surgery. In four of the six patients, ingestion of the meal markedly inhibited the gastric secretory output, which decreased to below fasting levels, returning later to basal values. In two other patients, whose fasting acid output was considerably lower, the secretory output increased after the meal, but some inhibiton of gastric secretion was also apparent for variable intervals of time. The serum gastrin concentration in all patients remained essentially unchanged or increased after the meal. Two patients were restudied after successful removal of the duodenal gastrin-producing tumour, and in each the normal gastric secretory and gastrin-releasing responses were completely restored. Our studies suggest that, in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrinoma, physiological regulatory mechanisms triggered by food reduce the continuous stimulation of gastric secretion caused by their tumoural hypergastrinaemia.

  2. Effect of oven drying and freeze drying on the antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates derived from freshwater fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) using papain enzyme.

    PubMed

    Elavarasan, Krishnamoorthy; Shamasundar, Bangalore Aswathnarayan

    2016-02-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala using papain and dried in oven (OD-FPH) and freeze dryer (FD-FPH). The electron micrographs of FD-FPH samples showed porous structure. The browning intensity of OD-FPH samples was higher than the FD-FPH samples. The DPPH (2, 2 Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition activity of FPH were not affected by oven drying process. The sequential digestion of FPH with pepsin and pancreatin reduced the antioxidant properties in both OD-FPH and FD-FPH samples. The solubility of proteins in OD-FPH was lower at pH 5 while for that of FD-FPH it was at pH 7 with water as solvent. The surface active properties of FD-FPH samples were higher than OD-FPH samples. The oven drying of fish protein hydrolysates may be advocated considering the properties and cost of production.

  3. Origin and Processing Methods Slightly Affect Allergenic Characteristics of Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sijbrandij, Lutske; de Weert, Evelien; Sforza, Stefano; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2018-04-01

    The protein content and allergen composition was studied of cashews from 8 different origins (Benin, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam), subjected to different in-shell heat treatments (steamed, fried, drum-roasted). On 2D electrophoresis, 9 isoforms of Ana o 1, 29 isoforms of Ana o 2 (11 of the acidic subunit, 18 of the basic subunit), and 8 isoforms of the large subunit of Ana o 3 were tentatively identified. Based on 1D and 2D electrophoresis, no difference in allergen content (Ana o 1, 2, 3) was detected between the cashews of different origins (P > 0.5), some small but significant differences were detected in allergen solubility between differently heated cashews. No major differences in N- and C-terminal microheterogeneity of Ana o 3 were detected between cashews of different origins. Between the different heat treatments, no difference was detected in glycation, pepsin digestibility, or IgE binding of the cashew proteins. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Effects of malondialdehyde modification on the in vitro digestibility of soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-11

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and the in vitro digestibility of modified SPI was investigated. Results indicated that incubation with increasing MDA concentration resulted in significant carbonyl group generation and loss of free amino groups of SPI. Fluorescence loss of natural tryptophan and formation of Schiff base were observed. Noncovalent interaction between molecules was enhanced and became the main force that led to the solubility reduction of MDA-modified SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that SPI had higher thermal stability and lower total calorimetric enthalpy after MDA pretreatment. Electrophoresis showed that β-conglycinin was more sensitive to MDA modification. In vitro digestion indicated that MDA could induce non-disulfide covalent polymer of SPI, which could not be digested by pepsin and pancreatin. β subunits of β-conglycinin became more resistant to digestion with increasing MDA concentration. Evaluation of the free amino acid profile in the digests indicated that MDA-modified SPI had deteriorating nutritive quality.

  5. H. pylori/NSAID--negative peptic ulcer--the mucin theory.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron

    2010-11-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID)--negative peptic ulcer disease increases, especially in the Western world and in countries where H. pylori infection rate is low. For the diagnosis of "idiopathic ulcer" one should rule out, in addition to H. pylori infection and NSAID or aspirin therapy, also other drugs, other infectious agents, as well as malignant and benign rare diseases. The mucin unstirred layer keeps the pH above the mucosa stable, and prevents the enzymatic attack by pepsin. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase by NSAID and aspirin prevents mucin secretion and exposes the mucosa for toxic effect of acid and enzymes. There is also relationship between H. pylori and mucin that from one hand enables mucin invasion but on the other hand protects the gastric mucosa. Mucin genetic or epigenetic changes may be blamed for idiopathic peptic ulcer disease, but this hypothesis should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  7. Gastrointestinal Functionality of Aquatic Animal (Oreochromis niloticus) Carcass in Water Allows Estimating Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Hahor, Waraporn; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Yoonram, Krueawan; Rodjaroen, Somrak

    2016-11-01

    Postmortem changes have been previously studied in some terrestrial animal models, but no prior information is available on aquatic species. Gastrointestinal functionality was investigated in terms of indices, protein concentration, digestive enzyme activity, and scavenging activity, in an aquatic animal model, Nile tilapia, to assess the postmortem changes. Dead fish were floated indoors, and samples were collected within 48 h after death. Stomasomatic index decreased with postmortem time and correlated positively with protein, pepsin-specific activity, and stomach scavenging activity. Also intestosomatic index decreased significantly and correlated positively with protein, specific activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, lipase, and intestinal scavenging activity. In their postmortem changes, the digestive enzymes exhibited earlier lipid degradation than carbohydrate or protein. The intestine changed more rapidly than the stomach. The findings suggest that the postmortem changes of gastrointestinal functionality can serve as primary data for the estimation of time of death of an aquatic animal. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    PubMed

    Vilcacundo, R; Barrio, D; Carpio, C; García-Ruiz, A; Rúales, J; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Carrillo, W

    2017-09-01

    Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Gastric digestion at pH 1.2 showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition percentage (75.15%). The lipid peroxidation activity increased after the duodenal phase. The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%).

  9. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  10. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of recombinant Arabian camel lactoferricin-related peptide in Pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification.

    PubMed

    Chahardooli, Mahmood; Niazi, Ali; Aram, Farzaneh; Sohrabi, Seyyed Mohsen

    2016-01-30

    Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N-terminus of lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties, including high antimicrobial activity. To date, lactoferricins have been isolated and characterised from various animal species, but not from camel. The aim of this study was to characterise and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in Pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. After methanol induction, LFcinC was expressed and secreted into a culture broth medium and the results determined by concentrated supernatant culture medium showed high antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112 (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027), Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633), and Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231). Thermal stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739). Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Mucuna pruriens Peptide Fractions Purified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography as Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antioxidants, Antithrombotic and Hypocholesterolemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur-Ancona, David; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-02-01

    A Mucuna pruriens protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with a digestive (pepsin-pancreatin) enzymatic system. The soluble portion of the hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration and the ultrafiltered peptide fraction (PF) with lower molecular weight was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The PF obtained were evaluated by testing the biological activity in vitro. Fractions showed that the ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme had IC50 values that ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 μg/mL. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values ranged from 132.20 to 507.43 mM/mg. The inhibition of human platelet aggregation ranged from 1.59% to 11.11%, and the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility ranged from 0.24% to 0.47%. Hydrophobicity, size, and amino acid sequence could be factors in determining the biological activity of peptides contained in fractions. This is the first report that M. pruriens peptides act as antihypertensives, antioxidants, and inhibitors for human platelet aggregation and cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro.

  13. Isolation and identification of anti-proliferative peptides from Spirulina platensis using three-step hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. In this study, whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions (Tr1-Tr4) were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti-proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2 and SGC-7901), with IC 50 values of <31.25, 36.42 and 48.25 µg mL -1 , respectively. Furthermore, a new peptide, HVLSRAPR, was identified from fraction Tr1. This peptide exhibited strong inhibition on HT-29 cancer cells with an IC 50 value of 99.88 µg mL -1 . Taken together, these peptides possessed anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells and low cytotoxicity on normal cells, suggesting that they might serve as a natural anticancer agent for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S J; Pubols, M H; McGinnis, J

    1979-07-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) of different varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on chick growth was determined using a chick growth assay in which the diet contained approximately 50% beans. Total protein (N X 6.25) in beans was not changed appreciably by irradiation (21 Mrad) but protein solubility in water was decreased. Irradiation increased in vitro enzymatic digestibility of bean protein by pepsin and by a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. In the bioassay the diet was formulated to derive half of the total protein (22.6%) from beans. Autoclaved Pinto and Pink beans gave significantly better growth than Red Mexican and White Pea beans. The differences between Red Mexican and White Pea beans were not significant except for Red Mexican breeding line number RS-59. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiation treatment of beans tended to increase nitrogen retention by chicks and decrease uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake.

  15. Survival and germination of Mediterranean grassland species after simulated sheep ingestion: ecological correlates with seed traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peco, B.; Lopez-Merino, L.; Alvir, M.

    2006-09-01

    Large amounts of viable seeds from Mediterranean grassland species have been found in herbivore dung; however which species produce seeds that can survive and germinate after ingestion by herbivores is still not well understood. This paper evaluates the importance of seed size, shape and coat impermeability in the endozoochorous dispersal process of 20 abundant species from central Iberian rangelands. Seed survival, germination percentages and germination speed were analysed in controlled experiments on the chewing and gut passage process by inserting seeds in the rumen of fistulated sheep, followed by simulated acid-pepsin digestion. Higher germination percentages in the control than the simulated sheep ingestion treatment were found in 75% of seeds. All species showed lower survival following the treatment, two species had a higher germination speed and five had a lower rate. Large-seeded species generally had higher survival percentages than small-seeded species. Species with impermeable seed coats had higher germination percentages following treatment although no significant differences were noted for either seed survival or germination speed.

  16. The impact of N-glycosylation on conformation and stability of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Yaofa; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan. The fluorescence intensity revealed that Trp residues were buried in a more hydrophobic environment after disposal of N-glycan. Storage stability decreased with the removal of oligosaccharide chains based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Deglycosylated IgY exhibited less resistance to guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding. After deglycosylation, IgY was more sensitive to pepsin. Therefore, N-glycosylation played an important role in the maintenance of the structure and stability of IgY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Protease-Resistant Exochitinase (Echi47) from Pig Fecal Environment DNA with Application Potentials in the Food and Feed Industries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchun; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-07-15

    A novel exochitinase gene (Echi47) was directly cloned from the pig fecal environment DNA using the genomic walking PCR technique and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Echi47 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,161 bp encoding 386 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of Echi47 showed 36% identity with that of chitinase from Coprinellus congregatus. The recombinant exochitinase was purified with specific activity toward colloidal chitin of 6.84 U/mg. Echi47 was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. When colloidal chitin was used as substrate, N-acetylchitobiose [(GlcNAc)2] was mostly produced at the initial stage, suggesting that it is an exochitinase. Echi47 exhibited excellent resistance to pepsin, trypsin, proteinase K, and flavor protease. Under simulated alimentary tract conditions, Echi47 was stable and active, releasing 21.1 mg of N-acetylchitooligosaccharides from 80 mg of colloidal chitin. These properties make Echi47 a potential additive in the food and feed industries.

  18. Rational design for the stability improvement of Armillariella tabescens β-mannanase MAN47 based on N-glycosylation modification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weixiong; Liu, Xiaoyun; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Daling; Kuang, Zhihe; Qian, Chuiwen; Yao, Dongsheng

    2017-02-01

    β-Mannanase has been widely used in industries such as food and feed processing and thus has been a target enzyme for biotechnological development. In this study, we sought to improve the stability and protease resistance of a recombinant β-mannanase, MAN47 from Armillariella tabescens, through rationally designed N-glycosylation. Based on homology modeling, molecular docking, secondary structure analysis and glycosylation feasibility analysis, an enhanced aromatic sequon sequence was introduced into specific MAN47 loop regions to facilitate N-glycosylation. The mutant enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168, and their thermal stability, pH stability, trypsin resistance and pepsin resistance were determined. Two mutant MAN47 enzymes, g-123 and g-347, were glycosylated as expected when expressed in yeast, and their thermal stability, pH stability, and protease resistance were significantly improved compared to the wild-type enzyme. An enzyme with multiple stability characterizations has broad prospects in practical applications, and the rational design N-glycosylation strategy may have applications in simultaneously improving several properties of other biotechnological targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of in vitro and in situ methods in evaluation of forage digestibility in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Nyholm, L; Nousiainen, J; Südekum, K-H; Huhtanen, P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the application of different in vitro and in situ methods in empirical and mechanistic predictions of in vivo OM digestibility (OMD) and their associations to near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy spectra for a variety of forages. Apparent in vivo OMD of silages made from alfalfa (n = 2), corn (n = 9), corn stover (n = 2), grass (n = 11), whole crops of wheat and barley (n = 8) and red clover (n = 7), and fresh alfalfa (n = 1), grass hays (n = 5), and wheat straws (n = 5) had previously been determined in sheep. Concentrations of indigestible NDF (iNDF) in all forage samples were determined by a 288-h ruminal in situ incubation. Gas production of isolated forage NDF was measured by in vitro incubations for 72 h. In vitro pepsin-cellulase OM solubility (OMS) of the forages was determined by a 2-step gravimetric digestion method. Samples were also subjected to a 2-step determination of in vitro OMD based on buffered rumen fluid and pepsin. Further, rumen fluid digestible OM was determined from a single 96-h incubation at 38°C. Digestibility of OM from the in situ and the in vitro incubations was calculated according to published empirical equations, which were either forage specific or general (1 equation for all forages) within method. Indigestible NDF was also used in a mechanistic model to predict OMD. Predictions of OMD were evaluated by residual analysis using the GLM procedure in SAS. In vitro OMS in a general prediction equation of OMD did not display a significant forage-type effect on the residuals (observed - predicted OMD; P = 0.10). Predictions of OMD within forage types were consistent between iNDF and the 2-step in vitro method based on rumen fluid. Root mean square error of OMD was least (0.032) when the prediction was based on a general forage equation of OMS. However, regenerating a simple regression for iNDF by omitting alfalfa and wheat straw reduced the root mean square error of OMD to 0

  20. In vitro preparation and assessment of radical reducing peptide from Octopus aegina using digestive proteases.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Sekar; Nazeer, Rasool Abdul

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant peptides protect biological macromolecules against radical damages. The use of these peptides was evaluated using free radicals scavenging assays [2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl] with the help of UV-visible and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy methods. The Octopus aegina mantle protein were tested upon hydrolysis using gastrointestinal enzymes up to 12 h, where pepsin hydrolysate exhibited superior properties (DPPH: 44.39±0.67% and hydroxyl: 38.84±1.07%) compared with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. Consequently, the antioxidant activity of the purified hydrolysate increased on a successive purification, and the peptide sequence was determined to be 368.9 Da with Gly-Glu-Tyr amino acids. Tripeptide exerted free radical scavenging efficiency in DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and cellular destruction (MCF7 cells) under stress condition. The results obtained with octopus antioxidant peptide suggested its role as an adjunct in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    PubMed

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of Recombinant Phytase (rSt-Phy) of the Thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile and its applicability in dephytinizing foods.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-12-01

    Sporotrichum thermophile produces very low titres of phytase (St-Phy) extracellularly, which is acidstable, thermostable, and protease insensitive with broad substrate specificity, and therefore, the gene encoding phytase (St-Phy) has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 55 kDa with Km and Vmax (calcium phytate), kcat and kcat/Km of 0.143 mM, 185.05 nmoles mg(-1)  s(-1), 5.1 × 10(3) s(-1), and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display slight stimulatory effect on the enzyme, while it is inhibited by other ions to a varied extent. The enzyme is also inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K, and 2,3-butanedione but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in dephytinization of tandoori and naan (unleavened flat Indian breads), and bread, liberating soluble inorganic phosphate that mitigates anti-nutrient effects of phytic acid.

  3. Change of the structure and the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck during processing.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaojing; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Wang, Ying; Ou, Changrong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (SS) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into SS group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions. Protein degradation occurred during dry-curing and drying-ripening stages. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and pancreatic proteases increased during the salt curing stage and decreased during the drying-ripening stage. The increase of digestibility could be attributed to the mild oxidation, degradation and unfolding of proteins while the decrease of digestibility was related to the intensive oxidation and aggregation of proteins. Protein degradation was not a main factor of digestibility during the drying-ripening stage. Results demonstrated that the bioavailability loss of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck occurred during the stage of drying-ripening instead of curing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The role of seaweed bioactives in the control of digestion: implications for obesity treatments.

    PubMed

    Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D; Houghton, David; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Seaweeds are an underutilised nutritional resource that could not only compliment the current western diet but potentially bring additional health benefits over and above their nutritional value. There are four groups of seaweed algae; green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophycae), blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Seaweeds are rich in bioactive components including polysaccharides and polyphenols. Polysaccharides content, such as fucoidan, laminarin, as well as alginate is generally high in brown seaweeds which are also a source of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phlorotannin, stilbenes and lignans. These components have been shown to reduce the activity of digestive enzymes, modulating enzymes such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pepsin and lipase. This review discusses the effect of several of these components on the digestive processes within the gastrointestinal tract; focusing on the effect of alginate on pancreatic lipase activity and its potential health benefits. Concluding that there is evidence to suggest alginate has the potential to be used as an obesity treatment, however, further in vivo research is required and an effective delivery method for alginate must be designed.

  5. Isolation of a thermostable acid phytase from Aspergillus niger UFV-1 with strong proteolysis resistance

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Paulo S.; Guimarães, Valéria M.; de Melo, Ricardo R.; de Rezende, Sebastião T.

    2015-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger UFV-1 phytase was characterized and made available for industrial application. The enzyme was purified via ultrafiltration followed by acid precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. This protein exhibited a molecular mass of 161 kDa in gel filtration and 81 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), indicating that it may be a dimer. It presented an optimum temperature of 60 °C and optimum pH of 2.0. The K M for sodium phytate hydrolysis was 30.9 mM, while the k cat and k cat / K M were 1.46 ×10 5 s −1 and 4.7 × 10 6 s −1 .M −1 , respectively. The purified phytase exhibited broad specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, presenting activity on sodium phytate, p-NPP, 2- naphthylphosphate, 1- naphthylphosphate, ATP, phenyl-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, calcium phytate and other substrates. Enzymatic activity was slightly inhibited by Mg 2+ , Cd 2+ , K + and Ca 2+ , and it was drastically inhibited by F − . The enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 90% activity at 60 °C during 120 h and displayed a t 1/2 of 94.5 h and 6.2 h at 70 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated strong resistance toward pepsin and trypsin, and it retained more than 90% residual activity for both enzymes after 1 h treatment. Additionally, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed phytate in livestock feed, liberating 15.3 μmol phosphate/mL after 2.5 h of treatment. PMID:26221114

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Anti-Campylobacter Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus curvatus DN317.

    PubMed

    Zommiti, Mohamed; Almohammed, Hamdan; Ferchichi, Mounir

    2016-12-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota of Saudi chicken ceca was determined. From 60 samples, 204 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were obtained. Three isolates produced antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. The isolate DN317, which had the highest activity against Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, was identified as Lactobacillus curvatus (GenBank accession numbers: KX353849 and KX353850). Full inhibitory activity was observed after a 2-h incubation with the supernatant at pH values between 4 and 8. Only 16% of the activity was conserved after a treatment at 121 °C for 15 min. The use of proteinase K, pepsin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, papain, and lysozyme drastically reduced the antimicrobial activity. However, lipase, catalase, and lysozyme had no effect on this activity. The active peptide produced by Lactobacillus curvatus DN317 was purified by precipitation with an 80% saturated ammonium sulfate solution, and two steps of reversed phase HPLC on a C18 column. The molecular weight of this peptide was 4448 Da as determined by MALDI-ToF. N-terminal sequence analysis using Edman degradation revealed 47 amino acid residues (UniProt Knowledgebase accession number C0HK82) revealing homology with the amino acid sequences of sakacin P and curvaticin L442. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin, namely curvaticin DN317, was found to be bacteriostatic against Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560. The use of microbial antagonism by LAB is one of the best ways to control microorganisms safely in foods. This result constitutes a reasonable advance in the antimicrobial field because of its potential applications in food technology.

  7. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of andrographolide in rats induced with gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A; Selvamathy, S M K Narmadha

    2011-09-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD(50) value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD(50) value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects.

  8. Viability and proliferation of L929, tumour and hybridoma cells in the culture media containing sericin protein as a supplement or serum substitute.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures often require the addition of animal serum and other supplements. In this study, silk sericin, a bioactive protein, recovered from the waste of silk floss production was hydrolysed into three pepsin-degraded sericin peptides with different ranges of molecular mass. Normal animal cells, tumour cells and hybridoma cells were cultured systematically in FBS culture media containing sericin as a supplement or serum substitute. The culture test and microscopic observation of L929 cells showed that the smaller molecular weight of the degraded sericin is most suitable for cell culture. The cell culture results showed that with the degradation of sericin, for normal mouse fibroblast L929 cells, addition of 0.75 % sericin into FBS culture medium yields cell viability that is superior to FBS culture medium alone. When all serum was replaced by sericin, cell viability in the sericin medium could reach about one half of that in FBS medium. When in a medium containing a mixture of FBS: sericin (6:4, v/v), the cell culture effect is about 80 %. For the cultures of four tumour and one hybridoma cells, regardless of the molecular weight range, these degraded sericin peptides could substitute all serum in FBS media. The cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells are equivalent or superior to that in FBS medium. In other words, cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells in sericin media are more preferable to serum media. The mechanism of the sericin protein to promote cell growth and proliferation will be further investigated later.

  9. Biochemical characterization of an acidophilic β-mannanase from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS900.73 with significant transglycosylation activity and feed digesting ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihong; Zhang, Jiankang; Wang, Yuan; Niu, Canfang; Ma, Rui; Wang, Yaru; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2016-04-15

    Acidophilic β-mannanases have been attracting much attention due to their excellent activity under extreme acidic conditions and significant industrial applications. In this study, a β-mannanase gene of glycoside hydrolase family 5, man5A, was cloned from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS900.73, and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant Man5A was acidophilic with a pH optimum of 2.5 and exhibited great pH adaptability and stability (>80% activity over pH 2.0-6.0 and pH 2.0-10.0, respectively). It had a high specific activity (1356 U/mg) against locust bean gum, was able to degrade galactomannan and glucomannan in a classical four-site binding mode, and catalyzed the transglycosylation of mannotetrose to mannooligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization. Besides, it had great resistance to pepsin and trypsin and digested corn-soybean meal based diet in a comparable way with a commercial β-mannanase under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of pigs. This acidophilic β-mannanase represents a valuable candidate for wide use in various industries, especially in the feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digestive enzyme activities are higher in the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, than in ectothermic sharks as a result of visceral endothermy.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kyle C; Wraith, James; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2015-08-01

    Lamnid sharks are regionally endothermic fishes that maintain visceral temperatures elevated above the ambient water temperature. Visceral endothermy is thought to increase rates of digestion and food processing and allow thermal niche expansion. We tested the hypothesis that, at in vivo temperatures, the endothermic shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, has higher specific activities of three digestive enzymes-gastric pepsin and pancreatic trypsin and lipase-than the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, and the blue shark, Prionace glauca, neither of which can maintain elevated visceral temperatures. Homogenized stomach or pancreas tissue obtained from sharks collected by pelagic longline was incubated at both 15 and 25 °C, at saturating substrate concentrations, to quantify tissue enzymatic activity. The mako had significantly higher enzyme activities at 25 °C than did the thresher and blue sharks at 15 °C. This difference was not a simple tempe