Science.gov

Sample records for peptide binding specificity

  1. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  2. Specific binding of a basic peptide from HIV-1 Rev.

    PubMed Central

    Kjems, J; Calnan, B J; Frankel, A D; Sharp, P A

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encodes a regulatory protein, Rev, which is required for cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced viral mRNA. Rev activity is mediated through specific binding to a cis-acting Rev responsive element (RRE) located within the env region of HIV-1. A monomer Rev binding site corresponding to 37 nucleotides of the RRE (IIB RNA) was studied by RNA footprinting, modification interference experiments and mutational analysis. Surprisingly, a 17 amino acid peptide, corresponding to the basic domain of Rev, binds specifically to this site at essentially identical nucleotides and probably induces additional base pairing. The Rev protein and related peptide interact primarily with two sets of nucleotides located at the junction of single and double stranded regions, and at an additional site located within a helix. This suggests that the domains of proteins responsible for specific RNA binding can be remarkably small and that the interaction between RNA and protein can probably induce structure in both constituents. Images PMID:1547776

  3. Screening of a specific peptide binding to esophageal squamous carcinoma cells from phage displayed peptide library.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caixia; Li, Chunyan; Jiang, Dongliang; Gao, Xiaojie; Han, Juanjuan; Xu, Nan; Wu, Qiong; Nie, Guochao; Chen, Wei; Lin, Fenghuei; Hou, Yingchun

    2015-06-01

    To select a specifically binding peptide for imaging detection of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a phage-displayed 12-mer peptide library was used to screen the peptide that bind to ESCC cells specifically. After four rounds of bio-panning, the phage recovery rate gradually increased, and specific phage clones were effectively enriched. The 60 randomly selected phage clones were tested using cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 41 phage clones were identified as positive clones with the over 2.10 ratio of absorbance higher than other clones, IRP and PBS controls. From the sequencing results of the positive clones, 14 peptide sequences were obtained and ESCP9 consensus sequence was identified as the peptide with best affinity to ESCC cells via competitive inhibition, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. The results indicate that the peptide ESCP9 can bind to ESCC cells specifically and sensitively, and it is a potential candidate to be developed as an useful molecule to the imaging detection and targeting therapy for ESCC.

  4. Specific binding of GM1-binding peptides to high-density GM1 in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Iijima, Kazutoshi; Nakamura, Miwa; Taki, Takao; Okahata, Yoshio; Sato, Toshinori

    2007-01-16

    The ganglioside Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(Neu5Acalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer (GM1) is an important receptor. We have previously identified GM1-binding peptides based on affinity selection from a random peptide library. In the present study, we determined the amino acids essential for binding GM1 and investigated the specific interaction with GM1 in the lipid membrane. Arginines and aromatic amino acids in the consensus sequence (W/F)RxL(xP/Px)xFxx(Rx/xR)xP contributed to the ability of the peptides to bind GM1. The peptide p3, VWRLLAPPFSNRLLP, having the consensus sequence, showed high affinity for GM1 with a dissociation constant of 1.2 microM. Furthermore, the density-dependent binding of p3 was investigated using mixed monolayers of GM1 and Glcbeta1-1'Cer (GlcCer). p3 binds preferentially to high-density GM1, and its interaction with GM1 was found to be cooperative based on a Hill plot. These results indicated that a lateral assembly of GM1 molecules was required for the recognition of carbohydrates by p3. The GM1-binding peptide played a role as a unique anti-GM1 probe differing from the cholera toxin B subunit or antibodies.

  5. Identification of Mimotope Peptides Which Bind to the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qiaoping; Pestka, James J.; Hespenheide, Brandon M.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Linz, John E.; Hart, L. Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 6F5 (mAb 6F5), which recognizes the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) (vomitoxin), was used to select for peptides that mimic the mycotoxin by employing a library of filamentous phages that have random 7-mer peptides on their surfaces. Two phage clones selected from the random peptide phage-displayed library coded for the amino acid sequences SWGPFPF and SWGPLPF. These clones were designated DONPEP.2 and DONPEP.12, respectively. The results of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suggested that the two phage displayed peptides bound to mAb 6F5 specifically at the DON binding site. The amino acid sequence of DONPEP.2 plus a structurally flexible linker at the C terminus (SWGPFPFGGGSC) was synthesized and tested to determine its ability to bind to mAb 6F5. This synthetic peptide (designated peptide C430) and DON competed with each other for mAb 6F5 binding. When translationally fused with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, DONPEP.2 bound specifically to mAb 6F5, while the fusion protein retained alkaline phosphatase activity. The potential of using DONPEP.2 as an immunochemical reagent in a DON immunoassay was evaluated with a DON-spiked wheat extract. When peptide C430 was conjugated to bovine serum albumin, it elicited antibody specific to peptide C430 but not to DON in both mice and rabbits. In an in vitro translation system containing rabbit reticulocyte lysate, synthetic peptide C430 did not inhibit protein synthesis but did show antagonism toward DON-induced protein synthesis inhibition. These data suggest that the peptides selected in this study bind to mAb 6F5 and that peptide C430 binds to ribosomes at the same sites as DON. PMID:10427007

  6. Simultaneous prediction of binding free energy and specificity for PDZ domain-peptide interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Joseph J.; Lemmon, Gordon; Kaufmann, Kristian W.; Meiler, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between protein domains and linear peptides underlie many biological processes. Among these interactions, the recognition of C-terminal peptides by PDZ domains is one of the most ubiquitous. In this work, we present a mathematical model for PDZ domain-peptide interactions capable of predicting both affinity and specificity of binding based on X-ray crystal structures and comparative modeling with R osetta. We developed our mathematical model using a large phage display dataset describing binding specificity for a wild type PDZ domain and 91 single mutants, as well as binding affinity data for a wild type PDZ domain binding to 28 different peptides. Structural refinement was carried out through several R osetta protocols, the most accurate of which included flexible peptide docking and several iterations of side chain repacking and backbone minimization. Our findings emphasize the importance of backbone flexibility and the energetic contributions of side chain-side chain hydrogen bonds in accurately predicting interactions. We also determined that predicting PDZ domain-peptide interactions became increasingly challenging as the length of the peptide increased in the N-terminal direction. In the training dataset, predicted binding energies correlated with those derived through calorimetry and specificity switches introduced through single mutations at interface positions were recapitulated. In independent tests, our best performing protocol was capable of predicting dissociation constants well within one order of magnitude of the experimental values and specificity profiles at the level of accuracy of previous studies. To our knowledge, this approach represents the first integrated protocol for predicting both affinity and specificity for PDZ domain-peptide interactions.

  7. Serine repeat antigen peptides which bind specifically to red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Puentes, A; Garcia, J; Vera, R; Lopez, Q R; Urquiza, M; Vanegas, M; Salazar, L M; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-08-01

    It has been reported that serine repeat antigen (SERA) binds directly to human erythrocyte membranes, inside-out vesicles and intact mouse erythrocytes. Similarly, mAbs specific against SERA are effective in blocking red blood cell (RBC) invasion by P. falciparum merozoites. Furthermore, the N-terminal recombinant SERA fragment inhibits the merozoite invasion of erythrocyte. In this study of 49 non-overlapping 20-residue-long peptides encompassing the whole SERA protein FCR3 strain, seven peptides having high RBC binding activity were found. Six of these peptides (three from the SERA N-terminal domain) are located in conserved regions and show affinity constants between 150 and 1100 nM, Hill coefficients between 1.5 and 3.0 and 30000-120000 binding sites per cell. Some of these peptides inhibited in vitro merozoite invasion of erythrocyte and intra-erythrocytic development. Residues which are critical in the binding to erythrocytes (in bold face), i.e. 6725 (YLKETNNAISFESNSGSLEKK), 6733 (YALGSDIPEKCDTLASNCFLS), 6737 (YDNILVKMFKTNENNDKSELI), 6746 (DQGNCDTSWIFASKYHLETI), 6754 (YKKVQNLCGDDTADHAVNIVG) and 6762 (NEVSERVHVYHILKHIKDGK), were determined by means of competition assays with high-binding peptide glycine analogues. The identification of peptides which bind to erythrocyte membrane is important in understanding the process of RBC invasion by P. falciparum merozoites.

  8. Enriching Peptide Libraries for Binding Affinity and Specificity Through Computationally Directed Library Design.

    PubMed

    Foight, Glenna Wink; Chen, T Scott; Richman, Daniel; Keating, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Peptide reagents with high affinity or specificity for their target protein interaction partner are of utility for many important applications. Optimization of peptide binding by screening large libraries is a proven and powerful approach. Libraries designed to be enriched in peptide sequences that are predicted to have desired affinity or specificity characteristics are more likely to yield success than random mutagenesis. We present a library optimization method in which the choice of amino acids to encode at each peptide position can be guided by available experimental data or structure-based predictions. We discuss how to use analysis of predicted library performance to inform rounds of library design. Finally, we include protocols for more complex library design procedures that consider the chemical diversity of the amino acids at each peptide position and optimize a library score based on a user-specified input model.

  9. Specific erythrocyte binding capacity and biological activity of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding ligand 1 (EBL-1)-derived peptides

    PubMed Central

    Curtidor, Hernando; Rodríguez, Luis E.; Ocampo, Marisol; López, Ramses; García, Javier E.; Valbuena, John; Vera, Ricardo; Puentes, Álvaro; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocyte binding ligand 1 (EBL-1) is a member of the ebl multigene family involved in Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes. We found that five EBL-1 high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) bound specifically to erythrocytes: 29895 (41HKKKSGELNNNKSGILRSTY60), 29903 (201LYECGK-KIKEMKWICTDNQF220), 29923 (601CNAILGSYADIGDIVRGLDV620), 29924(621WRDINTNKLSEK-FQKIFMGGY640), and 30018 (2481LEDIINLSKKKKKSINDTSFY2500). We also show that binding was saturable, not sialic acid-dependent, and that all peptides specifically bound to a 36-kDa protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The five HABPs inhibited in vitro merozoite invasion depending on the peptide concentration used, suggesting their possible role in the invasion process. PMID:15659376

  10. The impact of DR3 microvariation on peptide binding: the combinations of specific DR beta residues critical to binding differ for different peptides.

    PubMed

    Posch, P E; Hurley, C K; Geluk, A; Ottenhoff, T H

    1996-09-01

    HLA-DR molecules are a group of highly polymorphic glycoprotein heterodimers that present peptide antigens to T lymphocytes for immune surveillance. To assess the significance of limited polymorphism on the functional differentiation of DR molecules, the binding of several immunogenic peptides to the DR3 microvariants [DR(alpha, beta 1*0302) and DR(alpha, beta 1*0301)] and to mutants of these DR3 molecules was examined. This analysis has shown that each residue (DR beta 26, DR beta 28, DR beta 47, and DR beta 86), which differentiates these two DR3 molecules, contributes to their functional distinction and that the relative contribution of each residue varies for different peptide/DR3 complexes. For example, DR beta 28 and DR beta 86 controlled the mycobacterium tuberculosis 65-kD heat shock protein peptides 3-13 and 4-15 (HSP) binding specificity to DR (alpha, beta 1*0301). [HSP does not bind to DR(alpha, beta 1*0302)], whereas DR beta 26, DR beta 28, and DR beta 86 controlled the influenza hemagglutinin peptide 306-318 (HA) binding specificity to DR(alpha, beta 1*0302). [HA does not bind to DR(alpha, beta 1*0301).] In comparison, DR beta 86 alone controlled the binding level difference of sperm whale myoglobin peptide 132-151 (SWM) and of myelin basic protein peptide 152-170 (MBP) [both bind to DR(alpha, beta 1*0301) at levels five times greater than to DR(alpha, beta 1*0302)] to the DR3 molecules. Although not critical, additional DR beta residues influenced the binding level of individual peptides of each of the DR3 molecules and, again, the combinations of these residues differed for different peptide/DR3 complexes. These data showed that individual DR residues vary in their relative contribution to the interaction between a specific DR molecule and different peptides and that limited polymorphism can create substantial differences in the peptide binding profiles among DR molecules.

  11. High-energy water sites determine peptide binding affinity and specificity of PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Beuming, Thijs; Farid, Ramy; Sherman, Woody

    2009-08-01

    PDZ domains have well known binding preferences for distinct C-terminal peptide motifs. For most PDZ domains, these motifs are of the form [S/T]-W-[I/L/V]. Although the preference for S/T has been explained by a specific hydrogen bond interaction with a histidine in the PDZ domain and the (I/L/V) is buried in a hydrophobic pocket, the mechanism for Trp specificity at the second to last position has thus far remained unknown. Here, we apply a method to compute the free energies of explicit water molecules and predict that potency gained by Trp binding is due to a favorable release of high-energy water molecules into bulk. The affinities of a series of peptides for both wild-type and mutant forms of the PDZ domain of Erbin correlate very well with the computed free energy of binding of displaced waters, suggesting a direct relationship between water displacement and peptide affinity. Finally, we show a correlation between the magnitude of the displaced water free energy and the degree of Trp-sensitivity among subtypes of the HTRA PDZ family, indicating a water-mediated mechanism for specificity of peptide binding.

  12. Achieving Peptide Binding Specificity and Promiscuity by Loops: Case of the Forkhead-Associated Domain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-ming M.; Chang, Chia-en A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of a series of cellular events requires specific protein–protein interactions, which are usually mediated by modular domains to precisely select a particular sequence from diverse partners. However, most signaling domains can bind to more than one peptide sequence. How do proteins create promiscuity from precision? Moreover, these complex interactions typically occur at the interface of a well-defined secondary structure, α helix and β sheet. However, the molecular recognition primarily controlled by loop architecture is not fully understood. To gain a deep understanding of binding selectivity and promiscuity by the conformation of loops, we chose the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain as our model system. The domain can bind to diverse peptides via various loops but only interact with sequences containing phosphothreonine (pThr). We applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for multiple free and bound FHA domains to study the changes in conformations and dynamics. Generally, FHA domains share a similar folding structure whereby the backbone holds the overall geometry and the variety of sidechain atoms of multiple loops creates a binding surface to target a specific partner. FHA domains determine the specificity of pThr by well-organized binding loops, which are rigid to define a phospho recognition site. The broad range of peptide recognition can be attributed to different arrangements of the loop interaction network. The moderate flexibility of the loop conformation can help access or exclude binding partners. Our work provides insights into molecular recognition in terms of binding specificity and promiscuity and helpful clues for further peptide design. PMID:24870410

  13. Materials specificity and directed assembly of a gold-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Tamerler, Candan; Duman, Memed; Oren, Ersin Emre; Gungormus, Mustafa; Xiong, Xiaorong; Kacar, Turgay; Parviz, Babak A; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2006-11-01

    Adsorption studies of a genetically engineered gold-binding peptide, GBP1, were carried out using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to quantify its molecular affinity to noble metals. The peptide showed higher adsorption onto and lower desorption from a gold surface compared to a platinum substrate. The material specificity, that is, the preferential adsorption, of GBP1 was also demonstrated using gold and platinum micropatterned on a silicon wafer containing native oxide. The biotinylated three-repeat units of GBP1 were preferentially adsorbed onto gold regions delineated using streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SAQDs). These experiments not only demonstrate that an inorganic-binding peptide could preferentially adsorb onto a metal (Au) rather than an oxide (SiO2) but also onto one noble metal (Au) over another (Pt). This result shows the utility of an engineered peptide as a molecular erector in the directed immobilization of a nanoscale hybrid entity (SAQDs) over selected regions (Au) on a fairly complex substrate (Au and Pt micropatterned regions on silica). The selective and controlled adsorption of inorganic-binding peptides may have significant implications in nano- and nanobiotechnology, where they could be genetically tailored for specific use in the development of self-assembled molecular systems.

  14. Specificity Profiling of Protein-Binding Domains Using One-Bead-One-Compound Peptide Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Kunys, Andrew R.; Lian, Wenlong; Pei, Dehua

    2013-01-01

    One-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries consist of structurally related compounds (e.g., peptides) covalently attached to a solid support, with each resin bead carrying a unique compound. OBOC libraries of high structural diversity can be rapidly synthesized and screened without the need of any special equipment and therefore can be employed in any chemical or biochemical laboratory. OBOC peptide libraries have been widely used to map the ligand specificity of proteins, to determine the substrate specificity of enzymes, and to develop inhibitors against macromolecular targets. They have proven particularly useful in profiling the binding specificity of protein modular domains (e.g., SH2 domains, BIR domains, and PDZ domains) and subsequently using the specificity information to predict the protein targets of these domains. The protocols outlined in this article describe the methodologies for synthesizing and screening OBOC peptide libraries against SH2 and PDZ domains and the related data analysis. PMID:23788558

  15. The specificity of protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides by lactoferrin binding protein B.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Ari; Partha, Sarathy K; Adamiak, Paul; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2014-10-01

    A variety of Gram-negative pathogens possess host-specific lactoferrin (Lf) receptors that mediate the acquisition of iron from host Lf. The integral membrane protein component of the receptor, lactoferrin binding protein A specifically binds host Lf and is required for acquisition of iron from Lf. In contrast, the role of the bi-lobed surface lipoprotein, lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB), in Lf binding and iron acquisition is uncertain. A common feature of LbpBs from most species is the presence of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in the protein's C-terminal lobe. Recently it has been shown that the negatively charged regions from the Neisseria meningitidis LbpB are responsible for protecting against an 11 amino acid cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP), lactoferricin (Lfcin), derived from human Lf. In this study we investigated whether the LbpB confers resistance to other CAPs since N. meningitidis is likely to encounter other CAPs from the host. LbpB provided protection against the cathelicidin derived peptide, cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), but did not confer protection against Tritrp 1 or LL37 under our experimental conditions. When tested against a range of rationally designed synthetic peptides, LbpB was shown to protect against IDR-1002 and IDR-0018 but not against HH-2 or HHC10.

  16. Specific binding of DNA to aggregated forms of Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Camero, Sergio; Ayuso, Jose M; Barrantes, Alejandro; Benítez, María J; Jiménez, Juan S

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous protein aggregation is closely associated to age-related mental illness. Extraneuronal plaques, mainly composed of aggregated amyloid peptides, are considered as hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, this disease starts as a consequence of an abnormal processing of the amyloid precursor protein resulting in an excess of amyloid peptides. Nuclear localization of amyloid peptide aggregates together with amyloid-DNA interaction, have been repeatedly reported. In this paper we have used surface plasmon resonance and electron microscopy to study the structure and behavior of different peptides and proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, histone, casein and the amyloid-β peptides related to Alzheimer's disease Aβ25-35 and Aβ1-40. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether proneness to DNA interaction is a general property displayed by aggregated forms of proteins, or it is an interaction specifically related to the aggregated forms of those particular proteins and peptides related to neurodegenerative diseases. Our results reveal that those aggregates formed by amyloid peptides show a particular proneness to interact with DNA. They are the only aggregated structures capable of binding DNA, and show more affinity for DNA than for other polyanions like heparin and polyglutamic acid, therefore strengthening the hypothesis that amyloid peptides may, by means of interaction with nuclear DNA, contribute to the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Conversion of scFv peptide-binding specificity for crystal chaperone development

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Culver, Jeffrey A.; Drury, Jason E.; Motani, Rakesh S.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2012-02-07

    In spite of advances in protein expression and purification over the last decade, many proteins remain recalcitrant to structure determination by X-ray crystallography. One emerging tactic to obtain high-quality protein crystals for structure determination, particularly in the case of membrane proteins, involves co-crystallization with a protein-specific antibody fragment. Here, we report the development of new recombinant single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) capable of binding a specific epitope that can be introduced into internal loops of client proteins. The previously crystallized hexa-histidine-specific 3D5 scFv antibody was modified in the complementary determining region and by random mutagenesis, in conjunction with phage display, to yield scFvs with new biochemical characteristics and binding specificity. Selected variants include those specific for the hexa-histidine peptide with increased expression, solubility (up to 16.6 mg/ml) and sub-micromolar affinity, and those with new specificity for the EE hexa-peptide (EYMPME) and nanomolar affinity. Complexes of one such chaperone with model proteins harboring either an internal or a terminal EE tag were isolated by gel filtration. The 3.1 {angstrom} resolution structure of this chaperone reveals a binding surface complementary to the EE peptide and a {approx}52 {angstrom} channel in the crystal lattice. Notably, in spite of 85% sequence identity, and nearly identical crystallization conditions, the engineered scFv crystallizes in a different space group than the parent 3D5 scFv, and utilizes two new crystal contacts. These engineered scFvs represent a new class of chaperones that may eliminate the need for de novo identification of candidate chaperones from large antibody libraries.

  18. Specificity in substrate binding by protein folding catalysts: tyrosine and tryptophan residues are the recognition motifs for the binding of peptides to the pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase PDIp.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddock, L. W.; Freedman, R. B.; Klappa, P.

    2000-01-01

    Using a cross-linking approach, we recently demonstrated that radiolabeled peptides or misfolded proteins specifically interact in vitro with two luminal proteins in crude extracts from pancreas microsomes. The proteins were the folding catalysts protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDIp, a glycosylated, PDI-related protein, expressed exclusively in the pancreas. In this study, we explore the specificity of these proteins in binding peptides and related ligands and show that tyrosine and tryptophan residues in peptides are the recognition motifs for their binding by PDIp. This peptide-binding specificity may reflect the selectivity of PDIp in binding regions of unfolded polypeptide during catalysis of protein folding. PMID:10794419

  19. Targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer using specific binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianfeng; Tan, Gewen; Sheng, Nengquan; You, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the first in China among all gastrointestinal cancers in terms of incidence, and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine commonly chosen as the target for gene therapy against cancers. The specific binding peptide pd20 of gastric cancer cells with a high potential for liver metastasis was fused with human TNF to obtain the pd20-TNF gene using DNA recombinant technique. The expression of the fusion protein was induced and the protein was purified. In vitro activity test showed that the fusion protein greatly improved the membrane permeability of liver cells in nude mice with liver metastasis from gastric cancer. The tumor implantation experiment in nude mice showed that the fusion protein effectively mitigated the cancer lesions. The results provide important clues for developing the drugs for targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. PMID:27347305

  20. Application of Celluspots peptide arrays for the analysis of the binding specificity of epigenetic reading domains to modified histone tails

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epigenetic reading domains are involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin state by interacting with histones in a post-translational modification specific manner. A detailed knowledge of the target modifications of reading domains, including enhancing and inhibiting secondary modifications, will lead to a better understanding of the biological signaling processes mediated by reading domains. Results We describe the application of Celluspots peptide arrays which contain 384 histone peptides carrying 59 post translational modifications in different combinations as an inexpensive, reliable and fast method for initial screening for specific interactions of reading domains with modified histone peptides. To validate the method, we tested the binding specificities of seven known epigenetic reading domains on Celluspots peptide arrays, viz. the HP1ß and MPP8 Chromo domains, JMJD2A and 53BP1 Tudor domains, Dnmt3a PWWP domain, Rag2 PHD domain and BRD2 Bromo domain. In general, the binding results agreed with literature data with respect to the primary specificity of the reading domains, but in almost all cases we obtained additional new information concerning the influence of secondary modifications surrounding the target modification. Conclusions We conclude that Celluspots peptide arrays are powerful screening tools for studying the specificity of putative reading domains binding to modified histone peptides. PMID:21884582

  1. Specific receptor binding of atrial natriuretic peptide to rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Ogawa, N.; Ota, Z.

    1985-09-01

    Radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was studied in rat kidney membranes. Binding of ( SVI)-ANP to membrane preparations of rat whole kidney was saturated and show a high affinity. Furthermore, renal cortex membrane had a higher affinity for ANP binding site than renal medulla membrane. This high affinity ANP receptor site in renal cortex membrane indicated that ANP controlled the balance of water and sodium excretion due to this receptor site in the kidney.

  2. Identification and binding mechanism of phage displayed peptides with specific affinity to acid-alkali treated titanium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhua; Tan, Jing; Wu, Baohua; Wang, Jianxin; Qu, Shuxin; Weng, Jie; Feng, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Acid-alkali treatment is one of means widely used for preparing bioactive titanium surfaces. Peptides with specific affinity to titanium surface modified by acid-alkali two-steps treatment were obtained via phage display technology. Out of the eight new unique peptides, titanium-binding peptide 54 displayed by monoclonal M13 phage at its pIII coat protein (TBP54-M13 phage) was proved to have higher binding affinity to the substrate. The binding interaction occurred at the domain from phenylalanine at position 1 to arginine at position 6 in the sequences of TBP54 (FAETHRGFHFSF) mainly via the reaction of these residues with the Ti surface. Together the coordination and electrostatic interactions controlled the specific binding of the phage to the substrate. The binding affinity was dependent on the surface basic hydroxyl group content. In addition, the phage showed a different interaction way with the Ti surface without acid-alkali treatment along with an impaired affinity. This study could provide more understanding of the interaction mechanism between the selected peptide and its specific substrate, and develop a promising method for the biofunctionalization of titanium.

  3. Prediction of Surface and pH-Specific Binding of Peptides to Metal and Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Lin, Tzu-Jen; Emami, Fateme Sadat; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Naik, Rajesh; Knecht, Marc; Perry, Carole C.; Huang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of specific peptide adsorption onto metallic and oxidic nanostructures has been elucidated in atomic resolution using novel force fields and surface models in comparison to measurements. As an example, variations in peptide adsorption on Pd and Pt nanoparticles depending on shape, size, and location of peptides on specific bounding facets are explained. Accurate computational predictions of reaction rates in C-C coupling reactions using particle models derived from HE-XRD and PDF data illustrate the utility of computational methods for the rational design of new catalysts. On oxidic nanoparticles such as silica and apatites, it is revealed how changes in pH lead to similarity scores of attracted peptides lower than 20%, supported by appropriate model surfaces and data from adsorption isotherms. The results demonstrate how new computational methods can support the design of nanoparticle carriers for drug release and the understanding of calcification mechanisms in the human body.

  4. MetaMHCpan, A Meta Approach for Pan-Specific MHC Peptide Binding Prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichang; Luo, Cheng; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent computational approaches in bioinformatics can achieve high performance, by which they can be a powerful support for performing real biological experiments, making biologists pay more attention to bioinformatics than before. In immunology, predicting peptides which can bind to MHC alleles is an important task, being tackled by many computational approaches. However, this situation causes a serious problem for immunologists to select the appropriate method to be used in bioinformatics. To overcome this problem, we develop an ensemble prediction-based Web server, which we call MetaMHCpan, consisting of two parts: MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan, for predicting peptides which can bind MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan use two (MHC2SKpan and LApan) and four (TEPITOPEpan, MHC2SKpan, LApan, and MHC2MIL) existing predictors, respectively. MetaMHCpan is available at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/MetaMHCpan/index.php/pages/view/info .

  5. Identifying Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen 3 (MSP3) protein peptides that bind specifically to erythrocytes and inhibit merozoite invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Luis E.; Curtidor, Hernando; Ocampo, Marisol; Garcia, Javier; Puentes, Alvaro; Valbuena, John; Vera, Ricardo; López, Ramses; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    Receptor–ligand interactions between synthetic peptides and normal human erythrocytes were studied to determine Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) FC27 strain regions that specifically bind to membrane surface receptors on human erythrocytes. Three MSP-3 protein high activity binding peptides (HABPs) were identified; their binding to erythrocytes became saturable, had nanomolar affinity constants, and became sensitive on being treated with neuraminidase and trypsin but were resistant to chymotrypsin treatment. All of them specifically recognized 45-, 55-, and 72-kDa erythrocyte membrane proteins. They all presented α-helix structural elements. All HABPs inhibited in vitro P. falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes by ~55%–85%, suggesting that MSP-3 protein’s role in the invasion process probably functions by using mechanisms similar to those described for other MSP family antigens. PMID:15987906

  6. Specific Capture of Peptide-Receptive Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules by Antibody Micropatterns Allows for a Novel Peptide-Binding Assay in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Dirscherl, Cindy; Palankar, Raghavendra; Delcea, Mihaela; Kolesnikova, Tatiana A; Springer, Sebastian

    2017-02-02

    Binding assays with fluorescently labeled ligands and recombinant receptor proteins are commonly performed in 2D arrays. But many cell surface receptors only function in their native membrane environment and/or in a specific conformation, such as they appear on the surface of live cells. Thus, receptors on live cells should be used for ligand binding assays. Here, it is shown that antibodies preprinted on a glass surface can be used to specifically array a peptide receptor of the immune system, i.e., the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule H-2K(b) , into a defined pattern on the surface of live cells. Monoclonal antibodies make it feasible to capture a distinct subpopulation of H-2K(b) and hold it at the cell surface. This patterned receptor enables a novel peptide-binding assay, in which the specific binding of a fluorescently labeled index peptide is visualized by microscopy. Measurements of ligand binding to captured cell surface receptors in defined confirmations apply to many problems in cell biology and thus represent a promising tool in the field of biosensors.

  7. MHC2SKpan: a novel kernel based approach for pan-specific MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computational methods for the prediction of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II binding peptides play an important role in facilitating the understanding of immune recognition and the process of epitope discovery. To develop an effective computational method, we need to consider two important characteristics of the problem: (1) the length of binding peptides is highly flexible; and (2) MHC molecules are extremely polymorphic and for the vast majority of them there are no sufficient training data. Methods We develop a novel string kernel MHC2SK (MHC-II String Kernel) method to measure the similarities among peptides with variable lengths. By considering the distinct features of MHC-II peptide binding prediction problem, MHC2SK differs significantly from the recently developed kernel based method, GS (Generic String) kernel, in the way of computing similarities. Furthermore, we extend MHC2SK to MHC2SKpan for pan-specific MHC-II peptide binding prediction by leveraging the binding data of various MHC molecules. Results MHC2SK outperformed GS in allele specific prediction using a benchmark dataset, which demonstrates the effectiveness of MHC2SK. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of MHC2SKpan using various benckmark data sets from several different perspectives: Leave-one-allele-out (LOO), 5-fold cross validation as well as independent data testing. MHC2SKpan has achieved comparable performance with NetMHCIIpan-2.0 and outperformed NetMHCIIpan-1.0, TEPITOPEpan and MultiRTA, being statistically significant. MHC2SKpan can be freely accessed at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/service/MHC2SKpan/index.html. PMID:24564280

  8. Specificity of RSG-1.2 peptide binding to RRE-IIB RNA element of HIV-1 over Rev peptide is mainly enthalpic in origin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Bose, Debojit; Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sabharwal, Harshana; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2011-01-01

    Rev is an essential HIV-1 regulatory protein which binds to the Rev responsive element (RRE) present within the env gene of HIV-1 RNA genome. This binding facilitates the transport of the RNA to the cytoplasm, which in turn triggers the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Essential components of this complex have been localized to a minimal arginine rich Rev peptide and stem IIB region of RRE. A synthetic peptide known as RSG-1.2 binds with high binding affinity and specificity to the RRE-IIB than the Rev peptide, however the thermodynamic basis of this specificity has not yet been addressed. The present study aims to probe the thermodynamic origin of this specificity of RSG-1.2 over Rev Peptide for RRE-IIB. The temperature dependent melting studies show that RSG-1.2 binding stabilizes the RRE structure significantly (ΔT(m) = 4.3°C), in contrast to Rev binding. Interestingly the thermodynamic signatures of the binding have also been found to be different for both the peptides. At pH 7.5, RSG-1.2 binds RRE-IIB with a K(a) = 16.2±0.6×10(7) M(-1) where enthalpic change ΔH = -13.9±0.1 kcal/mol is the main driving force with limited unfavorable contribution from entropic change TΔS = -2.8±0.1 kcal/mol. A large part of ΔH may be due to specific stacking between U72 and Arg15. In contrast binding of Rev (K(a) = 3.1±0.4×10(7) M(-1)) is driven mainly by entropy (ΔH = 0 kcal/mol and TΔS = 10.2±0.2 kcal/mol) which arises from major conformational changes in the RNA upon binding.

  9. Probing the specificity of binding to the major nuclear localization sequence-binding site of importin-alpha using oriented peptide library screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sundy N Y; Takeda, Agnes A S; Fontes, Marcos R M; Harris, Jonathan M; Jans, David A; Kobe, Bostjan

    2010-06-25

    Importin-alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes the classic monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences (cNLSs), which contain one or two clusters of basic amino acids, respectively. Different importin-alpha paralogs in a single organism are specific for distinct repertoires of cargos. Structural studies revealed that monopartite cNLSs and the C-terminal basic clusters of the bipartite cNLSs bind to the same site on importin-alpha, termed the major cNLS-binding site. We used an oriented peptide library approach with five degenerate positions to probe the specificity of the major cNLS-binding site in importin-alpha. We identified the sequences KKKRR, KKKRK, and KKRKK as the optimal sequences for binding to this site for mouse importin-alpha2, human importin-alpha1, and human importin-alpha5, respectively. The crystal structure of mouse importin-alpha2 with its optimal peptide confirmed the expected binding mode resembling the binding of simian virus 40 large tumor-antigen cNLS. Binding assays confirmed that the peptides containing these sequences bound to the corresponding proteins with low nanomolar affinities. Nuclear import assays showed that the sequences acted as functional cNLSs, with specificity for particular importin-alphas. This is the first time that structural information has been linked to an oriented peptide library screening approach for importin-alpha; the results will contribute to understanding of the sequence determinants of cNLSs, and may help identify as yet unidentified cNLSs in novel proteins.

  10. Improved pan-specific MHC class I peptide-binding predictions using a novel representation of the MHC-binding cleft environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, S; Zimic, M; Nielsen, M

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a key role in cell-mediated immune responses presenting bounded peptides for recognition by the immune system cells. Several in silico methods have been developed to predict the binding affinity of a given peptide to a specific MHC molecule. One of the current state-of-the-art methods for MHC class I is NetMHCpan, which has a core ingredient for the representation of the MHC class I molecule using a pseudo-sequence representation of the binding cleft amino acid environment. New and large MHC-peptide-binding data sets are constantly being made available, and also new structures of MHC class I molecules with a bound peptide have been published. In order to test if the NetMHCpan method can be improved by integrating this novel information, we created new pseudo-sequence definitions for the MHC-binding cleft environment from sequence and structural analyses of different MHC data sets including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), non-human primates (chimpanzee, macaque and gorilla) and other animal alleles (cattle, mouse and swine). From these constructs, we showed that by focusing on MHC sequence positions found to be polymorphic across the MHC molecules used to train the method, the NetMHCpan method achieved a significant increase in the predictive performance, in particular, of non-human MHCs. This study hence showed that an improved performance of MHC-binding methods can be achieved not only by the accumulation of more MHC-peptide-binding data but also by a refined definition of the MHC-binding environment including information from non-human species.

  11. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  12. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE PAGES

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; ...

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  13. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.

  14. Connecting Effective Immune Response, Fluorescent Granzyme B-like Peptide, Specific Peptide Binding Patterns, Patients with Cancer and Viral Infection, in Remission, Clinical Significance, and Liquid Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai Chun Jennifer; Luther, Donald Gene

    2016-11-01

    Functional cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes (CTL) with granzyme B play an important role in an effective immune response to tumor growth and infection progression. Tumor cells and platelets in peripheral whole blood smears of cancer patients have shown the presence of innate binding targets for GP1R, a fluorescent synthetic Granzyme B-like peptide. It is not known if similar GP1R-binding targets and specific binding patterns are detectable in peripheral blood of patients with viral infection. It is also not known if a specific binding pattern may be associated with an effective immune response to indicate a favorable prognosis. We reviewed the GP1R-binding patterns in the peripheral blood smears of 5 patients in remission at the time of sampling (3 with cancer and 2 with flu-like symptoms) and a negative control. We show with fluoroscopic images that there are: 1) fluorescent GP1R-binding targets mostly in the cytoplasmic areas of nucleated cells in patients with breast and lung cancer who have longer survival, 2) intense fluorescent deposits mostly in the nuclear areas of segmented neutrophils in patients recovered from severe to mild flu-like symptoms, 3) discernible fluorescent deposits in the cytoplasmic areas of small lymphocyte-like elements and overall intense fluorescent stain in large cells in the patient with advanced pancreatic cancer who had shorter survival, 4) GP1R-binding targets in numerous platelet-like elements in all 5 patients. The control sample did not show similar binding patterns. The potential association between specific GP1R-binding patterns in peripheral blood samples and prognostic significance, and its use as liquid biopsy are discussed.

  15. Substrate binding and specificity of rhomboid intramembrane protease revealed by substrate–peptide complex structures

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Sebastian; Stanchev, Stancho; Began, Jakub; Škerle, Jan; Lepšík, Martin; Peclinovská, Lucie; Majer, Pavel; Strisovsky, Kvido

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of intramembrane proteases are incompletely understood due to the lack of structural data on substrate complexes. To gain insight into substrate binding by rhomboid proteases, we have synthesised a series of novel peptidyl-chloromethylketone (CMK) inhibitors and analysed their interactions with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG enzymologically and structurally. We show that peptidyl-CMKs derived from the natural rhomboid substrate TatA from bacterium Providencia stuartii bind GlpG in a substrate-like manner, and their co-crystal structures with GlpG reveal the S1 to S4 subsites of the protease. The S1 subsite is prominent and merges into the ‘water retention site’, suggesting intimate interplay between substrate binding, specificity and catalysis. Unexpectedly, the S4 subsite is plastically formed by residues of the L1 loop, an important but hitherto enigmatic feature of the rhomboid fold. We propose that the homologous region of members of the wider rhomboid-like protein superfamily may have similar substrate or client-protein binding function. Finally, using molecular dynamics, we generate a model of the Michaelis complex of the substrate bound in the active site of GlpG. PMID:25216680

  16. Substrate binding and specificity of rhomboid intramembrane protease revealed by substrate-peptide complex structures.

    PubMed

    Zoll, Sebastian; Stanchev, Stancho; Began, Jakub; Skerle, Jan; Lepšík, Martin; Peclinovská, Lucie; Majer, Pavel; Strisovsky, Kvido

    2014-10-16

    The mechanisms of intramembrane proteases are incompletely understood due to the lack of structural data on substrate complexes. To gain insight into substrate binding by rhomboid proteases, we have synthesised a series of novel peptidyl-chloromethylketone (CMK) inhibitors and analysed their interactions with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG enzymologically and structurally. We show that peptidyl-CMKs derived from the natural rhomboid substrate TatA from bacterium Providencia stuartii bind GlpG in a substrate-like manner, and their co-crystal structures with GlpG reveal the S1 to S4 subsites of the protease. The S1 subsite is prominent and merges into the 'water retention site', suggesting intimate interplay between substrate binding, specificity and catalysis. Unexpectedly, the S4 subsite is plastically formed by residues of the L1 loop, an important but hitherto enigmatic feature of the rhomboid fold. We propose that the homologous region of members of the wider rhomboid-like protein superfamily may have similar substrate or client-protein binding function. Finally, using molecular dynamics, we generate a model of the Michaelis complex of the substrate bound in the active site of GlpG.

  17. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xixi; Lin, Jiaping; Wang, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives. PMID:28036002

  18. Annexin I and Annexin II N-terminal Peptides Binding to S100 Protein Family Members: Specificity and Thermodynamic Characterization†

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, Werner W.; Lopez, Maria M.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2009-01-01

    The S100 proteins are a family of dimeric calcium binding proteins that function in response to changing calcium levels. Several S100 binding proteins have been identified however, the exact biological functions of the S100 proteins are largely unknown as there are several factors which modulate their functions. To address these issues, the specificity of binding of representative members of the human S100 proteins to short N-terminal peptides of annexin I (AnI) and annexin II (AnII) was investigated under controlled experimental conditions. AnI and AnII have been shown previously to interact with S100A11 and S100A10, respectively. This provided a unique opportunity to determine their binding specificity with the other members of the human S100 protein family. It was found that the AnI binds S100A6 or S100A11 while the AnII binds S100A10 or S100A11. This is the first report of the interaction between S100A6 and AnI. The fact that AnI and AnII bind to selected members of the S100 protein family shows that these interactions are specific and that the mode of binding is different to that of calmodulin, as it was found not to bind AnI or AnII. From the analysis of the thermodynamics of interactions the binding seems to be entropically driven. It was found that both AnI and AnII undergo a coil-to-helix transition upon binding to their respective binding partners. The observation that there is an overlap in functionality is not surprising due to considerable sequence homology between S100 protein family members. In fact, the functional overlap can explain previous failures of S100 knockout constructs to show any detectable changes in phenotype despite numerous implications of these proteins in important cellular processes. PMID:19275165

  19. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  20. Site-Specific Polymer Attachment to HR2 Peptide Fusion Inhibitors against HIV-1 Decreases Binding Association Rates and Dissociation Rates Rather Than Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Stauffer, Angela N; Wurm, Frederik R; Root, Michael J; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2017-03-15

    A popular strategy for overcoming the limited plasma half-life of peptide heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 is conjugation with biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). However, despite improved resistance to proteolysis and reduced renal elimination, covalent attachment of polymers often causes a loss in therapeutic potency. In this study, we investigated the molecular origins of the loss in potency upon conjugation of linear, midfunctional, and hyperbranched PEG-like polymers to peptides that inhibit HIV-1-host cell membrane fusion. Fluorescence binding assays revealed that polymer conjugation imparted mass transport limitations that manifested as coexistent slower association and dissociation rates from the gp41 target on HIV-1. Furthermore, reduced association kinetics rather than affinity disruption was responsible for the loss in antiviral potency. Finally, the binding assays indicated that the unmodified HR2-derived peptide demonstrated diffusion-limited binding. The observed high potency of the unmodified peptide in HIV-1 inhibition assays was therefore attributed to rapid peptide conformational changes upon binding to the gp41 prehairpin structure. This study emphasizes that the view in which polymer ligation to therapeutic peptides inadvertently leads to loss in potency due to a loss in binding affinity requires scientific verification on a case-by-case basis and that high peptide potency may be due to rapid target-binding events.

  1. MHC allele-specific binding of a malaria peptide makes it become promiscuous on fitting a glycine residue into pocket 6.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Luis Eduardo; Parra, Carlos Alberto; Salazar, Luz Mary; Guzmán, Fanny; Pinto, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2003-07-18

    Peptide 1585 (EVLYLKPLAGVYRSLKKQLE) has a highly conserved amino-acid sequence located in the Plasmodium falciparum main merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) C-terminal region, required for merozoite entry into human erythrocytes and therefore represents a vaccine candidate for P. falciparum malaria. Original sequence-specific binding to five HLA DRB1* alleles (0101, 0102, 0401, 0701, and 1101) revealed this peptide's specific HLA DRB1*0102 allele binding. This peptide's allele-specific binding to HLA DRB1*0102 took on broader specificity for the DRB1*0101, -0401, and -1101 alleles when lysine was replaced by glycine in position 17 (peptide 5198: EVLYLKPLAGVYRSLKG(17)QLE). Binding of the identified G(10)VYRSLKGQLE(20) C-terminal register to these alleles suggests that peptide promiscuous binding relied on fitting Y(12), L(15), and G(17) into P-1, P-4, and P-6, respectively. The implications of the findings and the future of this synthetic vaccine candidate are discussed.

  2. Identification of CRISP2 from human sperm as PSP94-binding protein and generation of CRISP2-specific anti-peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Anklesaria, Jenifer H; Kulkarni, Bhalchandra J; Pathak, Bhakti R; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-06-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are mainly found in the mammalian male reproductive tract and reported to be involved at different stages of fertilization. CRISPs have been shown to interact with prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) from diverse sources, and the binding of these evolutionarily conserved proteins across species is proposed to be of functional significance. Of the three mammalian CRISPs, PSP94-CRISP3 interaction is well characterized, and specific binding sites have been identified; whereas, CRISP2 has been shown to interact with PSP94 in vitro. Interestingly, human CRISP3 and CRISP2 proteins are closely related showing 71.4% identity. In this study, we identified CRISP2 as a potential binding protein of PSP94 from human sperm. Further, we generated antisera capable of specifically detecting CRISP2 and not CRISP3. In this direction, specific peptides corresponding to the least conserved ion channel regulatory region were synthesized, and polyclonal antibodies were generated against the peptide in rabbits. The binding characteristics of the anti-CRISP2 peptide antibody were evaluated using competitive ELISA. Immunoblotting experiments also confirmed that the peptide was able to generate antibodies capable of detecting the mature CRISP2 protein present in human sperm lysate. Furthermore, this anti-CRISP2 peptide antibody also detected the presence of native CRISP2 on sperm.Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Modulation of cluster incorporation specificity in a de novo iron-sulfur cluster binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Dayn Joseph; Roy, Anindya; Astashkin, Andrei; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    iron-sulfur cluster binding proteins perform an astounding variety of functions, and represent one of the most abundant classes of metalloproteins. Most often, they constitute pairs or chains and act as electron transfer modules either within complex redox enzymes or within small diffusible proteins. We have previously described the design of a three-helix bundle that can bind two clusters within its hydrophobic core. Here, we use single-point mutations to exchange one of the Cys ligands coordinating the cluster to either Leu or Ser. We show that the mutants modulate the redox potential of the clusters and stabilize the [3Fe-4S] form over the [4Fe-4S] form, supporting the use of model iron-sulfur cluster proteins as modules in the design of complex redox enzymes.

  4. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlstroem, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Waermlaender, Sebastian K.T.S.; Graeslund, Astrid

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu(II) and Zn(II) display pH-dependent binding to the A{beta}(1-40) peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 7.4 both metal ions display residue-specific binding to the A{beta} peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 5.5 the binding specificity is lost for Zn(II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding may help explain metal-induced AD toxicity. -- Abstract: Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled A{beta}(1-40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to A{beta} may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the A{beta} peptide under these conditions.

  5. Subtype-specific binding peptides enhance the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicine in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao-An; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Chang, Yen-Hou; Chen, Po-Hung; He, Chun-Lin; Wu, Han-Chung; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2015-04-28

    Currently, epithelial ovarian cancer is viewed as a heterogeneous disease with five major histological subtypes. Clear cell carcinoma represents a specific histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that demonstrates more aggressive clinical behavior and drug resistance compared with other subtypes. Nevertheless, clear cell carcinoma is treated in the same manner as the other subtypes without any particular consideration to its unique clinical characteristics. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of the current liposomal doxorubicin approach for the treatment of clear cell carcinoma, we aimed to develop a novel peptide-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin to actively target this subtype. Two phage clones (OC-6 and OC-26) that specifically bound to clear cell carcinoma were isolated from a phage peptide display library after biopanning procedures. The peptide sequences were translated and aligned (OCSP-6 for OC-6, and OCSP-26 for OC-26, respectively). Peptide-conjugated nanoparticles demonstrated better tumor endocytosis and time-dependent gradual increase of intracellular drug uptake than non-targeting liposomal nanoparticles. Furthermore, peptide-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin better controlled tumors than did non-targeting liposomal doxorubicin. The current work may pave a new way for the development of drugs that target each subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer in the future.

  6. The role of a basic amino acid cluster in target site selection and non-specific binding of bZIP peptides to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Metallo, S J; Paolella, D N; Schepartz, A

    1997-01-01

    The ability of a transcription factor to locate and bind its cognate DNA site in the presence of closely related sites and a vast array of non-specific DNA is crucial for cell survival. The CREB/ATF family of transcription factors is an important group of basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins that display high affinity for the CRE site and low affinity for the closely related AP-1 site. Members of the CREB/ATF family share in common a cluster of basic amino acids at the N-terminus of their bZIP element. This basic cluster is necessary and sufficient to cause the CRE site to bend upon binding of a CREB/ATF protein. The possibility that DNA bending and CRE/AP-1 specificity were linked in CREB/ATF proteins was investigated using chimeric peptides derived from human CRE-BP1 (a member of the CREB/ATF family) and yeast GCN4, which lacks both a basic cluster and CRE/AP-1 specificity. Gain of function and loss of function experiments demonstrated that the basic cluster was not responsible for the CRE/AP-1 specificity displayed by all characterized CREB/ATF proteins. The basic cluster was, however, responsible for inducing very high affinity for non- specific DNA. It was further shown that basic cluster-containing peptides bind non-specific DNA in a random coil conformation. We postulate that the high non- specific DNA affinities of basic cluster-containing peptides result from cooperative electrostatic interactions with the phosphate backbone that do not require peptide organization. PMID:9224594

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides with Differential Bacterial Binding Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    screened also displayed discriminatory binding to pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 relative to non -pathogenic E. coli ML35. The three fragments that were...screened for binding to pathogenic and non -pathogenic Escherichia coli (a Gram- negative bacterium) as well as Staphylococcus aureus (a Gram-positive...strain-specific (pathogenic vs. non -pathogenic E. coli). Several of the peptide fragments demonstrated the ability to discriminate between

  8. Different Thermodynamic Binding Mechanisms and Peptide Fine Specificities Associated with a Panel of Structurally Similar High-Affinity T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Colf, L; Bankovich, A; Stone, J; Gao, Y; Chan, C; Huang, R; Garcia, K; Kranz, D

    2008-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms that govern T cell receptor (TCR)-peptide MHC (pMHC) binding and the role that different regions of the TCR play in affinity and antigen specificity, we have studied the TCR from T cell clone 2C. High-affinity mutants of the 2C TCR that bind QL9-L{sup d} as a strong agonist were generated previously by site-directed mutagenesis of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1{Beta}, 2{alpha}, 3{alpha}, or 3{Beta}. We performed isothermal titration calorimetry to assess whether they use similar thermodynamic mechanisms to achieve high affinity for QL9-L{sup d}. Four of the five TCRs examined bound to QL9-L{sup d} in an enthalpically driven, entropically unfavorable manner. In contrast, the high-affinity CDR1{Beta} mutant resembled the wild-type 2C TCR interaction, with favorable entropy. To assess fine specificity, we measured the binding and kinetics of these mutants for both QL9-L{sup d} and a single amino acid peptide variant of QL9, called QL9-Y5-Ld. While 2C and most of the mutants had equal or higher affinity for the Y5 variant than for QL9, mutant CDR1{Beta} exhibited 8-fold lower affinity for Y5 compared to QL9. To examine possible structural correlates of the thermodynamic and fine specificity signatures of the TCRs, the structure of unliganded QL9-L{sup d} was solved and compared to structures of the 2C TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complex and three high-affinity TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complexes. Our findings show that the QL9-L{sup d} complex does not undergo major conformational changes upon binding. Thus, subtle changes in individual CDRs account for the diverse thermodynamic and kinetic binding mechanisms and for the different peptide fine specificities.

  9. Molecular mechanism of selective binding of peptides to silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sathish Kumar; Martin, Marta; Cloitre, Thierry; Firlej, Lucyna; Gergely, Csilla

    2014-07-28

    Despite extensive recent research efforts on material-specific peptides, the fundamental problem to be explored yet is the molecular interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces. Here we used computer simulations (density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics) to investigate the adsorption mechanism of silicon-binding peptides and the role of individual amino acids in the affinity of peptides for an n-type silicon (n(+)-Si) semiconductor. Three silicon binding 12-mer peptides previously elaborated using phage display technology have been studied. The peptides' conformations close to the surface have been determined and the best-binding amino acids have been identified. Adsorption energy calculations explain the experimentally observed different degrees of affinity of the peptides for n(+)-Si. Our residual scanning analysis demonstrates that the binding affinity relies on both the identity of the amino acid and its location in the peptide sequence.

  10. Method for generation of peptide-specific IgY antibodies directed to Staphylococcus aureus extracellular fibrinogen binding protein epitope.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Maciej; Grzywa, Renata; Łupicka-Słowik, Agnieszka; Skoreński, Marcin; Bobrek, Kamila; Nowak, Daria; Boivin, Stephane; Brown, Eric L; Oleksyszyn, Józef; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The IgY antibodies offer an attractive alternative to mammalian IgGs in research, diagnosis and medicine. The isolation of immunoglobulin Y from the egg yolks is efficient and economical, causing minimal suffering to animals. Here we present the methodology for the production of IgY antibodies specific to Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) and its peptidyl epitope (spanning residues 127-140). The Efb is an extracellular, adhesion protein which binds both human fibrinogen and complement C3 protein thus contributing to the high infectious potential of this pathogen. The selected epitope of Efb protein is responsible for the interaction with C3. The immunochemical characterization of both anti-Efb and epitope-specific IgY antibodies revealed their similar avidity, titer, and reactivity profile, although some differences in the hen's immune response to administered antigens is discussed.

  11. Floating gate memory with charge storage dots array formed by Dps protein modified with site-specific binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitake, Hiroki; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Okamoto, Naofumi; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Ichro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-05-01

    We report a nanodot (ND) floating gate memory (NFGM) with a high-density ND array formed by a biological nano process. We utilized two kinds of cage-shaped proteins displaying SiO2 binding peptide (minTBP-1) on their outer surfaces: ferritin and Dps, which accommodate cobalt oxide NDs in their cavities. The diameters of the cobalt NDs were regulated by the cavity sizes of the proteins. Because minTBP-1 is strongly adsorbed on the SiO2 surface, high-density cobalt oxide ND arrays were obtained by a simple spin coating process. The densities of cobalt oxide ND arrays based on ferritin and Dps were 6.8 × 1011 dots cm-2 and 1.2 × 1012 dots cm-2, respectively. After selective protein elimination and embedding in a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor, the charge capacities of both ND arrays were evaluated by measuring their C-V characteristics. The MOS capacitor embedded with the Dps ND array showed a wider memory window than the device embedded with the ferritin ND array. Finally, we fabricated an NFGM with a high-density ND array based on Dps, and confirmed its competent writing/erasing characteristics and long retention time.

  12. Design and structure of stapled peptides binding to estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris; Roberts, Lee R; Schade, Markus; Bazin, Richard; Bent, Andrew; Davies, Nichola L; Moore, Rob; Pannifer, Andrew D; Pickford, Andrew R; Prior, Stephen H; Read, Christopher M; Scott, Andrew; Brown, David G; Xu, Bin; Irving, Stephen L

    2011-06-29

    Synthetic peptides that specifically bind nuclear hormone receptors offer an alternative approach to small molecules for the modulation of receptor signaling and subsequent gene expression. Here we describe the design of a series of novel stapled peptides that bind the coactivator peptide site of estrogen receptors. Using a number of biophysical techniques, including crystal structure analysis of receptor-stapled peptide complexes, we describe in detail the molecular interactions and demonstrate that all-hydrocarbon staples modulate molecular recognition events. The findings have implications for the design of stapled peptides in general.

  13. Site-specific immobilization of recombinant antibody fragments through material-binding peptides for the sensitive detection of antigens in enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The immobilization of an antibody is one of the key technologies that are used to enhance the sensitivity and efficiency of the detection of target molecules in immunodiagnosis and immunoseparation. Recombinant antibody fragments such as VHH, scFv and Fabs produced by microorganisms are the next generation of ligand antibodies as an alternative to conventional whole Abs due to a smaller size and the possibility of site-directed immobilization with uniform orientation and higher antigen-binding activity in the adsorptive state. For the achievement of site-directed immobilization, affinity peptides for a certain ligand molecule or solid support must be introduced to the recombinant antibody fragments. In this mini-review, immobilization technologies for the whole antibodies (whole Abs) and recombinant antibody fragments onto the surfaces of plastics are introduced. In particular, the focus here is on immobilization technologies of recombinant antibody fragments utilizing affinity peptide tags, which possesses strong binding affinity towards the ligand molecules. Furthermore, I introduced the material-binding peptides that are capable of direct recognition of the target materials. Preparation and immobilization strategies for recombinant antibody fragments linked to material-binding peptides (polystyrene-binding peptides (PS-tags) and poly (methyl methacrylate)-binding peptide (PMMA-tag)) are the focus here, and are based on the enhancement of sensitivity and a reduction in the production costs of ligand antibodies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody.

  14. Alternative peptide binding motifs of Qa-2 class Ib molecules define rules for binding of self and nonself peptides.

    PubMed

    Tabaczewski, P; Chiang, E; Henson, M; Stroynowski, I

    1997-09-15

    Studies of naturally processed peptides eluted from membrane-bound and soluble isoforms of murine class Ib Qa-2 molecules determined several features of these ligands, such as the conserved nonameric length and the preferred usage of specific residues at four to six of nine peptide positions. The structural information derived from these studies proved insufficient to distinguish between two interpretations: 1) that Qa-2 are peptide receptors of higher stringency than ordinary class I molecules, and 2) that Qa-2 molecules, like classical class I Ags, bind diverse arrays of peptides. We have addressed this issue by a systematic analysis of peptide residues involved in the binding of membrane-bound Qa-2 molecule, MQ9b. The optimal binding of synthetic peptides in vitro occurs at neutral pH. Two dominant anchors are required for peptide binding to MQ9b: His at position 7 and a hydrophobic residue, Leu, Ile, or Phe, at position 9. In addition, one or two auxiliary anchors participate in binding. The identity and the position of the auxiliary anchors differ from peptide to peptide, suggesting that the binding motifs defined from pool sequencing are composed of many superimposed alternative motifs present in individual peptides. The number of anchors used by Qa-2 peptides is similar to that found in ligands of classical class I Ags. Consequently, the Qa-2 are predicted to bind large repertoires of self and nonself peptides. In support of this interpretation we demonstrate that MQ9b binds strongly 5 of 17 motif-positive, pathogen-derived synthetic peptides.

  15. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H

    1993-02-05

    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  16. Characterization of the peptide binding specificity of the HLA class I alleles B*38:01 and B*39:06

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Moore, Carrie; Lindvall, Mikaela; Wriston, Amanda; Hunt, Donald F.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; DiLorenzo, Teresa P.; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    B*38:01 and B*39:06 are present with phenotypic frequencies <2% in the general population, but are of interest as B*39:06 is the B allele most associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and 38:01 is most protective. A previous study derived putative main anchor motifs for both alleles based on peptide elution data. The present study has utilized panels of single amino acid substitution peptide libraries to derive detailed quantitative motifs accounting for both primary and secondary influences on peptide binding. From these analyses, both alleles were confirmed to utilize the canonical position 2/C-terminus main anchor spacing. B*38:01 preferentially bound peptides with the positively charged or polar residues H, R and Q in position 2, and the large hydrophobic residues I, F, L, W and M at the C-terminus. B*39:06 had a similar preference for R in position two, but also well tolerated M, Q and K. A more dramatic contrast between the two alleles was noted at the C-terminus, where the specificity of B*39:06 was clearly for small residues, with A as most preferred, followed by G, V, S, T, and I. Detailed position-by-position and residue-by-residue coefficient values were generated from the panels to provide detailed quantitative B*38:01 and B*39:06 motifs. It is hoped that these detailed motifs will facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of two class I alleles associated with dramatically different dispositions towards type 1 diabetes, offering potential avenues for investigation of the role of CD8 T cells in this disease. PMID:26754738

  17. Biodiscovery of Aluminum Binding Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high...scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the self- sustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high...removal. An eCPX peptide display library was grown and induced as described in the paragraph above. After rinsing samples briefly in PBS, the aluminum

  18. Peptide binding properties of the three PDZ domains of Bazooka (Drosophila Par-3).

    PubMed

    Yu, Cao Guo; Tonikian, Raffi; Felsensteiner, Corinna; Jhingree, Jacquelyn R; Desveaux, Darrell; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Harris, Tony J C

    2014-01-01

    The Par complex is a conserved cell polarity regulator. Bazooka/Par-3 is scaffold for the complex and contains three PDZ domains in tandem. PDZ domains can act singly or synergistically to bind the C-termini of interacting proteins. Sequence comparisons among Drosophila Baz and its human and C. elegans Par-3 counterparts indicate a divergence of the peptide binding pocket of PDZ1 and greater conservation for the pockets of PDZ2 and PDZ3. However, it is unclear whether the domains from different species share peptide binding preferences, or if their tandem organization affects their peptide binding properties. To investigate these questions, we first used phage display screens to identify unique peptide binding profiles for each single PDZ domain of Baz. Comparisons with published phage display screens indicate that Baz and C. elegans PDZ2 bind to similar peptides, and that the peptide binding preferences of Baz PDZ3 are more similar to C. elegans versus human PDZ3. Next we quantified the peptide binding preferences of each Baz PDZ domain using single identified peptides in surface plasmon resonance assays. In these direct binding studies, each peptide had a binding preference for a single PDZ domain (although the peptide binding of PDZ2 was weakest and the least specific). PDZ1 and PDZ3 bound their peptides with dissociation constants in the nM range, whereas PDZ2-peptide binding was in the µM range. To test whether tandem PDZ domain organization affects peptide binding, we examined a fusion protein containing all three PDZ domains and their normal linker regions. The binding strengths of the PDZ-specific peptides to single PDZ domains and to the PDZ domain tandem were indistinguishable. Thus, the peptide binding pockets of each PDZ domain in Baz are not obviously affected by the presence of neighbouring PDZ domains, but act as isolated modules with specific in vitro peptide binding preferences.

  19. An extended CCR5-ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Naama; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Scherf, Tali; Anglister, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 serves as a co-receptor for the Human Immunodefficiency Virus type-1, HIV-1. The CCR5 N-terminal segment, the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and the transmembrane helices have been implicated in binding the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the putative ECL2 as well as peptides containing the ECL1 and ECL3 were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The aromatic residues in the C-terminal half of an ECL2 peptide were shown to interact with gp120. In the present study we determined that in aqueous buffer the segment Q188-Q194 in an elongated ECL2 peptide (R168 to K197) forms an amphiphilic helix, which corresponds to the beginning of the fifth transmembrane helix in the crystal structure of CCR5. Two dimensional Saturation Transfer Difference NMR spectroscopy and dynamic filtering studies revealed the involvement of Y187, F189, W190 and F193 of the helical segment, in the interaction with gp120. The crystal structure of CCR5 shows that the aromatic side chains of F189, W190 and F193 point away from the binding pocket and interact with the membrane or with an adjacent CCR5 molecule and therefore, could not interact with gp120 in the intact CCR5 receptor. We conclude that these three aromatic residues of ECL2 peptides interact with gp120 through hydrophobic interactions not representative of the interactions of the intact CCR5 receptor. The HIV-1 inhibition by ECL2 peptides as well as by ECL1 and ECL3 peptides and peptides corresponding to ECL2 of CXCR4, which serves as an alternative HIV-1 co-receptor, suggests that there is a hydrophobic surface in the envelope spike that could be a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:25703038

  20. Identification of peptides that bind to irradiated pancreatic tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Canhui; Liu, Xiang Y.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S. . E-mail: tsl@med.umich.edu

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Peptides targeting tumor vascular cells or tumor cells themselves have the potential to be used as vectors for delivering either DNA in gene therapy or antitumor agents in chemotherapy. We wished to determine if peptides identified by phage display could be used to target irradiated pancreatic cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Irradiated Capan-2 cells were incubated with 5 x 10{sup 12} plaque-forming units of a phage display library. Internalized phage were recovered and absorbed against unirradiated cells. After five such cycles of enrichment, the recovered phage were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis and synthetic peptides made. The binding of both phage and synthetic peptides was evaluated by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry in vitro and in vivo. Results: We identified one 12-mer peptide (PA1) that binds to irradiated Capan-2 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells but not to unirradiated cells. The binding of peptide was significant after 48 h incubation with cells. In vivo experiments with Capan-2 xenografts in nude mice demonstrated that these small peptides are able to penetrate tumor tissue after intravenous injections and bind specifically to irradiated tumor cells. Conclusion: These data suggest that peptides can be identified that target tumors with radiation-induced cell markers and may be clinically useful.

  1. Engineering short peptide sequences for uranyl binding.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Colette; Starck, Matthieu; Gathu, Vicky; Chenavier, Yves; Delangle, Pascale

    2014-12-08

    Peptides are interesting tools to rationalize uranyl-protein interactions, which are relevant to uranium toxicity in vivo. Structured cyclic peptide scaffolds were chosen as promising candidates to coordinate uranyl thanks to four amino acid side chains pre-oriented towards the dioxo cation equatorial plane. The binding of uranyl by a series of decapeptides has been investigated with complementary analytical and spectroscopic methods to determine the key parameters for the formation of stable uranyl-peptide complexes. The molar ellipticity of the uranyl complex at 195 nm is directly correlated to its stability, which demonstrates that the β-sheet structure is optimal for high stability in the peptide series. Cyclodecapeptides with four glutamate residues exhibit the highest affinities for uranyl with log KC =8.0-8.4 and, therefore, appear as good starting points for the design of high-affinity uranyl-chelating peptides.

  2. Selective peptide binding using facially amphiphilic dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Escudero, Andrea; Azagarsamy, Malar A; Theddu, Naresh; Vachet, Richard W; Thayumanavan, S

    2008-08-20

    Amphiphilic dendrimers, which contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in every repeat unit, exhibit environment-dependent assemblies both in hydrophilic solvent, water, and in lipophilic solvent, toluene. Upon investigating the status of these assemblies in a mixture of immiscible solvents, these dendrimers were found to be kinetically trapped in the solvent in which they are initially assembled. This property has been exploited to selectively extract peptides from aqueous solution into an organic phase, where the peptides bind to the interior functionalities of the dendritic inverse micelles. While the corresponding small molecule surfactant does not exhibit any selective binding toward peptides, all dendrons (G1-G3) are capable of this selective binding. We show that the inverse micelle-type assembly itself is crucial for the binding event and that the assembly formed by the G1 dendron has a greater capability for binding compared to the G2 or G3 dendrons. We have also shown that the average apparent pKa of the carboxylic acid functionalities varies with generation, and this could be the reason for the observed differences in binding capacity.

  3. Identification of tissue-specific targeting peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Daejin; Park, Kisoo; Choi, Kihang; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Using phage display technique, we identified tissue-targeting peptide sets that recognize specific tissues (bone-marrow dendritic cell, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and visceral adipose tissue). In order to rapidly evaluate tissue-specific targeting peptides, we performed machine learning studies for predicting the tissue-specific targeting activity of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information using four machine learning models and isolated the groups of peptides capable of mediating selective targeting to specific tissues. As a representative liver-specific targeting sequence, the peptide "DKNLQLH" was selected by the sequence similarity analysis. This peptide has a high degree of homology with protein ligands which can interact with corresponding membrane counterparts. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the prediction of tissue-specific targeting peptides which can recognize the endothelial markers of target tissues.

  4. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Genetically Engineered Inorganic Binding Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresswell, Carolyn Gayle

    Understanding how organisms are capable of forming (synthesize, crystallize, and organize) solid minerals into complex architectures has been a fundamental question of biomimetic materials chemistry and biomineralization for decades. This study utilizes short peptides selected using a cell surface display library for the specific polymorphs of calcium carbonate, i.e., aragonite and calcite, to identify two sets of sequences which can then be used to examine their effects in the formation, crystal structure, morphology of the CaCO3 minerals. A procedure of counter selection, along with fluorescence microscopy (FM) characterization, was adapted to insure that the sequences on the cells were specific to their respective substrate, i.e., aragonite or calcite. From the resulting two sets of sequences selected, five distinct strong binders were identified with a variety of biochemical characteristics and synthesized for further study. Protein derived peptides, using the known sequences of the proteins that are associated with calcite or aragonite, were also designed using a bioinformatics-based similarity analysis of the two sets of binders. In particular, an aragonite binding protein segment, AP7, a protein found in nacre, was chosen for this design and the resulting effects of the designed peptides and the AP7 were examined. Specifically, the binding affinities of the selected and the protein derived peptides off the cells were then tested using FM; these studies resulted in different binding characteristics of the synthesized and cellular bound peptides. Two of the peptides that displayed strong binding on the cells bound to neither of the CaCO 3 substrates and both the high and low similarity protein-derived peptides bound to both polymorphs. However, two of the peptides were found to only bind to their respective polymorph showing; these results are significant in that with this study it is demonstrated that the designed peptides based on experimental library

  5. Secondary structure propensity and chirality of the amyloidophilic peptide p5 and its analogues impacts ligand binding - In vitro characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Wall, Jonathan S.; Williams, Angela; Wooliver, Craig; ...

    2016-08-11

    Here, polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radio labeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogues of p5 that modify helicity and chirality.

  6. Unusual features of Self-Peptide/MHC Binding by Autoimmune T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson,M.; Hahn, M.; Wucherpfennig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies on T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign antigens demonstrated a remarkably similar topology characterized by a central, diagonal TCR binding mode that maximizes interactions with the MHC bound peptide. However, three recent structures involving autoimmune TCRs demonstrated unusual interactions with self-peptide/MHC complexes. Two TCRs from multiple sclerosis patients bind with unconventional topologies, and both TCRs are shifted toward the peptide N terminus and the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. A TCR from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model binds in a conventional orientation, but the structure is unusual because the self-peptide only partially fills the binding site. For all three TCRs, interaction with the MHC bound self-peptide is suboptimal, and only two or three TCR loops contact the peptide. Optimal TCR binding modes confer a competitive advantage for antimicrobial T cells during an infection, whereas altered binding properties may permit survival of a subset of autoreactive T cells during thymic selection.

  7. Characterization of histamine H/sub 1/-receptor binding peptides in guinea pig brain using (/sup 125/I)iodoazidophenpyramine, an irreversible specific photoaffinity probe

    SciTech Connect

    Ruat, M.; Koerner, M.; Garbarg, M.; Gros, C.; Schwartz, J.C.; Tertiuk, W.; Ganellin, C.R.

    1988-04-01

    Aminophenpyramine, a derivative of mepyramine (pyrilamine), a typical antagonists of histamine at its H/sub 1/ receptor was synthesized and converted into (/sup 125/I)iodoazidophenpyramine, a potential photoaffinity probe for the H/sub 1/ receptor. In the dark, reversible binding of this probe to cerebellar membranes occurred with a K/sub d/ of 1.2 x 10/sup -11/ M and a B/sub max/ of 240 fmol/mg of protein and was inhibited by various H/sub 1/-receptor antagonists with the expected potencies. These features establish the compound as one of the most potent H/sub 1/-receptor antagonists known so far. Upon IV irradiation, 5% of the bound radioactivity was covalently incorporated into cerebellar membrane polypeptides as shown by standard NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. Two bands of 47 and 56 kDa were consistently labeled, labeling being prevented by various H/sub 1/-receptor antagonists with the expected potencies and stereoselectivity. In the presence of protease inhibitors, labeling of the 56-kDa peptide increased at the expense of the 47-kDa peptide, suggesting that the latter was produced by hydrolysis of the former under the action of membrane proteases. In the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, a band of 350-400 kDa appeared, apparently at the expense of the lighter bands, suggesting that the latter might be linked by one or more disulfide bridges to a higher molecular mass complex. The authors propose that at least part of the ligand binding domain of the histamine H/sub 1/ receptor resides within a subunit of apparent molecular mass 56,000.

  8. A geometric and algebraic view of MHC-peptide complexes and their binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pedro; Fan, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules present peptides to T lymphocytes. It is of critical biological and medical importance to elucidate how different MHC alleles bind to a specific set of peptides. Method In this study we approach the problem from the algebraic and geometric point of view to analyse MHC-peptide-binding data accumulated over the years. The space of sequence properties (having a particular amino acid at a particular position) of MHC-peptide complexes conveys a geometric structure to these sequence properties in the form of a distance measure, which reveals the peptide binding requirements imposed by the polymorphic sequence characteristics of the MHC molecules. Results Comparison of the results of this study with our current knowledge of MHC-peptide binding constraints leads to robust agreement. This study provides the tools to quantitate these binding constraints giving a more detailed account of them and opening the way to make peptide binding predictions for MHC alleles for which there is no peptide elution data. In addition, the geometric representation of MHC-peptide complex sequence data gives a distance measure between amino acids in reference to their ability to meet MHC binding requirements. Conclusions The algebraic and geometric view of amino acid sequences provides a theoretical framework to study the function of proteins when there is enough variation in this sequence to account for the variation in their function, as it is the case with MHC molecules in regard to their ability to present peptides. PMID:11472639

  9. Filaggrin peptides with β-hairpin structure bind rheumatoid arthritis antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sabrina; Geyer, Armin

    2014-04-07

    In the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synthetic filaggrin peptides serve as antigens for rheumatoid-specific autoantibodies (anti-citrullinated peptide antibody, ACPA) in ELISA tests. In this work we present a peptide that exhibits the binding epitope of ACPA in the form of a stable folding β-hairpin. The homogeneity of the peptide folding was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and might lead to the first proposed structure of the antibody-bound conformation of the epitope.

  10. Predicting sequences and structures of MHC-binding peptides: a computational combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jun; Treutlein, Herbert R.; Rudy, George B.

    2001-06-01

    Peptides bound to MHC molecules on the surface of cells convey critical information about the cellular milieu to immune system T cells. Predicting which peptides can bind an MHC molecule, and understanding their modes of binding, are important in order to design better diagnostic and therapeutic agents for infectious and autoimmune diseases. Due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient experimental binding data for each human MHC molecule, computational modeling of MHC peptide-binding properties is necessary. This paper describes a computational combinatorial design approach to the prediction of peptides that bind an MHC molecule of known X-ray crystallographic or NMR-determined structure. The procedure uses chemical fragments as models for amino acid residues and produces a set of sequences for peptides predicted to bind in the MHC peptide-binding groove. The probabilities for specific amino acids occurring at each position of the peptide are calculated based on these sequences, and these probabilities show a good agreement with amino acid distributions derived from a MHC-binding peptide database. The method also enables prediction of the three-dimensional structure of MHC-peptide complexes. Docking, linking, and optimization procedures were performed with the XPLOR program [1].

  11. Method of identity analyte-binding peptides

    DOEpatents

    Kauvar, L.M.

    1990-10-16

    A method for affinity chromatography or adsorption of a designated analyte utilizes a paralog as the affinity partner. The immobilized paralog can be used in purification or analysis of the analyte; the paralog can also be used as a substitute for antibody in an immunoassay. The paralog is identified by screening candidate peptide sequences of 4--20 amino acids for specific affinity to the analyte. 5 figs.

  12. Method of identity analyte-binding peptides

    DOEpatents

    Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for affinity chromatography or adsorption of a designated analyte utilizes a paralog as the affinity partner. The immobilized paralog can be used in purification or analysis of the analyte; the paralog can also be used as a substitute for antibody in an immunoassay. The paralog is identified by screening candidate peptide sequences of 4-20 amino acids for specific affinity to the analyte.

  13. Peptide-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles: effects of peptide sequence and nature of binding on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Tang, Zhenghua; Prasad, Paras N; Knecht, Marc R; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-03-21

    Biomimetic nanotechnologies that use peptides to guide the growth and assembly of nanostructures offer new avenues for the creation of functional nanomaterials and manipulation of their physicochemical properties. However, the impacts of peptide sequence and binding motif upon the surface characteristics and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles remain poorly understood. The configurations of the biomolecules are expected to be extremely important for directing the synthesis and achieving desired material functionality, and these binding motifs will vary with the peptide sequence. Here, we have prepared a series of Au nanoparticles capped with a variety of materials-directing peptides with known affinity for metal surfaces. These nanomaterials were characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy, and ζ-potential measurement. Then their catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol reduction was analyzed. The results indicate that substantially different Au-peptide interfaces are generated using different peptide sequences, even when these sequences have similar binding affinity. This is consistent with recent work showing that Au-peptide binding affinity can have varying entropic and enthalpic contributions, with enthalpically- and entropically-driven binders exhibiting quite different ensembles of configurations on the Au surface. The catalytic activity, as reflected by the measured activation energy, did not correlate with the particle size or with the binding affinity of the peptides, suggesting that the reactivity of these materials is governed by the more subtle details of the conformation of the bound peptide and on the nanoparticle surface reconstruction as dictated by the peptide structure. Such variations in both nanoparticle surface reconstruction and peptide configuration could potentially be used to program specific functionality into the peptide-capped nanomaterials.

  14. Efficient conformational sampling of peptides adsorbed onto inorganic surfaces: insights from a quartz binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Wright, Louise B; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2013-04-07

    Harnessing the properties of biomolecules, such as peptides, adsorbed on inorganic surfaces is of interest to many cross-disciplinary areas of science, ranging from biomineralisation to nanomedicine. Key to advancing research in this area is determination of the peptide conformation(s) in its adsorbed state, at the aqueous interface. Molecular simulation is one such approach for accomplishing this goal. In this respect, use of temperature-based replica-exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) can yield enhanced sampling of the interfacial conformations, but does so at great computational expense, chiefly because of the need to include an explicit representation of water at the interface. Here, we investigate a number of more economical variations on REMD, chiefly those based on Replica Exchange with Solvent Tempering (REST), using the aqueous quartz-binding peptide S1-(100) α-quartz interfacial system as a benchmark. We also incorporate additional implementation details specifically targeted at improving sampling of biomolecules at interfaces. We find the REST-based variants yield configurational sampling of the peptide-surface system comparable with T-REMD, at a fraction of the computational time and resource. Our findings also deliver novel insights into the binding behaviour of the S1 peptide at the quartz (100) surface that are consistent with available experimental data.

  15. Evidence of widespread binding of HLA class I molecules to peptides

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the binding of HLA class I proteins to peptides using a solid-phase binding assay. We tested 102 peptides, mostly derived from the HIV gag and HIV pol sequences. Most peptides did not bind to any class I protein tested. The pattern of binding among the three class I proteins tested, HLA-A2, -B27, and -B8, was approximately 85% concordant. Further, all five of the known HIV-1 gag T cell epitopes detected by human CTL bound at least one class I protein. Binding of class I to the peptides could be detected either by directly iodinated class I proteins, or indirectly using monoclonal antibodies specific for class I. The binding to the plates could be blocked with MA2.1, which binds in the alpha 1 region of A2, but not by W6/32, which binds elsewhere. The data presented here show that binding of class I to peptides is specific, but that many peptides bind to more than a single class I protein. PMID:2201749

  16. Synthetic peptides mimicking the binding site of human acetylcholinesterase for its inhibitor fasciculin 2.

    PubMed

    Kafurke, Uwe; Erijman, Ariel; Aizner, Yonatan; Shifman, Julia M; Eichler, Jutta

    2015-09-01

    Molecules capable of mimicking protein binding and/or functional sites present useful tools for a range of biomedical applications, including the inhibition of protein-ligand interactions. Such mimics of protein binding sites can currently be generated through structure-based design and chemical synthesis. Computational protein design could be further used to optimize protein binding site mimetics through rationally designed mutations that improve intermolecular interactions or peptide stability. Here, as a model for the study, we chose an interaction between human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and its inhibitor fasciculin-2 (Fas) because the structure and function of this complex is well understood. Structure-based design of mimics of the hAChE binding site for Fas yielded a peptide that binds to Fas at micromolar concentrations. Replacement of hAChE residues known to be essential for its interaction with Fas with alanine, in this peptide, resulted in almost complete loss of binding to Fas. Computational optimization of the hAChE mimetic peptide yielded a variant with slightly improved affinity to Fas, indicating that more rounds of computational optimization will be required to obtain peptide variants with greatly improved affinity for Fas. CD spectra in the absence and presence of Fas point to conformational changes in the peptide upon binding to Fas. Furthermore, binding of the optimized hAChE mimetic peptide to Fas could be inhibited by hAChE, providing evidence for a hAChE-specific peptide-Fas interaction.

  17. Crystal Structures of Beryllium Fluoride-Free and Beryllium Fluoride-Bound CheY in Complex with the Conserved C-Terminal Peptide of CheZ Reveal Dual Binding Modes Specific to CheY Conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Guhaniyogi,J.; Robinson, V.; Stock, A.

    2006-01-01

    Chemotaxis, the environment-specific swimming behavior of a bacterial cell is controlled by flagellar rotation. The steady-state level of the phosphorylated or activated form of the response regulator CheY dictates the direction of flagellar rotation. CheY phosphorylation is regulated by a fine equilibrium of three phosphotransfer activities: phosphorylation by the kinase CheA, its auto-dephosphorylation and dephosphorylation by its phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two spatially distinct protein-protein contacts: tethering of the two proteins to each other and formation of an active site for dephosphorylation. The former involves interaction of phosphorylated CheY with the small highly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZ{sub C}), an indispensable structural component of the functional CheZ protein. To understand how the CheZ{sub C} helix, representing less than 10% of the full-length protein, ascertains molecular specificity of binding to CheY, we have determined crystal structures of CheY in complex with a synthetic peptide corresponding to 15 C-terminal residues of CheZ (CheZ{sub 200-214}) at resolutions ranging from 2.0 Angstroms to 2.3 Angstroms. These structures provide a detailed view of the CheZC peptide interaction both in the presence and absence of the phosphoryl analog, BeF{sub 3}{sup -}. Our studies reveal that two different modes of binding the CheZ{sub 200-214} peptide are dictated by the conformational state of CheY in the complex. Our structures suggest that the CheZ{sub C} helix binds to a 'meta-active' conformation of inactive CheY and it does so in an orientation that is distinct from the one in which it binds activated CheY. Our dual binding mode hypothesis provides implications for reverse information flow in CheY and extends previous observations on inherent resilience in CheY-like signaling domains.

  18. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) B27 Allotype-Specific Binding and Candidate Arthritogenic Peptides Revealed through Heuristic Clustering of Data-independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry (DIA-MS) Data.

    PubMed

    Schittenhelm, Ralf B; Sivaneswaran, Saranjah; Lim Kam Sian, Terry C C; Croft, Nathan P; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-06-01

    Expression of HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other spondyloarthropathies. While this is true for the majority of HLA-B27 allotypes, HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 are not associated with AS. These two subtypes contain polymorphisms that are ideally positioned to influence the bound peptide repertoire. The existence of disease-inducing peptides (so-called arthritogenic peptides) has therefore been proposed that are exclusively presented by disease-associated HLA-B27 allotypes. However, we have recently demonstrated that this segregation of allotype-bound peptides is not the case and that many peptides that display sequence features predicted to favor binding to disease-associated subtypes are also capable of being presented naturally by protective alleles. To further probe more subtle quantitative changes in peptide presentation, we have used a combination of data-independent acquisition (DIA) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry to quantify the abundance of 1646 HLA-B27 restricted peptides across the eight most frequent HLA-B27 allotypes (HLA-B*27:02-HLA-B*27:09). We utilized K means cluster analysis to group peptides with similar allelic binding preferences across the eight HLA-B27 allotypes, which enabled us to identify the most-stringent binding characteristics for each HLA-B27 allotype and further refined their existing consensus-binding motifs. Moreover, a thorough analysis of this quantitative dataset led to the identification of 26 peptides, which are presented in lower abundance by HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 compared with disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes. Although these differences were observed to be very subtle, these 26 peptides might encompass the sought-after arthritogenic peptide(s).

  19. Computational modeling of peptide-aptamer binding.

    PubMed

    Rhinehardt, Kristen L; Mohan, Ram V; Srinivas, Goundla

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is the progressive process that holds each living creature in its grasp. From strands of DNA evolution shapes life with response to our ever-changing environment and time. It is the continued study of this most primitive process that has led to the advancement of modern biology. The success and failure in the reading, processing, replication, and expression of genetic code and its resulting biomolecules keep the delicate balance of life. Investigations into these fundamental processes continue to make headlines as science continues to explore smaller scale interactions with increasing complexity. New applications and advanced understanding of DNA, RNA, peptides, and proteins are pushing technology and science forward and together. Today the addition of computers and advances in science has led to the fields of computational biology and chemistry. Through these computational advances it is now possible not only to quantify the end results but also visualize, analyze, and fully understand mechanisms by gaining deeper insights. The biomolecular motion that exists governing the physical and chemical phenomena can now be analyzed with the advent of computational modeling. Ever-increasing computational power combined with efficient algorithms and components are further expanding the fidelity and scope of such modeling and simulations. This chapter discusses computational methods that apply biological processes, in particular computational modeling of peptide-aptamer binding.

  20. Major histocompatibility complex conformational epitopes are peptide specific

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Serologically distinct forms of H-2Kb are stabilized by loading cells expressing "empty" class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with different H-2Kb binding peptides. The H-2Kb epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 28.8.6 was stabilized by ovalbumin (OVA) (257-264) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) pp89 (168- 176) peptides, but not by vesicular stomatic virus nucleoprotein (VSV NP) (52-59) and influenza NP (Y345-360) peptides. The H-2Kb epitope recognized by mAb 34.4.20 was stabilized by VSV NP (52-59) peptide but not by OVA (257-264), MCMV pp89 (168-176), or influenza NP (Y345-360) peptides. Immunoprecipitation of H-2Kb molecules from normal cells showed that 28.8.6 and 34.4.20 epitopes were only present on a subset of all conformationally reactive H-2Kb molecules. Using alanine- substituted derivatives of the VSV peptide, the 28.8.6 epitope was completely stabilized by substitution of the first residue and partially stabilized by substitution of the third or the fifth residues in the peptides. These results indicate that distinct conformational MHC epitopes are dependent on the specific peptide that occupies the antigenic peptide binding groove on individual MHC molecules. The changes in MHC epitopes observed may also be important in understanding the diversity of T cell receptors used in an immune response and the influence of peptides on development of the T cell repertoire. PMID:1281212

  1. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of small GTP-binding proteins. Lack of amino acid sequence specificity and importance of polybasic motif.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Gorzalczany, Y; Koshkin, V; Pick, E

    1994-11-18

    The small GTP-binding protein (G protein) Rac1 is an obligatory participant in the assembly of the superoxide (O2-.)-generating NADPH oxidase complex of macrophages. We investigated the effect of synthetic peptides, mapping within the near carboxyl-terminal domains of Rac1 and of related G proteins, on the activity of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of solubilized guinea pig macrophage membrane, a cytosolic fraction enriched in p47phox and p67phox (or total cytosol), highly purified Rac1-GDP dissociation inhibitor for Rho (Rho GDI) complex, and the activating amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. Peptides Rac1-(178-188) and Rac1-(178-191), but not Rac2-(178-188), inhibited NADPH oxidase activity in a Rac1-dependent system when added prior to or simultaneously with the initiation of activation. However, undecapeptides corresponding to the near carboxyl-terminal domains of RhoA and RhoC and, most notably, a peptide containing the same amino acids as Rac1-(178-188), but in reversed orientation, were also inhibitory. Surprisingly, O2-. production in a Rac2-dependent cell-free system was inhibited by Rac1-(178-188) but not by Rac2-(178-188). Finally, basic polyamino acids containing lysine, histidine, or arginine, also inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of certain small G proteins is not amino acid sequence-specific but related to the presence of a polybasic motif. It has been proposed that such a motif serves as a plasma membrane targeting signal for a number of small G proteins (Hancock, J.F., Paterson, H., and Marshall, C.J. (1990) Cell 63, 133-139).

  2. Evolution of domain-peptide interactions to coadapt specificity and affinity to functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Kelil, Abdellali; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2016-07-05

    Evolution of complexity in eukaryotic proteomes has arisen, in part, through emergence of modular independently folded domains mediating protein interactions via binding to short linear peptides in proteins. Over 30 years, structural properties and sequence preferences of these peptides have been extensively characterized. Less successful, however, were efforts to establish relationships between physicochemical properties and functions of domain-peptide interactions. To our knowledge, we have devised the first strategy to exhaustively explore the binding specificity of protein domain-peptide interactions. We applied the strategy to SH3 domains to determine the properties of their binding peptides starting from various experimental data. The strategy identified the majority (∼70%) of experimentally determined SH3 binding sites. We discovered mutual relationships among binding specificity, binding affinity, and structural properties and evolution of linear peptides. Remarkably, we found that these properties are also related to functional diversity, defined by depth of proteins within hierarchies of gene ontologies. Our results revealed that linear peptides evolved to coadapt specificity and affinity to functional diversity of domain-peptide interactions. Thus, domain-peptide interactions follow human-constructed gene ontologies, which suggest that our understanding of biological process hierarchies reflect the way chemical and thermodynamic properties of linear peptides and their interaction networks, in general, have evolved.

  3. Evolution of domain–peptide interactions to coadapt specificity and affinity to functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kelil, Abdellali; Levy, Emmanuel D.; Michnick, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of complexity in eukaryotic proteomes has arisen, in part, through emergence of modular independently folded domains mediating protein interactions via binding to short linear peptides in proteins. Over 30 years, structural properties and sequence preferences of these peptides have been extensively characterized. Less successful, however, were efforts to establish relationships between physicochemical properties and functions of domain–peptide interactions. To our knowledge, we have devised the first strategy to exhaustively explore the binding specificity of protein domain–peptide interactions. We applied the strategy to SH3 domains to determine the properties of their binding peptides starting from various experimental data. The strategy identified the majority (∼70%) of experimentally determined SH3 binding sites. We discovered mutual relationships among binding specificity, binding affinity, and structural properties and evolution of linear peptides. Remarkably, we found that these properties are also related to functional diversity, defined by depth of proteins within hierarchies of gene ontologies. Our results revealed that linear peptides evolved to coadapt specificity and affinity to functional diversity of domain–peptide interactions. Thus, domain–peptide interactions follow human-constructed gene ontologies, which suggest that our understanding of biological process hierarchies reflect the way chemical and thermodynamic properties of linear peptides and their interaction networks, in general, have evolved. PMID:27317745

  4. Probing the mechanism of material specific peptides for optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sathish K.; Estephan, Elias; Martin, Marta; Cloitre, Thierry; Gergely, Csilla

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to engineer bio-nanomaterials with programmed synthesis and controlled immobilization of biomolecules through biomimetic molecular evolution approach has been demonstrated. Material specific peptides with exquisite molecular recognition function were used as a linker for the attachment of biomolecules. Exploring the origin of peptide material specificity not only opens up rational design approach with precise control over biomimetic bio-sensor design, but more importantly provides a new route of functionalizing for various material surfaces with enhanced sensitivity over classical grafting chemistry. To study the fine prints of experimentally obtained peptides, theoretical understanding of surface interactions may serve as important clues for further refinement. By taking advantage of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the origin of this smart recognition function through the strength of interaction of experimentally selected 12mer peptides revealing high binding affinity towards n+-Si(100). Here, we attempt for the very first time to model the interaction of the peptides (in buffer solution) with semiconductors and we calculate their binding energies at the atomic level, enabling thereby linking direct evidence to our experimental evidence. Several peptide conformations have been taken into account simultaneously upon the surface. Our studies demonstrate that the peptides possess certain recognition function and their high interaction energy with the surface makes them unique among the populations. Our work is a step towards the understanding of the interactions between peptides and semiconductor surfaces that is a highly relevant challenge in the development of novel devices with a high degree of biocompatibility as well.

  5. Engineering of the function of diamond-like carbon binding peptides through structural design.

    PubMed

    Gabryelczyk, Bartosz; Szilvay, Géza R; Singh, Vivek K; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Koskinen, Jari; Linder, Markus B

    2015-02-09

    The use of phage display to select material-specific peptides provides a general route towards modification and functionalization of surfaces and interfaces. However, a rational structural engineering of the peptides for optimal affinity is typically not feasible because of insufficient structure-function understanding. Here, we investigate the influence of multivalency of diamond-like carbon (DLC) binding peptides on binding characteristics. We show that facile linking of peptides together using different lengths of spacers and multivalency leads to a tuning of affinity and kinetics. Notably, increased length of spacers in divalent systems led to significantly increased affinities. Making multimers influenced also kinetic aspects of surface competition. Additionally, the multivalent peptides were applied as surface functionalization components for a colloidal form of DLC. The work suggests the use of a set of linking systems to screen parameters for functional optimization of selected material-specific peptides.

  6. Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkes, Deborah A.; Dorsey, Brandi L.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2015-05-01

    In today's fast-paced world, a new biological threat could emerge at any time, necessitating a prompt, reliable, inexpensive detection reagent in each case. Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high affinity peptide reagents in days to weeks. Utilizing the eCPX display scaffold is also a rapid way to screen potential peptide reagents. Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using bacterial display. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the consensus sequence WXCFTC. Additionally, we have discovered PA binding peptides with a WW motif, one of which, YGLHPWWKNAPIGQR, can pull down PA from 1% human serum. The strength of these two motifs combined, to obtain a WWCFTC consensus, is assessed here using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). While monitoring binding to PA, overall expression of the display scaffold was assessed using the YPet Mona expression control tag (YPet), and specificity was assessed by binding to Streptavidin R-Phycoerythrin (SAPE). The importance of high YPet binding is highlighted as many of the peptides in one of the three replicate experiments fell below our 80% binding threshold. We demonstrate that it is preferable to discard this experiment, due to questionable expression of the peptide itself, than to try to normalize for relative expression. The peptides containing the WWCFTC consensus were of higher affinity and greater specificity than the peptides containing the WW consensus alone, validating further investigation to optimize known PA binders.

  7. Machine Learning Methods for Predicting HLA–Peptide Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-01-01

    As major histocompatibility complexes in humans, the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have important functions to present antigen peptides onto T-cell receptors for immunological recognition and responses. Interpreting and predicting HLA–peptide binding are important to study T-cell epitopes, immune reactions, and the mechanisms of adverse drug reactions. We review different types of machine learning methods and tools that have been used for HLA–peptide binding prediction. We also summarize the descriptors based on which the HLA–peptide binding prediction models have been constructed and discuss the limitation and challenges of the current methods. Lastly, we give a future perspective on the HLA–peptide binding prediction method based on network analysis. PMID:26512199

  8. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  9. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  10. Differential peptide binding to CD40 evokes counteractive responses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Srijit; Alonso-Sarduy, Livan; Alonso, Livan; Roduit, Charles; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Singh, Shailza; Saha, Shipra; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Roy, Somenath; Dietler, Giovanni; Kasas, Sandor; Das, Pradeep; Krishnasastry, M V; Saha, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    The antigen-presenting cell–expressed CD40 is implied in the regulation of counteractive immune responses such as induction of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)–12 and IL-10, respectively. The mechanism of this duality in CD40 function remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether such duality depends on ligand binding. Based on CD40 binding, we identifed two dodecameric peptides, peptide-7 and peptide-19, from the phage peptide library. Peptide-7 induces IL-10 and increases Leishmania donovani infection in macrophages, whereas peptide-19 induces IL-12 and reduces L. donovani infection. CD40-peptide interaction analyses by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy suggest that the functional differences are not associated with the studied interaction parameters. The molecular dynamic simulation of the CD40-peptides interaction suggests that these two peptides bind to two different places on CD40. Thus, we suggest for the first time that differential binding of the ligands imparts functional duality to CD40.

  11. HLA-B37 and HLA-A2.1 molecules bind largely nonoverlapping sets of peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Carreno, B M; Anderson, R W; Coligan, J E; Biddison, W E

    1990-01-01

    T-cell recognition of peptides that are bound and presented by class I major histocompatibility complex molecules is highly specific. At present it is unclear what role class I peptide binding plays relative to T-cell receptor specificity in determination of immune recognition. A previous study from our group demonstrated that the HLA-A2.1 molecule could bind to 25% of the members of a panel of unrelated synthetic peptides as assessed by a functional peptide competition assay. To determine the peptide-binding specificity of another HLA class I molecule, we have examined the capacity of this panel of peptides to compete for the presentation of influenza virus nucleoprotein peptide NP-(335-350) by HLA-B37 to NP-peptide-specific HLA-B37-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lines. Forty-two percent of peptides tested were capable of inhibiting NP-(335-350) presentation by HLA-B37. Remarkably, none of these HLA-B37-binding peptides belong to the subset that was previously shown to bind to the HLA-A2.1 molecule. Only the NP-(335-350) peptide was capable of binding to both HLA-A2.1 and HLA-B37. These findings demonstrate that the peptide-binding specificities of HLA-B37 and HLA-A2.1 are largely nonoverlapping and suggest that, from the universe of peptides, individual HLA class I molecules can bind to clearly distinct subsets of these peptides. PMID:2333291

  12. Critical contribution of beta chain residue 57 in peptide binding ability of both HLA-DR and -DQ molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Nepom, B S; Nepom, G T; Coleman, M; Kwok, W W

    1996-01-01

    Position 57 in the beta chain of HLA class II molecules maintains an Asp/non-Asp dimorphism that has been conserved through evolution and is implicated in susceptibility to some autoimmune diseases. The latter effect may be due to the influence of this residue on the ability of class II alleles to bind specific pathogenic peptides. We utilized highly homologous pairs of both DR and DQ alleles that varied at residue 57 to investigate the impact of this dimorphism on binding of model peptides. Using a direct binding assay of biotinylated peptides on whole cells expressing the desired alleles, we report several peptides that bind differentially to the allele pairs depending on the presence or absence of Asp at position 57. Peptides with negatively charged residues at anchor position 9 bind well to alleles not containing Asp at position 57 in the beta chain but cannot bind well to homologous Asp-positive alleles. By changing the peptides at the single residue predicted to interact with this position 57, we demonstrate a drastically altered or reversed pattern of binding. Ala analog peptides confirm these interactions and identify a limited set of interaction sites between the bound peptides and the class II molecules. Clarification of the impact of specific class II polymorphisms on generating unique allele-specific peptide binding "repertoires" will aid in our understanding of the development of specific immune responses and HLA-associated diseases. PMID:8692969

  13. Secondary structure propensity and chirality of the amyloidophilic peptide p5 and its analogues impacts ligand binding - In vitro characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Jonathan S.; Williams, Angela; Wooliver, Craig; Martin, Emily B.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Heidel, R. Eric; Kennel, Stephen J.

    2016-08-11

    Here, polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radio labeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogues of p5 that modify helicity and chirality.

  14. Semi-empirical quantum evaluation of peptide - MHC class II binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Ronald; Suárez, Carlos F.; Bohórquez, Hugo J.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2017-01-01

    Peptide presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a key process for triggering a specific immune response. Studying peptide-MHC (pMHC) binding from a structural-based approach has potential for reducing the costs of investigation into vaccine development. This study involved using two semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods (PM7 and FMO-DFTB) for computing the binding energies of peptides bonded to HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR2. We found that key stabilising water molecules involved in the peptide binding mechanism were required for finding high correlation with IC50 experimental values. Our proposal is computationally non-intensive, and is a reliable alternative for studying pMHC binding interactions.

  15. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  16. Protein-protein interface-binding peptides inhibit the cancer therapy target human thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniela; Guaitoli, Giambattista; Tondi, Donatella; Luciani, Rosaria; Henrich, Stefan; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Ferrari, Stefania; Marverti, Gaetano; Guerrieri, Davide; Ligabue, Alessio; Frassineti, Chiara; Pozzi, Cecilia; Mangani, Stefano; Fessas, Dimitrios; Guerrini, Remo; Ponterini, Glauco; Wade, Rebecca C; Costi, M Paola

    2011-08-23

    Human thymidylate synthase is a homodimeric enzyme that plays a key role in DNA synthesis and is a target for several clinically important anticancer drugs that bind to its active site. We have designed peptides to specifically target its dimer interface. Here we show through X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, kinetic, and calorimetric evidence that the peptides do indeed bind at the interface of the dimeric protein and stabilize its di-inactive form. The "LR" peptide binds at a previously unknown binding site and shows a previously undescribed mechanism for the allosteric inhibition of a homodimeric enzyme. It inhibits the intracellular enzyme in ovarian cancer cells and reduces cellular growth at low micromolar concentrations in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells without causing protein overexpression. This peptide demonstrates the potential of allosteric inhibition of hTS for overcoming platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  17. Evaluation of Phosphatidylserine-Binding Peptides Radiolabeled with Fluorine 18 for in vivo Imaging of Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapty, Janice Sarah

    We currently do not have a clinical method to directly assess apoptosis induced by cancer therapies. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an attractive target for imaging apoptosis since it is on the exterior of the apoptotic cells and PS externalization is an early marker of apoptosis. PS-binding peptides are an attractive option for developing an imaging probe to detect apoptosis using positron emission tomography. In this study we evaluated binding characteristics of PS-binding peptides for ability to bind to PS, radiolabeled PS-binding peptides with fluorine-18, and performed in vitro and in vivo analysis of 18F radiolabeled PS-binding peptides including biodistribution analysis and dynamic PET imaging in a murine tumor model of apoptosis. Four peptides were evaluated for PS binding characteristics using a plate based assay system, a liposome mimic of cell membrane PS presentation, and a cell assay of apoptosis. The results indicate that all four peptides bind to PS and are specific to apoptotic cells. The widely used 18 F prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) and the recently developed N-[6-(4-[ 18F]fluorobenzylidene) aminooxyhexyl]maleimide ([18F]FBAM) were investigated for radiolabeling of two representative phosphatidylserine-binding peptides. The prosthetic groups were compared with respect to required reaction conditions for optimum labeling, radiolabeling yield and chemoselectivity. The N-terminus labeled product produced by reaction of [18F]SFB with binding peptide LIKKPF was produced in 18% radiochemical yield while no N-terminus labeled product could be isolated following [18F]SFB reaction with PDGLSR. When the peptides were modified by addition of a cysteine residue at the N-terminus they provided almost quantitative radiochemical yields with [18F]FBAM. Results indicate that for the peptides in this study, [18F]FBAM is a more useful prosthetic group compared to [18F]SFB due to its excellent chemo-selectivity and high radiochemical

  18. Functional Representation of Enzymes by Specific Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kunik, Vered; Meroz, Yasmine; Solan, Zach; Sandbank, Ben; Weingart, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan; Horn, David

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the function of a protein from its sequence is a long-standing goal of bioinformatic research. While sequence similarity is the most popular tool used for this purpose, sequence motifs may also subserve this goal. Here we develop a motif-based method consisting of applying an unsupervised motif extraction algorithm (MEX) to all enzyme sequences, and filtering the results by the four-level classification hierarchy of the Enzyme Commission (EC). The resulting motifs serve as specific peptides (SPs), appearing on single branches of the EC. In contrast to previous motif-based methods, the new method does not require any preprocessing by multiple sequence alignment, nor does it rely on over-representation of motifs within EC branches. The SPs obtained comprise on average 8.4 ± 4.5 amino acids, and specify the functions of 93% of all enzymes, which is much higher than the coverage of 63% provided by ProSite motifs. The SP classification thus compares favorably with previous function annotation methods and successfully demonstrates an added value in extreme cases where sequence similarity fails. Interestingly, SPs cover most of the annotated active and binding site amino acids, and occur in active-site neighboring 3-D pockets in a highly statistically significant manner. The latter are assumed to have strong biological relevance to the activity of the enzyme. Further filtering of SPs by biological functional annotations results in reduced small subsets of SPs that possess very large enzyme coverage. Overall, SPs both form a very useful tool for enzyme functional classification and bear responsibility for the catalytic biological function carried out by enzymes. PMID:17722976

  19. Peptide-based identification of functional motifs and their binding partners.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Martin N; Huang, Ming Bo; Ali, Syed; Johnson, Kateena; Roth, William; Powell, Michael; Bond, Vincent

    2013-06-30

    Specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, in our case HIV-1 Nef, not only retain their biological function, but can also competitively inhibit the function of the full-length protein. A set of 20 Nef scanning peptides, 20 amino acids in length with each overlapping 10 amino acids of its neighbor, were used to identify motifs in Nef responsible for its induction of apoptosis. Peptides containing these apoptotic motifs induced apoptosis at levels comparable to the full-length Nef protein. A second peptide, derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of Nef, retained the ability to interact with cellular proteins involved in Nef's secretion in exosomes (exNef). This SMRwt peptide was used as the "bait" protein in co-immunoprecipitation experiments to isolate cellular proteins that bind specifically to Nef's SMR motif. Protein transfection and antibody inhibition was used to physically disrupt the interaction between Nef and mortalin, one of the isolated SMR-binding proteins, and the effect was measured with a fluorescent-based exNef secretion assay. The SMRwt peptide's ability to outcompete full-length Nef for cellular proteins that bind the SMR motif, make it the first inhibitor of exNef secretion. Thus, by employing the techniques described here, which utilize the unique properties of specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, one may accelerate the identification of functional motifs in proteins and the development of peptide-based inhibitors of pathogenic functions.

  20. Identification of high-affinity VEGFR3-binding peptides through a phage-displayed random peptide library

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Li, Cai-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interaction with its receptor, VEGFR-3/Flt-4, regulates lymphangiogenesis. VEGFR-3/Flt-4 expression in cancer cells has been correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and lymphatic invasion. The objective of this study is to identify a VEGFR-3/Flt-4-interacting peptide that could be used to inhibit VEGFR-3 for ovarian cancer therapy. Methods The extracellular fragment of recombinant human VEGFR-3/Flt-4 (rhVEGFR-3/Flt-4) fused with coat protein pIII was screened against a phage-displayed random peptide library. Using affinity enrichment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening, positive clones of phages were amplified. Three phage clones were selected after four rounds of biopanning, and the specific binding of the peptides to rhVEGFR-3 was detected by ELISA and compared with that of VEGF-D. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses of ovarian cancer tissue sections was undertaken to demonstrate the specificity of the peptides. Results After four rounds of biopanning, ELISA confirmed the specificity of the enriched bound phage clones for rhVEGFR-3. Sequencing and translation identified three different peptides. Non-competitive ELISA revealed that peptides I, II, and III had binding affinities for VEGFR-3 with Kaff (affinity constant) of 16.4±8.6 µg/mL (n=3), 9.2±2.1 µg/mL (n=3), and 174.8±31.1 µg/mL (n=3), respectively. In ovarian carcinoma tissue sections, peptide III (WHWLPNLRHYAS), which had the greatest binding affinity, also co-localized with VEGFR-3 in endothelial cells lining lymphatic vessels; its labeling of ovarian tumors in vivo was also confirmed. Conclusion These finding showed that peptide III has high specificity and activity and, therefore, may represent a potential therapeutic approach to target VEGF-VEGFR-3 signaling for the treatment or diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:26197772

  1. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-02-23

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin.

  2. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin. PMID:26903196

  3. Apparent lack of MHC restriction in binding of class I HLA molecules to solid-phase peptides

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The specificity of binding of solubilized, purified HLA-A,B molecules to solid-phase peptides has been examined using the assay described by Bouillet et al. [1989. Nature (Lond.). 339:473.] 64 peptides derived from the sequences of viral antigens, HLA-A,B,C heavy chains, and clathrin light chains were tested for binding to HLA-A2.1, Aw68.1, Aw69, B44, and B5, molecules that differ by 5-17 residues of the peptide binding groove. 15 of the peptides, including those known to be T cell epitopes, gave significant binding. The pattern of peptide binding for each of the five HLA-A,B molecules was not significantly different. Binding was demonstrated to be a property of native beta 2m- associated HLA-A,B molecules that preserved conformational antigenic determinants after binding to peptide. In comparison to our previous results from solution-based assays the proportion of HLA-A,B molecules that can bind solid-phase peptides is very high. This accessibility of solid-phase peptides to the binding site of MHC molecules may be directly related to the observed absence of MHC specificity in the binding. PMID:1696957

  4. Peptide Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Specific Construct Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Rhodes, B A; Sharma, S S

    1997-10-21

    The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for diagnostic imaging and therapy. A series of peptides related to cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and immune regulation were designed for radiolabeling with 99mTc and evaluated in animal models as potential diagnostic imaging agents for various disease conditions such as thrombus (clot), acute kidney failure, and inflection/inflammation imaging. The peptides for this project were designed by the industrial partner, Palatin Technologies, (formerly Rhomed, Inc.) using various peptide design approaches including a newly developed rational computer assisted drug design (CADD) approach termed MIDAS (Metal ion Induced Distinctive Array of Structures). In this approach, the biological function domain and the 99mTc complexing domain are fused together so that structurally these domains are indistinguishable. This approach allows construction of conformationally rigid metallo-peptide molecules (similar to cyclic peptides) that are metabolically stable in-vivo. All the newly designed peptides were screened in various in vitro receptor binding and functional assays to identify a lead compound. The lead compounds were formulated in a one-step 99mTc labeling kit form which were studied by BNL for detailed in-vivo imaging using various animals models of human disease. Two main peptides usingMIDAS approach evolved and were investigated: RGD peptide for acute renal failure and an immunomodulatory peptide derived from tuftsin (RMT-1) for infection/inflammation imaging. Various RGD based metallopeptides were designed, synthesized and assayed for their efficacy in inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Most of these peptides displayed biological activity in the 1-100 µM range. Based on previous work by others, RGD-I and RGD-II were evaluated in animal models of acute renal failure. These earlier studies showed that after acute ischemic injury the renal cortex displays

  5. The binding of myristoylated N-terminal nonapeptide from neuro-specific protein CAP-23/NAP-22 to calmodulin does not induce the globular structure observed for the calmodulin-nonmyristylated peptide complex.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, N.; Izumi, Y.; Titani, K.; Matsushima, N.

    2000-01-01

    CAP-23/NAP-22, a neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate, is Nalpha-myristoylated and interacts with calmodulin (CaM) in the presence of Ca2+ ions. Takasaki et al. (1999, J Biol Chem 274:11848-11853) have recently found that the myristoylated N-terminal nonapeptide of CAP-23/NAP-22 (mC/N9) binds to Ca2+ -bound CaM (Ca2+/CaM). In the present study, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes of Ca2+/CaM induced by its binding to mC/N9 in solution. The binding of one mC/N9 molecule induced an insignificant structural change in Ca2+/CaM. The 1:1 complex appeared to retain the extended conformation much like that of Ca2+/CaM in isolation. However, it could be seen that the binding of two mC/N9 molecules induced a drastic structural change in Ca2+/CaM, followed by a slight structural change by the binding of more than two but less than four mC/N9 molecules. Under the saturated condition (the molar ratio of 1:4), the radius of gyration (Rg) for the Ca2+/CaM-mC/N9 complex was 19.8 +/- 0.3 A. This value was significantly smaller than that of Ca2+/CaM (21.9 +/- 0.3 A), which adopted a dumbbell structure and was conversely 2-3 A larger than those of the complexes of Ca2+/CaM with the nonmyristoylated target peptides of myosin light chain kinase or CaM kinase II, which adopted a compact globular structure. The pair distance distribution function had no shoulder peak at around 40 A, which was mainly due to the dumbbell structure. These results suggest that Ca2+/CaM interacts with Nalpha-myristoylated CAP-23/NAP-22 differently than it does with other nonmyristoylated target proteins. The N-terminal amino acid sequence alignment of CAP-23/NAP-22 and other myristoylated proteins suggests that the protein myristoylation plays important roles not only in the binding of CAP-23/NAP-22 to Ca2+/CaM, but also in the protein-protein interactions related to other myristoylated proteins. PMID:11106163

  6. Genome-Wide Prediction and Validation of Peptides That Bind Human Prosurvival Bcl-2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DeBartolo, Joe; Taipale, Mikko; Keating, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is regulated by interactions between pro-apoptotic and prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family. Pro-apoptotic family members contain a weakly conserved BH3 motif that can adopt an alpha-helical structure and bind to a groove on prosurvival partners Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. Peptides corresponding to roughly 13 reported BH3 motifs have been verified to bind in this manner. Due to their short lengths and low sequence conservation, BH3 motifs are not detected using standard sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Thus, it is possible that many additional proteins harbor BH3-like sequences that can mediate interactions with the Bcl-2 family. In this work, we used structure-based and data-based Bcl-2 interaction models to find new BH3-like peptides in the human proteome. We used peptide SPOT arrays to test candidate peptides for interaction with one or more of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. For the 36 most promising array candidates, we quantified binding to all five human receptors using direct and competition binding assays in solution. All 36 peptides showed evidence of interaction with at least one prosurvival protein, and 22 peptides bound at least one prosurvival protein with a dissociation constant between 1 and 500 nM; many peptides had specificity profiles not previously observed. We also screened the full-length parent proteins of a subset of array-tested peptides for binding to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, we used the peptide binding data, in conjunction with previously reported interactions, to assess the affinity and specificity prediction performance of different models. PMID:24967846

  7. Properties of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cadmium-binding peptide(s). Unique non-metallothionein cadmium ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, R N; Wagner, G J

    1987-01-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of Cd-binding peptides isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and suspension-cultured tobacco cells were determined and compared with properties of rat liver Cd,Zn-thionein. Some emphasis was placed on metal-binding and specificity properties. Cd-peptides of apparent Mr 6000 and 2000 were induced in tobacco leaves by growth of plants with 90 microM-Cd. Only the apparent-Mr-2000 Cd-peptide was induced in the leaves of tobacco plants grown in the presence of 3 microM-Cd. In cultured tobacco cells exposed to a wide range of Cd levels (3-180 microM), a peptide of apparent Mr 2000 was observed. Under denaturing conditions [6 M-guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) with or without 100 mM-2-mercaptoethanol], all of the above forms were shown to have an Mr of approx. 1300, compared with an Mr of 6000 for Cd,Zn-thionein. The apparent disaggregation of the Mr-6000 form by GdmCl to what appears to be the unit Cd-binding peptide was reversible. Tobacco-derived Cd-peptide contained approx. 40, 35 and 15 residues of glutamate/glutamine, cysteine and glycine respectively, with serine, lysine, and aromatic residues being absent. Tobacco Cd-peptide had an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.15, which is lower than the pI greater than or equal to 4 reported for metallothionein. A 50% dissociation of Cd occurred at pH 5 and 3.5 for the tobacco Cd-peptide and Cd,Zn-thionein respectively, and GdmCl was shown to cause Cd dissociation from tobacco peptide, but not from metallothionein. No evidence was obtained for Zn induction in vivo of, or Zn binding in vitro to, tobacco Cd-peptide. Copper induced a low-Mr metal-binding component in cultured tobacco cells which did not appear to be identical with the peptide induced by Cd. Properties of tobacco Cd-peptide and Cd,Zn-thionein, including metal affinity and selectivity, are greatly different, except for the common presence of 30 residues of cysteine/100 residues. PMID:3593213

  8. Characterization of binding specificities of Bovine Leucocyte class I molecules: Impacts for rational epitope discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of peptides to classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I proteins is the single most selective step in antigen presentation. However, the peptide binding specificity of cattle MHC (bovine leucocyte antigen, BoLA) class I (BoLA-I) molecules remains poorly characterized. Her...

  9. Evolution of class-specific peptides targeting a hot spot of the Galphas subunit.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan J; Ja, William W; Roberts, Richard W

    2008-04-11

    The four classes of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits act as molecular routers inside cells, gating signals based on a bound guanosine nucleotide (guanosine 5'-triphosphate versus guanosine 5'-diphosphate). Ligands that specifically target individual subunits provide new tools for monitoring and modulating these networks, but are challenging to design due to the high sequence homology and structural plasticity of the Galpha-binding surface. Here we have created an mRNA display library of peptides based on the short Galpha-modulating peptide R6A-1 and selected variants that target a convergent protein-binding surface of Galphas.guanosine 5'-diphosphate. After selection/evolution, the most Galphas-specific peptide, Galphas(s)-binding peptide (GSP), was used to design a second-generation library, resulting in several new affinity- and selectivity-matured peptides denoted as mGSPs. The two-step evolutionary walk from R6A-1 to mGSP-1 resulted in an 8000-fold inversion in binding specificity, altered seven out of nine residues in the starting peptide core, and incorporated both positive and negative design steps. The resulting mGSP-1 peptide shows remarkable selectivity and affinity, exhibiting little or no binding to nine homologous Galpha subunits or human H-Ras, and even discriminates the Galphas splice variant Galphas(l). Selected peptides make specific contacts with the effector-binding region of Galpha, which may explain an interesting bifunctional activity observed in GSP. Overall, our work demonstrates a design of simple, linear, highly specific peptides that target a protein-binding surface of Galphas and argues that mRNA display-based selection/evolution is a powerful route for targeting protein families with high class specificity and state specificity.

  10. Specificity and promiscuity among naturally processed peptides bound to HLA-DR alleles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Naturally processed peptides were acid extracted from immunoaffinity- purified HLA-DR2, DR3, DR4, DR7, and DR8. Using the complementary techniques of mass spectrometry and Edman microsequencing, > 200 unique peptide masses were identified from each allele, ranging from 1,200 to 4,000 daltons (10-34 residues in length), and a total of 201 peptide sequences were obtained. These peptides were derived from 66 different source proteins and represented sets nested at both the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends with an average length of 15-18 amino acids. Strikingly, most of the peptides (> 85%) were derived from endogenous proteins that intersect the endocytic/class II pathway, even though class II molecules are thought to function mainly in the presentation of exogenous foreign peptide antigens. The predominant endogenous peptides were derived from major histocompatibility complex-related molecules. A few peptides derived from exogenous bovine serum proteins were also bound to every allele. Four prominent promiscuous self- peptide sets (capable of binding to multiple HLA-DR alleles) as well as 84 allele-specific peptide sets were identified. Binding experiments confirmed that the promiscuous peptides have high affinity for the binding groove of all HLA-DR alleles examined. A potential physiologic role for these endogenous self-peptides as immunomodulators of the cellular immune response is discussed. PMID:8315383

  11. Trends in the Binding of Cell Penetrating Peptides to siRNA: A Molecular Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Gunathunge, B. G. C. M.; Wimalasiri, P. N.; Karunaratne, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The use of gene therapeutics, including short interfering RNA (siRNA), is limited by the lack of efficient delivery systems. An appealing approach to deliver gene therapeutics involves noncovalent complexation with cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which are able to penetrate the cell membranes of mammals. Although a number of CPPs have been discovered, our understanding of their complexation and translocation of siRNA is as yet insufficient. Here, we report on computational studies comparing the binding affinities of CPPs with siRNA, considering a variety of CPPs. Specifically, seventeen CPPs from three different categories, cationic, amphipathic, and hydrophobic CPPs, were studied. Molecular mechanics were used to minimize structures, while molecular docking calculations were used to predict the orientation and favorability of sequentially binding multiple peptides to siRNA. Binding scores from docking calculations were highest for amphipathic peptides over cationic and hydrophobic peptides. Results indicate that initial complexation of peptides will likely occur along the major groove of the siRNA, driven by electrostatic interactions. Subsequent binding of CPPs is likely to occur in the minor groove and later on bind randomly, to siRNA or previously bound CPPs, through hydrophobic interactions. However, hydrophobic CPPs do not show this binding pattern. Ultimately binding yields a positively charged nanoparticle capable of noninvasive cellular import of therapeutic molecules. PMID:28321253

  12. Increasing the affinity of selective bZIP-binding peptides through surface residue redesign

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jenifer B; Reinke, Aaron W; Keating, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The coiled-coil dimer is a prevalent protein interaction motif that is important for many cellular processes. The basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are one family of proteins for which coiled-coil mediated dimerization is essential for function, and misregulation of bZIPs can lead to disease states including cancer. This makes coiled coils attractive protein–protein interaction targets to disrupt using engineered molecules. Previous work designing peptides to compete with native coiled-coil interactions focused primarily on designing the core residues of the interface to achieve affinity and specificity. However, folding studies on the model bZIP GCN4 show that coiled-coil surface residues also contribute to binding affinity. Here we extend a prior study in which peptides were designed to bind tightly and specifically to representative members of each of 20 human bZIP families. These “anti-bZIP” peptides were designed with an emphasis on target-binding specificity, with contributions to design-target specificity and affinity engineered considering only the coiled-coil core residues. High-throughput testing using peptide arrays indicated many successes. We have now measured the binding affinities and specificities of anti-bZIPs that bind to FOS, XBP1, ATF6, and CREBZF in solution and tested whether redesigning the surface residues can increase design–target affinity. Incorporating residues that favor helix formation into the designs increased binding affinities in all cases, providing low-nanomolar binders of each target. However, changes in surface electrostatic interactions sometimes changed the binding specificity of the designed peptides. Impact Statement Designing molecules to bind native proteins is a fundamental objective in protein engineering. Ideally, designs should bind their targets both tightly and selectively. This paper reports binding affinities and specificities for computationally designed peptides that interact with human b

  13. Novel thrombopoietin mimetic peptides bind c-Mpl receptor: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaquan; Tian, Fang; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Haiqing; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) acts in promoting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and by initiating specific maturation events in megakaryocytes. Now, TPO-mimetic peptides with amino acid sequences unrelated to TPO are of considerable pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, four new TPO mimetic peptides that bind and activate c-Mpl receptor have been identified, synthesized and tested by Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay for biological activities. The molecular modeling research was also approached to understand key molecular mechanisms and structural features responsible for peptide binding with c-Mpl receptor. The results presented that three of four mimetic peptides showed significant activities. In addition, the molecular modeling approaches proved hydrophobic interactions were the driven positive forces for binding behavior between peptides and c-Mpl receptor. TPO peptide residues in P7, P13 and P7' positions were identified by the analysis of hydrogen bonds and energy decompositions as the key ones for benefiting better biological activities. Our data suggested the synthesized peptides have considerable potential for the future development of stable and highly active TPO mimetic peptides.

  14. Chemokine CCR3 ligands-binding peptides derived from a random phage-epitope library.

    PubMed

    Houimel, Mehdi; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are major effectors cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in humans, particularly bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The human chemokine receptor C-C receptor 3 (hCCR3) provides a mechanism for the recruitment of eosinophils into tissue and thus has recently become an attractive biological target for therapeutic intervention. In order to develop peptides antagonists of hCCR3-hCCL11 (human eotaxin) interactions, a random bacteriophage hexapeptide library was used to map structural features of hCCR3 by determining the epitopes of neutralizing anti-hCCR3 mAb 7B11. This mAb t is selective for hCCR3 and exhibit potent antagonist activity in receptor binding and functional assays. After three rounds of biopanning, four mAb7B11-binding peptides were identified from a 6-mer linear peptide library. The phage bearing the peptides showed specific binding to immobilized mAb 7B11 with over 94% of phages bound being competitively inhibited by free synthetic peptides. In FACScan analysis all selected phage peptides were able to strongly inhibit the binding of mAb 7B11 to hCCR3-transfected preB-300-19 murine cells. Furthermore, synthetic peptides of the corresponding phage epitopes were effective in blocking the antibody-hCCR3 interactions and to inhibit the binding of hCCL11 to hCCR3 transfectants. Chemically synthesized peptides CKGERF, FERKGK, SSMKVK and RHVSSQ, effectively competed for (125)I-hCCL11 binding to hCCR3 with IC(50) ranging from 3.5 to 9.7μM. Calcium release and chemotaxis of hCCR3 transfectants or human eosinophils were inhibited by all peptides in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they showed inhibitory effects on chemotaxis of human eosinophils induced by hCCL11, hCCL5, hCCL7, hCCL8, and hCCL24. Specificities of all selected peptides were assessed with hCXCR1, hCXCR2, hCXCR3, and hCCR5 receptors. Peptides CKGERF and FERKGK showed inhibitory effects on eosinophil chemotaxis in a murine model of mCCL11-induced

  15. Peptide binding to sheet silicate and metal nanoparticles: Insight from atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Pandey, Ras B.; Drummy, Lawrence; Vaia, Richard A.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Farmer, Barry L.

    2008-03-01

    Short peptides (8 to 12 amino acids, excluding Cys) bind selectively to nanoparticles composed of Au, Pd, and montmorillonite depending on the sequence of amino acids, as evidenced by laboratory screening of several billion peptides. The molecular reasons for binding versus non-binding and the specificity toward a certain surface are analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation, using recent force field extensions for fcc metals and sheet silicates to reproduce surface and interface energies with <10% deviation compared to experiment. Polarization on even metal surfaces ranges from 3 to 5 kcal/mol and non-covalent binding energies from 0 and 80 kcal/mol per dodecapeptide. Adsorption energies, changes in chain conformation, Ramachandran plots, and orientational parameters, are analyzed in conjunction with NMR, TEM, and other experimental data. On montmorillonite, an ion exchange reaction of Lys side groups against alkali ions as well as interactions between alkali cations and polar groups in the peptide are explained.

  16. Effect of clustered peptide binding on DNA condensation.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jennifer; Kabiru, Paul; Geng, Yan

    2010-01-01

    DNA condensation in-vitro has been studied as a model system to reveal common principles underlying gene packaging in biology, and as the critical first step towards the development of non-viral gene delivery vectors. In this study, we use a bio-inspired approach, where small DNA-binding peptides are controllably clustered by an amphiphilic block copolymer scaffold, to reveal the effect of clustered peptide binding on the energetics, size, shape and physical properties of DNA condensation in-vitro. This provides insights into the general architectural effect of gene-binding proteins on DNA condensation process. Moreover, the versatility afforded by regulating the clustering density and composition of peptides may provide a novel design platform for gene delivery applications in the future.

  17. Multidrug-resistance drug-binding peptides generated by using a phage display library.

    PubMed

    Popkov, M; Lussier, I; Medvedkine, V; Estève, P O; Alakhov, V; Mandeville, R

    1998-01-15

    A phage display library of random decapeptides was used to generate peptide ligands that can bind multidrug-resistance (MDR) drugs mimicking, in this respect, the drug-binding activity of P-glycoprotein. Seven peptide sequences were identified that specifically bound doxorubicin. Five of these sequences expressed the core consensus motif WXXW. The displacement assay showed that the phages expressing these peptides bound MDR type drugs (vinblastine, doxorubicin, verapamil, and genistein) with the same selectivity as P-glycoprotein and did not interact with non-MDR type drugs, such as arabinosylcytosine (Ara-C) and melphalan. One of the selected peptides that showed a highest capacity for the binding (VCDWWGWGIC) was synthesized and displayed competition with the phage for doxorubicin binding. The structure modeling suggested that all the selected sequences contained a hydrophobic envelope in which MDR drugs could be docked with substantial energy minimization. Western blot analysis showed that monospecific antibody obtained against the phage expressing VCDWWGWGIC peptide could specifically recognize P-glycoprotein in the membrane fraction of MDR phenotype MCF-7ADR cells. The MDR drug-binding sequences generated during this work could provide an important tool for design and screening of new chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Identification of IgE binding to Api g 1-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Elvira; Aÿ, Bernhard; Boisguerin, Prisca; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta; Volkmer, Rudolf

    2010-11-02

    Celery is a frequent cause of food allergy in pollen-sensitized patients and can induce severe allergic reactions. Clinical symptoms cannot be predicted by skin prick tests (SPTs) or by determining allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Our aim was to identify specific IgE binding peptides by using an array technique. For our study, the sera of 21 patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to celery, as well as the sera of 17 healthy patients were used. Additionally, all patients underwent skin tests along with determinations of specific IgE binding. The major allergen of celery Api g 1.0101 (Apium graveolens) was synthesized as an array of overlapping peptides and probed with the patients' sera. We developed an improved immunoassay protocol by investigating peptide lengths, peptide densities, incubation parameters, and readout systems, which could influence IgE binding. Sera of celery-allergic patients showed binding to three distinct regions of Api g 1.0101. The region including amino acids 100 to 126 of Api g 1.0101 is the most important region for IgE binding. This region caused a fivefold higher binding of IgE from the sera of celery-allergic patients compared to those of healthy individuals. In particular, one peptide (VLVPTADGGSIC) was recognized by all sera of celery-allergic patients. In contrast, no binding to this peptide was detected in sera of the healthy controls. Our improved assay strategy allows us to distinguish between celery-allergic and healthy individuals, but needs to be explored in a larger cohort of well-defined patients.

  19. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  20. Fluorine substitutions in an antigenic peptide selectively modulate T-cell receptor binding in a minimally perturbing manner

    SciTech Connect

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Sommese, Ruth F.; Clemens, John; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Desmond, Clare; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M.

    2010-08-17

    TCR (T-cell receptor) recognition of antigenic peptides bound and presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules forms the basis of the cellular immune response to pathogens and cancer. TCRs bind peptide - MHC complexes weakly and with fast kinetics, features which have hindered detailed biophysical studies of these interactions. Modified peptides resulting in enhanced TCR binding could help overcome these challenges. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in using modified peptides with enhanced TCR binding as the basis for clinical vaccines. In the present study, we examined how fluorine substitutions in an antigenic peptide can selectively impact TCR recognition. Using a structure-guided design approach, we found that fluorination of the Tax peptide [HTLV (human T-cell lymphotropic virus)-1 Tax] enhanced binding by the Tax-specific TCR A6, yet weakened binding by the Tax-specific TCR B7. The changes in affinity were consistent with crystallographic structures and fluorine chemistry, and with the A6 TCR independent of other substitutions in the interface. Peptide fluorination thus provides a means to selectively modulate TCR binding affinity without significantly perturbing peptide composition or structure. Lastly, we probed the mechanism of fluorine's effect on TCR binding and we conclude that our results were most consistent with a 'polar hydrophobicity' mechanism, rather than a purely hydrophobic- or electrostatic-based mechanism. This finding should have an impact on other attempts to alter molecular recognition with fluorine.

  1. Binding of an oligopeptide to a specific plane of ice.

    PubMed

    Houston, M E; Chao, H; Hodges, R S; Sykes, B D; Kay, C M; Sönnichsen, F D; Loewen, M C; Davies, P L

    1998-05-08

    The alpha-helical antifreeze protein (AFP) from winter flounder inhibits ice growth by binding to a specific set of pyramidal surface planes that are not otherwise macroscopically expressed. The 37-residue AFP contains three 11-amino acid repeats that make a stereo-specific fit to the ice lattice along the <01-12> direction of the (20-21) and equivalent binding planes. When the AFP was shortened to delete two of the three 11-amino acid ice-binding repeats, the resulting 15-residue peptide and its variants were less helical and showed no antifreeze activity. However, when the helicity of the peptide was reinforced by an internal lactam bridge between Glu-7 and Lys-11, the minimized AFP was able to stably express the pyramidal plane (20-21) on the surface of growing ice crystals. This dynamic shaping of the ice surface by a single ice-binding repeat provides evidence that AFP adsorption to the ice lattice is not an "all-or-nothing" interaction. Instead, a partial interaction can help develop the binding site on ice to which the remainder of the AFP (or other AFP molecules) can orient and bind.

  2. The molecular basis for the prolonged blood circulation of lipidated incretin peptides: Peptide oligomerization or binding to serum albumin?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Kanai, Sonoko; Alex, Rainer; Belli, Sara; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Benedek, George B

    2016-11-10

    Hybrid incretin peptides are a new generation of drugs for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Despite their biological potency, the effectiveness of these peptides as drugs is limited by their short circulation time in blood (typically within minutes). In this work, we show that lipid conjugated forms of a GLP-1/GIP/glucagon hybrid peptides stay in circulation for hours. We studied the oligomerization and albumin-binding of the unconjugated hybrid peptide as well as its lipidated variants. These lipidated peptides differ in the N-terminal mutation, the position of lipidation and the linkage to lipid. We found that these lipidated peptides form stable oligomers at concentrations above 1mg/mL. This concentration range is relevant to formulation and storage of the peptides. We observed no binding between the peptide oligomers and human serum albumin. However, at the expected therapeutic concentration range (~10-100ng/mL), the oligomers dissociate into monomers. The monomers of lipidated peptides bind to albumin. We have determined the dissociation constants of binding between the lipidated peptides and serum albumin. The dissociation constants of albumin-binding of our lipidated peptides are all very close and similar to that of the fatty acid binding of albumin. Our findings suggest that the monomeric lipidated peptides bind to HSA mainly by the fatty acid chain. Therefore, albumin binding is likely to be a universal mechanism of the prolonged circulating duration of lipidated pharmaceutical peptides.

  3. Access to site-specific Fc-cRGD peptide conjugates through streamlined expressed protein ligation.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S; Jordan, J B; Bio, M M; Muir, T W; Thiel, O R; Vila-Perelló, M

    2016-10-12

    An ideal drug should be highly effective, non-toxic and be delivered by a convenient and painless single dose. We are still far from such optimal treatment but peptides, with their high target selectivity and low toxicity profiles, provide a very attractive platform from which to strive towards it. One of the major limitations of peptide drugs is their high clearance rates, which limit dosage regimen options. Conjugation to antibody Fc domains is a viable strategy to improve peptide stability by increasing their hydrodynamic radius and hijacking the Fc recycling pathway. We report the use of a split-intein based semi-synthetic approach to site-specifically conjugate a synthetic integrin binding peptide to an Fc domain. The strategy described here allows conjugating synthetic peptides to Fc domains, which is not possible via genetic methods, fully maintaining the ability of both the Fc domain and the bioactive peptide to interact with their binding partners.

  4. Identification of a peptide sequence involved in homophilic binding in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is capable of mediating cell- cell adhesion via homophilic interactions. In this study, three strategies have been combined to identify regions of NCAM that participate directly in NCAM-NCAM binding: analysis of domain deletion mutations, mapping of epitopes of monoclonal antibodies, and use of synthetic peptides to inhibit NCAM activity. Studies on L cells transfected with NCAM mutant cDNAs using cell aggregation and NCAM- covasphere binding assays indicate that the third immunoglobulin-like domain is involved in homophilic binding. The epitopes of four monoclonal antibodies that have been previously shown to affect cell- cell adhesion mediated by NCAM were also mapped to domain 3. Overlapping hexapeptides were synthesized on plastic pins and assayed for binding with these monoclonal antibodies. One of them (PP) reacted specifically with the sequence KYSFNY. Synthetic oligopeptides containing the PP epitope were potent and specific inhibitors of NCAM binding activity. A substratum containing immobilized peptide conjugates also exhibited adhesiveness for neural retinal cells. Cell attachment was specifically inhibited by peptides that contained the PP- epitope and by anti-NCAM univalent antibodies. The shortest active peptide has the sequence KYSFNYDGSE, suggesting that this site is directly involved in NCAM homophilic interaction. PMID:1380002

  5. Screening and identification of a peptide specifically targeted to NCI-H1299 from a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Zang, Linquan; Shi, Lei; Guo, Jiao; Pan, Qin; Wu, Wei; Pan, Xuediao; Wang, Junye

    2009-08-18

    In this study, a NCI-H1299 (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, NSCLC) and a normal lung cell line (Small Airway Epithelial Cells, SAEC) were used for the subtractive screening in vitro with a phage display-12 peptide library. After three rounds of panning, there was an obvious enrichment for the phages specifically binding to the NCI-H1299 cells, and the output/input ratio of phages increased about 875-fold (from 0.4x10(4) to 3.5x10(6)). A group of peptides being capable of binding specifically to the NCI-H1299 cells were obtained, and the affinity of these peptides to bind to the targeted cells and tissues was studied. Through a cell-based ELISA, immunocytochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence, a M13 phage isolated and identified from the above screenings, and a synthetic peptide ZS-1 (sequence EHMALTYPFRPP) corresponded to the sequence of the surface protein of the M13 phage were demonstrated to be capable of binding to the tumor cell surfaces of NCI-H1299 and A549 cell lines and biopsy specimens, but not to normal lungs tissue samples, other different cancer cells, or nontumor surrounding lung tissues. In conclusion, the peptide ZS-1 may be a potential candidate of biomarker ligands used for targeted drug delivery in therapy of lung cancer.

  6. SPARC is a source of copper-binding peptides that stimulate angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    SPARC is a transiently expressed extracellular matrix-binding protein that alters cell shape and regulates endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we show that SPARC mRNA and protein are synthesized by endothelial cells during angiogenesis in vivo. SPARC and peptides derived from a cationic region of the protein (amino acids 113- 130) stimulated the formation of endothelial cords in vitro; moreover, these peptides stimulated angiogenesis in vivo. Mapping of the active domain demonstrated that the sequence KGHK was responsible for most of the angiogenic activity; substitution of the His residue decreased the effect. We found that proteolysis of SPARC provided a source of KGHK, GHK, and longer peptides that contained these sequences. Although the Cu(2+)-GHK complex had been identified as a mitogen/morphogen in normal human plasma, we found KGHK and longer peptides to be potent stimulators of angiogenesis. SPARC113-130 and KGHK were shown to bind Cu2+ with high affinity; however, previous incubation with Cu2+ was not required for the stimulatory activity. Since a peptide from a second cationic region of SPARC (SPARC54-73) also bound Cu2+ but had no effect on angiogenesis, the angiogenic activity appeared to be sequence specific and independent of bound Cu2+. Thus, specific degradation of SPARC, a matrix-associated protein expressed by endothelial cells during vascular remodeling, releases a bioactive peptide or peptides, containing the sequence (K)GHK, that could regulate angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:7514608

  7. Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 erythrocyte binding peptides implicate AMA-1 as erythrocyte binding protein.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, M; Suarez, J E; Cardenas, C; Lopez, R; Puentes, A; Chavez, F; Calvo, J C; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-10-15

    The role of AMA-1 during merozoite invasion has not yet been determined. However, reported experimental evidence suggests that this protein can be used, in particular as erythrocyte-binding protein, since, Fab fragments against this protein are able to block merozoite invasion. Using a previously described methodology, eight peptides with high binding activity to human erythrocyte, scattered along the different domains and having around 130 nM affinity constants, were identified in the Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 protein. Their binding activity was sialic acid independent. Some of these peptides showed homology with the erythrocyte binding domains of one of the apical organelle protein family, MAEBL, identified in rodent malarial parasites. One of these peptides shares amino acid sequence with a previously reported B-cell epitope which induces antibodies to block parasite growth. The critical residues were identified for erythrocyte binding conserved peptides 4313 (DAEVAGTQYRLPSGKCPVFG), 4321 (VVDNWEKVCPRKNLQNAKFG), 4325 (MIKSAFLPTGAFKADRYKSH) and 4337 (WGEEKRASHTTPVLMEKPYY). All conserved peptides were able to block merozoite invasion of new RBC and development, suggesting that these peptides are involved in P. falciparum invasion.

  8. Identification of gliadin-binding peptides by phage display

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coeliac disease (CD) is a common and complex disorder of the small intestine caused by intolerance to wheat gluten and related edible cereals like barley and rye. Peptides originating from incomplete gliadin digestion activate the lamina propria infiltrating T cells to release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn cause profound tissue remodelling of the small intestinal wall. There is no cure for CD except refraining from consuming gluten-containing products. Results Phage from a random oligomer display library were enriched by repeated pannings against immobilised gliadin proteins. Phage from the final panning round were plated, individual plaques picked, incubated with host bacteria, amplified to a population size of 1011 to 1012 and purified. DNA was isolated from 1000 purified phage populations and the region covering the 36 bp oligonucleotide insert from which the displayed peptides were translated, was sequenced. Altogether more than 150 different peptide-encoding sequences were identified, many of which were repeatedly isolated under various experimental conditions. Amplified phage populations, each expressing a single peptide, were tested first in pools and then one by one for their ability to inhibit binding of human anti-gliadin antibodies in ELISA assays. These experiments showed that several of the different peptide-expressing phage tested inhibited the interaction between gliadin and anti-gliadin antibodies. Finally, four different peptide-encoding sequences were selected for further analysis, and the corresponding 12-mer peptides were synthesised in vitro. By ELISA assays it was demonstrated that several of the peptides inhibited the interaction between gliadin molecules and serum anti-gliadin antibodies. Moreover, ELISA competition experiments as well as dot-blot and western blot revealed that the different peptides interacted with different molecular sites of gliadin. Conclusions We believe that several of the isolated and

  9. Automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding predictions

    PubMed Central

    Trolle, Thomas; Metushi, Imir G.; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kim, Yohan; Sidney, John; Lund, Ole; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Numerous in silico methods predicting peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been developed over the last decades. However, the multitude of available prediction tools makes it non-trivial for the end-user to select which tool to use for a given task. To provide a solid basis on which to compare different prediction tools, we here describe a framework for the automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding prediction tools. The framework runs weekly benchmarks on data that are newly entered into the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), giving the public access to frequent, up-to-date performance evaluations of all participating tools. To overcome potential selection bias in the data included in the IEDB, a strategy was implemented that suggests a set of peptides for which different prediction methods give divergent predictions as to their binding capability. Upon experimental binding validation, these peptides entered the benchmark study. Results: The benchmark has run for 15 weeks and includes evaluation of 44 datasets covering 17 MHC alleles and more than 4000 peptide-MHC binding measurements. Inspection of the results allows the end-user to make educated selections between participating tools. Of the four participating servers, NetMHCpan performed the best, followed by ANN, SMM and finally ARB. Availability and implementation: Up-to-date performance evaluations of each server can be found online at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/weekly. All prediction tool developers are invited to participate in the benchmark. Sign-up instructions are available at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/join. Contact: mniel@cbs.dtu.dk or bpeters@liai.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25717196

  10. Site-specific, covalent incorporation of Tus, a DNA-binding protein, on ionic-complementary self-assembling peptide hydrogels using transpeptidase Sortase A as a conjugation tool†Dedicated to the memory of Joachim H. G. Steinke.‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further experimental data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sm00131hClick here for additional data file.

    PubMed

    Piluso, Susanna; Cassell, Heather C; Gibbons, Jonathan L; Waller, Thomas E; Plant, Nick J; Miller, Aline F; Cavalli, Gabriel

    2013-08-07

    The site-specific conjugation of DNA-binding protein (Tus) to self-assembling peptide FEFEFKFKK was demonstrated. Rheology studies and TEM of the corresponding hydrogels (including PNIPAAm-containing systems) showed no significant variation in properties and hydrogel morphology compared to FEFEFKFKK. Critically, we demonstrate that Tus is accessible within the gel network displaying DNA-binding properties.

  11. Specific gonadotropin binding to Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Richert, N D; Ryan, R J

    1977-03-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to Pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and pH and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. The equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 X 10(-9) M. There are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (Hill coefficient, 1.05). The number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. NaCl and KCl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mM, have no effect on binding. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and 1 mM EDTA inhibit hormone binding. Binding is destroyed by heat or by treatment with Pronase of alpha-chymotrypsin and is increased by phospholipase C. Binding of the labeled gonadotropin is not observed with other gram-negative organisms--e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein implicated in specific binding to human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    García, Javier; Puentes, Alvaro; Rodríguez, Luis; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vera, Ricardo; Lopez, Ramses; Valbuena, John; Cortes, Jimena; Vanegas, Magnolia; Barrero, Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Urquiza, Mauricio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    The gene encoding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (as assayed by PCR) and transcribed (as determined by RT-PCR) in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. bovis BCG, and M. africanum strains. Rabbits immunized with synthetic polymer peptides from this protein produced antibodies specifically recognizing a 25-kDa band in mycobacterial sonicate. U937 and A549 cells were used in binding assays involving 20-amino-acid-long synthetic peptides covering the whole Rv2536 protein sequence. Peptide 11207 (161DVFSAVRADDSPTGEMQVAQY180) presented high specific binding to both types of cells; the binding was saturable and presented nanomolar affinity constants. Cross-linking assays revealed that this peptide specifically binds to 50 kDa U937 cell membrane and 45 kDa A549 cell membrane proteins. PMID:16131654

  13. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated (Tyr(125I)10)VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function.

  14. Determining the specificity of monoclonal antibody HPT-101 to tau-peptides with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Stangner, Tim; Wagner, Carolin; Singer, David; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Gutsche, Christof; Dzubiella, Joachim; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kremer, Friedrich

    2013-12-23

    Optical tweezers-assisted dynamic force spectroscopy is employed to investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions on the level of single binding events. In particular, we analyze binding of the phosphorylation-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) HPT-101 to synthetic tau-peptides with two potential phosphorylation sites (Thr231 and Ser235), being the most probable markers for Alzheimer's disease. Whereas the typical interpretation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suggests that this monoclonal antibody binds exclusively to the double-phosphorylated tau-peptide, we show here by DFS that the specificity of only mAb HPT-101 is apparent. In fact, binding occurs also to each sort of monophosphorylated peptide. Therefore, we characterize the unbinding process by analyzing the measured rupture force distributions, from which the lifetime of the bond without force τ0, its characteristic length xts, and the free energy of activation ΔG are extracted for the three mAb/peptide combinations. This information is used to build a simple theoretical model to predict features of the unbinding process for the double-phosphorylated peptide purely based on data on the monophosphorylated ones. Finally, we introduce a method to combine binding and unbinding measurements to estimate the relative affinity of the bonds. The values obtained for this quantity are in accordance with ELISA, showing how DFS can offer important insights about the dynamic binding process that are not accessible with this common and widespread assay.

  15. Prediction of Nucleotide Binding Peptides Using Star Graph Topological Indices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Munteanu, Cristian R; Fernández Blanco, Enrique; Tan, Zhiliang; Santos Del Riego, Antonino; Pazos, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    The nucleotide binding proteins are involved in many important cellular processes, such as transmission of genetic information or energy transfer and storage. Therefore, the screening of new peptides for this biological function is an important research topic. The current study proposes a mixed methodology to obtain the first classification model that is able to predict new nucleotide binding peptides, using only the amino acid sequence. Thus, the methodology uses a Star graph molecular descriptor of the peptide sequences and the Machine Learning technique for the best classifier. The best model represents a Random Forest classifier based on two features of the embedded and non-embedded graphs. The performance of the model is excellent, considering similar models in the field, with an Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC) value of 0.938 and true positive rate (TPR) of 0.886 (test subset). The prediction of new nucleotide binding peptides with this model could be useful for drug target studies in drug development.

  16. Binding Interactions of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide and the Cationic Amphiphilic Peptides Polymyxin B and WLBU2

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Matthew P.; Wu, Xiangming; McKelvey, GregR.; McGuire, Joseph; Schilke, Karl F.

    2014-01-01

    Passage of blood through a sorbent device for removal of bacteria and endotoxin by specific binding with immobilized, membrane-active, bactericidal peptides holds promise for treating severe blood infections. Peptide insertion in the target membrane and rapid/strong binding is desirable, while membrane disruption and release of degradation products to the circulating blood is not. Here we describe interactions between bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the membrane-active, bactericidal peptides WLBU2 and polymyxin B (PmB). Analysis of the interfacial behavior of mixtures of LPS and peptide using air-water interfacial tensiometry and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy strongly suggests insertion of intact LPS vesicles by the peptide WLBU2 without vesicle destabilization. In contrast, dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show that LPS vesicles appear to undergo peptide-induced destabilization in the presence of PmB. Circular dichroism spectra further confirm that WLBU2, which shows disordered structure in aqueous solution and substantially helical structure in membrane-mimetic environments, is stably located within the LPS membrane in peptide-vesicle mixtures. We therefore expect that presentation of WLBU2 at an interface, if tethered in a fashion which preserves its mobility and solvent accessibility, will enable the capture of bacteria and endotoxin without promoting reintroduction of endotoxin to the circulating blood, thus minimizing adverse clinical outcomes. On the other hand, our results suggest no such favorable outcome of LPS interactions with polymyxin B. PMID:24905681

  17. Phage display screen for peptides that bind Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Joungmok; Cho, June-Haeng; Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis associated with human disease, including cancer. Bcl-2 protein has been found to be overexpressed in many cancer cells. Therefore, Bcl-2 protein is a potential diagnostic target for cancer detection. In the present study, the authors have identified several Bcl-2 binding peptides with high affinity (picomolar range) from a 5-round M13 phage display library screening. These peptides can be used to develop novel diagnostic probes or potent inhibitors with diverse polyvalencies.

  18. Thermodynamics of engineered gold binding peptides: establishing the structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Seker, Urartu Ozgur Safak; Wilson, Brandon; Kulp, John L; Evans, John S; Tamerler, Candan; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2014-07-14

    l-GBP does not fold in the presence of TFE, 3l-GBP1 adopted two types of secondary structure (β-strand, α-helix) and that peptide's binding to the solid is enhanced by the presence of low percentages of TFE solvent. Not only do these kinetics and thermodynamics results provide adsorption behavior and binding of genetically engineered peptides for inorganics (GEPI), but they could also provide considerable insights into fundamental understanding peptide molecular recognition and their selective specificity for the solids. Moreover, comprehensive work described herein suggests that multiple repeat forms of the solid binding peptides possess a conformational component that can be exploited to further tailor affinity and binding of a given sequence to a solid material followed by ordered assembly as a convenient tool in future practical applications.

  19. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin

    PubMed Central

    Makartsova, Anna A.; Fomin, Alexandr S.; Nushtaeva, Anna A.; Koval, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  20. Specific binding of atrial natriuretic factor in brain microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, P.E.; Roubert, P.; Braquet, P.

    1987-04-01

    Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood-brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. The authors examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using /sup 125/I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood-brain barrier function.

  1. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c

  2. Preferential labeling of alpha-amino N-terminal groups in peptides by biotin: application to the detection of specific anti-peptide antibodies by enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sélo, I; Négroni, L; Créminon, C; Grassi, J; Wal, J M

    1996-12-15

    Experimental conditions (pH 6.5, 24 h reaction, peptide:biotin ratio 1:5) were defined for preferential incorporation of the biotin molecule in the N-terminal alpha-amino group of peptides. This strategy could be helpful in numerous applications when an entire peptide chain must remain accessible for antibody or receptor binding. We illustrate this advantage in a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay designed to detect antibodies specific for bovine beta-lactoglobulin present in rabbit or human sera. This test involves synthetic peptides biotinylated in different positions and immobilized on a solid phase. The use of biotin/streptavidin interactions permitted more efficient detection of specific anti-peptide antibodies than solid phases prepared using conventional passive-adsorption techniques. The highest levels of antibody binding were measured when biotinylation occurred at the N-terminal extremity of immobilized peptides.

  3. Screening and identification of a peptide specifically targeted to NCI-H1299 cells from a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiangan; Zang, Linquan; Lan, Daiyan; Liang, Weican

    2009-01-01

    Ligands that are capable of binding to tumor cell surface biomarkers specifically used in the early diagnosis of cancer and targeted drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy have been extensively investigated. Phage display technology has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool in this field. In this study, the non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H1299 and the normal lung small airway epithelial cell lines were used for subtractive screening in vitro with a phage display 12-peptide library. After three rounds of panning, there was an obvious enrichment in the phages specifically binding to the NCI-H1299 cells, and the output/input ratio of phages increased approximately 875-fold (from 0.4x104 to 3.5x106). A group of peptides capable of binding specifically to the NCI-H1299 cells was obtained, and the affinity of these peptides to bind to the targeted cells and tissues was studied. Through cell-based ELISA, immunocytochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence, an M13 phage was isolated and identified from the above screenings, and a synthetic peptide, ZT-1 (sequence QQMHLMSYAPGP), corresponding to the sequence of the surface protein of the M13 phage, was demonstrated to be capable of binding to the tumor cell surfaces of NCI-H1299 and A549 cells and biopsy specimens, but not to normal lung tissue samples, other cancer cells, or non-tumor adjacent lung tissues. In conclusion, the peptide ZT-1 may be a potential candidate biomarker ligand that can be used for targeted drug delivery in lung cancer therapy.

  4. Combinatorial peptide libraries reveal the ligand-binding mechanism of the oligopeptide receptor OppA of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Detmers, Frank J. M.; Lanfermeijer, Frank C.; Abele, Rupert; Jack, Ralph W.; Tampé, Robert; Konings, Wil N.; Poolman, Bert

    2000-01-01

    The oligopeptide transport system (Opp) of Lactococcus lactis has the unique capacity to mediate the transport of peptides from 4 up to at least 18 residues. The substrate specificity of this binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter is determined mainly by the receptor protein OppA. To study the specificity and ligand-binding mechanism of OppA, the following strategy was used: (i) OppA was purified and anchored via the lipid moiety to the surface of liposomes; (ii) the proteoliposomes were used in a rapid filtration-based binding assay with radiolabeled nonameric bradykinin as a reporter peptide; and (iii) combinatorial peptide libraries were used to determine the specificity and selectivity of OppA. The studies show that (i) OppA is able to bind peptides up to at least 35 residues, but there is a clear optimum in affinity for nonameric peptides; (ii) the specificity for nonameric peptides is not equally distributed over the whole peptide, because positions 4, 5, and 6 in the binding site are more selective; and (iii) the differences in affinity for given side chains is relatively small, but overall hydrophobic residues are favored—whereas glycine, proline, and negatively charged residues lower the binding affinity. The data indicate that not only the first six residues (enclosed by the protein) but also the C-terminal three residues interact in a nonopportunistic manner with (the surface of) OppA. This binding mechanism is different from the one generally accepted for receptors of ATP-binding cassette-transporter systems. PMID:11050157

  5. Increased antitumor activity of tumor-specific peptide modified thymopentin.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xingzhen; Li, Bin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jiao; Gao, Xiangdong; Zheng, Heng

    2014-12-01

    Thymopoietin pentapeptide (thymopentin, TP5), an immunomodulatory peptide, has been successfully used as an immune system enhancer for treating immune deficiency, cancer, and infectious diseases. However, poor penetration into tumors remains a key limitation to the efficacy and application of TP5. iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) has been introduced to certain anticancer agents, and increased specific tumor penetrability of drugs and cell internalization have been observed. In the present study, we fused this iRGD fragment with the C-terminal of TP5 to yield a new product, TP5-iRGD. Cell attachment assay showed that TP5-iRGD exhibits more extensive attachment to the melanoma cell line B16F10 than wild-type TP5. Tumor cell viability assay showed that iRGD conjugation with the TP5 C-terminus increases the basal antiproliferative activity of the pentapeptide against the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human lung cancer cell line H460, and the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Subsequent injections of TP5-iRGD inhibited in vivo melanoma progression more efficiently than the native TP5. Murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay also showed that TP5-iRGD and the parent pentapeptide feature nearly identical spleen lymphocyte proliferation activities. We built an integrin αvβ3 and TP5-iRGD computational binding model to investigate the mechanism by which TP5-iRGD promotes increased activity further. Conjugation with iRGD promotes binding to integrin αvβ3, thereby increasing the tumor-homing efficiency of the resultant peptide. These experimental and computational observations of increased TP5-iRGD activity help broaden the usage of TP5 and reflect the great application potential of the peptide as an anticancer agent.

  6. Identification and Tumour-Binding Properties of a Peptide with High Affinity to the Disialoganglioside GD2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; Reichel, Robin; Vogt, Sebastian; Müller, Stefan P.; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brandau, Wolfgang; Eggert, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Neuroectodermal tumours are characterized by aberrant processing of disialogangliosides concomitant with high expression of GD2 or GD3 on cell surfaces. Antibodies targeting GD2 are already in clinical use for therapy of neuroblastoma, a solid tumour of early childhood. Here, we set out to identify peptides with high affinity to human disialoganglioside GD2. To this end, we performed a combined in vivo and in vitro screen using a recombinant phage displayed peptide library. We isolated a phage displaying the peptide sequence WHWRLPS that specifically binds to the human disialoganglioside GD2. Binding specificity was confirmed by mutational scanning and by comparative analyses using structurally related disialogangliosides. In vivo, significant enrichment of phage binding to xenografts of human neuroblastoma cells in mice was observed. Tumour-specific phage accumulation could be blocked by intravenous coinjection of the corresponding peptide. Comparative pharmacokinetic analyses revealed higher specific accumulation of 68Ga-labelled GD2-binding peptide compared to 111In-labelled peptide in xenografts of human neuroblastoma. In contrast to 124I-MIBG, which is currently evaluated as a neuroblastoma marker in PET/CT, 68Ga-labelled GD2-specific peptide spared the thyroid but was enriched in the kidneys, which could be partially blocked by infusion of amino acids.In summary, we here report on a novel tumour-homing peptide that specifically binds to the disialoganglioside GD2, accumulates in xenografts of neuroblastoma cells in mice and bears the potential for tumour detection using PET/CT. Thus, this peptide may serve as a new scaffold for diagnosing GD2-positive tumours of neuroectodermal origin. PMID:27716771

  7. Thermodynamics of RTA3 peptide binding to membranes and consequences for antimicrobial activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Hawrani, Ayman; Howe, Robin A.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    RTA3 is an α-helical, amphipathic peptide with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative bacteria and low mammalian cell toxicity. RTA3 contains a cysteine residue, replacement of which with an alanine or serine (RTA3-C15S) virtually abolishes antimicrobial activity. Much of the activity of RTA3 can be recovered in RTA3-C15L, indicating that the C15 residue functions largely as a bulky hydrophobic side chain promoting target cell membrane interactions. The poorly active RTA3-C15S is a useful variant for assessing the mechanistic aspects of RTA3 activity. Binding and membrane perturbation in vesicles containing different proportions of negative surface charge are analyzed in terms of amino acid-specific free energy contributions to interfacial binding, which likely underlie variations in antimicrobial activity amongst RTA3 variants. Comparison with published free energy scales indicates that the reduced electrostatic contribution to binding to membranes having reduced negative surface charge can be compensated in RTA3 (but not RTA3-C15S) by a slightly deeper insertion of the C-terminus of the peptide to maximize hydrophobic contributions to binding. Analysis of inner membrane (IM)- and outer membrane (OM)-selective permeabilization of Escherichiacoli demonstrates a broad similarity between peptide effects on vesicles with low negative surface charge (20% negatively charged lipids), E.coli membrane perturbation, and antimicrobial activity, supporting a role for membrane perturbation in the killing mechanism of RTA3. The results demonstrate that large variations in antimicrobial activity on subtle changes in amino acid sequence in helical amphipathic peptides can be rationalized in terms of the thermodynamics of peptide binding to membranes, allowing a more systematic understanding of antimicrobial activity in these peptides. PMID:20346912

  8. Multi-frequency, multi-technique pulsed EPR investigation of the copper binding site of murine amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghun; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Kim, Sun Hee

    2015-01-26

    Copper-amyloid peptides are proposed to be the cause of Alzheimer's disease, presumably by oxidative stress. However, mice do not produce amyloid plaques and thus do not suffer from Alzheimer's disease. Although much effort has been focused on the structural characterization of the copper- human amyloid peptides, little is known regarding the copper-binding mode in murine amyloid peptides. Thus, we investigated the structure of copper-murine amyloid peptides through multi-frequency, multi-technique pulsed EPR spectroscopy in conjunction with specific isotope labeling. Based on our pulsed EPR results, we found that Ala2, Glu3, His6, and His14 are directly coordinated with the copper ion in murine amyloid β peptides at pH 8.5. This is the first detailed structural characterization of the copper-binding mode in murine amyloid β peptides. This work may advance the knowledge required for developing inhibitors of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Rapid discovery of peptide capture candidates with demonstrated specificity for structurally similar toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkes, Deborah A.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Coppock, Matthew B.; Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2016-05-01

    Peptides have emerged as viable alternatives to antibodies for molecular-based sensing due to their similarity in recognition ability despite their relative structural simplicity. Various methods for peptide capture reagent discovery exist, including phage display, yeast display, and bacterial display. One of the primary advantages of peptide discovery by bacterial display technology is the speed to candidate peptide capture agent, due to both rapid growth of bacteria and direct utilization of the sorted cells displaying each individual peptide for the subsequent round of biopanning. We have previously isolated peptide affinity reagents towards protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis using a commercially available automated magnetic sorting platform with improved enrichment as compared to manual magnetic sorting. In this work, we focus on adapting our automated biopanning method to a more challenging sort, to demonstrate the specificity possible with peptide capture agents. This was achieved using non-toxic, recombinant variants of ricin and abrin, RiVax and abrax, respectively, which are structurally similar Type II ribosomal inactivating proteins with significant sequence homology. After only two rounds of biopanning, enrichment of peptide capture candidates binding abrax but not RiVax was achieved as demonstrated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) studies. Further sorting optimization included negative sorting against RiVax, proper selection of autoMACS programs for specific sorting rounds, and using freshly made buffer and freshly thawed protein target for each round of biopanning for continued enrichment over all four rounds. Most of the resulting candidates from biopanning for abrax binding peptides were able to bind abrax but not RiVax, demonstrating that short peptide sequences can be highly specific even at this early discovery stage.

  10. Enhancing peptide ligand binding to vascular endothelial growth factor by covalent bond formation.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Bernadette V; Beck, Heather E; Aweda, Tolulope A; Phinney, Brett; Holsclaw, Cynthia; Jewell, William; Tran, Diana; Day, Jeffrey J; Peiris, Malalage N; Nwosu, Charles; Lebrilla, Carlito; Meares, Claude F

    2012-05-16

    Formation of a stable covalent bond between a synthetic probe molecule and a specific site on a target protein has many potential applications in biomedical science. For example, the properties of probes used as receptor-imaging ligands may be improved by increasing their residence time on the targeted receptor. Among the more interesting cases are peptide ligands, the strongest of which typically bind to receptors with micromolar dissociation constants, and which may depend on processes other than simple binding to provide images. The side chains of cysteine, histidine, or lysine are attractive for chemical attachment to improve binding to a receptor protein, and a system based on acryloyl probes attaching to engineered cysteine provides excellent positron emission tomographic images in animal models (Wei et al. (2008) J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1828-1835). In nature, lysine is a more common but less reactive residue than cysteine, making it an interesting challenge to modify. To seek practically useful cross-linking yields with naturally occurring lysine side chains, we have explored not only acryloyl but also other reactive linkers with different chemical properties. We employed a peptide-VEGF model system to discover that a 19mer peptide ligand, which carried a lysine-tagged dinitrofluorobenzene group, became attached stably and with good yield to a unique lysine residue on human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), even in the presence of 70% fetal bovine serum. The same peptide carrying acryloyl and related Michael acceptors gave low yields of attachment to VEGF, as did the chloroacetyl peptide.

  11. Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrba, P.; Ruml, T.; Doleckova, L.; Lorenzo, V. de

    1999-03-01

    Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd{sup 2+}-to-HP and Cd{sup 2+}-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd{sup 2+} binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd{sup 2+} from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. However, Cu{sup 2+} ceased contribution of HP for Cd{sup 2+} accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu{sup 2+} to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.

  12. The identification of affinity peptide ligands specific to the variable region of human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuto; Miyata, Haruo; Komiyama, Masaru; Nogami, Masahiro; Ozawa, Kazumichi; Oshita, Chie; Kume, Akiko; Ashizawa, Tadashi; Sakura, Naoki; Mochizuki, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Of all potential biological therapeutics, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapies are becoming the dominant focus of clinical research. In particular, smaller recombinant antibody fragments such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv) have become the subject of intense focus. However, an efficient affinity ligand for antibody fragment purification has not been developed. In the present study, we designed a consensus sequence for the human antibody heavy or light chain-variable regions (Fv) based on the antibody sequences available in the ImMunoGeneTics information system (IMGT), and synthesized these consensus sequences as template Fv antibodies. We then screened peptide ligands that specifically bind to the repertoire-derived human Fv consensus antibody using a 12-mer-peptide library expressed-phage display method. Subsequently, 1 peptide for the VH template and 8 peptides for the VK template were selected as the candidate ligands after 4 rounds of panning the phage display. Using peptide-bead-based immunoprecipitation, the code-4 and code-13 peptides showed recovery rates of the VH and VK templates that were 20-30% and 40-50%, respectively. Both peptides exhibited better recovery rates for trastuzumab scFv (approximately 40%). If it were possible to identify the best combination of VH and VK-binding peptides among the ligand peptides suitable for the human mAb Fv sequence, the result could be a promising purification tool that might greatly improve the cost efficiencies of the purification process.

  13. Predicting tissue specific transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of gene regulation often utilize genome-wide predictions of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Most existing prediction methods are based on sequence information alone, ignoring biological contexts such as developmental stages and tissue types. Experimental methods to study in vivo binding, including ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, can only study one transcription factor in a single cell type and under a specific condition in each experiment, and therefore cannot scale to determine the full set of regulatory interactions in mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks. Results We developed a new computational approach, PIPES, for predicting tissue-specific TF binding. PIPES integrates in vitro protein binding microarrays (PBMs), sequence conservation and tissue-specific epigenetic (DNase I hypersensitivity) information. We demonstrate that PIPES improves over existing methods on distinguishing between in vivo bound and unbound sequences using ChIP-seq data for 11 mouse TFs. In addition, our predictions are in good agreement with current knowledge of tissue-specific TF regulation. Conclusions We provide a systematic map of computationally predicted tissue-specific binding targets for 284 mouse TFs across 55 tissue/cell types. Such comprehensive resource is useful for researchers studying gene regulation. PMID:24238150

  14. Compensating Stereochemical Changes Allow Murein Tripeptide to Be Accommodated in a Conventional Peptide-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Abbas; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena V.; Hervé, Mireille; Horler, Richard S. P.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2011-01-01

    The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of Escherichia coli is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that uses the substrate-binding protein (SBP) OppA to bind peptides and deliver them to the membrane components (OppBCDF) for transport. OppA binds conventional peptides 2–5 residues in length regardless of their sequence, but does not facilitate transport of the cell wall component murein tripeptide (Mtp, l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-Dap), which contains a d-amino acid and a γ-peptide linkage. Instead, MppA, a homologous substrate-binding protein, forms a functional transporter with OppBCDF for uptake of this unusual tripeptide. Here we have purified MppA and demonstrated biochemically that it binds Mtp with high affinity (KD ∼ 250 nm). The crystal structure of MppA in complex with Mtp has revealed that Mtp is bound in a relatively extended conformation with its three carboxylates projecting from one side of the molecule and its two amino groups projecting from the opposite face. Specificity for Mtp is conferred by charge-charge and dipole-charge interactions with ionic and polar residues of MppA. Comparison of the structure of MppA-Mtp with structures of conventional tripeptides bound to OppA, reveals that the peptide ligands superimpose remarkably closely given the profound differences in their structures. Strikingly, the effect of the d-stereochemistry, which projects the side chain of the d-Glu residue at position 2 in the direction of the main chain in a conventional tripeptide, is compensated by the formation of a γ-linkage to the amino group of diaminopimelic acid, mimicking the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of a conventional tripeptide. PMID:21705338

  15. Peptide ligands specific to the oxidized form of escherichia coli thioredoxin.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, M. D.; Banach, B. S.; Hamdan, S. M.; Richardson, C. C.; Kay, B. K.; Biosciences Division; Amunix, Inc.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Harvard Medical School

    2008-11-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a highly conserved redox protein involved in several essential cellular processes. In this study, our goal was to isolate peptide ligands to Escherichia coli Trx that mimic protein-protein interactions, specifically the T7 polymerase-Trx interaction. To do this, we subjected Trx to affinity selection against a panel of linear and cysteine-constrained peptides using M13 phage display. A novel cyclized conserved peptide sequence, with a motif of C(D/N/S/T/G)D(S/T)-hydrophobic-C-X-hydrophobic-P, was isolated to Trx. These peptides bound specifically to the E. coli Trx when compared to the human and spirulina homologs. An alanine substitution of the active site cysteines (CGPC) resulted in a significant loss of peptide binding affinity to the Cys-32 mutant. The peptides were also characterized in the context of Trx's role as a processivity factor of the T7 DNA polymerase (gp5). As the interaction between gp5 and Trx normally takes place under reducing conditions, which might interfere with the conformation of the disulfide-bridged peptides, we made use of a 22 residue deletion mutant of gp5 in the thioredoxin binding domain (gp5{Delta}22) that bypassed the requirements of reducing conditions to interact with Trx. A competition study revealed that the peptide selectively inhibits the interaction of gp5{Delta}22 with Trx, under oxidizing conditions, with an IC50 of {approx} 10 {micro}M.

  16. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    PubMed

    Memczak, Henry; Lauster, Daniel; Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F; Stöcklein, Walter F M

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  17. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F.; Stöcklein, Walter F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing. PMID:27415624

  18. A Small Subset of Signal Peptidase Residues are Perturbed by Signal Peptide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Musial-Siwek, Monika; Yeagle, Philip L.; Kendall, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Perturbations of the chemical shifts of a small subset of residues in the catalytically active domain of Escherichia coli signal peptidase I (SPase I) upon binding signal peptide suggest the contact surface on the enzyme for the substrate. SPase I, an integral membrane protein, is vital to preprotein transport in prokaryotic and eukaryotic secretory systems; it binds and proteolyses the N-terminal signal peptide of the preprotein, permitting folding and localization of the mature protein. Employing isotopically labeled C-terminal E. coli SPase I Δ2–75 and an unlabeled soluble synthetic alkaline phosphatase signal peptide, SPase I Δ2–75 was titrated with the signal peptide and 2Δ 1H-15N hetero-nuclear single-quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed chemical shifts of specific enzyme residues sensitive to substrate binding. These residues were identified by 3D HNCACB, 3D CBCA(CO)NH, and 3D HN(CO) experiments. Residues Ile80, Glu82, Gln85, Ile86, Ser88, Gly89, Ser90, Met91, Leu95, Ile101, Gly109, Val132, Lys134, Asp142, Ile144, Lys145, and Thr234, alter conformation and are likely all in, or adjacent to, the substrate binding site. The remainder of the enzyme structure is unperturbed. Ramifications for conformational changes for substrate docking and catalysis are discussed. PMID:18637988

  19. Zooming into the binding groove of HLA molecules: which positions and which substitutions change peptide binding most?

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Keşmir, Can

    2015-08-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic genes in the human genome. Almost all polymorphic residues are located in the peptide-binding groove, resulting in different peptide-binding preferences. Whether a single amino acid change can alter the peptide-binding repertoire of an HLA molecule has never been shown. To experimentally quantify the contribution of a single amino acid change to the peptide repertoire of even a single HLA molecule requires an immense number of HLA peptide-binding measurements. Therefore, we used an in silico method to study the effect of single mutations on the peptide repertoires. We predicted the peptide-binding repertoire of a large set of HLA molecules and used the overlap of the peptide-binding repertoires of each pair of HLA molecules that differ on a single position to measure how much single substitutions change the peptide binding. We found that the effect of a single substitution in the peptide-binding groove depends on the substituted position and the amino acids involved. The positions that alter peptide binding most are the most polymorphic ones, while those that are hardly variable among HLA molecules have the lowest effect on the peptide repertoire. Although expected, the relationship between functional divergence and polymorphism of HLA molecules has never been shown before. Additionally, we show that a single substitution in HLA-B molecules has more effect on the peptide-binding repertoire compared to that in HLA-A molecules. This provides an (alternative) explanation for the larger polymorphism of HLA-B molecules compared to HLA-A molecules.

  20. Identifying Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 homologue sequences that specifically bind to human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, John Jairo; Bravo, Ricardo Vera; Ocampo, Marisol; Lopez, Ramses; Rodriguez, Luis E; Curtidor, Hernando; Puentes, Alvaro; Garcia, Javier E; Tovar, Diana; Gomez, Johana; Leiton, Jesus; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-09-03

    Erythrocyte binding antigen-160 (EBA-160) protein is a Plasmodium falciparum antigen homologue from the erythrocyte binding protein family (EBP). It has been shown that the EBP family plays a role in parasite binding to the erythrocyte surface. The EBA-160 sequence has been chemically synthesised in seventy 20-mer sequential peptides covering the entire 3D7 protein strain, each of which was tested in erythrocyte binding assays to identify possible EBA-160 functional regions. Five EBA-160 high activity binding peptides (HABPs) specifically binding to erythrocytes with high affinity were identified. Dissociation constants lay between 200 and 460 nM and Hill coefficients between 1.5 and 2.3. Erythrocyte membrane protein binding peptide cross-linking assays using SDS-PAGE showed that these peptides bound specifically to 12, 28, and 44 kDa erythrocyte membrane proteins. The nature of these receptor sites was studied in peptide binding assays using enzyme-treated erythrocytes. HABPs were able to block merozoite in vitro invasion of erythrocytes. HABPs' potential as anti-malarial vaccine candidates is also discussed.

  1. Inorganic binding peptides designed by phage display techniques for biotechnology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chih-Wei

    Biomacromolecules play an important role in the control of hard tissue structure and function via specific molecular recognition interactions between proteins of the matrix and inorganic species of the biomineral phase. During the construction of the tissue, biomacromolecules are usually folded into a certain comformation, analogous to a "lock" for fitting with other proteins or smaller molecules as a "key". Currently, the rational design of molecular recognition in biomacro-molecules is still hard to accomplish because the protein conformation is too complex to precisely predict based on the existing conformational information of proteins found in biological systems. In the past two decades, the combinatorial approach (e.g. phage display techniques) has been used to select short binding peptides with molecular recognition to an inorganic target material without a prior knowledge of the amino acid sequence required for the specific binding. The technique has been referred to as "biopanning" because bacteriophages are used to "screen" for peptides that exhibit strong binding to a target material of interest. In this study, two diverse applications were chosen to demonstrate the utility of the biopanning approach. In one project, phage display techniques were used to pan for Indium Zinc Oxide (InZnO) binding peptides to serve as linkers between transducer devices and biosensing elements for demonstration of the feasibility of reversibly electro-activated biosensors. The amorphous InZnO, with its homogeneous surface, led to three consensus peptide sequences, AGFPNSTHSSNL, SHAPDSTWFALF, and TNSSSQFVVAIP. In addition, it was demonstrated that some selected phage clones of the InZnO binding peptides were able to be released from the InZnO surface after applying a voltage of 1400 mV on an electro-activated releasing device. In the second project, phage display techniques were used to select phage clones that bind specifically to francolite mineral in order to achieve

  2. Synthetic peptides from Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) specifically interacting with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, J; Rodríguez, L; Vera, R; Puentes, A; Curtidor, H; Cortés, J; Rosas, J; Patarroyo, M E

    2006-10-01

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is expressed during both the sporozoite and merozoite stage of the parasite's life cycle. The role placed by AMA-1 during sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes has not been made sufficiently clear to date. Identifying the sequences involved in binding to hepatocytes is an important step towards understanding the structural basis for sporozoite-hepatocyte interaction. Binding assays between P. falciparum AMA-1 peptides and HepG2 cell were performed in this study to identify possible AMA-1 functional regions. Four AMA-1 high activity binding peptides (HABPs) bound specifically to hepatocytes: 4310 ((74)QHAYPIDHEGAEPAPQEQNL(93)), 4316 ((194)TLDEMRHFYKDNKYVKNLDE(213)), 4321 ((294)VVDNWEKVCPRKNLQNAKFGY(313)) and 4332 ((514)AEVTSNNEVVVKEEYKDEYA(533)). Their binding to these cells became saturable and resistant to treatment with neuraminidase. Most of these peptides were located in AMA-1 domains I and III, these being target regions for protective antibody responses. These peptides interacted with 36 and 58 kDa proteins on the erythrocyte surface. Some of the peptides were found in exposed regions of the AMA-1 protein, thereby facilitating their interaction with host cells. It is thus probable that AMA-1 regions defined by the four peptides mentioned above are involved in sporozoite-hepatocyte interaction.

  3. Species-Specific Peptide Ligands for the Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David D.; Benedek, Orsolya; Turnbough, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Currently available detectors for spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are inadequate for frontline use and general monitoring. There is a critical need for simple, rugged, and inexpensive detectors capable of accurate and direct identification of B. anthracis spores. Necessary components in such detectors are stable ligands that bind tightly and specifically to target spores. By screening a phage display peptide library, we identified a family of peptides, with the consensus sequence TYPXPXR, that bind selectively to B. anthracis spores. We extended this work by identifying a peptide variant, ATYPLPIR, with enhanced ability to bind to B. anthracis spores and an additional peptide, SLLPGLP, that preferentially binds to spores of species phylogenetically similar to, but distinct from, B. anthracis. These two peptides were used in tandem in simple assays to rapidly and unambiguously identify B. anthracis spores. We envision that these peptides can be used as sensors in economical and portable B. anthracis spore detectors that are essentially free of false-positive signals due to other environmental Bacillus spores. PMID:14532093

  4. Learning a peptide-protein binding affinity predictor with kernel ridge regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cellular function of a vast majority of proteins is performed through physical interactions with other biomolecules, which, most of the time, are other proteins. Peptides represent templates of choice for mimicking a secondary structure in order to modulate protein-protein interaction. They are thus an interesting class of therapeutics since they also display strong activity, high selectivity, low toxicity and few drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, predicting peptides that would bind to a specific MHC alleles would be of tremendous benefit to improve vaccine based therapy and possibly generate antibodies with greater affinity. Modern computational methods have the potential to accelerate and lower the cost of drug and vaccine discovery by selecting potential compounds for testing in silico prior to biological validation. Results We propose a specialized string kernel for small bio-molecules, peptides and pseudo-sequences of binding interfaces. The kernel incorporates physico-chemical properties of amino acids and elegantly generalizes eight kernels, comprised of the Oligo, the Weighted Degree, the Blended Spectrum, and the Radial Basis Function. We provide a low complexity dynamic programming algorithm for the exact computation of the kernel and a linear time algorithm for it’s approximation. Combined with kernel ridge regression and SupCK, a novel binding pocket kernel, the proposed kernel yields biologically relevant and good prediction accuracy on the PepX database. For the first time, a machine learning predictor is capable of predicting the binding affinity of any peptide to any protein with reasonable accuracy. The method was also applied to both single-target and pan-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex class II benchmark datasets and three Quantitative Structure Affinity Model benchmark datasets. Conclusion On all benchmarks, our method significantly (p-value ≤ 0.057) outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods at predicting

  5. Camptothecin binds to a synthetic peptide identified by a T7 phage display screen.

    PubMed

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Sugawara, Fumio

    2005-11-01

    An analysis of non-biotinylated camptothecin (CPT) binding to the C-20-biotinylated CPT binding peptide NSSQSARR was carried out using two methods, quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The peptide was immobilized peptide on a sensor chip and showed a dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 0.1 microM against CPT in QCM and SPR experiments.

  6. Lock and Key Binding of the HOX YPWM Peptide to the PBX Homeodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Sprules, Tara; Green, N.; Featherstone, M.; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-01-10

    HOX homeodomain proteins bind short core DNA sequences to control very specific developmental processes. DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity are increased by the formation of cooperative complexes with the PBX homeodomain protein. A conserved YPWM motif in the HOX protein is necessary for cooperative binding with PBX. We have determined the structure of a PBX homeodomain bound to a 14-mer DNA duplex. A relaxation-optimized procedure was developed to measure DNA residual dipolar couplings at natural abundance in the 20-kDa binary complex. When the PBX homeodomain binds to DNA, a fourth alpha-helix is formed in the homeodomain. This helix rigidifies the DNA recognition helix of PBX and forms a hydrophobic binding site for the HOX YPWM peptide. The HOX peptide itself shows some structure in solution and suggests that the interaction between PBX and HOX is an example of "lock and key" binding. The NMR structure explains the requirement of DNA for the PBX-HOX interaction and the increased affinity of DNA binding.

  7. Rabies virus binding to an acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit peptide.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L

    1990-04-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled rabies virus to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was investigated. Binding of rabies virus to the receptor peptide was dependent on pH, could be competed with by unlabeled homologous virus particles, and was saturable. Synthetic peptides of snake venom, curaremimetic neurotoxins and of the structurally similar segment of the rabies virus glycoprotein, were effective in competing with labeled virus binding to the receptor peptide at micromolar concentrations. Similarly, synthetic peptides of the binding domain on the acetylcholine receptor competed for binding. These findings suggest that both rabies virus and neurotoxins bind to residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Competition studies with shorter alpha-subunit peptides within this region indicate that the highest affinity virus binding determinants are located within residues 179-192. A rat nerve alpha 3-subunit peptide, that does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin, inhibited binding of virus to the alpha 1 peptide, suggesting that rabies binds to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These studies indicate that synthetic peptides of the glycoprotein binding domain and of the receptor binding domain may represent useful antiviral agents by targeting the recognition event between the viral attachment protein and the host cell receptor, and inhibiting attachment of virus to the receptor.

  8. Peptides specific for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection: diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Casey, J L; Sanalla, A M; Tamvakis, D; Thalmann, C; Carroll, E L; Parisi, K; Coley, A M; Stewart, D J; Vaughan, J A; Michalski, W P; Luke, R; Foley, M

    2011-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). Current serological diagnostic tests for JD are limited by their sensitivity when used in sub-clinical stages of the disease. Our objective was to identify peptides that mimic diagnostically important Map epitopes that might be incorporated into a new-generation JD diagnostic. Four peptides were isolated from a phage-displayed random peptide library by screening on antibodies derived from Map-infected goats. The peptides were recognised by antibodies from Map-infected goats but not by antibodies from uninfected goats. The peptides elicited immune responses in rabbits, which reacted strongly with bona fide Map antigens proving the peptides were true epitope mimics. To assess the diagnostic value a panel of goat sera was screened for reactivity's with peptides. The peptides were recognised by antibodies from a proportion of goats infected with Map compared with control animals with a diagnostic specificity of 100% and the sensitivity ranged from 50 to 75%. Combinations of any two peptides improved sensitivity 62.5-87.5% and 100% sensitivity was achieved with three of the four peptides in combination. These data suggest peptides representing diagnostically important Map epitopes could be incorporated into a sensitive diagnostic test.

  9. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily B; Williams, Angela; Heidel, Eric; Macy, Sallie; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S

    2013-06-21

    In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as therapeutics for the treatment of amyloid diseases.

  10. Fibronectin peptides that bind PDGF-BB enhance survival of cells and tissue under stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fubao; Zhu, Jia; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Taira, Breena R.; McClain, Steve A.; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Stressors after injury from a multitude of factors can lead to cell death. We have identified four fibronectin (FN) peptides, two from the first FN type III repeat (FNIII1), one from the 13th FN type III repeat (FNIII13), and one from FN variable region (IIICS), that when tethered to a surface acted as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) enhancers to promote cell survival. One of the FNIII1 peptides and its smallest (14mer) bioactive form (P12) were also active in solution. Specifically, P12 bound PDGF-BB (KD = 200nM), enhanced adult human dermal fibroblast (AHDF) survival under serum starvation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, and limited burn injury progression in a rat hot comb model. Furthermore, P12 inhibited ER stress-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Although many growth factors have been found to bind FN directly or indirectly, this is the first report to identify peptide sequences of growth factor-binding sites in FN. The finding of these novel peptides further delineated how the extracellular matrix protein FN can support cell survival. Since the peptide P12 is active in either soluble form or tethered to a substrate, it will have multifactorial uses as a bioactive in tissue engineering. PMID:24126844

  11. Interaction of the Heparin-Binding Consensus Sequence of β-Amyloid Peptides with Heparin and Heparin-Derived Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh; Rabenstein, Dallas L

    2016-03-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques in the AD brain. Comprised primarily of the 40- and 42-residue β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, there is evidence that the heparan sulfate (HS) of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) plays a role in amyloid plaque formation and stability; however, details of the interaction of Aβ peptides with HS are not known. We have characterized the interaction of heparin and heparin-derived oligosaccharides with a model peptide for the heparin- and HS-binding domain of Aβ peptides (Ac-VHHQKLV-NH2; Aβ(12-18)), with mutants of Aβ(12-18), and with additional histidine-containing peptides. The nature of the binding interaction was characterized by NMR, binding constants and other thermodynamic parameters were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and relative binding affinities were determined by heparin affinity chromatography. The binding of Aβ(12-18) by heparin and heparin-derived oligosaccharides is pH-dependent, with the imidazolium groups of the histidine side chains interacting site-specifically within a cleft created by a trisaccharide sequence of heparin, the binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions, and there is a significant entropic contribution to the binding free energy as a result of displacement of Na(+) ions from heparin upon binding of cationic Aβ(12-18). The binding constant decreases as the size of the heparin-derived oligosaccharide decreases and as the concentration of Na(+) ion in the bulk solution increases. Structure-binding relationships characterized in this study are analyzed and discussed in terms of the counterion condensation theory of the binding of cationic peptides by anionic polyelectrolytes.

  12. Determinants of BH3 Binding Specificity for Mcl-1 versus Bcl-x[subscript L

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Sanjib; Gullá, Stefano; Chen, T. Scott; Fire, Emiko; Grant, Robert A.; Keating, Amy E.

    2010-06-25

    Interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins are important for regulating apoptosis. Prosurvival members of the family interact with proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2-homology-3)-only members, inhibiting execution of cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. Structurally, this interaction is mediated by binding of the {alpha}-helical BH3 region of the proapoptotic proteins to a conserved hydrophobic groove on the prosurvival proteins. Native BH3-only proteins exhibit selectivity in binding prosurvival members, as do small molecules that block these interactions. Understanding the sequence and structural basis of interaction specificity in this family is important, as it may allow the prediction of new Bcl-2 family associations and/or the design of new classes of selective inhibitors to serve as reagents or therapeutics. In this work, we used two complementary techniques - yeast surface display screening from combinatorial peptide libraries and SPOT peptide array analysis - to elucidate specificity determinants for binding to Bcl-x{sub L} versus Mcl-1, two prominent prosurvival proteins. We screened a randomized library and identified BH3 peptides that bound to either Mcl-1 or Bcl-x{sub L} selectively or to both with high affinity. The peptides competed with native ligands for binding into the conserved hydrophobic groove, as illustrated in detail by a crystal structure of a specific peptide bound to Mcl-1. Mcl-1-selective peptides from the screen were highly specific for binding Mcl-1 in preference to Bcl-x{sub L}, Bcl-2, Bcl-w, and Bfl-1, whereas Bcl-x{sub L}-selective peptides showed some cross-interaction with related proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-w. Mutational analyses using SPOT arrays revealed the effects of 170 point mutations made in the background of a peptide derived from the BH3 region of Bim, and a simple predictive model constructed using these data explained much of the specificity observed in our Mcl-1 versus Bcl-x{sub L} binders.

  13. Determinants of BH3 binding specificity for Mcl-1 vs. Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sanjib; Gullá, Stefano; Chen, T. Scott; Fire, Emiko; Grant, Robert A.; Keating, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins are important for regulating apoptosis. Pro-survival members of the family interact with pro-apoptotic BH3-only members, inhibiting execution of cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. Structurally, this interaction is mediated by binding of the alpha-helical BH3 region of the pro-apoptotic proteins to a conserved hydrophobic groove on the pro-survival proteins. Native BH3-only proteins exhibit selectivity in binding pro-survival members, as do small molecules that block these interactions. Understanding the sequence and structural basis of interaction specificity in this family is important, as it may allow the prediction of new Bcl-2 family associations and/or the design of new classes of selective inhibitors to serve as reagents or therapeutics. In this work we used two complementary techniques, yeast surface display screening from combinatorial peptide libraries and SPOT peptide array analysis, to elucidate specificity determinants for binding to Bcl-xL vs. Mcl-1, two prominent pro-survival proteins. We screened a randomized library and identified BH3 peptides that bound to either Mcl-1 or Bcl-xL selectively, or to both with high affinity. The peptides competed with native ligands for binding into the conserved hydrophobic groove, as illustrated in detail by a crystal structure of a specific peptide bound to Mcl-1. Mcl-1 selective peptides from the screen were highly specific for binding Mcl-1 in preference to Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Bfl-1, whereas Bcl-xL selective peptides showed some cross-interaction with related proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-w. Mutational analyses using SPOT arrays revealed the effects of 170 point mutations made in the background of a peptide derived from the BH3 region of Bim, and a simple predictive model constructed using these data explained much of the specificity observed in our Mcl-1 vs. Bcl-xL binders. PMID:20363230

  14. Hierarchy of simulation models in predicting molecular recognition mechanisms from the binding energy landscapes: structural analysis of the peptide complexes with SH2 domains.

    PubMed

    Verkhivker, G M; Bouzida, D; Gehlhaar, D K; Rejto, P A; Schaffer, L; Arthurs, S; Colson, A B; Freer, S T; Larson, V; Luty, B A; Marrone, T; Rose, P W

    2001-12-01

    Computer simulations using the simplified energy function and simulated tempering dynamics have accurately determined the native structure of the pYVPML, SVLpYTAVQPNE, and SPGEpYVNIEF peptides in the complexes with SH2 domains. Structural and equilibrium aspects of the peptide binding with SH2 domains have been studied by generating temperature-dependent binding free energy landscapes. Once some native peptide-SH2 domain contacts are constrained, the underlying binding free energy profile has the funnel-like shape that leads to a rapid and consistent acquisition of the native structure. The dominant native topology of the peptide-SH2 domain complexes represents an extended peptide conformation with strong specific interactions in the phosphotyrosine pocket and hydrophobic interactions of the peptide residues C-terminal to the pTyr group. The topological features of the peptide-protein interface are primarily determined by the thermodynamically stable phosphotyrosyl group. A diversity of structurally different binding orientations has been observed for the amino-terminal residues to the phosphotyrosine. The dominant native topology for the peptide residues carboxy-terminal to the phosphotyrosine is tolerant to flexibility in this region of the peptide-SH2 domain interface observed in equilibrium simulations. The energy landscape analysis has revealed a broad, entropically favorable topology of the native binding mode for the bound peptides, which is robust to structural perturbations. This could provide an additional positive mechanism underlying tolerance of the SH2 domains to hydrophobic conservative substitutions in the peptide specificity region.

  15. ARSENITE BINDING TO SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES: THE EFFECT OF INCREASING LENGTH BETWEEN TWO CYSTEINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binding of trivalent arsenicals to peptides and proteins can alter peptide/protein structure and enzyme function and thereby contribute to arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. We utilized radioactive 73As- labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the bindi...

  16. Identification of peptide motif that binds to the surface of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Yoshinari, Masao; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Inoue, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A zirconia-binding peptide motif was identified using a peptide phage display system. Yttria stabilized zirconia beads and discs were used as the target. Quartz crystal microbalance was used to monitor the binding of phages to zirconia. Starting from a library of phages displaying random sequences of 12-mer peptides, we repeated cycles of biopanning against zirconia beads. After four cycles of biopanning, we isolated a phage clone Φ#17. DNA sequencing of the corresponding portion of Φ#17 unexpectedly revealed that it displayed a 58-mer peptide (amino acid sequence: WMPSDVDINDPQGGGSRPNLHQPKPAAEAASKKKSENRKVPFYSHSWY-SSMSEDKRGW). We found that Φ#17 had a 300-fold, significantly higher binding affinity for zirconia discs than phages displaying no peptide. In quartz crystal microbalance assay, a rapid increase in energy dissipation was observed from Φ#17 but not from the control phages, indicating that Φ#17 binds to the surface of zirconia via its displayed peptide. We successfully identified a peptide motif that binds zirconia.

  17. Attaching the phage display-selected GLA peptide to liposomes: factors influencing target binding.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Inge; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2012-02-14

    In our previous study, phage display selections were performed by in situ perfusion of a random peptide library through a mouse brain. This yielded two peptides (GLA and GYR) that showed significant binding to human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) when displayed on phage particles, but not to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, these peptides were produced synthetically and coupled to liposomes to investigate the capacity of the peptides to act as ligands for targeting to hCMEC/D3 cells. Flow cytometry studies showed that these peptides when coupled to liposomes showed weak binding to the target brain endothelial cells. We hypothesized that the weak endothelial cell binding of the selected peptides when coupled to liposomes as compared to the binding of the peptides displayed on phage particles may be ascribed to: change of vehicle shape, change of peptide density, or change of peptide conformation. Peptide density on the liposomes influenced binding of the liposomes to the cells, however, this effect was minor. To study the influence of the peptide conformation, the GLA peptide was recombinantly produced fused to the N1-N2 domains of the phage p3 minor coat protein (p3-GLA) to mimic its conformation when displayed on phage particles. Binding of liposomes modified with either the GLA peptide or the p3-GLA protein to hCMEC/D3 cells was studied, and the p3-GLA-liposomes showed a higher binding to the cells compared to the GLA-liposomes. The experiments demonstrate that bringing the GLA peptide into the original phage protein environment restores and improves the peptide binding capacity and suggest that the GLA peptide, with some modifications, may be used as a brain-targeting ligand in the future.

  18. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; Mcdougal, Owen M.

    2017-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results. PMID:26537635

  19. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results.

  20. Baculoviral capsid display of His-tagged ZnO inorganic binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lei; Liu, Yingying

    2010-01-01

    Virus-templated fabrication of compound structures can be made through incorporating the specifically inorganic-binding peptide into the viral scaffold, widely used is phage display system. Compared to prokaryotic phages, insect cell-based baculovirus has some strengths such as the adaptability to the proteins’ posttranslational modification and non-replication in mammalian cells. As an attempt to explore the baculovirus-mediated bioconjugates, we show in this study that a genetically engineered baculovirus, with a hexahistidine (His6) tagged ZnO binding peptide fused to the N-terminus of the viral capsid protein vp39 of AcNPV, was constructed. It maintains both the viral infectivity and the fusion protein’s activity. The presence of the fusion protein on the baculovirus particle was demonstrated by western blot analysis of purified budded virus. Its display on the virus capsid was revealed by virus fractionation analysis. The binding of nanosized ZnO powders to the virus capsid was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first report of the display of the inorganic-binding peptide on the capsid of eukaryotic baculovirus. Aimed at the nanomaterials’ application in the biological field, this research could find useful in the biotracking of the baculovirus transduction process and the preparation of novel functional nanodevices. PMID:20407822

  1. A novel phage-library-selected peptide inhibits human TNF-α binding to its receptors.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Jlenia; Lelli, Barbara; Scali, Silvia; Falciani, Chiara; Bracci, Luisa; Pini, Alessandro

    2014-06-03

    We report the identification of a new human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) specific peptide selected by competitive panning of a phage library. Competitive elution of phages was obtained using the monoclonal antibody adalimumab, which neutralizes pro-inflammatory processes caused by over-production of TNF-α in vivo, and is used to treat severe symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. The selected peptide was synthesized in monomeric and branched form and analyzed for binding to TNF-α and competition with adalimumab and TNF-α receptors. Results of competition with TNF-α receptors in surface plasmon resonance and melanoma cells expressing both TNF receptors make the peptide a candidate compound for the development of a novel anti-TNF-α drug.

  2. Identification of MHC class II restricted T-cell-mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T-cell responses. As judged from blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan-HLA class II and anti-HLA-DR antibodies. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell depletion before the 10 days of expansion, resulted in total loss of reactivity in the ELISPOT culture for most peptide specificities. FACS analyses with intracellular interferon-γ staining of T cells expanded in the presence of M. tuberculosis peptides confirmed that the responsive cells were indeed CD4(+). In conclusion, T-cell immunity against HLA-I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis-derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells and restricted by HLA-II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide-based vaccines.

  3. Trastuzumab-binding peptide display by Tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Frolova, Olga Y.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Sheval, Eugene V.; Gleba, Yuri Y.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2010-11-10

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) is a target for the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab. Recently, trastuzumab-binding peptides (TBP) of HER2/neu that inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells were identified. We have now studied conditions of efficient assembly in vivo of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based particles displaying TBP on its surface. The system is based on an Agrobacterium-mediated co-delivery of binary vectors encoding TMV RNA and coat protein (CP) with TBP in its C-terminal extension into plant leaves. We show how the fusion of amino acid substituted TBP (sTBP) to CP via a flexible peptide linker can improve the manufacturability of recombinant TMV (rTMV). We also reveal that rTMV particles with exposed sTBP retained trastuzumab-binding capacity but lost an anti-HER2/neu immunogenic scaffold function. Mouse antibodies against rTMV did not recognize HER2/neu on surface of human SK-BR-3 cells.

  4. The b' domain provides the principal peptide-binding site of protein disulfide isomerase but all domains contribute to binding of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Klappa, P; Ruddock, L W; Darby, N J; Freedman, R B

    1998-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a very efficient catalyst of folding of many disulfide-bonded proteins. A great deal is known about the catalytic functions of PDI, while little is known about its substrate binding. We recently demonstrated by cross-linking that PDI binds peptides and misfolded proteins, with high affinity but broad specificity. To characterize the substrate-binding site of PDI, we investigated the interactions of various recombinant fragments of human PDI, expressed in Escherichia coli, with different radiolabelled model peptides. We observed that the b' domain of human PDI is essential and sufficient for the binding of small peptides. In the case of larger peptides, specifically a 28 amino acid fragment derived from bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, or misfolded proteins, the b' domain is essential but not sufficient for efficient binding, indicating that contributions from additional domains are required. Hence we propose that the different domains of PDI all contribute to the binding site, with the b' domain forming the essential core. PMID:9463371

  5. Structure of Calmodulin Bound to a Calcineurin Peptide: A New Way of Making an Old Binding Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ye,Q.; Li, X.; Wong, A.; Wei, Q.; Jia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin is a calmodulin-binding protein in brain and the only serine/threonine protein phosphatase under the control of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin (CaM), which plays a critical role in coupling Ca{sup 2+} signals to cellular responses. CaM up-regulates the phosphatase activity of calcineurin by binding to the CaM-binding domain (CBD) of calcineurin subunit A. Here, we report crystal structural studies of CaM bound to a CBD peptide. The chimeric protein containing CaM and the CBD peptide forms an intimate homodimer, in which CaM displays a native-like extended conformation and the CBD peptide shows -helical structure. Unexpectedly, the N-terminal lobe from one CaM and the C-terminal lobe from the second molecule form a combined binding site to trap the peptide. Thus, the dimer provides two binding sites, each of which is reminiscent of the fully collapsed conformation of CaM commonly observed in complex with, for example, the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) peptide. The interaction between the peptide and CaM is highly specific and similar to MLCK.

  6. Identification of peptide-specific TCR genes by in vitro peptide stimulation and CDR3 length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongwei; Lin, Yanmei; Wang, Teng; Ou, Yusheng; Shen, Han; Tao, Changli; Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Bo, Huaben; Wang, Hui; Huang, Shulin

    2015-07-10

    Identification of TCR genes specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is necessary for TCR gene modification of T cells, which is applied in anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). The usual identification methods are based on isolating single peptide-responding T cells and cloning the TCR gene by in vitro expansion or by single-cell RT-PCR. However, the long and exacting in vitro culture period and demanding operational requirements restrict the application of these methods. Immunoscope is an effective tool that profiles a repertoire of TCRs and identifies significantly expanded clones through CDR3 length analysis. In this study, a survivin-derived mutant peptide optimized for HLA-A2 binding was selected to load DCs and activate T cells. The monoclonal expansion of TCRA and TCRB genes was separately identified by Immunoscope analysis and following sequence identification, the properly paired TCR genes were transferred into T cells. Peptide recognition and cytotoxicity assays indicated that TCR-modified PBMCs could respond to both the mutant and wild type peptides and lyse target cells. These results show that combining Immunoscope with in vitro peptide stimulation provides an alternative and superior method for identifying specific TCR genes, which represents a significant advance for the application of TCR gene-modified T cells.

  7. Binding of leachable components of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and peptide on modified SPR chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaloki, M.; Vitalyos, G.; Harfalvi, J.; Hegedus, Cs

    2013-12-01

    Many types of polymers are often used in dentistry, which may cause allergic reaction, mainly methyl methacrylate allergy due to the leachable, degradable components of polymerized dental products. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the leachable components of PMMA and peptides by Fourier-transform Surface Plasmon Resonance (FT SPR). In our previous work binding of oligopeptides (Ph.D.-7 and Ph.D.-12 Peptide Library Kit) was investigated to PMMA surface by phage display technique. It was found that oligopeptides bounded specifically to PMMA surface. The most common amino acids were leucine and proline inside the amino acids sequences of DNA of phages. The binding of haptens, as formaldehyde and methacrylic acid, to frequent amino acids was to investigate on the modified gold SPR chip. Self assembled monolayer (SAM) modified the surface of gold chip and ensured the specific binding between the haptens and amino acids. It was found that amino acids bounded to modified SPR gold and the haptens bounded to amino acids by creating multilayer on the chip surface. By the application of phage display and SPR modern bioanalytical methods the interaction between allergens and peptides can be investigated.

  8. Biomaterials functionalization using a novel peptide that selectively binds to a conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghvi, Archit B.; Miller, Kiley P.-H.; Belcher, Angela M.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2005-06-01

    The goal in biomaterial surface modification is to retain a material's bulk properties while modifying only its surface to possess desired recognition and specificity. Here we develop a unique strategy for surface functionalization of an electrically conductive polymer, chlorine-doped polypyrrole (PPyCl), which has been widely researched for various electronic and biomedical applications. An M13 bacteriophage library was used to screen 109 different 12-mer peptide inserts against PPyCl. A binding phage (ϕT59) was isolated, and its binding stability and specificity to PPyCl was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and titer count analysis. The relative binding strength and mechanism of the corresponding 12-mer peptide and its variants was studied using atomic force microscopy and fluorescamine assays. Further, the T59 peptide was joined to a cell adhesive sequence and used to promote cell attachment on PPyCl. This strategy can be extended to immobilize a variety of molecules to PPyCl for numerous applications. In addition, phage display can be applied to other polymers to develop bioactive materials without altering their bulk properties.

  9. A peptide isolated from phage display libraries is a structural and functional mimic of an RGD-binding site on integrins

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Many integrins recognize short RGD-containing amino acid sequences and such peptide sequences can be identified from phage libraries by panning with an integrin. Here, in a reverse strategy, we have used such libraries to isolate minimal receptor sequences that bind to fibronectin and RGD-containing fibronectin fragments in affinity panning. A predominant cyclic motif, *CWDDG/LWLC*, was obtained (the asterisks denote a potential disulfide bond). Studies using the purified phage and the corresponding synthetic cyclic peptides showed that *CWDDGWLC*-expressing phage binds specifically to fibronectin and to fibronectin fragments containing the RGD sequence. The binding did not require divalent cations and was inhibited by both RGD and *CWDDGWLC*-containing synthetic peptides. Conversely, RGD-expressing phage attached specifically to immobilized *CWDDGWLC*-peptide and the binding could be blocked by the respective synthetic peptides in solution. Moreover, fibronectin bound to a *CWDDGWLC*-peptide affinity column, and could be eluted with an RGD-containing peptide. The *CWDDGWLC*-peptide inhibited RGD-dependent cell attachment to fibronectin and vitronectin, but not to collagen. A region of the beta subunit of RGD-binding integrins that has been previously demonstrated to be involved in ligand binding includes a polypeptide stretch, KDDLW (in beta 3) similar to WDDG/LWL. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this region in beta 3 were found to bind RGD-displaying phage and conversion of its two aspartic residues into alanines greatly reduced the RGD binding. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the *CWDDGWLC*- peptide recognized beta 1 and beta 3 in immunoblots. These data indicate that the *CWDDGWLC*-peptide is a functional mimic of ligand binding sites of RGD-directed integrins, and that the structurally similar site in the integrin beta subunit is a binding site for RGD. PMID:7657703

  10. Purification of an angiotensin II binding protein by using antibodies to a peptide encoded by angiotensin II complementary RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, T.S.; Dion, L.D.; Bost, K.L.; Oparil, S.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    The authors have generated a monospecific antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded by an RNA complementary to the mRNA for angiotensin II (AII) and determined whether this antibody recognizes the AII receptor. They demonstrate that the antibody competes specifically with /sup 125/I-labeled AII for the same binding site on rat adrenal membranes. Furthermore, they show this antibody inhibits the secretion of aldosterone from cultured rat adrenal cells, suggesting that the antibody recognizes the biologically relevant AII receptor. Finally, they demonstrate that antibody to the complementary peptide can be used to immunoaffinity-purify a protein of M/sub r/ 66,000 that specifically binds radiolabeled AII.

  11. Enhancing in silico protein-based vaccine discovery for eukaryotic pathogens using predicted peptide-MHC binding and peptide conservation scores.

    PubMed

    Goodswen, Stephen J; Kennedy, Paul J; Ellis, John T

    2014-01-01

    Given thousands of proteins constituting a eukaryotic pathogen, the principal objective for a high-throughput in silico vaccine discovery pipeline is to select those proteins worthy of laboratory validation. Accurate prediction of T-cell epitopes on protein antigens is one crucial piece of evidence that would aid in this selection. Prediction of peptides recognised by T-cell receptors have to date proved to be of insufficient accuracy. The in silico approach is consequently reliant on an indirect method, which involves the prediction of peptides binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. There is no guarantee nevertheless that predicted peptide-MHC complexes will be presented by antigen-presenting cells and/or recognised by cognate T-cell receptors. The aim of this study was to determine if predicted peptide-MHC binding scores could provide contributing evidence to establish a protein's potential as a vaccine. Using T-Cell MHC class I binding prediction tools provided by the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource, peptide binding affinity to 76 common MHC I alleles were predicted for 160 Toxoplasma gondii proteins: 75 taken from published studies represented proteins known or expected to induce T-cell immune responses and 85 considered less likely vaccine candidates. The results show there is no universal set of rules that can be applied directly to binding scores to distinguish a vaccine from a non-vaccine candidate. We present, however, two proposed strategies exploiting binding scores that provide supporting evidence that a protein is likely to induce a T-cell immune response-one using random forest (a machine learning algorithm) with a 72% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity and the other, using amino acid conservation scores with a 74.6% sensitivity and 70.5% specificity when applied to the 160 benchmark proteins. More importantly, the binding score strategies are valuable evidence contributors to the overall in silico vaccine discovery

  12. Enhancing In Silico Protein-Based Vaccine Discovery for Eukaryotic Pathogens Using Predicted Peptide-MHC Binding and Peptide Conservation Scores

    PubMed Central

    Goodswen, Stephen J.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Ellis, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Given thousands of proteins constituting a eukaryotic pathogen, the principal objective for a high-throughput in silico vaccine discovery pipeline is to select those proteins worthy of laboratory validation. Accurate prediction of T-cell epitopes on protein antigens is one crucial piece of evidence that would aid in this selection. Prediction of peptides recognised by T-cell receptors have to date proved to be of insufficient accuracy. The in silico approach is consequently reliant on an indirect method, which involves the prediction of peptides binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. There is no guarantee nevertheless that predicted peptide-MHC complexes will be presented by antigen-presenting cells and/or recognised by cognate T-cell receptors. The aim of this study was to determine if predicted peptide-MHC binding scores could provide contributing evidence to establish a protein’s potential as a vaccine. Using T-Cell MHC class I binding prediction tools provided by the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource, peptide binding affinity to 76 common MHC I alleles were predicted for 160 Toxoplasma gondii proteins: 75 taken from published studies represented proteins known or expected to induce T-cell immune responses and 85 considered less likely vaccine candidates. The results show there is no universal set of rules that can be applied directly to binding scores to distinguish a vaccine from a non-vaccine candidate. We present, however, two proposed strategies exploiting binding scores that provide supporting evidence that a protein is likely to induce a T-cell immune response–one using random forest (a machine learning algorithm) with a 72% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity and the other, using amino acid conservation scores with a 74.6% sensitivity and 70.5% specificity when applied to the 160 benchmark proteins. More importantly, the binding score strategies are valuable evidence contributors to the overall in silico vaccine

  13. Structural Determinants of Binding the Seven-transmembrane Domain of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R).

    PubMed

    Yang, Dehua; de Graaf, Chris; Yang, Linlin; Song, Gaojie; Dai, Antao; Cai, Xiaoqing; Feng, Yang; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen; Hanson, Michael A; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2016-06-17

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to the secretin-like (class B) family of G protein-coupled receptors. Members of the class B family are distinguished by their large extracellular domain, which works cooperatively with the canonical seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain to signal in response to binding of various peptide hormones. We have combined structure-based site-specific mutational studies with molecular dynamics simulations of a full-length model of GLP-1R bound to multiple peptide ligand variants. Despite the high sequence similarity between GLP-1R and its closest structural homologue, the glucagon receptor (GCGR), nearly half of the 62 stably expressed mutants affected GLP-1R in a different manner than the corresponding mutants in GCGR. The molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type and mutant GLP-1R·ligand complexes provided molecular insights into GLP-1R-specific recognition mechanisms for the N terminus of GLP-1 by residues in the 7TM pocket and explained how glucagon-mimicking GLP-1 mutants restored binding affinity for (GCGR-mimicking) GLP-1R mutants. Structural analysis of the simulations suggested that peptide ligand binding mode variations in the 7TM binding pocket are facilitated by movement of the extracellular domain relative to the 7TM bundle. These differences in binding modes may account for the pharmacological differences between GLP-1 peptide variants.

  14. Discovery of pan-VEGF inhibitory peptides directed to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of the VEGF receptors

    PubMed Central

    Michaloski, Jussara S.; Redondo, Alexandre R.; Magalhães, Leila S.; Cambui, Caio C.; Giordano, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key molecules in numerous cellular processes, the inhibitors of which play an important role in the clinic. Among them are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members and their receptors (VEGFR), which are essential in the formation of new blood vessels by angiogenesis. Anti-VEGF therapy has already shown promising results in oncology and ophthalmology, but one of the challenges in the field is the design of specific small-molecule inhibitors for these receptors. We show the identification and characterization of small 6-mer peptides that target the extracellular ligand-binding domain of all three VEGF receptors. These peptides specifically prevent the binding of VEGF family members to all three receptors and downstream signaling but do not affect other angiogenic RTKs and their ligands. One of the selected peptides was also very effective at preventing pathological angiogenesis in a mouse model of retinopathy, normalizing the vasculature to levels similar to those of a normal developing retina. Collectively, our results suggest that these peptides are pan-VEGF inhibitors directed at a common binding pocket shared by all three VEGFRs. These peptides and the druggable binding site they target might be important for the development of novel and selective small-molecule, extracellular ligand-binding inhibitors of RTKs (eTKIs) for angiogenic-dependent diseases. PMID:27819042

  15. Designing new surfactant peptides for binding to carbon nanotubes via computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Alireza; Mahnam, Karim

    2017-03-14

    The non-covalent interaction between single-walled carbon nanotube and surfactant peptides makes them soluble in biological media to be used in nano-medicine, drug delivery and gene therapy. Pervious study has shown that two important parameters in binding peptides into nanotubes are hydrophobic effect and the number of aromatic amino acids. Ten surfactant peptides with the length of eight residue, including Lys, Trp, Tyr, Phe and Val, were designed to investigate the important parameters in binding peptides to a (6, 6) carbon nanotube. 500ns MD simulation was performed for free surfactant peptides in water or near to a nanotube. Our results have indicated that the binding affinity of peptides to nanotube increases with the increase of aromatic residue content. Also, among aromatic residues, the peptides containing Trp residues have higher binding affinity to nanotube compared to the peptides with Phe or Tyr residue. Steric hindrance between bulky aromatic residues in peptide sequence has negative influence in binding peptide to nanotube, and in designing a surfactant peptide, the number and distance of aromatic residue and polarity of them should be taken into account. Our results also show that in docking peptides to nanotube, full-flexible docking leads to incorrect results.

  16. Inhibition of LtxA toxicity by blocking cholesterol binding with peptides.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; Koufos, E; Balashova, N V; Boesze-Battaglia, K; Lally, E T

    2016-02-01

    The leukotoxin (LtxA) produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans kills host immune cells, allowing the bacterium to establish an ecological niche in the upper aerodigestive tract of its human host. The interaction of LtxA with human immune cells is both complex and multifaceted, involving membrane lipids as well as cell-surface proteins. In the initial encounter with the host cell, LtxA associates with lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, a cell surface adhesion glycoprotein. However, we have also demonstrated that the toxin associates strongly with the plasma membrane lipids, specifically cholesterol. This association with cholesterol is regulated by a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif, with a sequence of (334) LEEYSKR(340), in the N-terminal region of the toxin. Here, we have demonstrated that removal of cholesterol from the plasma membrane or mutation of the LtxA CRAC motif inhibits the activity of the toxin in THP-1 cells. To inhibit LtxA activity, we designed a short peptide corresponding to the CRAC(336) motif of LtxA (CRAC(336WT)). This peptide binds to cholesterol and thereby inhibits the toxicity of LtxA in THP-1 cells. Previously, we showed that this peptide inhibits LtxA toxicity against Jn.9 (Jurkat) cells, indicating that peptides derived from the cholesterol-binding site of LtxA may have a potential clinical applicability in controlling infections of repeats-in-toxin-producing organisms.

  17. Inhibition of LtxA Toxicity by Blocking Cholesterol Binding With Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela C.; Koufos, Evan; Balashova, Nataliya; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Lally, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The leukotoxin (LtxA) produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans kills host immune cells, allowing the bacterium to establish an ecological niche in the upper aerodigestive tract of its human host. The interaction of LtxA with human immune cells is both complex and multifaceted, involving membrane lipids as well as cell-surface proteins. In the initial encounter with the host cell, LtxA associates with lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a cell surface adhesion glycoprotein. However, we have also demonstrated that the toxin associates strongly with the plasma membrane lipids, specifically cholesterol. This association with cholesterol is regulated by a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif, with a sequence of 334LEEYSKR340, in the N-terminal region of the toxin. Here, we have demonstrated that removal of cholesterol from the plasma membrane or mutation of the LtxA CRAC motif inhibits the activity of the toxin in THP-1 cells. To inhibit LtxA activity, we designed a short peptide corresponding to the CRAC336 motif of LtxA (CRAC336WT). This peptide binds to cholesterol and thereby inhibits the toxicity of LtxA in THP-1 cells. Previously, we showed that this peptide inhibits LtxA toxicity against Jn.9 (Jurkat) cells, indicating that peptides derived from the cholesterol-binding site of LtxA may have a potential clinical applicability in controlling infections of RTX-producing organisms. PMID:26352738

  18. Neutron Reflectometry Studies Define Prion Protein N-terminal Peptide Membrane Binding

    PubMed Central

    Le Brun, Anton P.; Haigh, Cathryn L.; Drew, Simon C.; James, Michael; Boland, Martin P.; Collins, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP), widely recognized to misfold into the causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has previously been shown to bind to lipid membranes with binding influenced by both membrane composition and pH. Aside from the misfolding events associated with prion pathogenesis, PrP can undergo various posttranslational modifications, including internal cleavage events. Alpha- and beta-cleavage of PrP produces two N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2, respectively, which interact specifically with negatively charged phospholipids at low pH. Our previous work probing N1 and N2 interactions with supported bilayers raised the possibility that the peptides could insert deeply with minimal disruption. In the current study we aimed to refine the binding parameters of these peptides with lipid bilayers. To this end, we used neutron reflectometry to define the structural details of this interaction in combination with quartz crystal microbalance interrogation. Neutron reflectometry confirmed that peptides equivalent to N1 and N2 insert into the interstitial space between the phospholipid headgroups but do not penetrate into the acyl tail region. In accord with our previous studies, interaction was stronger for the N1 fragment than for the N2, with more peptide bound per lipid. Neutron reflectometry analysis also detected lengthening of the lipid acyl tails, with a concurrent decrease in lipid area. This was most evident for the N1 peptide and suggests an induction of increased lipid order in the absence of phase transition. These observations stand in clear contrast to the findings of analogous studies of Ab and α-synuclein and thereby support the possibility of a functional role for such N-terminal fragment-membrane interactions. PMID:25418300

  19. Identification of lanthanum-specific peptides for future recycling of rare earth elements from compact fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Franziska L; Curtis, Susan B; Bachmann, Stefanie; Dunbar, W Scott; MacGillivray, Ross T A

    2017-05-01

    As components of electronic scrap, rare earth minerals are an interesting but little used source of raw materials that are highly important for the recycling industry. Currently, there exists no cost-efficient technology to separate rare earth minerals from an electronic scrap mixture. In this study, phage surface display has been used as a key method to develop peptides with high specificity for particular inorganic targets in electronic scrap. Lanthanum phosphate doped with cerium and terbium as part of the fluorescent phosphors of spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) was used as a target material of economic interest to test the suitability of the phage display method to the separation of rare earth minerals. One random pVIII phage library was screened for peptide sequences that bind specifically to the fluorescent phosphor LaPO4 :Ce(3+) ,Tb(3+) (LAP). The library contained at least 100 binding pVIII peptides per phage particle with a diversity of 1 × 10(9) different phage per library. After three rounds of enrichment, a phage clone containing the surface peptide loop RCQYPLCS was found to bind specifically to LAP. Specificity and affinity of the identified phage bound peptide was confirmed by using binding and competition assays, immunofluorescence assays, and zeta potential measurements. Binding and immunofluorescence assays identified the peptide's affinity for the fluorescent phosphor components CAT (CeMgAl11 O19 :Tb(3+) ) and BAM (BaMgAl10 O17 :Eu(2+) ). No affinity was found for other fluorescent phosphor components such as YOX (Y2 O3 :Eu(3+) ). The binding specificity of the RCQYPLCS peptide loop was improved 3-51-fold by using alanine scanning mutagenesis. The identification of peptides with high specificity and affinity for special components in the fluorescent phosphor in CFLs provides a potentially new strategic approach to rare earth recycling. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1016-1024. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Copper binding to prion octarepeat peptides, a combined metal chelate affinity and immunochemical approaches.

    PubMed

    Todorova-Balvay, Daniela; Simon, Stéphanie; Créminon, Christophe; Grassi, Jacques; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2005-04-15

    Based on the hypothetical proposal of Sulkowski [E. Sulkowski, FEBS Lett. 307 (2) (1992) 129] for the implication of transition metal ions in the structural changes/oligomerisation of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) resulting in the pathological isoform (PrPsc), we focused our study on the octarepat domain of this protein which has been supposed to be the metal binding site. We have studied the copper binding to synthetic prion octarepeat peptides (PHGGGWGQ)n (n=1, 3, 6) using metal chelate and size-exclusion modes of chromatographies. This copper binding induces oligomerisation resulting in multiple aggregates. Moreover, heterogeneity of metal bound octarepeat oligomers by ESI-MS has been demonstrated. In addition, anti prion antibodies specific to the octarepeat region were used to discriminate between metal free and copper, nickel and zinc bound hexamer octarepeat peptide. Differential recognition of Cu(II) and Zn(II) bound complexes has been observed which signify differences in exposed epitopes of aggregated peptides.

  1. Increased Peptide Contacts Govern High Affinity Binding of a Modified TCR Whilst Maintaining a Native pMHC Docking Mode.

    PubMed

    Cole, David K; Sami, Malkit; Scott, Daniel R; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Todorov, Penio T; Moysey, Ruth K; Jakobsen, Bent K; Boulter, Jonathan M; Baker, Brian M; Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Natural T cell receptors (TCRs) generally bind to their cognate pMHC molecules with weak affinity and fast kinetics, limiting their use as therapeutic agents. Using phage display, we have engineered a high affinity version of the A6 wild-type TCR (A6wt), specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A(∗)0201) complexed with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 111-19 peptide (A2-Tax). Mutations in just 4 residues in the CDR3β loop region of the A6wt TCR were selected that improved binding to A2-Tax by nearly 1000-fold. Biophysical measurements of this mutant TCR (A6c134) demonstrated that the enhanced binding was derived through favorable enthalpy and a slower off-rate. The structure of the free A6c134 TCR and the A6c134/A2-Tax complex revealed a native binding mode, similar to the A6wt/A2-Tax complex. However, concordant with the more favorable binding enthalpy, the A6c134 TCR made increased contacts with the Tax peptide compared with the A6wt/A2-Tax complex, demonstrating a peptide-focused mechanism for the enhanced affinity that directly involved the mutated residues in the A6c134 TCR CDR3β loop. This peptide-focused enhanced TCR binding may represent an important approach for developing antigen specific high affinity TCR reagents for use in T cell based therapies.

  2. Adsorption kinetics of an engineered gold binding Peptide by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Tamerler, Candan; Oren, Ersin Emre; Duman, Memed; Venkatasubramanian, Eswaranand; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2006-08-29

    The adsorption kinetics of an engineered gold binding peptide on gold surface was studied by using both quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy systems. The gold binding peptide was originally selected as a 14-amino acid sequence by cell surface display and then engineered to have a 3-repeat form (3R-GBP1) with improved binding characteristics. Both sets of adsorption data for 3R-GBP1 were fit to Langmuir models to extract kinetics and thermodynamics parameters. In SPR, the adsorption onto the surface shows a biexponential behavior and this is explained as the effect of bimodal surface topology of the polycrystalline gold substrate on 3R-GBP1 binding. Depending on the concentration of the peptide, a preferential adsorption on the surface takes place with different energy levels. The kinetic parameters (e.g., K(eq) approximately 10(7) M(-1)) and the binding energy (approximately -8.0 kcal/mol) are comparable to synthetic-based self-assembled monolayers. The results demonstrate the potential utilization of genetically engineered inorganic surface-specific peptides as molecular substrates due to their binding specificity, stability, and functionality in an aqueous-based environment.

  3. A Tubulin Binding Peptide Targets Glioma Cells Disrupting Their Microtubules, Blocking Migration, and Inducing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Berges, Raphael; Balzeau, Julien; Peterson, Alan C; Eyer, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment regimes, glioma remains a largely fatal disease. Current treatment limitations are attributed to the precarious locations within the brain where such tumors grow, their highly infiltrative nature precluding complete resection and lack of specificity among agents capable of attenuating their growth. Here, we show that in vitro, glioma cells of diverse origins internalize a peptide encompassing a tubulin-binding site (TBS) on the neurofilament light protein. The internalized peptide disrupts the microtubule network, inhibits migration and proliferation, and leads to apoptosis. Using an intracerebral transplant model, we show that most, if not all, of these responses to peptide exposure also occur in vivo. Notably, a single intratumor injection significantly attenuates tumor growth, while neither peptide uptake nor downstream consequences are observed elsewhere in the host nervous system. Such preferential uptake suggests that the peptide may have potential as a primary or supplementary glioblastoma treatment modality by exploiting its autonomous microtubule-disrupting activity or engaging its capacity to selectively target glioma cells with other cell-disrupting cargos. PMID:22491214

  4. Inhibition of fibronectin binding and fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion to collagen by a peptide from the second type I repeat of thrombospondin

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The platelet and extracellular matrix glycoprotein thrombospondin interacts with various types of cells as both a positive and negative modulator of cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation. These effects may be mediated by binding of thrombospondin to cell surface receptors or indirectly by binding to other extracellular matrix components. The role of peptide sequences from the type I repeats of thrombospondin in its interaction with fibronectin were investigated. Fibronectin bound specifically to the peptide Gly-Gly-Trp-Ser-His-Trp from the second type I repeat of thrombospondin but not to the corresponding peptides from the first or third repeats or flanking sequences from the second repeat. The two Trp residues and the His residue were essential for binding, and the two Gly residues enhanced the affinity of binding. Binding of the peptide and intact thrombospondin to fibronectin were inhibited by the gelatin-binding domain of fibronectin. The peptide specifically inhibited binding of fibronectin to gelatin or type I collagen and inhibited fibronectin-mediated adhesion of breast carcinoma and melanoma cells to gelatin or type I collagen substrates but not direct adhesion of the cells to fibronectin, which was inhibited by the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser. Thus, the fibronectin- binding thrombospondin peptide Gly-Gly-Trp-Ser-His-Trp is a selective inhibitor of fibronectin-mediated interactions of cells with collagen in the extracellular matrix. PMID:8468356

  5. Construction of peptides with nucleobase amino acids: design and synthesis of the nucleobase-conjugated peptides derived from HIV-1 Rev and their binding properties to HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hamasaki, K; Ueno, A; Mihara, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop a novel molecule that recognizes a specific structure of RNA, we have attempted to design peptides having L-alpha-amino acids with a nucleobase at the side chain (nucleobase amino acid (NBA)), expecting that the function of a nucleobase which can specifically recognize a base in RNA is regulated in a peptide conformation. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of the NBA units in the peptide to RNA recognition, we designed and synthesized a variety of NBA-conjugated peptides, derived from HIV-1 Rev. Circular dichroism study revealed that the conjugation of the Rev peptide with an NBA unit did not disturb the peptide conformation. RNA-binding affinities of the designed peptides with RRE IIB RNA were dependent on the structure of the nucleobase moieties in the peptides. The peptide having the cytosine NBA at the position of the Asn40 site in the Rev showed a higher binding ability for RRE IIB RNA, despite the diminishing the Asn40 function. Furthermore, the peptide having the guanine NBA at the position of the Arg44 site, which is the most important residue for the RNA binding in the Rev, bound to RRE IIB RNA in an ability similar to Rev34-50 with native sequence. These results demonstrate that an appropriate NBA unit in the peptide plays an important role in the RNA binding with a specific contact such as hydrogen bonding, and the interaction between the nucleobase in the peptide and the base in the RNA can enhance the RNA-binding affinity and specificity.

  6. Relative free energy of binding between antimicrobial peptides and SDS or DPC micelles

    PubMed Central

    Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Khandelia, Himanshu; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2010-01-01

    We present relative binding free energy calculations for six antimicrobial peptide–micelle systems, three peptides interacting with two types of micelles. The peptides are the scorpion derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP), IsCT and two of its analogues. The micelles are dodecylphosphatidylcholine (DPC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) micelles. The interfacial electrostatic properties of DPC and SDS micelles are assumed to be similar to those of zwitterionic mammalian and anionic bacterial membrane interfaces, respectively. We test the hypothesis that the binding strength between peptides and the anionic micelle SDS can provide information on peptide antimicrobial activity, since it is widely accepted that AMPs function by binding to and disrupting the predominantly anionic lipid bilayer of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We also test the hypothesis that the binding strength between peptides and the zwitterionic micelle DPC can provide information on peptide haemolytic activities, since it is accepted that they also bind to and disrupt the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. Equilibrium structures of the peptides, micelles and peptide–micelle complexes are obtained from more than 300 ns of molecular dynamics simulations. A thermodynamic cycle is introduced to compute the binding free energy from electrostatic, non-electrostatic and entropic contributions. We find relative binding free energy strengths between peptides and SDS to correlate with the experimentally measured rankings for peptide antimicrobial activities, and relative free energy binding strengths between peptides and DPC to correlate with the observed rankings for peptide haemolytic toxicities. These findings point to the importance of peptide–membrane binding strength for antimicrobial activity and haemolytic activity. PMID:21113423

  7. Molecular specialization of breast vasculature: A breast-homing phage-displayed peptide binds to aminopeptidase P in breast vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, Markus; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2002-02-01

    In vivo phage display identifies peptides that selectively home to the vasculature of individual organs, tissues, and tumors. Here we report the identification of a cyclic nonapeptide, CPGPEGAGC, which homes to normal breast tissue with a 100-fold selectivity over nontargeted phage. The homing of the phage is inhibited by its cognate synthetic peptide. Phage localization in tissue sections showed that the breast-homing phage binds to the blood vessels in the breast, but not in other tissues. The phage also bound to the vasculature of hyperplastic and malignant lesions in transgenic breast cancer mice. Expression cloning with a phage-displayed cDNA library yielded a phage that specifically bound to the breast-homing peptide. The cDNA insert was homologous to a fragment of aminopeptidase P. The homing peptide bound aminopeptidase P from malignant breast tissue in affinity chromatography. Antibodies against aminopeptidase P inhibited the in vitro binding of the phage-displayed cDNA to the peptide and the in vivo homing of phage carrying the peptide. These results indicate that aminopeptidase P is the receptor for the breast-homing peptide. This peptide may be useful in designing drugs for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Screening specific polypeptides of breast cancer stem cells from a phage display random peptide library

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Qi, Chun-Ling; Kong, Mian; Liu, Ting-Ting; Li, Lei; Li, Bao-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify polypeptides that specifically bond to breast cancer stem cells from a phage display random 12 peptide library, in addition to the affinity and specificity of polypeptides. A phage display random 12 peptide library was screened using breast cancer stem cells as targets isolated from the MDA-MB-231 cell line using the serum-free culture technique with hs578bst and MDA-MB-231 cells as subtract-screening cells. Positive and specific binding clones were amplified and sent for sequencing. The affinity and specificity of the positive clones were subsequently identified by ELISA and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine staining. The results demonstrated that phages were gathered ~500 times following three rounds of biopanning. ELISA identified that the affinity to breast cancer stem cells of the no. 6 phage was 6.14 times higher than that in the control group. In addition, immunohistochemistry observed that the no. 6 phage exhibited high-specificity bonding to breast cancer stem cells, and the peptide sequence of the positive phage was GYSASRSTIPGK following DNA sequencing and translation. Thus, the present study isolated a specific peptide that bonds to breast cancer stem cells from a phage display random peptide library, which may facilitate further studies regarding the stem cell-targeted therapy of breast cancer. PMID:28105180

  9. Specific binding of phorbol ester tumor promoters

    PubMed Central

    Driedger, Paul E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    1980-01-01

    [20-3H]Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound to particulate preparations from chicken embryo fibroblasts in a specific, saturable, reversible fashion. Equilibrium binding occurred with a Kd of 25 nM; this value is very close to the 50% effective dose (ED50), 50 nM, previously determined for the biological response (induction of fibronectin loss) in growing chicken embryo fibroblasts. At saturation, 1.4 pmol of [20-3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate was bound per mg of protein (approximately 7 × 104 molecules per cell). Binding was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (Ki = 2 nM), mezerein (Ki = 180 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibenzoate (Ki = 180 nM), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (Ki = 1.7 μM), phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate (Ki = 39 μM), and phorbol 13-acetate (Ki = 120 μM). The measured Ki values are all within a factor of 3.5 of the ED50 values of these derivatives for inducing loss of fibronectin in intact cells. Binding was not inhibited by the inactive compounds phorbol (10 μg/ml) and 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (10 μg/ml) or by the inflammatory but nonpromoting phorbol-related diterpene esters resiniferatoxin (100 ng/ml) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate 20-acetate (100 ng/ml). These data suggest that biological responses to the phorbol esters in chicken embryo fibroblasts are mediated by this binding activity and that the binding activity corresponds to the phorbol ester target in mouse skin involved in tumor promotion. Binding was not inhibited by the nonphorbol promoters anthralin (1 μM), phenol (1 mM), iodoacetic acid (1.7 μM), and cantharidin (75 μM), or by epidermal growth factor (100 ng/ml), dexamethasone acetate (2 μM), retinoic acid (10 μM), or prostaglandin E2 (1 μM). These agents thus appear to act at a target distinct from that of the phorbol esters. PMID:6965793

  10. Specific peptide for functionalization of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estephan, E.; Larroque, C.; Cloitre, T.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.; Gergely, C.

    2008-04-01

    Nanobiotechnology aims to exploit biomolecular recognition and self-assembly capabilities for integrating advanced materials into medicine and biology. However frequent problems are encountered at the interface of substrate-biological molecule, as the direct physical adsorption of biological molecules is dependent of unpredictable non-specific interactions with the surface, often causing their denaturation. Therefore, a proper functionalization of the substrate should avoid a loss of biological activity. In this work we address the functionalization of the semiconductor GaN (0001) for biosensing applications. The basic interest of using III-V class semiconductors is their good light emitting properties and a fair chemical stability that allows various applications of these materials. The technology chosen to elaborate GaN-specific peptides is the combinatorial phage-display method, a biological screening procedure based on affinity selection. An M13 bacteriophage library has been used to screen 10 10 different peptides against the GaN (0001) surface to finally isolate one specific peptide. The preferential attachment of the biotinylated selected peptide onto the GaN (0001), in close proximity to a surface of different chemical and structural composition has been demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. Further physicochemical studies have been initiated to evaluate the semiconductor-peptide interface and understand the details in the specific recognition of peptides for semiconductor substrates. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection mode (FTIR-ATR) has been employed to prove the presence of peptides on the surface. Our Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies on the morphology of the GaN surface after functionalization revealed a total surface coverage by a very thin, homogeneous peptide layer. Due to its good biocompatibility, functionalized GaN devices might evolve in a new class of implantable biosensors for medical applications.

  11. Determination of the sequence specificity of XIAP BIR domains by screening a combinatorial peptide library.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael C; Wang, Xianxi; Park, Junguk; Liu, Yusen; Pei, Dehua

    2006-12-12

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins regulate programmed cell death by inhibiting members of the caspase family of proteases. The X-chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) contains three baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, which bind directly to the N-termini of target proteins including those of caspases-3, -7, and -9. In the present study, we defined the consensus sequences of the motifs that interact with the three BIR domains in an unbiased manner. A combinatorial peptide library containing four random residues at the N-terminus was constructed and screened using BIR domains as probes. We found that the BIR3 domain binds a highly specific motif containing an alanine or valine at the N-terminus (P1 position), an arginine or proline at the P3 position, and a hydrophobic residue (Phe, Ile, and Tyr) at the P4 position. The BIR2-binding motif is less stringent. Although it still requires an N-terminal alanine, it tolerates a wide variety of amino acids at P2-P4 positions. The BIR1 failed to bind to any peptides in the library. SPR analysis of individually synthesized peptides confirmed the library screening results. Database searches with the BIR2- and BIR3-binding consensus sequences revealed a large number of potential target proteins. The combinatorial library method should be readily applicable to other BIR domains or other types of protein modular domains.

  12. Peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells by recombinant plate bound MHC/peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Esben G W; Buus, Søren; Thorn, Mette; Stryhn, Anette; Leisner, Christian; Claesson, Mogens H

    2009-01-01

    Development of methods for efficient in vitro stimulation and expansion of peptide specific CD8(+) T cells is compelling not only with respect to adoptive T cell therapy but also regarding analysis of T cell responses and search for new immunogenic peptides. In the present study, a new approach to in vitro T cell stimulation was investigated. By use of an antigenic peptide derived from the cytomegalovirus (CMVp) we tested the stimulatory efficacy of recombinant plate bound MHC molecules (PB-MHC), being immobilized in culture plates. A single stimulation of non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (NA-PBMCs) with PB-MHC/CMVp resulted in significant expansion of CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, which was comparable to that achieved by CMVp pulsed mature dendritic cells (DCs). By repeated exposure of NA-PBMCs to PB-MHC/CMVp more than 60% CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, representing a 240-fold expansion, were reached after only two stimulations. Although stimulation with PB-MHC/CMVp clearly demonstrated efficient peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells, there was a tendency to proliferative exhaustion of the cells after 3-4 stimulations. Thus, it will be of interest to examine the effect of new stimulatory cocktails, e.g. cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, by use of the present rapid and easy-to-use method of expanding peptide specific T cells.

  13. Specificity profiling of dual specificity phosphatase vaccinia VH1-related (VHR) reveals two distinct substrate binding modes.

    PubMed

    Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Chen, Xianwen; Taha, Hashem A; Vyas, Shubham; Guan, Xiaoyan; Freitas, Michael A; Hadad, Christopher M; Pei, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Vaccinia VH1-related (VHR) is a dual specificity phosphatase that consists of only a single catalytic domain. Although several protein substrates have been identified for VHR, the elements that control the in vivo substrate specificity of this enzyme remain unclear. In this work, the in vitro substrate specificity of VHR was systematically profiled by screening combinatorial peptide libraries. VHR exhibits more stringent substrate specificity than classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases and recognizes two distinct classes of Tyr(P) peptides. The class I substrates are similar to the Tyr(P) motifs derived from the VHR protein substrates, having sequences of (D/E/ϕ)(D/S/N/T/E)(P/I/M/S/A/V)pY(G/A/S/Q) or (D/E/ϕ)(T/S)(D/E)pY(G/A/S/Q) (where ϕ is a hydrophobic amino acid and pY is phosphotyrosine). The class II substrates have the consensus sequence of (V/A)P(I/L/M/V/F)X1-6pY (where X is any amino acid) with V/A preferably at the N terminus of the peptide. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies suggest that the class II peptides bind to VHR in an opposite orientation relative to the canonical binding mode of the class I substrates. In this alternative binding mode, the Tyr(P) side chain binds to the active site pocket, but the N terminus of the peptide interacts with the carboxylate side chain of Asp(164), which normally interacts with the Tyr(P) + 3 residue of a class I substrate. Proteins containing the class II motifs are efficient VHR substrates in vitro, suggesting that VHR may act on a novel class of yet unidentified Tyr(P) proteins in vivo.

  14. Phage-displayed peptides selected for binding to Campylobacter jejuni are antimicrobial.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Rea, Philippa J; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of zoonotic bacterial gastroenteritis in humans with chicken meat implicated as a source of infection. Campylobacter jejuni colonises the lower gastrointestinal tract of poultry and during processing is spread from the gastrointestinal tract onto the surface of dressed carcasses. Controlling or eliminating C.jejuni on-farm is considered to be one of the best strategies for reducing human infection. Molecules on the cell surface of C.jejuni interact with the host to facilitate its colonisation and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. We used a subtractive phage-display protocol to affinity select for peptides binding to the cell surface of a poultry isolate of C.jejuni with the aim of finding peptides that could be used to control this microorganism in chickens. In total, 27 phage peptides, representing 11 unique clones, were found to inhibit the growth of C.jejuni by up to 99.9% in vitro. One clone was bactericidal, reducing the viability of C.jejuni by 87% in vitro. The phage peptides were highly specific. They completely inhibited the growth of two of the four poultry isolates of C.jejuni tested with no activity detected towards other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Metacaspase-binding peptide inhibits heat shock-induced death in Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Peña, Mauricio S; Cabral, Guilherme C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Perez, Katia R; Stolf, Beatriz S

    2017-03-02

    Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. This parasite faces cell death in some situations during transmission to the vertebrate host, and this process seems to be dependent on the activity of metacaspase (MCA), an enzyme bearing trypsin-like activity present in protozoans, plants and fungi. In fact, the association between MCA expression and cell death induced by different stimuli has been demonstrated for several Leishmania species. Regulators and natural substrates of MCA are poorly known. To fulfill this gap, we have employed phage display over recombinant L. (L.) amazonensis MCA to identify peptides that could interact with the enzyme and modulate its activity. Four peptides were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to MCA and interfere with its activity. One of these peptides, similar to ecotin-like ISP3 of L. (L.) major, decreases trypsin-like activity of promastigotes under heat shock, and significantly decreases parasite heat shock-induced death. These findings indicate that peptide ligands identified by phage display affect trypsin-like activity and parasite death, and that an endogenous peptidase inhibitor is a possible natural regulator of the enzyme.

  16. Specificity analysis of protein lysine methyltransferases using SPOT peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-11-29

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs.

  17. Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Kusevic, Denis; Weirich, Sara; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs. PMID:25489813

  18. Use of functional polymorphisms to elucidate the peptide binding site of TAP complexes

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jie; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Mosberg, Henry I.; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates peptides from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen to enable immune surveillance by CD8+ T cells. Peptide transport is preceded by peptide binding to a cytosol-accessible surface of TAP1/TAP2 complexes, but the location of the TAP peptide-binding pocket remains unknown. Guided by the known contributions of polymorphic TAP variants to peptide selection, we combined homology modeling of TAP with experimental measurements to identify several TAP residues that interact with peptides. Models for peptide-TAP complexes were generated, which indicate bent conformation for peptides. The peptide-binding site of TAP is located at the hydrophobic boundary of the cytosolic membrane leaflet, with striking parallels to the glutathione binding site of NaAtm1, a transporter that functions in bacterial heavy metal detoxification. These studies illustrate the conservation of the ligand recognition modes of bacterial and mammalians transporters involved in peptide-guided cellular surveillance. PMID:26324772

  19. Protein nanopore-based, single-molecule exploration of copper binding to an antimicrobial-derived, histidine-containing chimera peptide.

    PubMed

    Mereuta, Loredana; Schiopu, Irina; Asandei, Alina; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Luchian, Tudor

    2012-12-11

    Metal ions binding exert a crucial influence upon the aggregation properties and stability of peptides, and the propensity of folding in various substates. Herein, we demonstrate the use of the α-HL protein as a powerful nanoscopic tool to probe Cu(2+)-triggered physicochemical changes of a 20 aminoacids long, antimicrobial-derived chimera peptide with a His residue as metal-binding site, and simultaneously dissect the kinetics of the free- and Cu(2+)-bound peptide interaction to the α-HL pore. Combining single-molecule electrophysiology on reconstituted lipid membranes and fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that the association rate constant between the α-HL pore and a Cu(2+)-free peptide is higher than that of a Cu(2+)-complexed peptide. We posit that mainly due to conformational changes induced by the bound Cu(2+) on the peptide, the resulting complex encounters a higher energy barrier toward its association with the protein pore, stemming most likely from an extra entropy cost needed to fit the Cu(2+)-complexed peptide within the α-HL lumen region. The lower dissociation rate constant of the Cu(2+)-complexed peptide from α-HL pore, as compared to that of Cu(2+)-free peptide, supports the existence of a deeper free energy well for the protein interaction with a Cu(2+)-complexed peptide, which may be indicative of specific Cu(2+)-mediated contributions to the binding of the Cu(2+)-complexed peptide within the pore lumen.

  20. Bacterial SPOR domains are recruited to septal peptidoglycan by binding to glycan strands that lack stem peptides.

    PubMed

    Yahashiri, Atsushi; Jorgenson, Matthew A; Weiss, David S

    2015-09-08

    Bacterial SPOR domains bind peptidoglycan (PG) and are thought to target proteins to the cell division site by binding to "denuded" glycan strands that lack stem peptides, but uncertainties remain, in part because septal-specific binding has yet to be studied in a purified system. Here we show that fusions of GFP to SPOR domains from the Escherichia coli cell-division proteins DamX, DedD, FtsN, and RlpA all localize to septal regions of purified PG sacculi obtained from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Treatment of sacculi with an amidase that removes stem peptides enhanced SPOR domain binding, whereas treatment with a lytic transglycosylase that removes denuded glycans reduced SPOR domain binding. These findings demonstrate unequivocally that SPOR domains localize by binding to septal PG, that the physiologically relevant binding site is indeed a denuded glycan, and that denuded glycans are enriched in septal PG rather than distributed uniformly around the sacculus. Accumulation of denuded glycans in the septal PG of both E. coli and B. subtilis, organisms separated by 1 billion years of evolution, suggests that sequential removal of stem peptides followed by degradation of the glycan backbone is an ancient feature of PG turnover during bacterial cell division. Linking SPOR domain localization to the abundance of a structure (denuded glycans) present only transiently during biogenesis of septal PG provides a mechanism for coordinating the function of SPOR domain proteins with the progress of cell division.

  1. The hydrophobic region of the DmsA twin-arginine leader peptide determines specificity with chaperone DmsD.

    PubMed

    Winstone, Tara M L; Tran, Vy A; Turner, Raymond J

    2013-10-29

    The system specific chaperone DmsD plays a role in the maturation of the catalytic subunit of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, DmsA. Pre-DmsA contains a 45-amino acid twin-arginine leader peptide that is important for targeting and translocation of folded and cofactor-loaded DmsA by the twin-arginine translocase. DmsD has previously been shown to interact with the complete twin-arginine leader peptide of DmsA. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the thermodynamics of binding between synthetic peptides composed of different portions of the DmsA leader peptide and DmsD. Only those peptides that included the complete and contiguous hydrophobic region of the DmsA leader sequence were able to bind DmsD with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Each of the peptides that were able to bind DmsD also showed some α-helical structure as indicated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that DmsD gained very little thermal stability upon binding any of the DmsA leader peptides tested. Together, these results suggest that a portion of the hydrophobic region of the DmsA leader peptide determines the specificity of binding and may produce helical properties upon binding to DmsD. Overall, this study demonstrates that the recognition of the DmsA twin-arginine leader sequence by the DmsD chaperone shows unexpected rules and confirms further that the biochemistry of the interaction of the chaperone with their leaders demonstrates differences in their molecular interactions.

  2. Identification and analysis of the sap genes from Vibrio fischeri belonging to the ATP-binding cassette gene family required for peptide transport and resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Weng, S F; Lin, J W

    2000-03-24

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the sapD and sapF genes of the sap operon (GenBank Accession No. AF178651) from Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 have been determined, and the peptide transport system of ATP-binding proteins SapD and SapF encoded by the genes have been deduced. Alignment and comparison of the Sap proteins of V. fischeri, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Haemophilus influenzae Rd show that these proteins are homologous. The sap operon residing in the genome enables V. fischeri to transport peptides and resist antimicrobial peptides. Nucleotide sequence and functional analyses confirm that the specific regulatory-region-like sequence R&R* that resides inside the sapD gene and before the sapF gene functions in gene expression and regulation; also, it is regulated by the LuxR-AI complex of the V. fischeri lux regulon. The putative upstream activator binding sequences SigmaUASI, SigmaUASII, SigmaUASIII TGTCGACTTGGGCCTCGCTGTCCGTATGCACA (72nd to 103rd bp), TGTCCGTATGCACA (90th to 103rd bp), and TGTTCAAGTACCAGAAAGACA (111st to 133rd bp) in the R&R* sequence, which are similar to the two-component regulator binding sequence TGT-N(8-12)-ACA and the LuxR-AI binding sequence ACCTGTAGGATCGTACAGGT in the regulatory region of the V. fischeri lux regulon, might be the specific sequences recognized by the LuxR-AI complex for enhancement.

  3. HLA class I alleles are associated with peptide-binding repertoires of different size, affinity, and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sinu; Weiskopf, Daniela; Angelo, Michael A; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-12-15

    Prediction of HLA binding affinity is widely used to identify candidate T cell epitopes, and an affinity of 500 nM is routinely used as a threshold for peptide selection. However, the fraction (percentage) of peptides predicted to bind with affinities of 500 nM varies by allele. For example, of a large collection of ~30,000 dengue virus-derived peptides only 0.3% were predicted to bind HLA A*0101, whereas nearly 5% were predicted for A*0201. This striking difference could not be ascribed to variation in accuracy of the algorithms used, as predicted values closely correlated with affinity measured in vitro with purified HLA molecules. These data raised the question whether different alleles would also vary in terms of epitope repertoire size, defined as the number of associated epitopes or, alternatively, whether alleles vary drastically in terms of the affinity threshold associated with immunogenicity. To address this issue, strains of HLA transgenic mice with wide (A*0201), intermediate (B*0702), or narrow (A*0101) repertoires were immunized with peptides of varying binding affinity and relative percentile ranking. The results show that absolute binding capacity is a better predictor of immunogenicity, and analysis of epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database revealed that predictive efficacy is increased using allele-specific affinity thresholds. Finally, we investigated the genetic and structural basis of the phenomenon. Although no stringent correlate was defined, on average HLA B alleles are associated with significantly narrower repertoires than are HLA A alleles.

  4. Selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 by targeting a substrate-specific secondary binding site.

    PubMed

    Kühn-Wache, Kerstin; Bär, Joachim W; Hoffmann, Torsten; Wolf, Raik; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DP4) is a multifunctional serine protease liberating dipeptide from the N-terminus of (oligo)peptides which can modulate the activity of these peptides. The enzyme is involved in physiological processes such as blood glucose homeostasis and immune response. DP4 substrate specificity is characterized in detail using synthetic dipeptide derivatives. The specificity constant k(cat)/K(m) strongly depends on the amino acid in P₁-position for proline, alanine, glycine and serine with 5.0 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 1.8 x 10⁴ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 3.6 x 10² M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 1.1 x 10² M⁻¹ s⁻¹, respectively. By contrast, kinetic investigation of larger peptide substrates yields a different pattern. The specific activity of DP4 for neuropeptide Y (NPY) cleavage comprising a proline in P₁-position is the same range as the k(cat)/K(m) values of NPY derivatives containing alanine or serine in P₁-position with 4 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 9.5 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹ and 2.1 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, respectively. The proposed existence of an additional binding region outside the catalytic center is supported by measurements of peptide substrates with extended chain length. This 'secondary' binding site interaction depends on the amino acid sequence in P₄'-P₈'-position. Interactions with this binding site could be specifically blocked for substrates of the GRF/glucagon peptide family. By contrast, substrates not belonging to this peptide family and dipeptide derivative substrates that only bind to the catalytic center of DP4 were not inhibited. This more selective inhibition approach allows, for the first time, to distinguish between substrate families by substrate-discriminating inhibitors.

  5. Improved affinity at the cost of decreased specificity: a recurring theme in PDZ-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, O Andreas; Sundell, Gustav N; Andersson, Eva; Ivarsson, Ylva; Jemth, Per

    2016-10-03

    The E6 protein from human papillomavirus (HPV) plays an important role during productive infection and is a potential drug target. We have previously designed a high affinity bivalent protein binder for the E6 protein, a fusion between a helix from the E6 associated protein and PDZØ9, an engineered variant (L391F/K392M) of the second PDZ domain from synapse associated protein 97 (SAP97 PDZ2). How the substitutions improve the affinity of SAP97 PDZ2 for HPV E6 is not clear and it is not known to what extent they affect the specificity for cellular targets. Here, we explore the specificity of wild type SAP97 PDZ2 and PDZØ9 through proteomic peptide phage display. In addition, we employ a double mutant cycle of SAP97 PDZ2 in which the binding kinetics for nine identified potential cellular peptide ligands are measured and compared with those for the C-terminal E6 peptide. The results demonstrate that PDZØ9 has an increased affinity for all peptides, but at the cost of specificity. Furthermore, there is a peptide dependent coupling free energy between the side chains at positions 391 and 392. This corroborates our previous allosteric model for PDZ domains, involving sampling of intramolecular energetic pathways.

  6. The Development and Application of a Quantitative Peptide Microarray Based Approach to Protein Interaction Domain Specificity Space*

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Brett W.; Kim, Yohan; Wang, Miaoyan; Peters, Bjoern; Rock, Ronald S.; Nash, Piers D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction domain (PID) linear peptide motif interactions direct diverse cellular processes in a specific and coordinated fashion. PID specificity, or the interaction selectivity derived from affinity preferences between possible PID-peptide pairs is the basis of this ability. Here, we develop an integrated experimental and computational cellulose peptide conjugate microarray (CPCMA) based approach for the high throughput analysis of PID specificity that provides unprecedented quantitative resolution and reproducibility. As a test system, we quantify the specificity preferences of four Src Homology 2 domains and 124 physiological phosphopeptides to produce a novel quantitative interactome. The quantitative data set covers a broad affinity range, is highly precise, and agrees well with orthogonal biophysical validation, in vivo interactions, and peptide library trained algorithm predictions. In contrast to preceding approaches, the CPCMAs proved capable of confidently assigning interactions into affinity categories, resolving the subtle affinity contributions of residue correlations, and yielded predictive peptide motif affinity matrices. Unique CPCMA enabled modes of systems level analysis reveal a physiological interactome with expected node degree value decreasing as a function of affinity, resulting in minimal high affinity binding overlap between domains; uncover that Src Homology 2 domains bind ligands with a similar average affinity yet strikingly different levels of promiscuity and binding dynamic range; and parse with unprecedented quantitative resolution contextual factors directing specificity. The CPCMA platform promises broad application within the fields of PID specificity, synthetic biology, specificity focused drug design, and network biology. PMID:25135669

  7. In silico designing breast cancer peptide vaccine for binding to MHC class I and II: A molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Manijeh; Moreau, Violaine

    2016-12-01

    Antigenic peptides or cancer peptide vaccines can be directly delivered to cancer patients to produce immunologic responses against cancer cells. Specifically, designed peptides can associate with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I or II molecules on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells activating anti-tumor effector mechanisms by triggering helper T cell (Th) or cytotoxic T cells (CTL). In general, high binding to MHCs approximately correlates with in vivo immunogenicity. Consequently, a molecular docking technique was run on a library of novel discontinuous peptides predicted by PEPOP from Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 ECD) subdomain III. This technique is expected to improve the prediction accuracy in order to identify the best MHC class I and II binder peptides. Molecular docking analysis through GOLD identified the peptide 1412 as the best MHC binder peptide to both MHC class I and II molecules used in the study. The GOLD results predicted HLA-DR4, HLA-DP2 and TCR as the most often targeted receptors by the peptide 1412. These findings, based on bioinformatics analyses, can be exploited in further experimental analyses in vaccine design and cancer therapy to find possible proper approaches providing beneficial effects.

  8. Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Joshua M.; Zer, Cindy; Avery, Kendra N.; Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Horne, David A.; Williams, John C.

    2013-10-07

    Capitalizing on their extraordinary specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most reengineered classes of biological molecules. A major goal in many of these engineering efforts is to add new functionality to the parental mAb, including the addition of cytotoxins and imaging agents for medical applications. Herein, we present a unique peptide-binding site within the central cavity of the fragment antigen binding framework region of the chimeric, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor mAb cetuximab. We demonstrate through diffraction methods, biophysical studies, and sequence analysis that this peptide, a meditope, has moderate affinity for the Fab, is specific to cetuximab (i.e., does not bind to human IgGs), and has no significant effect on antigen binding. We further demonstrate by diffraction studies and biophysical methods that the meditope binding site can be grafted onto the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mAb trastuzumab, and that the antigen binding affinity of the grafted trastuzumab is indistinguishable from the parental mAb. Lastly, we demonstrate a bivalent meditope variant binds specifically and stably to antigen-bearing cells only in the presence of the meditope-enabled mAbs. Collectively, this finding and the subsequent characterization and engineering efforts indicate that this unique interface could serve as a noncovalent “linker” for any meditope-enabled mAb with applications in multiple mAb-based technologies including diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic delivery.

  9. Peptide aptamers: The versatile role of specific protein function inhibitors in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Monica; Mizzotti, Chiara; Masiero, Simona; Kater, Martin M; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, peptide aptamers have emerged as novel molecular tools that have attracted the attention of researchers in various fields of basic and applied science, ranging from medicine to analytical chemistry. These artificial short peptides are able to specifically bind, track, and inhibit a given target molecule with high affinity, even molecules with poor immunogenicity or high toxicity, and represent a remarkable alternative to antibodies in many different applications. Their use is on the rise, driven mainly by the medical and pharmaceutical sector. Here we discuss the enormous potential of peptide aptamers in both basic and applied aspects of plant biotechnology and food safety. The different peptide aptamer selection methods available both in vivo and in vitro are introduced, and the most important possible applications in plant biotechnology are illustrated. In particular, we discuss the generation of broad-based virus resistance in crops, "reverse genetics" and aptasensors in bioassays for detecting contaminations in food and feed. Furthermore, we suggest an alternative to the transfer of peptide aptamers into plant cells via genetic transformation, based on the use of cell-penetrating peptides that overcome the limits imposed by both crop transformation and Genetically Modified Organism commercialization.

  10. PEGylation enables the specific tumor accumulation of a peptide identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Mier, Walter; Krämer, Susanne; Zitzmann, Sabine; Altmann, Annette; Leotta, Karin; Schierbaum, Ursula; Schnölzer, Martina; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2013-04-28

    Peptides are excellent alternatives to small molecules and proteinaceous drugs. Their high medicinal potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has prompted the development of tumor targeting peptides. Despite its excellent tumor binding capacity, FROP-DOTA (H-Glu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Met-Asp-Leu-Leu-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Lys(DOTA)-NH2), a peptide that we had identified in phage display libraries, revealed slow binding kinetics. Consequently, biodistribution studies showed that its excretion forestalled a significant tumor accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conjugation of PEG to FROP-DOTA resulted in a derivative with a prolonged residence time in the blood. A synthetic method for the PEGylation of the tumor specific peptide FROP-DOTA was developed. Thereafter, binding studies were done in vitro and a biodistribution was performed in tumor bearing animals. These were compared to the data obtained with FROP-DOTA. The binding kinetics of the PEGylated FROP-DOTA was even slower than that of FROP-DOTA. Biodistribution studies of the labeled conjugate in mice bearing human FRO82-2 tumors showed a time dependent increased uptake of the PEGylated peptide with a high retention (at 24 h p.i. 76% of the maximal activity concentration persisted in the tumor). The highest uptake values were determined at 120 min p.i. reaching 2.3%ID/g tumor as compared to 0.06%ID/g observed for the non-PEGylated derivative at 135 min p.i. Apparently, PEGylation provides a substantially improved stabilization in the circulation which allowed a stable tumor accumulation.

  11. Liver stage antigen 3 Plasmodium falciparum peptides specifically interacting with HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    García, Javier E; Curtidor, Hernando; López, Ramses; Rodríguez, Luis; Vera, Ricardo; Valbuena, John; Rosas, Jaiver; Ocampo, Marisol; Puentes, Alvaro; Forero, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-09-01

    Binding assays were carried out with 20 amino acid long peptides covering the complete 200-kDa Liver stage antigen (LSA) 3 protein sequence to identify its HepG2 cell binding regions. Seventeen HepG2 cell high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) were identified in the LSA-3 protein. Seven HABPs were found in the nonrepeat (NRA) region A; five of these formed a 100 amino acid long HepG2 cell binding region located between residues 21Ile and 120Thr. Six HABPs were found in the R2 region and another four in the NRB2 region. LSA-3 protein HABPS bound saturably to HepG2 cells having nanomolar affinity constants and bound specifically to 31, 44, and 70 kDa HepG2 cell membrane proteins. Some of them were located in antigenic and immunogenic LSA-3 protein regions. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays using goat sera immunized with LSA-3 protein peptides recognized P. falciparum (FCB-2 strain) erythrocyte stage proteins (58, 68, 72, 81, 86, 160, and 175 kDa). This reactivity was due mainly to the VEESVAEN motif present in some erythrocyte stage proteins. However, our results suggest that antibodies against LSA-3 regions had a crossed reaction with another 86-kDa protein, and that this crossed reaction was due to a motif present in the NRA region.

  12. Changing the peptide specificity of a human T cell receptor by directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sheena N.; Wang, Yuhang; Baylon, Javier L.; Singh, Nishant K.; Baker, Brian M.; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Kranz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Binding of a T cell receptor (TCR) to a peptide/major histocompatibility complex is the key interaction involved in antigen specificity of T cells. The recognition involves up to six complementarity determining regions (CDR) of the TCR. Efforts to examine the structural basis of these interactions and to exploit them in adoptive T cell therapies has required the isolation of specific T cell clones and their clonotypic TCRs. Here we describe a strategy using in vitro, directed evolution of a single TCR to change its peptide specificity, thereby avoiding the need to isolate T cell clones. The human TCR A6, which recognizes the viral peptide Tax/HLA-A2, was converted to TCR variants that recognized the cancer peptide MART1/HLA-A2. Mutational studies and molecular dynamics simulations identified CDR residues that were predicted to be important in the specificity switch. Thus, in vitro engineering strategies alone can be used to discover TCRs with desired specificities. PMID:25376839

  13. Multiple antigen peptide dendrimer elicits antibodies for detecting rat and mouse growth hormone binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Roberto M.; Talamantes, Frank J.; Bustamante, Juan J.; Muñoz, Jesus; Treviño, Lisa R.; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2009-01-01

    The membrane-bound rat growth hormone receptor (GH-R) and an alternatively spliced isoform, the soluble rat GH binding protein (GH-BP), are comprised of identical N-terminal GH binding domains, however, their C-terminal sequences differ. Immunological reagents are needed to distinguish between the two isoforms in order to understand their respective roles in mediating the actions of GH. Accordingly, a tetravalent multiple antigen peptide (MAP) dendrimer with four identical branches of a C-terminal peptide sequence of the rat GH-BP (GH-BP263-279) was synthesized and used as an immunogen in rabbits. Solid-phase peptide synthesis of four GH-BP263-279 segments onto a tetravalent Lys2-Lys-β-Ala-OH core peptide was carried out using N-(9-fluorenyl)methoxycarbonyl chemistry. The mass of the RP-HPLC purified synthetic product, 8398 Da, determined by ESI-MS, was identical to expected mass. Three anti-rat GH-BP263-279 MAP antisera, BETO-8039, BETO-8040 and BETO-8041, at dilutions of 10-3, recognized both the rat GH-BP263-279 MAP and recombinant mouse GH-BP with ED50s within a range of 5-10 fmol but did not cross-react with BSA in dot blot analyses. BETO-8041 antisera (10-3 dilution) recognized GH-BPs of rat serum and liver having Mrs ranging from 35-130 kDa but did not recognize full-length rat GH-Rs. The antisera also detected recombinant mouse GH-BPs. In summary, the tetravalent rat GH-BP263-279 MAP dendrimer served as an effective immunogenic antigen in eliciting high titer antisera specific for the C-termini of both rat and mouse GH-BPs. The antisera will facilitate studies aimed at improving our understanding of the biology of GH-BPs. PMID:19089805

  14. Formylated MHC Class Ib Binding Peptides Activate Both Human and Mouse Neutrophils Primarily through Formyl Peptide Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Malene; Holdfeldt, André; Gabl, Michael; Wang, Ji Ming; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Two different immune recognition systems have evolved in parallel to recognize peptides starting with an N-formylated methionine, and recognition similarities/differences between these two systems have been investigated. A number of peptides earlier characterized in relation to the H2-M3 complex that presents N-formylated peptides to cytotoxic T cells, have been characterized in relation to the formyl peptide receptors expressed by phagocytic neutrophils in both men (FPRs) and mice (Fprs). FPR1/Fpr1 was identified as the preferred receptor for all fMet-containing peptides examined, but there was no direct correlation between H2-M3 binding and the neutrophil activation potencies. Similarly, there was no direct correlation between the activities induced by the different peptides in human and mouse neutrophils, respectively. The formyl group was important in both H2-M3 binding and FPR activation, but FPR2 was the preferred receptor for the non-formylated peptide. The structural requirements differed between the H2-M3 and FPR/Fpr recognition systems and these data suggest that the two recognition systems have different evolutionary traits. PMID:27907124

  15. Identification of an Orthogonal Peptide Binding Motif for Biarsenical Multiuse Affinity Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Haishi; Yan, Ping; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-07-01

    Biarsenical multiuse affinity probes (MAPs) complexed with ethanedithiol (EDT) permit the selective cellular labeling of proteins engineered with tetracysteine motifs, but are limited by the availability of a single binding motif (i.e., CCPGCC or PG tag) that prevents the differential labeling of co-expressed proteins. To overcome this problem, we have used a high-throughput peptide screen to identify an alternate binding motif (i.e., CCKACC or KA tag), which has a similar brightness to the classical sequence upon MAP binding, but displays altered rates and affinities of association that permit the differential labeling of these peptide sequences by the red probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithiarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH-EDT2) or its green cognate 4’,5’-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein-(1,2-ethanedithiol)2 (FLAsH-EDT2). The utility of this labeling strategy was demonstrated following the expression of PG- and KA-tagged subunits of RNA polymerase expressed in E. coli. Specific labeling of two subunits of RNA polymerase in cellular lysates was achieved, whereby ReAsH-EDT2 is shown to selectively label the PG-tag on RNA polymerase alpha subunit prior to the labeling of the KA-tag sequence of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase with FlAsH-EDT2. These results demonstrate the ability to selectively label multiple individual proteins with orthogonal sequence tags in complex cellular lystates with spectroscopically distinct MAPs, and indicate the absolute specificity of ReAsH to target expressed proteins with essentially no nonspecific binding interactions.

  16. Antibody binding site mapping of SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain by a combination of yeast surface display and phage peptide library screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jingxue; Wen, Kun; Mou, Zhirong; Zou, Liyun; Che, Xiaoyan; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2009-12-01

    The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein plays an important role in viral infection, and is a potential major neutralizing determinant. In this study, three hybridoma cell lines secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the RBD of the S protein were generated and their exact binding sites were identified. Using yeast surface display, the binding sites of these antibodies were defined to two linear regions on the RBD: S(337-360) and S(380-399). Using these monoclonal antibodies in phage peptide library screening identified 10 distinct mimotopes 12 amino acids in length. Sequence comparison between native epitopes and these mimotopes further confirmed the binding sites, and revealed key amino acid residues involved in antibody binding. None of these antibodies could neutralize the murine leukemia virus pseudotyped expressing the SARS-CoV spike protein (MLV/SARS-CoV). However, these mAbs could be useful in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV due to their exclusive reactivity with SARS-CoV. Furthermore, this study established a feasible platform for epitope mapping. Yeast surface display combined with phage peptide library screening provides a convenient strategy for the identification of epitope peptides from certain antigenic proteins.

  17. Investigating the Binding of Peptides to Graphene Surfaces for Biosensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garley, Amanda; Saikia, Nabanita; Barr, Stephen; Leuty, Gary; Berry, Rajiv; Heinz, Hendrik

    The Air Force Research Lab is focused on developing highly selective and sensitive graphene-based sensors functionalized with peptides for biomolecule detection. To achieve this there is a need to model interfacial binding interactions between the organic and inorganic components to complement ongoing experimental investigations. It is important to characterize the binding behavior of individual amino acids, with the goal of predicting binding of large peptides. Since polarization is important in graphene systems, a new force field which includes polarizability is used. This allows for an in depth exploration of pi-pi interactions, electrostatics and van der Waals forces involved with binding. The binding strength is determined via enthalpy and free energy calculations. Additionally, structural quantities are computed, such as how aromatic rings align with the graphene surface and the arrangement of various residue substituents in relation to the surface and water layers. Computational results are useful in guiding experimental methods focused on rapidly screening optimal peptide sequence for binding.

  18. Binding of Hemagglutinin and Influenza Virus to a Peptide-Conjugated Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Shibata, Rabi; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) plays an important role in the first step of influenza virus (IFV) infection because it initiates the binding of the virus to the sialylgalactose linkages of the receptors on the host cells. We herein demonstrate that a HA-binding peptide immobilized on a solid support is available to bind to HA and IFV. We previously obtained a HA-binding pentapeptide (Ala-Arg-Leu-Pro-Arg), which was identified by phage-display selection against HAs from random peptide libraries. This peptide binds to the receptor-binding site of HA by mimicking sialic acid. A peptide-conjugated lipid (pep-PE) was chemically synthesized from the peptide and a saturated phospholipid. A lipid bilayer composed of pep-PE and an unsaturated phospholipid (DOPC) was immobilized on a mica plate; and the interaction between HA and the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was investigated using atomic force microscopy. The binding of IFV to the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription PCR. Our results indicate that peptide-conjugated lipids are a useful molecular device for the detection of HA and IFV. PMID:27092124

  19. Binding modes of thioflavin T molecules to prion peptide assemblies identified by using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaobo; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chenxuan; Zhang, Min; Ma, Xiaojing; Liu, Lei; Niu, Lin; Zeng, Qingdao; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen

    2011-06-15

    The widely used method to monitor the aggregation process of amyloid peptide is thioflavin T (ThT) assay, while the detailed molecular mechanism is still not clear. In this work, we report here the direct identification of the binding modes of ThT molecules with the prion peptide GNNQQNY by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The assembly structures of GNNQQNY were first observed by STM on a graphite surface, and the introduction of ThT molecules to the surface facilitated the STM observations of the adsorption conformations of ThT with peptide strands. ThT molecules are apt to adsorb on the peptide assembly with β-sheet structure and oriented parallel with the peptide strands adopting four different binding modes. This effort could benefit the understanding of the mechanisms of the interactions between labeling species or inhibitory ligands and amyloid peptides, which is keenly needed for developing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  20. The Same Major Histocompatibility Complex Polymorphism Involved in Control of HIV Influences Peptide Binding in the Mouse H-2Ld System*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Samanthi; Kranz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-site polymorphisms in human class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products (HLA-B) have recently been shown to correlate with HIV disease progression or control. An identical single-site polymorphism (at residue 97) in the mouse class I product H-2Ld influences stability of the complex. To gain insight into the human polymorphisms, here we examined peptide binding, stability, and structures of the corresponding Ld polymorphisms, Trp97 and Arg97. Expression of LdW97 and LdR97 genes in a cell line that is antigen-processing competent showed that LdR97 was expressed at higher levels than LdW97, consistent with enhanced stability of self-peptide·LdR97 complexes. To further examine peptide-binding capacities of these two allelic variants, we used a high affinity pep-Ld specific probe to quantitatively examine a collection of self- and foreign peptides that bind to Ld. LdR97 bound more effectively than LdW97 to most peptides, although LdW97 bound more effectively to two peptides. The results support the view that many self-peptides in the Ld system (or the HLA-B system) would exhibit enhanced binding to Arg97 alleles compared with Trp97 alleles. Accordingly, the self-peptide·MHC-Arg97 complexes would influence T-cell selection behavior, impacting the T-cell repertoire of these individuals, and could also impact peripheral T cell activity through effects of self-peptide·Ld interacting with TCR and/or CD8. The structures of several peptide·LdR97 and peptide·LdW97 complexes provided a framework of how this single polymorphism could impact peptide binding. PMID:24064213

  1. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Mital; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas; Nielsen, Morten; Buus, Soren; Golde, William; Barlow, John

    2015-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Imolecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class I molecules. Understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA), peptide-MHC class I binding specificities may facilitate development of vaccines or reagents for quantifying the adaptive immune response to intracellular pathogens, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Six synthetic BoLA class I (BoLA-I) molecules were produced, and the peptide binding motif was generated for five of the six molecules using a combined approach of positional scanning combinatorial peptide libraries (PSCPLs) and neural network-based predictions (NetMHCpan). The updated NetMHCpan server was used to predict BoLA-I binding peptides within the P1 structural polyprotein sequence of FMDV (strain A24 Cruzeiro) for Bo-LA-1*01901, BoLA-2*00801, BoLA-2*01201, and BoLA-4*02401. Peptide binding affinity and stability were determined for these BoLA-I molecules using the luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay (LOCI) and scintillation proximity assay (SPA). The functional diversity of known BoLA alleles was predicted using theMHCcluster tool, and functional predictions for peptide motifs were compared to observed data from this and prior studies. The results of these analyses showed that BoLA alleles cluster into three distinct groups with the potential to define BBoLA supertypes.^ This streamlined approach identifies potential T cell epitopes from pathogens, such as FMDV, and provides insight into T cell immunity following infection or vaccination.

  2. A novel Chk1-binding peptide that enhances genotoxic sensitivity through the cellular redistribution of nuclear Chk1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Seok; Choi, Kyu Jin; Bae, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Since checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an essential factor for cell viability following DNA damage, the inhibition of Chk1 has been a major focus of pharmaceutical development to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy that damage DNA. However, due to the off-target effects of conventional Chk1-targeting strategies and the toxicity of Chk1 inhibitors, alternative strategies are required to target Chk1. To facilitate such efforts, in this study, we identified a specific Chk1-binding 12-mer peptide from the screening of a phage display library and characterized the peptide in terms of cellular cytotoxicity, and in terms of its effect on Chk1 activity and sensitivity to genotoxic agents. This peptide, named N-terminal Chk1-binding peptide (Chk1-NP), bound the kinase domain of Chk1. Simulation of the binding revealed that the very N-terminus of the Chk1 kinase domain is the potential peptide binding site. Of note, the polyarginine-mediated internalization of Chk1-NP redistributed nuclear Chk1 with a prominent decrease in the nucleus in the absence of DNA damage. Treatment with Chk1-NP peptide alone decreased the viability of p53-defective HeLa cells, but not that of p53-functional NCI-H460 cells under normal conditions. The treatment of HeLa or NCI-H460 cells with the peptide significantly enhanced radiation sensitivity following ionizing radiation (IR) with a greater enhancement observed in HeLa cells. Moreover, the IR-induced destabilization of Chk1 was aggravated by treatment with Chk1-NP. Therefore, the decreased nuclear localization and protein levels of Chk1 seem to be responsible for the enhanced cancer cell killing following combined treatment with IR and Chk1-NP. The approach using the specific Chk1-binding peptide may facilitate the mechanistic understanding and potential modulation of Chk1 activities and may provide a novel rationale for the development of specific Chk1-targeting agents. PMID:28025997

  3. Peptide Inhibitors of the amyloidogenesis of IAPP: verification of the hairpin-binding geometry hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sivanesam, Kalkena; Shu, Irene; Huggins, Kelly N L; Tatarek-Nossol, Marianna; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite; Andersen, Niels H

    2016-08-01

    Versions of a previously discovered β-hairpin peptide inhibitor of IAPP aggregation that are stabilized in that conformation, or even forced to remain in the hairpin conformation by a backbone cyclization constraint, display superior activity as inhibitors. The cyclized hairpin, cyclo-WW2, displays inhibitory activity at substoichiometric concentrations relative to this amyloidogenic peptide. The hairpin-binding hypothesis stands confirmed.

  4. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus; identification of M protein-binding peptide ligands with antiviral and diagnostic potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The membrane (M) protein is one of the major structural proteins of coronavirus particles. In this study, the M protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was used to biopan a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. Three phages expressing TGEV-M-binding peptides were identified and ...

  5. Identification of the core regulators of the HLA I-peptide binding process

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hang; Xing, Zhihao; Liu, Chenglin; Wang, ShaoPeng; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong; Kong, Xiangyin

    2017-01-01

    During the display of peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -I complex for further immune recognition, the cleaved and transported antigenic peptides have to bind to HLA-I protein and the binding affinity between peptide epitopes and HLA proteins directly influences the immune recognition ability in human beings. Key factors affecting the binding affinity during the generation, selection and presentation processes of HLA-I complex have not yet been fully discovered. In this study, a new method describing the HLA class I-peptide interactions was proposed. Three hundred and forty features of HLA I proteins and peptide sequences were utilized for analysis by four candidate algorithms, screening the optimal classifier. Features derived from the optimal classifier were further selected and systematically analyzed, revealing the core regulators. The results validated the hypothesis that features of HLA I proteins and related peptides simultaneously affect the binding process, though with discrepant redundancy. Besides, the high relative ratio (16/20) of the amino acid composition features suggests the unique role of sequence signatures for the binding processes. Integrating biological, evolutionary and chemical features of both HLA I molecules and peptides, this study may provide a new perspective of the underlying mechanisms of HLA I-mediated immune reactions. PMID:28211542

  6. A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suarez, J E; Urquiza, M; Curtidor, H; Rodriguez, L E; Ocampo, M; Torres, E; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-01-01

    The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720) which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD) were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes.

  7. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    PubMed

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk.

  8. Prediction of peptide binding to a major histocompatibility complex class I molecule based on docking simulation.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    Binding between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and immunogenic epitopes is one of the most important processes for cell-mediated immunity. Consequently, computational prediction of amino acid sequences of MHC class I binding peptides from a given sequence may lead to important biomedical advances. In this study, an efficient structure-based method for predicting peptide binding to MHC class I molecules was developed, in which the binding free energy of the peptide was evaluated by two individual docking simulations. An original penalty function and restriction of degrees of freedom were determined by analysis of 361 published X-ray structures of the complex and were then introduced into the docking simulations. To validate the method, calculations using a 50-amino acid sequence as a prediction target were performed. In 27 calculations, the binding free energy of the known peptide was within the top 5 of 166 peptides generated from the 50-amino acid sequence. Finally, demonstrative calculations using a whole sequence of a protein as a prediction target were performed. These data clearly demonstrate high potential of this method for predicting peptide binding to MHC class I molecules.

  9. The primary structure of the Cytisus scoparius seed lectin and a carbohydrate-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T; Irimura, T

    1992-09-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose-binding Cytisus scoparius seed lectin II (CSII) was determined using a protein sequencer. After digestion of CSII with endoproteinase Lys-C or Asp-N, the resulting peptides were purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then subjected to sequence analysis. Comparison of the complete amino acid sequence of CSII with the sequences of other leguminous seed lectins revealed regions of extensive homology. The amino acid residues of concanavalin A (Con A) involved in the metal binding site are highly conserved among those of CSII. A carbohydrate-binding peptide of CSII was obtained from the endoproteinase Asp-N digest of CSII by affinity chromatography on a column of GalNAc-Gel. This peptide was retained on the GalNAc-Gel column and was presumed to have affinity for the column. The amino acid sequence of the retarded peptide was determined using a protein sequencer. The retarded peptide was found to correspond to the putative metal-binding region of Con A. These results strongly suggest that this peptide represents the carbohydrate-binding and metal ion-binding sites of CSII.

  10. Heparin binding domain of antithrombin III: Characterization using a synthetic peptide directed polyclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.; Dey, B.; Knauer, D.J. )

    1990-09-25

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma-borne serine protease inhibitor that apparently forms covalent complexes with thrombin. The interaction between ATIII and thrombin is enhanced several thousandfold by the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. The authors have previously proposed that the heparin binding site of ATIII residues within a region extending from amino acid residues 114-156. Computer-assisted analysis of this region revealed the presence of a 22 amino acid domain (residues 124-145), part of which shows a strong potential for the formation of an amphipathic helix: hydrophobic on one face and highly positively charged on the other. In the presence studies, polyclonal antisera were generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 124-145 in native human ATIII. Affinity-purified IgG from these antisera, as well as monovalent Fab's derived from them, specifically blocked the binding of heparin to ATIII. Additionally, occupancy of the heparin binding site by these same monovalent and bivalent IgG's at least partially substituted for heparin, accelerating linkage formation between ATIII and thrombin. These results provide the first immunological evidence that region 124-145 is directly involved in the binding of heparin to ATIII and that an antibody-induced conformational change within this region can mediate ATIII activation.

  11. Synthesis of gold structures by gold-binding peptide governed by concentration of gold ion and peptide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungok; Kim, Dong-Hun; Lee, Sylvia J; Rheem, Youngwoo; Myung, Nosang V; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2016-08-01

    Although biological synthesis methods for the production of gold structures by microorganisms, plant extracts, proteins, and peptide have recently been introduced, there have been few reports pertaining to controlling their size and morphology. The gold ion and peptide concentrations affected on the size and uniformity of gold plates by a gold-binding peptide Midas-11. The higher concentration of gold ions produced a larger size of gold structures reached 125.5 μm, but an increased amount of Midas-11 produced a smaller size of gold platelets and increased the yield percentage of polygonal gold particles rather than platelets. The mechanisms governing factors controlling the production of gold structures were primarily related to nucleation and growth. These results indicate that the synthesis of gold architectures can be controlled by newly isolated and substituted peptides under different reaction conditions.

  12. Density-dependent cooperative non-specific binding in solid-phase SELEX affinity selection.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Abdullah; White, Brian S; Lis, John T; Shalloway, David

    2013-08-01

    The non-specific binding of undesired ligands to a target is the primary factor limiting the enrichment of tight-binding ligands in affinity selection. Solution-phase non-specific affinity is determined by the free-energy of ligand binding to a single target. However, the solid-phase affinity might be higher if a ligand bound concurrently to multiple adjacent immobilized targets in a cooperative manner. Cooperativity could emerge in this case as a simple consequence of the relationship between the free energy of binding, localization entropy and the spatial distribution of the immobilized targets. We tested this hypothesis using a SELEX experimental design and found that non-specific RNA aptamer ligands can concurrently bind up to four bead-immobilized peptide targets, and that this can increase their effective binding affinity by two orders-of-magnitude. Binding curves were quantitatively explained by a new statistical mechanical model of density-dependent cooperative binding, which relates cooperative binding to both the target concentration and the target surface density on the immobilizing substrate. Target immobilization plays a key role in SELEX and other ligand enrichment methods, particularly in new multiplexed microfluidic purification devices, and these results have strong implications for optimizing their performance.

  13. On the ion selectivity in Ca-binding proteins: the cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)3 peptide as a model.

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, F; Weinstein, H

    1989-01-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role in many cellular processes. Its functions are directly dependent on the high specificity for Ca2+ exhibited by the proteins and ion carriers that bind divalent ions. To elucidate the basis for this specificity we have calculated the relative energies of solvation of calcium and magnesium ions in complexes with cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)3, a small synthetic peptide that binds Ca2+ with an affinity comparable to those of the naturally occurring proteins. The results show that the ion selectivity of the peptide resides in the difference in the solvation energies of the competing ions in water. Although the peptide is able to complex Mg2+ better than Ca2+ in the stoichiometries in which cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)3 binds divalent ions, it is not always able to provide as much stabilization for Mg2+ as water does. These results also explain why cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)3 binds Ca2+ and Mg2+ with different stoichiometries and indicate the source for expected differences in the structures of complexes of the two ions. Images PMID:2813364

  14. Entropy-driven binding of opioid peptides induces a large domain motion in human dipeptidyl peptidase III.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Gustavo A; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Viertlmayr, Roland; Dong, Aiping; Binter, Alexandra; Abramic, Marija; Macheroux, Peter; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Gruber, Karl

    2012-04-24

    Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft ("entropy reservoir") as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies.

  15. Entropy-driven binding of opioid peptides induces a large domain motion in human dipeptidyl peptidase III

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Gustavo A.; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Viertlmayr, Roland; Dong, Aiping; Binter, Alexandra; Abramić, Marija; Macheroux, Peter; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft (“entropy reservoir”) as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies. PMID:22493238

  16. Molecular level studies on binding modes of labeling molecules with polyalanine peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiaobo; Wang, Chenxuan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhang, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Lan; Niu, Lin; Zeng, Qindao; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen

    2011-04-01

    In this work, the binding modes of typical labeling molecules (thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red (CR) and copper(ii) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (PcCu(SO3Na)4)) on pentaalanine, which is a model peptide segment of amyloidpeptides, have been resolved at the molecular level by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In the STM images, ThT molecules are predominantly adsorbed parallel to the peptide strands and two binding modes could be identified. It was found that ThT molecules are preferentially binding on top of the peptide strand, and the mode of intercalated between neighboring peptides also exists. The parallel binding mode of CR molecules can be observed with pentaalaninepeptides. Besides the binding modes of labeling molecules, the CR and PcCu(SO3Na)4 display different adsorption affinity with the pentaalaninepeptides. The results could be beneficial for obtaining molecular level insight of the interactions between labeling molecules and peptides.In this work, the binding modes of typical labeling molecules (thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red (CR) and copper(ii) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (PcCu(SO3Na)4)) on pentaalanine, which is a model peptide segment of amyloidpeptides, have been resolved at the molecular level by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In the STM images, ThT molecules are predominantly adsorbed parallel to the peptide strands and two binding modes could be identified. It was found that ThT molecules are preferentially binding on top of the peptide strand, and the mode of intercalated between neighboring peptides also exists. The parallel binding mode of CR molecules can be observed with pentaalaninepeptides. Besides the binding modes of labeling molecules, the CR and PcCu(SO3Na)4 display different adsorption affinity with the pentaalaninepeptides. The results could be beneficial for obtaining molecular level insight of the interactions between labeling molecules and peptides. Electronic

  17. Functional and Selective Bacterial Interfaces Using Cross-Scaffold Gold Binding Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Jahnke, Justin P.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the functional and selective activity of three phage-derived gold-binding peptides on the Escherichia coli ( E. coli) bacterial cell surface display scaffold (eCPX) for the first time. Gold-binding peptides, p3-Au12 (LKAHLPPSRLPS), p8#9 (VSGSSPDS), and Midas-2 (TGTSVLIATPYV), were compared side-by-side through experiment and simulation. All exhibited strong binding to an evaporated gold film, with approximately a 4-log difference in binding between each peptide and the control sample. The increased affinity for gold was also confirmed by direct visualization of samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Peptide dynamics in solution were performed to analyze innate structure, and all three were found to have a high degree of flexibility. Preferential binding to gold over silicon for all three peptides was demonstrated, with up to four orders of magnitude selectivity exhibited by p3-Au12. The selectivity was also clearly evident through SEM analysis of the boundary between the gold film and silicon substrate. Functional activity of bound E. coli cells was further demonstrated by stimulating filamentation and all three peptides were characterized as prolific relative to control samples. This work shows great promise towards functional and active bacterial-hybrid gold surfaces and the potential to enable the next generation living material interfaces.

  18. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L.; Spyroulias, Georgios A.; Jones, Norman G.; Hanson, Carl V.; Hoober, J. Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-galactose (Gal)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6)GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8)Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C has

  19. E1 initiator DNA binding specificity is unmasked by selective inhibition of non-specific DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Stenlund, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Initiator proteins are critical components of the DNA replication machinery and mark the site of initiation. This activity probably requires highly selective DNA binding; however, many initiators display modest specificity in vitro. We demonstrate that low specificity of the papillomavirus E1 initiator results from the presence of a non-specific DNA-binding activity, involved in melting, which masks the specificity intrinsic to the E1 DNA-binding domain. The viral factor E2 restores specificity through a physical interaction with E1 that suppresses non-specific binding. We propose that this arrangement, where one DNA-binding activity tethers the initiator to ori while another alters DNA structure, is a characteristic of other viral and cellular initiator proteins. This arrangement would provide an explanation for the low selectivity observed for DNA binding by initiator proteins. PMID:12574131

  20. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-03-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of approx. =72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation.

  1. Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has a critical role in GLP-1 peptide binding and receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Koole, Cassandra; Wootten, Denise; Simms, John; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2012-02-03

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a therapeutically important family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is pleiotropically coupled to multiple signaling effectors and, with actions including regulation of insulin biosynthesis and secretion, is one of the key targets in the management of type II diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited understanding of the role of the receptor core in orthosteric ligand binding and biological activity. To assess involvement of the extracellular loop (ECL) 2 in ligand-receptor interactions and receptor activation, we performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of loop residues and assessed the impact on receptor expression and GLP-1(1-36)-NH(2) or GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2) binding and activation of three physiologically relevant signaling pathways as follows: cAMP formation, intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). Although antagonist peptide binding was unaltered, almost all mutations affected GLP-1 peptide agonist binding and/or coupling efficacy, indicating an important role in receptor activation. However, mutation of several residues displayed distinct pathway responses with respect to wild type receptor, including Arg-299 and Tyr-305, where mutation significantly enhanced both GLP-1(1-36)-NH(2)- and GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2)-mediated signaling bias for pERK1/2. In addition, mutation of Cys-296, Trp-297, Asn-300, Asn-302, and Leu-307 significantly increased GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2)-mediated signaling bias toward pERK1/2. Of all mutants studied, only mutation of Trp-306 to alanine abolished all biological activity. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition(s) of the receptor and the importance of this region in the determination of both GLP-1 peptide- and pathway-specific effects.

  2. Antibodies to synthetic peptides as probes for the binding site on the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Gershoni, J M; Fridkin, M; Fuchs, S

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies were used in an attempt to localize and identify the ligand-binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Two peptides of the receptor alpha subunit were synthesized, the first corresponding to the NH2-terminal domain (positions 1-20) and the other, to a segment (residues 126-143) that contains the first two cysteine residues. Specific antipeptide antibodies were elicited in rabbits after immunization with the peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin. The antipeptide antibodies thus obtained cross-reacted with the receptor and bound specifically to its alpha subunit. The antipeptide antibodies were used to test whether the peptide sequences corresponded to the alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX)-binding site. Staphylococcus aureus V8-protease digestion of the isolated receptor alpha subunit generated several fragments. Antipeptide (1-20) and antipeptide (126-143) both bound a 26-kDa fragment, whereas only antipeptide (126-143) bound a 17-kDa fragment. None of these fragments were found to bind alpha-BTX. On the other hand, alpha-BTX bound to an 18-kDa fragment that did not react with either of the antipeptide antibodies. Moreover, the 26-kDa and 17-kDa fragments were also found to contain the endoglycosidase H-susceptible oligosaccharide chain. Our results indicate that the toxin-binding site lies beyond the first possible V8 protease cleavage site after residues 126-143: i.e., Asp-152. This location is in agreement with the possibility that cysteine residues 192 and/or 193 are in close proximity to or contiguous with the ligand-binding site. Images PMID:2582416

  3. Free tyrosine and tyrosine-rich peptide-dependent superoxide generation catalyzed by a copper-binding, threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide derived from prion protein.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Goto, Kaishi; Kawano, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    Previously, generation of superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) catalyzed by Cu-binding peptides derived from human prion protein (model sequence for helical Cu-binding motif VNITKQHTVTTTT was most active) in the presence of catecholamines and related aromatic monoamines such as phenylethylamine and tyramine, has been reported [Kawano, T., Int J Biol Sci 2007; 3: 57-63]. The peptide sequence (corresponding to helix 2) tested here is known as threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. In the present article, the redox behaviors of aromatic monoamines, 20 amino acids and prion-derived tyrosine-rich peptide sequences were compared as putative targets of the oxidative reactions mediated with the threonine-rich prion-peptide. For detection of O(2)(*-), an O(2)(*-)-specific chemiluminescence probe, Cypridina luciferin analog was used. We found that an aromatic amino acid, tyrosine (structurally similar to tyramine) behaves as one of the best substrates for the O(2)(*-) generating reaction (conversion from hydrogen peroxide) catalyzed by Cu-bound prion helical peptide. Data suggested that phenolic moiety is required to be an active substrate while the presence of neither carboxyl group nor amino group was necessarily required. In addition to the action of free tyrosine, effect of two tyrosine-rich peptide sequences YYR and DYEDRYYRENMHR found in human prion corresponding to the tyrosine-rich region was tested as putative substrates for the threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. YYR motif (found twice in the Y-rich region) showed 2- to 3-fold higher activity compared to free tyrosine. Comparison of Y-rich sequence consisted of 13 amino acids and its Y-to-F substitution mutant sequence revealed that the tyrosine-residues on Y-rich peptide derived from prion may contribute to the higher production of O(2)(*-). These data suggest that the tyrosine residues on prion molecules could be additional targets of the prion-mediated reactions through intra- or inter-molecular interactions. Lastly, possible

  4. Specificity profiling of protein phosphatases toward phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Zhai, Yujing; Pei, Dehua

    2013-07-03

    A combinatorial library method was developed to systematically profile the substrate specificity of protein phosphatases toward phosphoseryl (pS) and phosphothreonyl (pT) peptides. Application of this method and a previously reported phosphotyrosyl (pY) library screening technique to dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) VH1 of vaccinia virus revealed that VH1 is highly active toward both pS/pT and pY peptides. VH1 exhibits different and more stringent sequence specificity toward pS/pT than pY substrates. Unlike previously characterized protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), the activity and specificity of VH1 are primarily determined by the amino acid residues C-terminal to the pS, pT, or pY residue. In contrast, the mammalian VH1-related (VHR) DUSP has intrinsically low catalytic activity toward pS and pT substrates, suggesting that its primary physiological function is to dephosphorylate pY residues in substrate proteins. This method is applicable to other DUSPs and protein-serine/threonine phosphatases, and the substrate specificity data will be useful for identifying the physiological substrates of these enzymes.

  5. Peptide Ligand Structure and I-Aq Binding Avidity Influence T Cell Signaling Pathway Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Linda K; Cullins, David L; Park, Jeoung-Eun; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Brand, David D; Rosloniec, Edward F; Stuart, John M; Kang, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive T cells to signal through differing pathways remain unclear. We have shown that an altered peptide ligand (A9) activates T cells to utilize an alternate signaling pathway which is dependent upon FcRγ and Syk. However, it remains unknown whether the affinity of peptide binding to MHC drives this selection. To answer this question we developed a panel of peptides designed so that amino acids interacting with the p6 and p9 predicted MHC binding pockets were altered. Analogs were tested for binding to I-Aq using a competitive binding assay and selected analogs were administered to arthritic mice. Using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, arthritis severity was correlated with T cell cytokine production and molecular T cell signaling responses. We establish that reduced affinity of interaction with the MHC correlates with T cell signaling through the alternative pathway, leading ultimately to secretion of suppressive cytokine and attenuation of arthritis. PMID:25982319

  6. Enhanced cytotoxicity and decreased CD8 dependence of human cancer-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after vaccination with low peptide dose.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Tanja; Baumgaertner, Petra; Wieckowski, Sébastien; Devêvre, Estelle; Guillaume, Philippe; Luescher, Immanuel; Rufer, Nathalie; Speiser, Daniel E

    2012-06-01

    In mice, vaccination with high peptide doses generates higher frequencies of specific CD8+ T cells, but with lower avidity compared to vaccination with lower peptide doses. To investigate the impact of peptide dose on CD8+ T cell responses in humans, melanoma patients were vaccinated with 0.1 or 0.5 mg Melan-A/MART-1 peptide, mixed with CpG 7909 and Incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Neither the kinetics nor the amplitude of the Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cell responses differed between the two vaccination groups. Also, CD8+ T cell differentiation and cytokine production ex vivo were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, after low peptide dose vaccination, Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cells showed enhanced degranulation upon peptide stimulation, as assessed by CD107a upregulation and perforin release ex vivo. In accordance, CD8+ T cell clones derived from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients showed significantly increased degranulation and stronger cytotoxicity. In parallel, Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cells and clones from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients expressed lower CD8 levels, despite similar or even stronger binding to tetramers. Furthermore, CD8+ T cell clones from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients bound CD8 binding-deficient tetramers more efficiently, suggesting that they may express higher affinity TCRs. We conclude that low peptide dose vaccination generated CD8+ T cell responses with stronger cytotoxicity and lower CD8 dependence.

  7. IgE binding reactivity of peptide fragments of Bla g 4, a major German cockroach allergen.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang Hyun; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2009-03-01

    Cockroaches have been recognized as a major cause of asthma. Bla g 4 is one of the most important German cockroach allergens. The aim of this study is to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Bla g 4 (rBla g 4) in the sera of allergic patients and identify linear IgE binding epitope. For protein expression, full-length Bla g 4 (EF202172) was divided into 5 overlapping peptide fragments (E1: aa 1-100, E2: aa 34-77, E3: aa 74-117, E4: aa 114-156, and E5: aa 153-182). The full-length and 5 peptide fragments of Bla g 4 was generated by PCR and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The IgE binding reactivities of the full-length and peptide fragments were measured by ELISA using 32 serum samples of cockroach allergy. The sera of 8 patients (25%) reacted with rBla g 4. Four sera (100%) showed IgE-binding reactivity to full-length and peptide fragment 4, and 2 sera (50%) reacted with peptide fragment 2. One (20%) serum reacted with peptide fragment 3. The results of ELISA using overlapping recombinant fragments indicated that the epitope region was located at amino acid sequences 34-73 and 78-113, and major IgE epitope of Bla g 4 was located at amino acid sequences 118-152 of C-terminal. B-cell epitope analysis of German cockroach allergen Bla g 4 could contribute to the strategic development of more specific and potentially efficacious immunotherapy.

  8. DNA sensing by a Eu-binding peptide containing a proflavine unit.

    PubMed

    Ancel, Laetitia; Gateau, Christelle; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2013-01-18

    Synthesis of a lanthanide-binding peptide (LBP) for the detection of double-stranded DNA is presented. A proflavine moiety was introduced into a high affinity LBP involving two unnatural chelating amino acids in the Ln ion coordination. The Eu(3+)-LBP complex is demonstrated to bind to ct-DNA and to sensitize Eu luminescence. The DNA binding process is effectively detected via the Eu-centered luminescence thanks to the intimate coupling between the LBP scaffold and DNA intercalating unit.

  9. Bioinspired Design and Oriented Synthesis of Immunogenic Site-Specifically Penicilloylated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Scornet, Noémie; Delarue-Cochin, Sandrine; Azoury, Marie Eliane; Le Mignon, Maxime; Chemelle, Julie-Anne; Nony, Emmanuel; Maillère, Bernard; Terreux, Raphaël; Pallardy, Marc; Joseph, Delphine

    2016-11-16

    β-Lactam antibiotics allergy is recognized as a public health concern. By covalently binding to serum proteins, penicillins are known to form immunogenic complexes. The latter are recognized and digested by antigen-presenting cells into drug-hapten peptides leading to the immunization of treated persons and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions encompassing anaphylaxis. If type I allergic reactions to drugs are often unpredictable, they are known to be dependent on CD4(+) T-cells. This fundamental study revisits the chemical basis of the benzylpenicillin (BP) allergy with the aim of identifying immunologically relevant biomimetic benzylpenicilloylated peptides through the analysis of BP-conjugated human serum albumin (BP-HSA) profile and the evaluation of the naı̈ve CD4(+) T-cell responses to candidate BP-HSA-derived peptides. The chemical structures of BP-HSA bioconjugates synthesized in vitro at both physiological and basic pH were investigated by mass spectrometry. From the ten most representative lysine residues grafted by BP-hapten, HSA-bioinspired 15-mer peptide sequences were designed and the potential T-cell epitope profile of each peptide was predicted using two complementary in silico approaches, i.e., HLA class II binding prediction tools from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and computational alanine scanning mutagenesis. Twelve structurally diversified benzylpenicilloylated peptides (BP-Ps) were selected and synthesized with the aid of a flexible synthesis pathway using an original benzylpenicilloylated lysine monomer as common precursor. In order to corroborate their predicted "epitope" profile, the naı̈ve CD4(+) T-cell response specific to BP was evaluated through a coculture approach. To our knowledge, this study showed for the first time the ability of bioinspired peptides structurally stemming from BP-HSA to be recognized by naı̈ve CD4(+) T-cells thus identifying a pre-existing T-cell repertoire for penicillin

  10. Monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides by two-color fluorescent label.

    PubMed

    Postupalenko, V Y; Shvadchak, V V; Duportail, G; Pivovarenko, V G; Klymchenko, A S; Mély, Y

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we developed an approach for monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides using a fluorescent environment-sensitive label of the 3-hydroxyflavone family. For this purpose, we labeled the N-terminus of three synthetic peptides, melittin, magainin 2 and poly-l-lysine capable to interact with lipid membranes. Binding of these peptides to lipid vesicles induced a strong fluorescence increase, which enabled to quantify the peptide-membrane interaction. Moreover, the dual emission of the label in these peptides correlated well with the depth of its insertion measured by the parallax quenching method. Thus, in melittin and magainin 2, which show deep insertion of their N-terminus, the label presented a dual emission corresponding to a low polar environment, while the environment of the poly-l-lysine N-terminus was rather polar, consistent with its location close to the bilayer surface. Using spectral deconvolution to distinguish the non-hydrated label species from the hydrated ones and two photon fluorescence microscopy to determine the probe orientation in giant vesicles, we found that the non-hydrated species were vertically oriented in the bilayer and constituted the best indicators for evaluating the depth of the peptide N-terminus in membranes. Thus, this label constitutes an interesting new tool for monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides.

  11. A novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting residues that bind the substrate peptide.

    PubMed

    Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Parker, Lorien; Yuki, Hitomi; Taruya, Shigenao; Nakagawa, Yukari; Kamei, Daisuke; Mori, Masumi; Ogawa, Naoko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Honma, Teruki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-03-30

    A new screening method using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy was developed to select kinase inhibitors that competitively inhibit the binding of a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide. Using the method, among approximately 700 candidate compounds selected by virtual screening, we identified a novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting its peptide binding residues. X-ray crystal analysis of the complex structure of Pim-1 with the inhibitor indicated that the inhibitor actually binds to the ATP-binding site and also forms direct interactions with residues (Asp128 and Glu171) that bind the substrate peptide. These interactions, which cause small side-chain movements, seem to affect the binding ability of the fluorescently labeled substrate. The compound inhibited Pim-1 kinase in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 150 nM. Treatment of cultured leukemia cells with the compound reduced the amount of p21 and increased the amount of p27, due to Pim-1 inhibition, and then triggered apoptosis after cell-cycle arrest at the G(1)/S phase. This screening method may be widely applicable for the identification of various new Pim-1 kinase inhibitors targeting the residues that bind the substrate peptide.

  12. Computation of the binding free energy of peptides to graphene in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Welch, Corrinne M; Camden, Aerial N; Barr, Stephen A; Leuty, Gary M; Kedziora, Gary S; Berry, Rajiv J

    2015-07-28

    The characteristic properties of graphene make it useful in an assortment of applications. One particular application--the use of graphene in biosensors--requires a thorough understanding of graphene-peptide interactions. In this study, the binding of glycine (G) capped amino acid residues (termed GXG tripeptides) to trilayer graphene surfaces in aqueous solution was examined and compared to results previously obtained for peptide binding to single-layer free-standing graphene [A. N. Camden, S. A. Barr, and R. J. Berry, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10691-10697 (2013)]. In order to understand the interactions between the peptides and the surface, binding enthalpy and free energy values were calculated for each GXG system, where X cycled through the typical 20 amino acids. When the GXG tripeptides were bound to the surface, distinct conformations were observed, each with a different binding enthalpy. Analysis of the binding energy showed the binding of peptides to trilayer graphene was dominated by van der Waals interactions, unlike the free-standing graphene systems, where the binding was predominantly electrostatic in nature. These results demonstrate the utility of computational materials science in the mechanistic explanation of surface-biomolecule interactions which could be applied to a wide range of systems.

  13. The role of anchor residues in the binding of peptides to HLA-A*1101 molecules.

    PubMed

    Chujoh, Y; Sobao, Y; Miwa, K; Kaneko, Y; Takiguchi, M

    1998-12-01

    The binding of 136 8- to 12-mer peptides carrying anchor residues at position 2 (P2) and the C-terminus to HLA-A*1101 molecules was analyzed by a stabilization assay using RMA-S transfectants expressing HLA-A*1101 and human beta2-microglobulin. 72.1% of these peptides bound to HLA-A*1101 molecules. Two known HLA-All-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope peptides showed high affinity to HLA-A*1101. The results confirmed a previous pool sequencing study of HLA-A*1101 binding self-peptides, which showed that Lys at the C-terminus and Val, Ile, Phe, Tyr, and Thr at P2 are anchor residues for HLA-A*1101. Thr and aliphatic hydrophobic residues Val, Ile, and Leu at P2 are stronger anchor residues than the aromatic hydrophobic residues Phe and Tyr. In addition, hydrophobic residues Leu, Phe, Tyr, Ile, and Ala at position 3 (P3) are secondary anchors but are weaker than those at P2. The affinities of the 8- and 12-mer peptides were significantly lower than those of 9- to 11-mer peptides. There was however no difference in affinity between 9-, 10- and 11-mer peptides. Furthermore, the analysis using peptides mutated at the C-terminus showed that HLA-A*1101 molecules can bind peptides carrying another positively charged residue, Arg. The present study clarified the role of the anchor residues at P2, P3 and the C-terminus in the binding of HLA-A*1101 molecules.

  14. Specific albumin binding to microvascular endothelium in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzer, J.E.; Carley, W.W.; Palade, G.E. )

    1988-03-01

    The specific binding of rat serum albumin (RSA) to confluent microvascular endothelial cells in culture derived from the vasculature of the rat epididymal fat pad was studied at 4{degree}C by radioassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioiodinated RSA ({sup 125}I-RSA) binding to the cells reached equilibrium at {approximately} 20 min incubation. Albumin binding was a slowly saturating function over concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 mg/ml. Specific RSA binding with a moderate apparent affinity constant of 1.0 mg/ml and with a maximum binding concentration of 90 ng/cm{sup 2} was immunolocalized with anti-RSA antibody to the outer (free) side of the enothelium. Scatchard analysis of the binding yielded a nonlinear binding curve with a concave-upward shape. Dissociation rate analysis supports negative cooperativity of albumin binding, but multiple binding sites may also be present. Albumin binding fulfilled many requirements for ligand specificity including saturability, reversibility, competibility, and dependence on both cell type and cell number. The results are discussed in terms of past in situ investigations on the localization of albumin binding to vascular endothelium and its effect on transendothelial molecular transport.

  15. Nucleic acid-binding specificity of human FUS protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueyin; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    FUS, a nuclear RNA-binding protein, plays multiple roles in RNA processing. Five specific FUS-binding RNA sequence/structure motifs have been proposed, but their affinities for FUS have not been directly compared. Here we find that human FUS binds all these sequences with Kdapp values spanning a 10-fold range. Furthermore, some RNAs that do not contain any of these motifs bind FUS with similar affinity. FUS binds RNA in a length-dependent manner, consistent with a substantial non-specific component to binding. Finally, investigation of FUS binding to different nucleic acids shows that it binds single-stranded DNA with three-fold lower affinity than ssRNA of the same length and sequence, while binding to double-stranded nucleic acids is weaker. We conclude that FUS has quite general nucleic acid-binding activity, with the various proposed RNA motifs being neither necessary for FUS binding nor sufficient to explain its diverse binding partners. PMID:26150427

  16. Correlation between carbohydrate-binding specificity and amino acid sequence of carbohydrate-binding regions of Cytisus-type anti-H(O) lectins.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T; Irimura, T

    1992-06-15

    A carbohydrate-binding peptide of the di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H(O) lectin I (CSA-I) was isolated from the endoproteinase Asp-N digest of CSA-I by affinity chromatography on a column of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligomer-Sepharose (GlcNAc oligomer-Sepharose). The amino acid sequence of the carbohydrate-binding peptide of CSA-I was determined to be DTYFGKTYNPW using a gas-phase protein sequencer. This sequence corresponds to the sequence from Asp-129 to Trp-139 based on the primary structure of CSA-I, and shows a high degree of homology to those of the putative carbohydrate-binding peptide of the Laburnum alpinum lectin I (LAA-I) (DTYFGKAYNPW) and of the Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II) (DSYFGKTYNPW). The binding of these three anti-H(O) lectins is known to be inhibited by di-N-acetylchitobiose but not by L-fucose. These results strongly suggest that there is a good correlation between the carbohydrate-binding specificity and the amino acid sequence of the carbohydrate-binding regions of di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding lectins.

  17. Therapeutic Effect on Targeted Hyaluronan Binding Peptide on Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Furthermore, it confers stability to the peptide at low pH and high temperature, which makes it easy to manipulate and gives it a long shelf - life . Due to...were incubated with peptides for 24 hours and the cells were washed and harvested in lysis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA, 5...30 min followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated anti-goat IgG (1:200) at 4 ºC for 30 min. The cells were finally stained with propidium iodide and

  18. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  19. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics with up to five specificities: functional enhancement through fusion of target-specific peptides.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, David W; Abramyan, Donara; Kanakaraj, Palanisamy; Smith, Rodger G; Shah, Rutul R; Wang, Geping; Yao, Xiao-Tao; Kankanala, Spandana; Boyd, Ernie; Zaritskaya, Liubov; Nam, Viktoriya; Puffer, Bridget A; Buasen, Pete; Kaithamana, Shashi; Burnette, Andrew F; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Patel, Dimki; Roschke, Viktor V; Kiener, Peter A; Hilbert, David M; Barbas, Carlos F

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that few human diseases are thoroughly addressed by mono-specific, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continues to drive the development of antibody therapeutics with additional specificities and enhanced activity. Historically, efforts to engineer additional antigen recognition into molecules have relied predominantly on the reformatting of immunoglobulin domains. In this report we describe a series of fully functional mAbs to which additional specificities have been imparted through the recombinant fusion of relatively short polypeptides sequences. The sequences are selected for binding to a particular target from combinatorial libraries that express linear, disulfide-constrained, or domain-based structures. The potential for fusion of peptides to the N- and C- termini of both the heavy and light chains affords the bivalent expression of up to four different peptides. The resulting molecules, called zybodies, can gain up to four additional specificities, while retaining the original functionality and specificity of the scaffold antibody. We explore the use of two clinically significant oncology antibodies, trastuzumab and cetuximab, as zybody scaffolds and demonstrate functional enhancements in each case. The affect of fusion position on both peptide and scaffold function is explored, and penta-specific zybodies are demonstrated to simultaneously engage five targets (ErbB2, EGFR, IGF-1R, Ang2 and integrin αvβ3). Bispecific, trastuzumab-based zybodies targeting ErbB2 and Ang2 are shown to exhibit superior efficacy to trastuzumab in an angiogenesis-dependent xenograft tumor model. A cetuximab-based bispecific zybody that targeting EGFR and ErbB3 simultaneously disrupted multiple intracellular signaling pathways; inhibited tumor cell proliferation; and showed efficacy superior to that of cetuximab in a xenograft tumor model.

  20. Mechanism of action and specificity of antimicrobial peptides designed based on buforin IIb.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su A; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Ju Ri; Kim, Da Jung; Cho, Ju Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2012-04-01

    Buforin IIb-a synthetic analog of buforin II that contains a proline hinge between the two α-helices and a model α-helical sequence at the C-terminus (3× RLLR)-is a potent cell-penetrating antimicrobial peptide. To develop novel antimicrobial peptides with enhanced activities and specificity/therapeutic index, we designed several analogs (Buf III analogs) by substitutions of amino acids in the proline hinge region and two α-helices of buforin IIb, and examined their antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. The substitution of hydrophobic residues ([F(6)] and [V(8)]) in the proline hinge region with other hydrophobic residues ([W(6)] and [I(8)]) did not affect antimicrobial activity, while the substitution of the first four amino acids RAGL with a model α-helical sequence increased the antimicrobial activity up to 2-fold. Like buforin IIb, Buf III analogs penetrated the bacterial cell membranes without significantly permeabilizing them and were accumulated inside Escherichia coli. Buf III analogs were shown to bind DNA in vitro and the DNA binding affinity of the peptides correlated linearly with their antimicrobial potency. Among the Buf III analogs, the therapeutic index of Buf IIIb and IIIc (RVVRQWPIG[RVVR](3) and KLLKQWPIG[KLLK](3), respectively) were improved 7-fold compared to that of buforin IIb. These results indicate that Buf III analogs appear to be promising candidates for future development as novel antimicrobial agents.

  1. Reassociation with beta 2-microglobulin is necessary for Kb class I major histocompatibility complex binding of exogenous peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Rock, K L; Rothstein, L E; Gamble, S R; Benacerraf, B

    1990-01-01

    T lymphocytes recognize endogenously produced antigenic peptides in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded molecules. Peptides from the extracellular fluid can be displayed in association with class I and class II MHC molecules. Here we report that mature Kb class I MHC molecules bind peptides upon dissociation and reassociation of their light chain. Intact Kb heterodimers, unlike class II MHC molecules, are relatively unreceptive to binding peptides. This property may maintain segregation of class I and class II MHC-restricted peptides and has implications for the use of peptides as vaccines. Images PMID:2217182

  2. Peptide displacement of ( sup 3 H)5-hydroxytryptamine binding to bovine cortical membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Y.; Root-Bernstein, R.S.; Shih, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Chemical studies have demonstrated that peptides such as the encephalitogenic (EAE) peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) can bind serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in vitro. The present research was undertaken to determine whether such binding interferes with 5-HT binding to its 5-HT1 receptors on bovine cerebral cortical membranes. EAE peptide and LHRH displaced ({sup 3}H)5-HT with IC50s of 4.0 x 10(-4) and 1.8 x 10(-3) M respectively. MBP itself also showed apparent displacing ability with an IC50 of 6.0 x 10(-5) M, though it also caused aggregation of cortical membranes that might have interfered with normal receptor binding. These results support previous suggestions that the tryptophan peptide region of MBP may act as a 5-HT receptor in the neural system. We also tested the effects of muramyl dipeptide (N-acetyl-muramyl-L-Ala-D-isoGln, MD), a bacterial cell-wall breakdown product that acts as a slow-wave sleep promoter, binds to LHRH and EAE peptide, and competes for 5-HT binding sites on macrophages. It showed no significant displacement of 5-HT binding to cortical membranes (IC50 greater than 10(-1) M), but its D-Ala analogue did (IC50 = 1.7 x 10(-3) M). Thus, it seems likely that the 5-HT-related effects of naturally occurring muramyl peptides are physiologically limited by receptor types.

  3. The development and application of a quantitative peptide microarray platform to SH2 domain specificity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Brett Warren

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domains evolved alongside protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and phosphatases (PTPs) in metazoans to recognize the phosphotyrosine (pY) post-translational modification. The human genome encodes 121 SH2 domains within 111 SH2 domain containing proteins that represent the primary mechanism for cellular signal transduction immediately downstream of PTKs. Despite pY recognition contributing to roughly half of the binding energy, SH2 domains possess substantial binding specificity, or affinity discrimination between phosphopeptide ligands. This specificity is largely imparted by amino acids (AAs) adjacent to the pY, typically from positions +1 to +4 C-terminal to the pY. Much experimental effort has been undertaken to construct preferred binding motifs for many SH2 domains. However, due to limitations in previous experimental methodologies these motifs do not account for the interplay between AAs. It was therefore not known how AAs within the context of individual peptides function to impart SH2 domain specificity. In this work we identified the critical role context plays in defining SH2 domain specificity for physiological ligands. We also constructed a high quality interactome using 50 SH2 domains and 192 physiological ligands. We next developed a quantitative high-throughput (Q-HTP) peptide microarray platform to assess the affinities four SH2 domains have for 124 physiological ligands. We demonstrated the superior characteristics of our platform relative to preceding approaches and validated our results using established biophysical techniques, literature corroboration, and predictive algorithms. The quantitative information provided by the arrays was leveraged to investigate SH2 domain binding distributions and identify points of binding overlap. Our microarray derived affinity estimates were integrated to produce quantitative interaction motifs capable of predicting interactions. Furthermore, our microarrays proved capable of resolving

  4. Screening a Phage Display Library for Two Novel OmpU-Binding Peptides with Adhesion Antagonistic Activity against Vibrio mimicus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Huizhu; Xiao, Ning; Li, Jinnian; Kong, Lingyan; Hou, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a pathogen that causes ascites disease in fish. We have previously demonstrated that the outer membrane protein U (OmpU) is an important adhesin in V. mimicus. Here eight specific OmpU-binding phage clones, which presented three different OmpU-binding peptides (designated P1, P2, P3), were screened from a commercially available phage displayed 12-mer peptide library using rOmpU protein as target. Then, synthetic OmpU-binding peptides were measured for their adhesion antagonistic activity and binding affinity via adhesion inhibition test and non-competitive ELISA, respectively. The results showed that after co-incubated with the mixture of rOmpU and P3, visible green fluorescence could be observed on the epithelioma papulosum cyprinidi (EPC) cells surface; while the EPC cells co-incubated with the mixture of rOmpU and P1/P2 exhibited little green fluorescence. The average adhesion number of V. mimicus 04–14 isolate before and after treatment with peptide was 21.4 ± 1.5, 20.8 ± 0.8 (irrelevant peptide), 20.2 ± 0.5 (P3), 5.1 ± 0.7 (P1) and 3.4 ± 0.8 (P2), respectively. There was a significant decrease in the adhesive level of 04–14 isolate treated with P1/ P2 compared to the untreated isolate (p<0.01). The affinity constants of P1 and P2 were (6.17 ± 0.19) × 108 L/mol and (1.24 ± 0.56) × 109 L/mol, respectively. Furthermore, protective effects of P1 and P2 on grass carps challenged with V. mimicus were preliminary detected. It was found there was delayed death of fish in the groups treated with P1/P2, and the survival rate of challenged fish improved with the increase of the dose of adhesion antagonistic peptide. Taken together, two novel OmpU-binding peptides, which possessed adhesion antagonistic activity, high affinity and a certain degree of antibacterial activity against V. mimicus, were screened and identified. PMID:27832083

  5. Deciphering the glycolipid code of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's amyloid proteins allowed the creation of a universal ganglioside-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of microbial and amyloid proteins interact with cell surface glycolipids which behave as infectivity and/or toxicity cofactors in human pathologies. Here we have deciphered the biochemical code that determines the glycolipid-binding specificity of two major amyloid proteins, Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and Parkinson's disease associated protein α-synuclein. We showed that both proteins interact with selected glycolipids through a common loop-shaped motif exhibiting little sequence homology. This 12-residue domain corresponded to fragments 34-45 of α-synuclein and 5-16 of Aβ. By modulating the amino acid sequence of α-synuclein at only two positions in which we introduced a pair of histidine residues found in Aβ, we created a chimeric α-synuclein/Aβ peptide with extended ganglioside-binding properties. This chimeric peptide retained the property of α-synuclein to recognize GM3, and acquired the capacity to recognize GM1 (an Aβ-inherited characteristic). Free histidine (but not tryptophan or asparagine) and Zn2+ (but not Na+) prevented this interaction, confirming the key role of His-13 and His-14 in ganglioside binding. Molecular dynamics studies suggested that the chimeric peptide recognized cholesterol-constrained conformers of GM1, including typical chalice-shaped dimers, that are representative of the condensed cholesterol-ganglioside complexes found in lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane of neural cells. Correspondingly, the peptide had a particular affinity for raft-like membranes containing both GM1 and cholesterol. The chimeric peptide also interacted with several other gangliosides, including major brain gangliosides (GM4, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) but not with neutral glycolipids such as GlcCer, LacCer or asialo-GM1. It could inhibit the binding of Aβ1-42 onto neural SH-SY5Y cells and did not induce toxicity in these cells. In conclusion, deciphering the glycolipid code of amyloid proteins allowed us to create a universal

  6. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  7. The key position: influence of staple location on constrained peptide conformation and binding.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Kelly L; Cho, Okki; Scanlon, Denis B; Booker, Grant W; Abell, Andrew D; Wegener, Kate L

    2016-10-18

    Constrained α-helical peptides are showing potential as biological probes and therapeutic agents that target protein-protein interactions. However, the factors that determine the optimal constraint locations are still largely unknown. Using the β-integrin/talin protein interaction as a model system, we examine the effect of constraint location on helical conformation, as well as binding affinity, using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Stapling increased the overall helical content of each integrin-based peptide tested. However, NMR analysis revealed that different regions within the peptide are stabilised, depending on constraint location, and that these differences correlate with the changes observed in talin binding mode and affinity. In addition, we show that examination of the atomic structure of the parent peptide provides insight into the appropriate placement of helical constraints.

  8. Human formyl peptide receptor ligand binding domain(s). Studies using an improved mutagenesis/expression vector reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Perez, H D; Vilander, L; Andrews, W H; Holmes, R

    1994-09-09

    Recently, we reported the domain requirements for the binding of formyl peptide to its specific receptor. Based on experiments using receptor chimeras, we also postulated an importance for the amino-terminal domain of the receptor in ligand binding (Perez, H. D., Holmes, R., Vilander, L., Adams, R., Manzana, W., Jolley, D., and Andrews, W. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2292-2295). We have begun to perform a detailed analysis of the regions within the formyl peptide receptor involved in ligand binding. To address the importance of the receptor amino-terminal domain, we substituted (or inserted) hydrophilic sequences within the amino-terminal domain, expressed the receptors, and determined their ability to bind ligand. A stretch of nine amino acids next to the initial methionine was identified as crucial for receptor occupancy. A peptide containing such a sequence specifically completed binding of the ligand to the receptor. Alanine screen mutagenesis of the second extracellular domain also identified amino acids involved in ligand binding as well as a disulfide bond (Cys98 to Cys176) crucial for maintaining the binding pocket. These studies provide evidence for a novel mechanism involved in regulation of receptor occupancy. Binding of the ligand induces conformational changes in the receptor that result in the apposition of the amino-terminal domain over the ligand, providing a lid to the binding pocket.

  9. High throughput peptide mapping method for analysis of site specific monoclonal antibody oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Yan-Hui; Richardson, Daisy; Li, Huijuan; Shameem, Mohammed; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-19

    Oxidation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) often occurs on surface exposed methionine and tryptophan residues during their production in cell culture, purification, and storage, and can potentially impact the binding to their targets. Characterization of site specific oxidation is critical for antibody quality control. Antibody oxidation is commonly determined by peptide mapping/LC-MS methods, which normally require a long (up to 24h) digestion step. The prolonged sample preparation procedure could result in oxidation artifacts of susceptible methionine and tryptophan residues. In this paper, we developed a rapid and simple UV based peptide mapping method that incorporates an 8-min trypsin in-solution digestion protocol for analysis of oxidation. This method is able to determine oxidation levels at specific residues of a mAb based on the peptide UV traces within <1h, from either TBHP treated or UV light stressed samples. This is the simplest and fastest method reported thus far for site specific oxidation analysis, and can be applied for routine or high throughput analysis of mAb oxidation during various stability and degradation studies. By using the UV trace, the method allows more accurate measurement than mass spectrometry and can be potentially implemented as a release assay. It has been successfully used to monitor antibody oxidation in real time stability studies.

  10. Chronic beryllium disease, HLA-DPB1, and the DP peptide binding groove.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Lori J; McCanlies, Erin C; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Van Dyke, Michael V; Mroz, Margaret M; Strand, Matthew; Fontenot, Andrew P; Bowerman, Natalie; Dabelea, Dana M; Schuler, Christine R; Weston, Ainsley; Maier, Lisa A

    2012-10-15

    Multiple epidemiologic studies demonstrate associations between chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium sensitization (BeS), and HLA-DPB1 alleles with a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69). Results suggest that the less-frequent E69 variants (non-*0201/*0202 alleles) might be associated with greater risk of CBD. In this study, we sought to define specific E69-carrying alleles and their amino acid sequences in the DP peptide binding groove, as well as their relationship to CBD and BeS risk, using the largest case control study to date. We enrolled 502 BeS/CBD subjects and 653 beryllium-exposed controls from three beryllium industries who gave informed consent for participation. Non-Hispanic white cases and controls were frequency-matched by industry. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined using sequence-specific primer PCR. The E69 alleles were tested for association with disease individually and grouped by amino acid structure using logistic regression. The results show that CBD cases were more likely than controls to carry a non-*02 E69 allele than an *02 E69, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) ranging from 3.1 (2.1-4.5) to 3.9 (2.6-5.9) (p < 0.0001). Polymorphic amino acids at positions 84 and 11 were associated with CBD: DD versus GG, 2.8 (1.8-4.6), p < 0.0001; GD versus GG, 2.1 (1.5-2.8), p < 0.0001; LL versus GG, 3.2 (1.8-5.6), p < 0.0001; GL versus GG, 2.8 (2.1-3.8), p < 0.0001. Similar results were found within the BeS group and CBD/BeS combined group. We conclude that the less frequent E69 alleles confer more risk for CBD than does *0201. Recent studies examining how the composition and structure of the binding pockets influence peptide binding in MHC genes, as well of studies showing the topology of the TCR to likely bind DPB1 preferentially, give plausible biological rationale for these findings.

  11. Retention of Conformational Entropy upon Calmodulin Binding to Target Peptides is Driven by Transient Salt Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Straatsma, TP; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-10-03

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly flexible calcium-binding protein that mediates signal transduction through an ability to differentially bind to highly variable binding sequences in target proteins. To identify how binding affects CaM motions, and its relationship to conformational entropy and target peptide sequence, we have employed fully atomistic, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of unbound CaM and CaM bound to five different target peptides. The calculated CaM conformational binding entropies correlate with experimentally derived conformational entropies with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.95. Selected side-chain interactions with target peptides restrain interhelical loop motions, acting to tune the conformational entropy of the bound complex via widely distributed CaM motions. In the complex with the most conformational entropy retention (CaM in complex with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase binding sequence), Lys-148 at the C-terminus of CaM forms transient salt bridges alternating between Glu side chains in the N-domain, the central linker, and the binding target. Additional analyses of CaM structures, fluctuations, and CaM-target interactions illuminate the interplay between electrostatic, side chain, and backbone properties in the ability of CaM to recognize and discriminate against targets by tuning its conformational entropy, and suggest a need to consider conformational dynamics in optimizing binding affinities.

  12. Structure of the Munc18c/Syntaxin4 N-peptide complex defines universal features of the N-peptide binding mode of Sec1/Munc18 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shu-Hong; Latham, Catherine F.; Gee, Christine L.; James, David E.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Sec1/Munc18 proteins (SM proteins) bind to soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and play an essential role in membrane fusion. Divergent modes of regulation have been proposed for different SM proteins indicating that they can either promote or inhibit SNARE assembly. This is in part because of discrete modes of binding that have been described for various SM/SNARE complexes. One mode suggests that SM proteins bind only to Syntaxins (Stx) preventing SNARE assembly, whereas in another they facilitate SNARE assembly and bind to SNARE complexes. The mammalian cell surface SM protein Munc18c binds to an N-peptide in Stx4, and this is compatible with its interaction with SNARE complexes. Here we describe the crystal structure of Munc18c in complex with the Stx4 N-peptide. This structure shows remarkable similarity with a yeast complex indicating that the mode of binding, which can accommodate SNARE complexes, is highly conserved throughout evolution. Modeling reveals the presence of the N-peptide binding mode in most but not all yeast and mammalian SM/Stx pairs, suggesting that it has coevolved to fulfill a specific regulatory function. It is unlikely that the N-peptide interaction alone accounts for the specificity in SM/SNARE binding, implicating other contact surfaces in this function. Together with other data, our results support a sequential two-state model for SM/SNARE binding involving an initial interaction via the Stx N-peptide, which somehow facilitates a second, more comprehensive interaction comprising other contact surfaces in both proteins. PMID:17517664

  13. Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies

    DOE PAGES

    Donaldson, Joshua M.; Zer, Cindy; Avery, Kendra N.; ...

    2013-10-07

    Capitalizing on their extraordinary specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most reengineered classes of biological molecules. A major goal in many of these engineering efforts is to add new functionality to the parental mAb, including the addition of cytotoxins and imaging agents for medical applications. Herein, we present a unique peptide-binding site within the central cavity of the fragment antigen binding framework region of the chimeric, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor mAb cetuximab. We demonstrate through diffraction methods, biophysical studies, and sequence analysis that this peptide, a meditope, has moderate affinity for the Fab, is specific to cetuximabmore » (i.e., does not bind to human IgGs), and has no significant effect on antigen binding. We further demonstrate by diffraction studies and biophysical methods that the meditope binding site can be grafted onto the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mAb trastuzumab, and that the antigen binding affinity of the grafted trastuzumab is indistinguishable from the parental mAb. Lastly, we demonstrate a bivalent meditope variant binds specifically and stably to antigen-bearing cells only in the presence of the meditope-enabled mAbs. Collectively, this finding and the subsequent characterization and engineering efforts indicate that this unique interface could serve as a noncovalent “linker” for any meditope-enabled mAb with applications in multiple mAb-based technologies including diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic delivery.« less

  14. Copper binding to octarepeat peptides of the prion protein monitored by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Whittal, R. M.; Ball, H. L.; Cohen, F. E.; Burlingame, A. L.; Prusiner, S. B.; Baldwin, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to measure the binding of Cu2+ ions to synthetic peptides corresponding to sections of the sequence of the mature prion protein (PrP). ESI-MS demonstrates that Cu2+ is unique among divalent metal ions in binding to PrP and defines the location of the major Cu2+ binding site as the octarepeat region in the N-terminal domain, containing multiple copies of the repeat ProHisGlyGlyGlyTrpGlyGln. The stoichiometries of the complexes measured directly by ESI-MS are pH dependent: a peptide containing four octarepeats chelates two Cu2+ ions at pH 6 but four at pH 7.4. At the higher pH, the binding of multiple Cu2+ ions occurs with a high degree of cooperativity for peptides C-terminally extended to incorporate a fifth histidine. Dissociation constants for each Cu2+ ion binding to the octarepeat peptides, reported here for the first time, are mostly in the low micromolar range; for the addition of the third and fourth Cu2+ ions to the extended peptides at pH 7.4, K(D)'s are <100 nM. N-terminal acetylation of the peptides caused some reduction in the stoichiometry of binding at both pH's. Cu2+ also binds to a peptide corresponding to the extreme N-terminus of PrP that precedes the octarepeats, arguing that this region of the sequence may also make a contribution to the Cu2+ complexation. Although the structure of the four-octarepeat peptide is not affected by pH changes in the absence of Cu2+, as judged by circular dichroism, Cu2+ binding induces a modest change at pH 6 and a major structural perturbation at pH 7.4. It is possible that PrP functions as a Cu2+ transporter by binding Cu2+ ions from the extracellular medium under physiologic conditions and then releasing some or all of this metal upon exposure to acidic pH in endosomes or secondary lysosomes. PMID:10716185

  15. Allergen Peptides, Recombinant Allergens and Hypoallergens for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common health issues worldwide. Specific immunotherapy has remained the only disease-modifying treatment, but it is not effective in all patients and may cause side effects. Over the last 25 years, allergen molecules from most prevalent allergen sources have been isolated and produced as recombinant proteins. Not only are these molecules useful in improved allergy diagnosis, but they also have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of allergic disease by means of immunotherapy. Panels of unmodified recombinant allergens have already been shown to effectively replace natural allergen extracts in therapy. Through genetic engineering, several molecules have been designed with modified immunological properties. Hypoallergens have been produced that have reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T cell reactivity and T cell peptides which stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and these have already been investigated in clinical trials. New vaccines have been recently created with both reduced IgE and T cell reactivity but retained ability to induce protective allergen-specific IgG antibodies. The latter approach works by fusing per se non-IgE reactive peptides derived from IgE binding sites of the allergens to a virus protein, which acts as a carrier and provides the T-cell help necessary for immune stimulation and protective antibody production. In this review, we will highlight the different novel approaches for immunotherapy and will report on prior and ongoing clinical studies.

  16. The Periplasmic Bacterial Molecular Chaperone SurA Adapts Its Structure to Bind Peptides in Different Conformations to Assert a Sequence Preference for Aromatic Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Wang, S.; Hu, Y.-X.; McKay, D.B.

    2009-06-04

    The periplasmic molecular chaperone protein SurA facilitates correct folding and maturation of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. It preferentially binds peptides that have a high fraction of aromatic amino acids. Phage display selections, isothermal titration calorimetry and crystallographic structure determination have been used to elucidate the basis of the binding specificity. The peptide recognition is imparted by the first peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain of SurA. Crystal structures of complexes between peptides of sequence WEYIPNV and NFTLKFWDIFRK with the first PPIase domain of the Escherichia coli SurA protein at 1.3 A resolution, and of a complex between the dodecapeptide and a SurA fragment lacking the second PPIase domain at 3.4 A resolution, have been solved. SurA binds as a monomer to the heptapeptide in an extended conformation. It binds as a dimer to the dodecapeptide in an alpha-helical conformation, predicated on a substantial structural rearrangement of the SurA protein. In both cases, side-chains of aromatic residues of the peptides contribute a large fraction of the binding interactions. SurA therefore asserts a recognition preference for aromatic amino acids in a variety of sequence configurations by adopting alternative tertiary and quaternary structures to bind peptides in different conformations.

  17. Surface Plasmon Resonance Studies of the Specific Interactions of Hexamer Peptide Ligands with Human Immunoglobulin G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nafisa

    This study characterizes the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding on peptides grafted onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and the binding events are studied primarily using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The dissertation also seeks to determine the optimum surface preparation and surface chemistry approaches for grafting the peptide so that the sensor surfaces demonstrate enhanced selectivity and sensitivity in both laboratory and industrial settings. Peptide covalent grafting was performed on pure and mixed SAMs, the surfaces were characterized and the peptide densities were quantified. Theoretical models were developed and implemented to describe the binding mechanism of IgG with grafted ligands. Protein A was grafted onto SPR sensors and subsequent IgG binding characteristics were compared side-by-side to those of peptide-IgG binding. It was found that Protein A-based sensors showed much higher selectivities and higher binding capacities than their peptides based counterparts. Oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiol-based pure and mixed SAMs were grafted with peptides in order to determine the optimal surface among these, for enhanced selectivity. Among the mixed SAMs formed from different precursor solutions, a surface with peptides grafted onto mixed SAMs formulated from 10% amine-terminated/90% hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols showed optimum selectivity. Studies were carried out to increase the peptide density via grafting of branched amines onto surfaces. The branched amine-based peptide surfaces displayed improved sensitivities and similar selectivities to the surfaces based on un-branched amine termini. Kinetic analyses were carried out to determine the characteristics of IgG binding to ligands grafted in the abovementioned methods. Kinetic analysis of binding indicated that Protein A-IgG interactions have concentrationdependent affinity properties that could be attributed to the allosteric effects of the interaction. The lack of tertiary

  18. Selection of ganglioside GM1-binding peptides by using a phage library.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, T; Ishikawa, D; Taki, T; Okahata, Y; Sato, T

    1999-08-06

    Ganglioside Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc beta1 --> 4(NeuAc alpha2 --> 3) Gal beta1 --> 4Glc beta1 -->1'Cer (GM1)-binding peptides were obtained from a phage-displayed pentadecapeptide library by an affinity selection. The selection processes were in situ-monitored by a quartz-crystal microbalance method, on which a ganglioside GM1 monolayer was transferred. After five rounds of biopanning, the DNA sequencing of 18 selected phages showed that only three individual clones were selected. The peptide sequences of the random region were found to be DFRRLPGAFWQLRQP, GWWYKGRARPVSAVA and VWRLLAPPFSNRLLP. Binding constants of these phage clones to the GM1 monolayer were 10(10) M(-1). Three synthetic pentadecapeptides inhibited the binding of cholera toxin B subunit to the GM1 monolayer with an IC50 of 24, 13 and 1.0 microM, respectively. These peptides will be useful for searching functional roles of ganglioside GMI.

  19. Specific high-affinity binding sites for a synthetic gliadin heptapeptide of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Payan, D.G.; Horvath, K.; Graf, L.

    1987-03-23

    The synthetic peptide containing residues 43-49 of ..cap alpha..-gliadin, the major protein component of gluten, has previously been shown to inhibit the production of lymphokine activities by mononuclear leukocytes. The authors demonstrate using radiolabeled ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) that human peripheral blood lymphocytes express approximately 20,000-25,000 surface receptors for this peptide, with a dissociation constant (K/sub D/) of 20 nM. In addition, binding is inhibited by naloxone and an enkephalin analog, thus confirming the functional correlate which demonstrates inhibition by these agents of ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) functional effects. Furthermore, B-lymphocytes bind specifically a greater amount of (/sup 125/I)..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) than T-lymphocytes. The lymphocyte ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) receptor may play an important role in mediating the immunological response to ..cap alpha..-gliadin. 16 references, 4 figures.

  20. Predicting the effects of amino acid replacements in peptide hormones on their binding affinities for class B GPCRs and application to the design of secretin receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Jerez A.; Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J.; Bordner, Andrew J.

    2012-07-01

    unbound forms. These simulations suggested that a combination of the α-helical propensity of the unbound peptide and specific interactions between the peptide and the receptor extracellular domain contribute to their higher binding affinities.

  1. Cu(2+) affects amyloid-β (1-42) aggregation by increasing peptide-peptide binding forces.

    PubMed

    Hane, Francis; Tran, Gary; Attwood, Simon J; Leonenko, Zoya

    2013-01-01

    The link between metals, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its implicated protein, amyloid-β (Aβ), is complex and highly studied. AD is believed to occur as a result of the misfolding and aggregation of Aβ. The dyshomeostasis of metal ions and their propensity to interact with Aβ has also been implicated in AD. In this work, we use single molecule atomic force spectroscopy to measure the rupture force required to dissociate two Aβ (1-42) peptides in the presence of copper ions, Cu(2+). In addition, we use atomic force microscopy to resolve the aggregation of Aβ formed. Previous research has shown that metal ions decrease the lag time associated with Aβ aggregation. We show that with the addition of copper ions the unbinding force increases notably. This suggests that the reduction of lag time associated with Aβ aggregation occurs on a single molecule level as a result of an increase in binding forces during the very initial interactions between two Aβ peptides. We attribute these results to copper ions acting as a bridge between the two peptide molecules, increasing the stability of the peptide-peptide complex.

  2. A set of robust fluorescent peptide probes for quantification of Cu(ii) binding affinities in the micromolar to femtomolar range.

    PubMed

    Young, Tessa R; Wijekoon, Chathuri J K; Spyrou, Benjamin; Donnelly, Paul S; Wedd, Anthony G; Xiao, Zhiguang

    2015-03-01

    Reliable quantification of copper binding affinities and identification of the binding sites provide a molecular basis for an understanding of the nutritional roles and toxic effects of copper ions. Sets of chromophoric probes are now available that can quantify Cu(i) binding affinities from nanomolar to attomolar concentrations on a unified scale under in vitro conditions. Equivalent probes for Cu(ii) are lacking. This work reports development of a set of four fluorescent dansyl peptide probes (DP1-4) that can quantify Cu(ii) binding affinities from micromolar to femtomolar concentrations, also on a unified scale. The probes were constructed by conjugation of a dansyl group to four short peptides of specific design. Each was characterised by its dissociation constant KD, its pH dependence and the nature of its binding site. One equivalent of Cu(ii) is bound by the individual probes that display different and well-separated affinities at pH 7.4 (log KD = -8.1, -10.1, -12.3 and -14.1, respectively). Intense fluorescence is emitted at λmax ∼ 550 nm upon excitation at ∼330 nm. Binding of Cu(ii) quenches the fluorescence intensity linearly until one equivalent of Cu(ii) is bound. Multiple approaches and multiple affinity standards were employed to ensure reliability. Selected examples of application to well-characterised Cu(ii) binding peptides and proteins are presented. These include Aβ16 peptides, two naturally occurring Cu(ii)-chelating motifs in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid with sequences GHK and DAHK and two copper binding proteins, CopC from Pseudomonas syringae and PcoC from Escherichia coli. Previously reported affinities are reproduced, demonstrating that peptides DP1-4 form a set of robust and reliable probes for Cu(ii) binding to peptides and protein targets.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove

    PubMed Central

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany; Remesh, Soumya G; Kaever, Thomas; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Kenneth; McLeod, Rima; Sette, Alessandro; Nielsen, Morten; Zajonc, Dirk M; Blader, Ira J; Peters, Bjoern; Hildebrand, William

    2016-01-01

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T-cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected cells and characterize the peptide ligands using LCMS. We identify 195 T. gondii encoded ligands originating from both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. Surprisingly, T. gondii ligands are significantly longer than uninfected host ligands, and these longer pathogen-derived peptides maintain a canonical N-terminal binding core yet exhibit a C-terminal extension of 1–30 amino acids. Structural analysis demonstrates that binding of extended peptides opens the HLA class I F’ pocket, allowing the C-terminal extension to protrude through one end of the binding groove. In summary, we demonstrate that unrealized structural flexibility makes MHC class I receptive to parasite-derived ligands that exhibit unique C-terminal peptide extensions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12556.001 PMID:26824387

  4. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove.

    PubMed

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany; Remesh, Soumya G; Kaever, Thomas; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Kenneth; McLeod, Rima; Sette, Alessandro; Nielsen, Morten; Zajonc, Dirk M; Blader, Ira J; Peters, Bjoern; Hildebrand, William

    2016-01-29

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T-cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected cells and characterize the peptide ligands using LCMS. We identify 195 T. gondii encoded ligands originating from both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. Surprisingly, T. gondii ligands are significantly longer than uninfected host ligands, and these longer pathogen-derived peptides maintain a canonical N-terminal binding core yet exhibit a C-terminal extension of 1-30 amino acids. Structural analysis demonstrates that binding of extended peptides opens the HLA class I F' pocket, allowing the C-terminal extension to protrude through one end of the binding groove. In summary, we demonstrate that unrealized structural flexibility makes MHC class I receptive to parasite-derived ligands that exhibit unique C-terminal peptide extensions.

  5. Long-range effects in protein--ligand interactions mediate peptide specificity in the human major histocompatibilty antigen HLA-B27 (B*2701).

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, S.; Rognan, D.; López de Castro, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    B*2701 differs from all other HLA-B27 subtypes of known peptide specificity in that, among its natural peptide ligands, arginine is not the only allowed residue at peptide position 2. Indeed, B*2701 is unique in binding many peptides with Gln2 in vivo. However, the mutation (Asp74Tyr) responsible for altered selectivity is far away from the B pocket of the peptide binding site to which Gln/Arg2 binds. Here, we present a model that explains this effect. It is proposed that a new rotameric state of the conserved Lys70 is responsible for the unique B*2701 binding motif. This side chain should be either kept away from pocket B through its interaction with Asp74 in most HLA-B27 subtypes, or switched to this pocket if residue 74 is Tyr as in B*2701. Involvement of Lys70 in pocket B would thus allow binding of peptides with Gln2. Binding of Arg2-containing peptides to B*2701 is also possible because Lys70 could adopt another conformation, H-bonded to Asn97, which preserves the same binding mode of Arg2 as in B*2705. This model was experimentally validated by mutating Lys70 into Ala in B*2701. Edman sequencing of the B*2701(K70A) peptide pool showed only Arg2, characteristic of HLA-B27-bound peptides, and no evidence for Gln2. This supports the computational model and demonstrates that allowance of B*2701 for peptides with Gln2 is due to the long-range effect of the polymorphic residue 74 of HLA-B27, by inducing a conformational switch of the conserved Lys70. PMID:10422827

  6. Processing Binding Relations in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Hestvik, Arild; Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Almodovar, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This sentence processing experiment examined the abilities of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development (TD) to establish relations between pronouns or reflexives and their antecedents in real time. Method: Twenty-two children with SLI and 24 age-matched children with TD (7;3-10;11…

  7. Structural analysis of calmodulin binding by nNOS inhibitory amphibian peptides.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Antonio N; Bowie, John H; Pukala, Tara L

    2015-01-20

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous protein in nature and plays a regulatory role in numerous biological processes, including the upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in vivo. Several peptides that prevent NO production by interacting with CaM have been isolated in the cutaneous secretions of Australian amphibians, and are thought to serve as a defense mechanism against predators. In this work, we probe the mechanism by which three of these peptides, namely, caerin 1.8, dahlein 5.6, and a synthetic modification of citropin 1.1, interact with CaM to inhibit NO signaling. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the binding interactions and revealed that all the peptides bind to CaM in a similar fashion, with the peptide encapsulated between the two lobes of CaM. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry was used to investigate the changes in collision cross section that occur as a result of complexation, providing additional evidence for this binding mode. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to track chemical shift changes upon binding. The results obtained confirm that these complexes adopt canonical collapsed structures and demonstrate the strength of the interaction between the peptides and CaM. An understanding of these molecular recognition events provides insights into the underlying mechanism of the amphibian host-defense system.

  8. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C.

  9. Selection of phage-displayed peptides that bind to a particular ligand-bound antibody.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fujie; Hu, Yunfeng; Sutton, Jori; Asawapornmongkol, Lily; Fuller, Roberta; Olson, Arthur J; Barbas, Carlos F; Lerner, Richard A

    2008-06-01

    Phage-displayed peptides that selectively bind to aldolase catalytic antibody 93F3 when bound to a particular 1,3-diketone hapten derivative have been developed using designed selection strategies with libraries containing 7-12 randomized amino acid residues. These phage-displayed peptides discriminated the particular 93F3-diketone complex from ligand-free 93F3 and from 93F3 bound to other 1,3-diketone hapten derivatives. By altering the selection procedures, phage-displayed peptides that bind to antibody 93F3 in the absence of 1,3-diketone hapten derivatives have also been developed. With using these phage-displayed peptides, ligand-bound states of the antibody were distinguished from each other. A docking model of one of the peptides bound to the antibody 93F3-diketone complex was created using a sequential divide-and-conquer peptide docking strategy; the model suggests that the peptide interacts with both the antibody and the ligand through a delicate hydrogen bonding network.

  10. Overlapping transport and chaperone-binding functions within a bacterial twin-arginine signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Grahl, Sabine; Maillard, Julien; Spronk, Chris A E M; Vuister, Geerten W; Sargent, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is a protein targeting system present in many prokaryotes. The physiological role of the Tat pathway is the transmembrane translocation of fully-folded proteins, which are targeted by N-terminal signal peptides bearing conserved SRRxFLK 'twin-arginine' amino acid motifs. In Escherichia coli the majority of Tat targeted proteins bind redox cofactors and it is important that only mature, cofactor-loaded precursors are presented for export. Cellular processes have been unearthed that sequence these events, for example the signal peptide of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) is bound by a cytoplasmic chaperone (NapD) that is thought to regulate assembly and export of the enzyme. In this work, genetic, biophysical and structural approaches were taken to dissect the interaction between NapD and the NapA signal peptide. A NapD binding epitope was identified towards the N-terminus of the signal peptide, which overlapped significantly with the twin-arginine targeting motif. NMR spectroscopy revealed that the signal peptide adopted a α-helical conformation when bound by NapD, and substitution of single residues within the NapA signal peptide was sufficient to disrupt the interaction. This work provides an increased level of understanding of signal peptide function on the bacterial Tat pathway.

  11. Direct demonstration of unique mode of natural peptide binding to the type 2 cholecystokinin receptor using photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J

    2013-08-01

    Direct analysis of mode of peptide docking using intrinsic photoaffinity labeling has provided detailed insights for the molecular basis of cholecystokinin (CCK) interaction with the type 1 CCK receptor. In the current work, this technique has been applied to the closely related type 2 CCK receptor that also binds the natural full agonist peptide, CCK, with high affinity. A series of photolabile CCK analog probes with sites of covalent attachment extending from position 26 through 32 were characterized, with the highest affinity analogs that possessed full biological activity utilized in photoaffinity labeling. The position 29 probe, incorporating a photolabile benzoyl-phenylalanine in that position, was shown to bind with high affinity and to be a full agonist, with potency not different from that of natural CCK, and to covalently label the type 2 CCK receptor in a saturable, specific and efficient manner. Using proteolytic peptide mapping, mutagenesis, and radiochemical Edman degradation sequencing, this probe was shown to establish a covalent bond with type 2 CCK receptor residue Phe¹²⁰ in the first extracellular loop. This was in contrast to its covalent attachment to Glu³⁴⁵ in the third extracellular loop of the type 1 CCK receptor, directly documenting differences in mode of docking this peptide to these receptors.

  12. Heparin-binding peptide amphiphile supramolecular architectures as platforms for angiogenesis and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Lesleyann W.

    A fascinating phenomenon in nature is the self-assembly of molecules into a functional, hierarchical structure. In the past decade, the Stupp Laboratory has developed several classes of self-assembling biomaterials, one of which is the synthetic peptide amphiphile (PA). Self-assembling PAs are attractive and versatile biomolecules that can be customized for specific applications in regenerative medicine. In particular, a heparin-binding peptide amphiphile (HBPA) containing a specific heparin-binding peptide sequence was used here to induce angiogenesis and serve as a delivery vehicle for growth factors and small hydrophobic molecules. Throughout this dissertation, the HBPA/heparin system is used in different architectures for a variety of regenerative medicine applications. In one aspect of this work, hybrid scaffolds made from HBPA/heparin gelled on a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fiber mesh were used to promote angiogenesis to facilitate pancreatic islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Delivery of growth factors with HBPA/PLLA scafflolds increased vessel density in vivo and correlated with improved transplant outcomes in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Soluble HBPA nanofiber architectures were also useful for islet transplantation applications. These nanofibers were used at concentrations below gelation to deliver growth factors into the dense islet cell aggregate, promoting cell survival and angiogenesis in vitro. The nanostructures infiltrated the islets and promoted the retention of heparin and growth factors within the islet. Another interesting growth factor release system discussed here is the HBPA membrane structure. HBPA was found to self-assemble with hyaluronic acid, a large biopolymer found in the body, into macroscopic, hierarchically-ordered membranes. Heparin was incorporated into these membranes and affected the membrane's mechanical properties and growth factor release. Human mesenchymal stem cells were also shown

  13. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. XVIII. Synthesis and preparation of peptides and peptide fragments of rabbit muscle ATP-AMP transphosphorylase (adenylate kinase) and their nucleotide-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Hamada, M; Johnson, M S; Russell, G A; Manship, M; Palmieri, R H; Fleming, G; Bredt, D S; Mildvan, A S

    1989-08-01

    Two peptide fragments, derived from the head and tail of rabbit muscle myokinase, were found to possess remarkable and specific ligand-binding properties (Hamada et al., 1979). By initiating systematic syntheses and measurements of equilibrium substrate-binding properties of these two sets of peptides, or portions thereof, which encompass the binding sites for (a) the magnesium complexes of the nucleotide substrates (MgATP2- and MgADP-) and (b) the uncomplexed nucleotide substrates (ADP3- and AMP2-) of rabbit muscle myokinase, some of the requirements for binding of the substrates to ATP-AMP transphosphorylase are being deduced and chemically outlined. One requirement for tight nucleotide binding appears to be a minimum peptide length of 15-25 residues. In addition, Lys-172 and/or Lys-194 may be involved in the binding of epsilon AMP. The syntheses are described as a set of peptides corresponding to residues 31-45, 20-45, 5-45, and 1-45, and a set of peptides corresponding to residues 178-192, 178-194, and 172-194 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase. The ligand-binding properties of the first set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands: epsilon MgATP/epsilon ATP and epsilon MgADP/epsilon ADP are quantitatively presented in terms of their intrinsic dissociation constants (K'd) and values of N (maximal number of moles bound per mole of peptide); and compared with the peptide fragment MT-I (1-44) obtained from rabbit muscle myokinase (Kuby et al., 1984) and with the native enzyme (Hamada et al., 1979). In addition, the values of N and K'd are given for the second set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands epsilon AMP and epsilon ADP as well as for the peptide fragments MT-XII(172-194) and CB-VI(126-194) (Kuby et al., 1984) and, in turn, compared with the native enzyme. A few miscellaneous dissociation constants which had been derived kinetically are also given for comparison (e.g., the Ki for epsilon AMP and the value of KMg epsilon ATP obtained for

  14. Design of a hydroxyapatite-binding antimicrobial peptide with improved retention and antibacterial efficacy for oral pathogen control

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-bin; Shi, Xin; Mao, Jing; Gong, Shi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory. HBAMP was supposed to form a contact-active antibacterial interface on tooth surface to inhibit the formation of biofilms. In this study, we investigated its binding behaviour, antibacterial activity against bacteria in both planktonic and sessile states, enzymatic stability in human saliva, and cytocompatibility to human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Our findings suggest that HBAMP could adsorb on tooth surface to provide effective antibacterial activity with improved retention. This study provides a proof-of-concept on using conjugated molecules to promote antibacterial efficacy by synergistically actions of HBAMP free in solution and bound on tooth surface. PMID:27910930

  15. Lasso Peptide Biosynthetic Protein LarB1 Binds Both Leader and Core Peptide Regions of the Precursor Protein LarA

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lasso peptides are a member of the superclass of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Like all RiPPs, lasso peptides are derived from a gene-encoded precursor protein. The biosynthesis of lasso peptides requires two enzymatic activities: proteolytic cleavage between the leader peptide and the core peptide in the precursor protein, accomplished by the B enzymes, and ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation, accomplished by the C enzymes. In a subset of lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters from Gram-positive organisms, the B enzyme is split between two proteins. One such gene cluster is found in the organism Rhodococcus jostii, which produces the antimicrobial lasso peptide lariatin. The B enzyme in R. jostii is split between two open reading frames, larB1 and larB2, both of which are required for lariatin biosynthesis. While the cysteine catalytic triad is found within the LarB2 protein, LarB1 is a PqqD homologue expected to bind to the lariatin precursor LarA based on its structural homology to other RiPP leader peptide binding domains. We show that LarB1 binds to the leader peptide of the lariatin precursor protein LarA with a sub-micromolar affinity. We used photocrosslinking with the noncanonical amino acid p-azidophenylalanine and mass spectrometry to map the interaction of LarA and LarB1. This analysis shows that the LarA leader peptide interacts with a conserved motif within LarB1 and, unexpectedly, the core peptide of LarA also binds to LarB1 in several positions. A Rosetta model built from distance restraints from the photocrosslinking experiments shows that the scissile bond between the leader peptide and core peptide in LarA is in a solvent-exposed loop. PMID:27800552

  16. Lasso Peptide Biosynthetic Protein LarB1 Binds Both Leader and Core Peptide Regions of the Precursor Protein LarA.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wai Ling; Chen, Maria Y; Maksimov, Mikhail O; Link, A James

    2016-10-26

    Lasso peptides are a member of the superclass of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Like all RiPPs, lasso peptides are derived from a gene-encoded precursor protein. The biosynthesis of lasso peptides requires two enzymatic activities: proteolytic cleavage between the leader peptide and the core peptide in the precursor protein, accomplished by the B enzymes, and ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation, accomplished by the C enzymes. In a subset of lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters from Gram-positive organisms, the B enzyme is split between two proteins. One such gene cluster is found in the organism Rhodococcus jostii, which produces the antimicrobial lasso peptide lariatin. The B enzyme in R. jostii is split between two open reading frames, larB1 and larB2, both of which are required for lariatin biosynthesis. While the cysteine catalytic triad is found within the LarB2 protein, LarB1 is a PqqD homologue expected to bind to the lariatin precursor LarA based on its structural homology to other RiPP leader peptide binding domains. We show that LarB1 binds to the leader peptide of the lariatin precursor protein LarA with a sub-micromolar affinity. We used photocrosslinking with the noncanonical amino acid p-azidophenylalanine and mass spectrometry to map the interaction of LarA and LarB1. This analysis shows that the LarA leader peptide interacts with a conserved motif within LarB1 and, unexpectedly, the core peptide of LarA also binds to LarB1 in several positions. A Rosetta model built from distance restraints from the photocrosslinking experiments shows that the scissile bond between the leader peptide and core peptide in LarA is in a solvent-exposed loop.

  17. Elucidating the Specificity Determinants of the AtxE2 Lasso Peptide Isopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Mikhail O; Koos, Joseph D; Zong, Chuhan; Lisko, Bozhena; Link, A James

    2015-12-25

    Lasso peptide isopeptidase is an enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes the isopeptide bond of lasso peptides, rendering these peptides linear. To carry out a detailed structure-activity analysis of the lasso peptide isopeptidase AtxE2 from Asticcacaulis excentricus, we solved NMR structures of its substrates astexin-2 and astexin-3. Using in vitro enzyme assays, we show that the C-terminal tail portion of these peptides is dispensable with regards to isopeptidase activity. A collection of astexin-2 and astexin-3 variants with alanine substitutions at each position within the ring and the loop was constructed, and we showed that all of these peptides except for one were cleaved by the isopeptidase. Thus, much like the lasso peptide biosynthetic enzymes, lasso peptide isopeptidase has broad substrate specificity. Quantitative analysis of the cleavage reactions indicated that alanine substitutions in loop positions of these peptides led to reduced cleavage, suggesting that the loop is serving as a recognition element for the isopeptidase.

  18. The Structural Basis of [beta]-Peptide-Specific Cleavage by the Serine Protease Cyanophycinase

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Adrienne M.; Lai, Sandy W.S.; Tavares, John; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2010-10-01

    Cyanophycin, or poly-L-Asp-multi-L-Arg, is a non-ribosomally synthesized peptidic polymer that is used for nitrogen storage by cyanobacteria and other select eubacteria. Upon synthesis, it self-associates to form insoluble granules, the degradation of which is uniquely catalyzed by a carboxy-terminal-specific protease, cyanophycinase. We have determined the structure of cyanophycinase from the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 at 1.5-{angstrom} resolution, showing that the structure is dimeric, with individual protomers resembling aspartyl dipeptidase. Kinetic characterization of the enzyme demonstrates that the enzyme displays Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a k{sub cat} of 16.5 s{sup -1} and a k{sub cat}/K{sub M} of 7.5 x 10{sup -6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirm that cyanophycinase is a serine protease and that Gln101, Asp172, Gln173, Arg178, Arg180 and Arg183, which form a conserved pocket adjacent to the catalytic Ser132, are functionally critical residues. Modeling indicates that cyanophycinase binds the {beta}-Asp-Arg dipeptide residue immediately N-terminal to the scissile bond in an extended conformation in this pocket, primarily recognizing this penultimate {beta}-Asp-Arg residue of the polymeric chain. Because binding and catalysis depend on substrate features unique to {beta}-linked aspartyl peptides, cyanophycinase is able to act within the cytosol without non-specific cleavage events disrupting essential cellular processes.

  19. In-capillary detection of fast antibody-peptide binding using fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuqin; Qiu, Lin; Qin, Haifang; Ding, Shumin; Liu, Li; Teng, Yiwan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Cheli; Li, Jinchen; Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a technique for detecting the fast binding of antibody-peptide inside a capillary. Anti-HA was mixed and interacted with FAM-labeled HA tag (FAM-E4 ) inside the capillary. Fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL) was employed to measure and record the binding process. The efficiency of the antibody-peptide binding on in-capillary assays was found to be affected by the molar ratio. Furthermore, the stability of anti-HA-FAM-E4 complex was investigated as well. The results indicated that E4 YPYDVPDYA (E4) or TAMRA-E4 YPYDVPDYA (TAMRA-E4) had the same binding priorities with anti-HA. The addition of excess E4 or TAMRA-E4 could lead to partial dissociation of the complex and take a two-step mechanism including dissociation and association. This method can be applied to detect a wide range of biomolecular interactions.

  20. Novel fluorescently labeled peptide compounds for detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at high specificity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Oe, Keitaro; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    The probes for specific detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques are expected to be useful for the identification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for atherosclerosis. In this study, to develop a fluorescent peptide probe for specific detection of ox-LDL, we investigated the interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptides with ox-LDL using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two heptapeptides (KWYKDGD and KP6) coupled through the ε-amino group of K at the N-terminus to FITC in the presence/absence of 6-amino-n-caproic acid (AC) linker to FITC--(FITC-AC)KP6 and (FITC)KP6--both bound with high specificity to ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, a tetrapeptide (YKDG) labeled with FITC at the N-terminus and a pentapeptide (YKDGK) coupled through the ε-amino group of K at the C-terminus to FITC did not bind selectively to ox-LDL. Furthermore, (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 bound with high specificity to the protein in mouse plasma (probably ox-LDL fraction). These findings strongly suggest that (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 may be effective novel fluorescent probes for specific detection of ox-LDL.

  1. Specific binding of antigen onto human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Charron, D.; Griscelli, C.

    1986-05-01

    Human T lymphocytes sensitized to Candida albicans (CA) were shown to proliferate in cultures induced with mannan, a ramified polysaccharide extracted from the cell well of CA. We presently describe that, when we used strongly labeled (/sup 3/H)mannan, antigen-specific T blast cells were able to bind the labeled mannan on their membrane. The observations that irrelevant blast cells did not bind (/sup 3/H)mannan, and that mannan-specific blast cells did not bind tritiated pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII, indicate the specificity of mannan binding. Mannan binding was reversible and saturable. Mannan binding on T blast cells was inhibited by preincubation with monoclonal antibodies to T3 but not to other T cell-related molecules. The characteristics of this receptor suggest its identity with the T cell receptor for antigen. The direct binding of mannan could be either due to a cross-linking of the receptor by multivalent mannan or to a recognition of mannan in association with HLA-DQ molecules, as suggested by partial blocking of mannan binding using anti-HLA-DQ monoclonal antibodies.

  2. An HLA-A3-binding prostate acid phosphatase-derived peptide can induce CTLs restricted to HLA-A2 and -A24 alleles.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Yasunobu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Niu, Yamei; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Noguchi, Masanori; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo

    2009-11-01

    We previously reported peptide vaccine candidates for HLA-A3 supertype (-A3, -A11, -A31, -A33)-positive cancer patients. In the present study, we examined whether those peptides can also induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity restricted to HLA-A2, HLA-A24, and HLA-A26 alleles. Fourteen peptides were screened for their binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, -A*0207, -A*2402, and -A*2601 molecules and then tested for their ability to induce CTL activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from prostate cancer patients. Among these peptides, one from the prostate acid phosphatase protein exhibited binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, and -A*2402 molecules. In addition, PBMCs stimulated with this peptide showed that HLA-A2 or HLA-A24 restricted CTL activity. Their cytotoxicity toward cancer cells was ascribed to peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that this peptide could be widely applicable as a peptide vaccine for HLA-A3 supertype-, HLA-A2-, and -A24-positive cancer patients.

  3. Human OGA binds substrates in a conserved peptide recognition groove.

    PubMed

    Schimpl, Marianne; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W; Borodkin, Vladimir S; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2010-11-15

    Modification of cellular proteins with O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) competes with protein phosphorylation and regulates a plethora of cellular processes. O-GlcNAcylation is orchestrated by two opposing enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase and OGA (O-GlcNAcase or β-N-acetylglucosaminidase), which recognize their target proteins via as yet unidentified mechanisms. In the present study, we uncovered the first insights into the mechanism of substrate recognition by human OGA. The structure of a novel bacterial OGA orthologue reveals a putative substrate-binding groove, conserved in metazoan OGAs. Guided by this structure, conserved amino acids lining this groove in human OGA were mutated and the activity on three different substrate proteins [TAB1 (transforming growth factor-β-activated protein kinase 1-binding protein 1), FoxO1 (forkhead box O1) and CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)] was tested in an in vitro deglycosylation assay. The results provide the first evidence that human OGA may possess a substrate-recognition mechanism that involves interactions with O-GlcNAcylated proteins beyond the GlcNAc-binding site, with possible implications for differential regulation of cycling of O-GlcNAc on different proteins.

  4. Modification of Titanium Substrates with Chimeric Peptides Comprising Antimicrobial and Titanium-Binding Motifs Connected by Linkers To Inhibit Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zihao; Ma, Shiqing; Duan, Shun; Xuliang, Deng; Sun, Yingchun; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xinhua; Guan, Binbin; Wang, Chao; Hu, Meilin; Qi, Xingying; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2016-03-02

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are the primary causes of implant-associated infection, which is difficult to eliminate and may induce failure in dental implants. Chimeric peptides with both binding and antimicrobial motifs may provide a promising alternative to inhibit biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. In this study, chimeric peptides were designed by connecting an antimicrobial motif (JH8194: KRLFRRWQWRMKKY) with a binding motif (minTBP-1: RKLPDA) directly or via flexible/rigid linkers to modify Ti surfaces. We evaluated the binding behavior of peptides using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques and investigated the effect of the modification of titanium surfaces with these peptides on the bioactivity of Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) and Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis). Compared with the flexible linker (GGGGS), the rigid linker (PAPAP) significantly increased the adsorption of the chimeric peptide on titanium surfaces (p < 0.05). Concentration-dependent adsorption is consistent with a single Langmuir model, whereas time-dependent adsorption is in line with a two-domain Langmuir model. Additionally, the chimeric peptide with the rigid linker exhibited more effective antimicrobial ability than the peptide with the flexible linker. This finding was ascribed to the ability of the rigid linker to separate functional domains and reduce their interference to the maximum extent. Consequently, the performance of chimeric peptides with specific titanium-binding motifs and antimicrobial motifs against bacteria can be optimized by the proper selection of linkers. This rational design of chimeric peptides provides a promising alternative to inhibit the formation of biofilms on titanium surfaces with the potential to prevent peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis.

  5. Specific binding of angiogenin to calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Badet, J; Soncin, F; Guitton, J D; Lamare, O; Cartwright, T; Barritault, D

    1989-11-01

    Specific binding of angiogenin (ANG) to calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells was demonstrated. Cellular binding at 4 degrees C of 125I-labeled human recombinant ANG was time and concentration dependent, reversible, and saturable in the presence of increasing amounts of the unlabeled molecules. The interaction was shown to be specific since a large excess of unlabeled ANG reduced labeled ANG binding by 80%, whereas similar doses of RNase A, a structurally related protein, had no effect. Scatchard analyses of binding data revealed two apparent components. High-affinity sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5 x 10(-9) M were shown to represent cell-specific interactions. The second component, comprising low-affinity/high-capacity sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.2 x 10(-6) M, was essentially associated with pericellular components. High-affinity ANG binding sites varied with cell density and were found on other endothelial cells from bovine aorta, cornea, and adrenal cortex capillary but not on Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Divalent copper, a modulator of angiogenesis, was found to induce a severalfold increase in specific cell-bound radioactivity. Placental ribonuclease inhibitor, a tight-binding inhibitor of both ribonucleolytic and angiogenic activities of ANG, abolished 125I-labeled human recombinant ANG binding only in the absence of copper.

  6. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9

    PubMed Central

    Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Tamas, Raluca; Bock, Ina; Tattermusch, Anna; Dimitrova, Emilia; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain. By employing peptide arrays, chromatin pull-down and peptide binding assays, we show specific binding of the ADD domain to H3 histone tail peptides containing H3K9me3. Peptide binding was disrupted by the presence of the H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 modification marks indicating that the ATRX-ADD domain has a combined readout of these two important marks (absence of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and presence of H3K9me3). Disease-causing mutations reduced ATRX-ADD binding to H3 tail peptides. ATRX variants, which fail in the H3K9me3 interaction, show a loss of heterochromatic localization in cells, which indicates the chromatin targeting function of the ADD domain of ATRX. Disruption of H3K9me3 binding may be a general pathogenicity pathway of ATRX mutations in the ADD domain which may explain the clustering of disease mutations in this part of the ATRX protein. PMID:21421568

  7. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Tamas, Raluca; Bock, Ina; Tattermusch, Anna; Dimitrova, Emilia; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain. By employing peptide arrays, chromatin pull-down and peptide binding assays, we show specific binding of the ADD domain to H3 histone tail peptides containing H3K9me3. Peptide binding was disrupted by the presence of the H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 modification marks indicating that the ATRX-ADD domain has a combined readout of these two important marks (absence of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and presence of H3K9me3). Disease-causing mutations reduced ATRX-ADD binding to H3 tail peptides. ATRX variants, which fail in the H3K9me3 interaction, show a loss of heterochromatic localization in cells, which indicates the chromatin targeting function of the ADD domain of ATRX. Disruption of H3K9me3 binding may be a general pathogenicity pathway of ATRX mutations in the ADD domain which may explain the clustering of disease mutations in this part of the ATRX protein.

  8. Curvature sensing MARCKS-ED peptides bind to membranes in a stereo-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; de Jesus, Armando Jerome; Tamura, Ryo; Li, Victoria; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Hang

    2015-07-01

    Membrane curvature and lipid composition plays a critical role in interchanging of matter and energy in cells. Peptide curvature sensors are known to activate signaling pathways and promote molecular transport across cell membranes. Recently, the 25-mer MARCKS-ED peptide, which is derived from the effector domain of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate protein, has been reported to selectively recognize highly curved membrane surfaces. Our previous studies indicated that the naturally occurring L-MARCKS-ED peptide could simultaneously detect both phosphatidylserine and curvature. Here, we demonstrate that D-MARCKS-ED, composed by unnatural D-amino acids, has the same activities as its enantiomer, L-MARCKS-ED, as a curvature and lipid sensor. An atomistic molecular dynamics simulation suggests that D-MARCKS-ED may change from linear to a boat conformation upon binding to the membrane. Comparable enhancement of fluorescence intensity was observed between D- and L-MARCKS-ED peptides, indicating similar binding affinities. Meanwhile, circular dichroism spectra of D- and L-MARCKS-ED are almost symmetrical both in the presence and absence of liposomes. These results suggest similar behavior of artificial D- and natural L-MARCKS-ED peptides when binding to curved membranes. Our studies may contribute to further understanding of how MARCKS-ED senses membrane curvature as well as provide a new direction to develop novel membrane curvature probes.

  9. Hotspot autoimmune T cell receptor binding underlies pathogen and insulin peptide cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, David K.; Bulek, Anna M.; Dolton, Garry; Schauenberg, Andrea J.; Szomolay, Barbara; Trimby, Andrew; Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Fuller, Anna; Skowera, Ania; Rossjohn, Jamie; Zhu, Cheng; Miles, John J.; Wooldridge, Linda; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Sewell, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of T cells with pathogen- and self-derived peptides has been implicated as a pathway involved in the development of autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms that allow the clonal T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to functionally engage multiple peptide–major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) are unclear. Here, we studied multiligand discrimination by a human, preproinsulin reactive, MHC class-I–restricted CD8+ T cell clone (1E6) that can recognize over 1 million different peptides. We generated high-resolution structures of the 1E6 TCR bound to 7 altered peptide ligands, including a pathogen-derived peptide that was an order of magnitude more potent than the natural self-peptide. Evaluation of these structures demonstrated that binding was stabilized through a conserved lock-and-key–like minimal binding footprint that enables 1E6 TCR to tolerate vast numbers of substitutions outside of this so-called hotspot. Highly potent antigens of the 1E6 TCR engaged with a strong antipathogen-like binding affinity; this engagement was governed though an energetic switch from an enthalpically to entropically driven interaction compared with the natural autoimmune ligand. Together, these data highlight how T cell cross-reactivity with pathogen-derived antigens might break self-tolerance to induce autoimmune disease. PMID:27183389

  10. Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Chervonsky, A V; Medzhitov, R M; Denzin, L K; Barlow, A K; Rudensky, A Y; Janeway, C A

    1998-08-18

    Intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is characterized by passage through specialized endocytic compartment(s) where antigenic peptides replace invariant chain fragments in the presence of the DM protein. These changes are accompanied by structural transitions of the MHC molecules that can be visualized by formation of compact SDS-resistant dimers, by changes in binding of mAbs, and by changes in T cell responses. We have observed that a mAb (25-9-17) that is capable of staining I-Ab on the surface of normal B cells failed to interact with I-Ab complexes with a peptide derived from the Ealpha chain of the I-E molecule but bound a similar covalent complex of I-Ab with the class II binding fragment (class II-associated invariant chain peptides) of the invariant chain. Moreover, 25-9-17 blocked activation of several I-Ab-reactive T cell hybridomas but failed to block others, suggesting that numerous I-Ab-peptide complexes acquire the 25-9-17(+) or 25-9-17(-) conformation. Alloreactive T cells were also able to discriminate peptide-dependent variants of MHC class II molecules. Thus, peptides impose subtle structural transitions upon MHC class II molecules that affect T cell recognition and may thus be critical for T cell selection and autiommunity.

  11. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  12. Collagen binding specificity of the discoidin domain receptors: binding sites on collagens II and III and molecular determinants for collagen IV recognition by DDR1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifang; Raynal, Nicolas; Stathopoulos, Stavros; Myllyharju, Johanna; Farndale, Richard W; Leitinger, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2 are cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. While normal DDR signalling regulates fundamental cellular processes, aberrant DDR signalling is associated with several human diseases. We previously identified GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as a major DDR2 binding site in collagens I-III, and located two additional DDR2 binding sites in collagen II. Here we extend these studies to the homologous DDR1 and the identification of DDR binding sites on collagen III. Using sets of overlapping triple-helical peptides, the Collagen II and Collagen III Toolkits, we located several DDR2 binding sites on both collagens. The interaction of DDR1 with Toolkit peptides was more restricted, with DDR1 mainly binding to peptides containing the GVMGFO motif. Triple-helical peptides containing the GVMGFO motif induced DDR1 transmembrane signalling, and DDR1 binding and receptor activation occurred with the same amino acid requirements as previously defined for DDR2. While both DDRs exhibit the same specificity for binding the GVMGFO motif, which is present only in fibrillar collagens, the two receptors display distinct preferences for certain non-fibrillar collagens, with the basement membrane collagen IV being exclusively recognised by DDR1. Based on our recent crystal structure of a DDR2-collagen complex, we designed mutations to identify the molecular determinants for DDR1 binding to collagen IV. By replacing five amino acids in DDR2 with the corresponding DDR1 residues we were able to create a DDR2 construct that could function as a collagen IV receptor.

  13. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Loisy, Fabienne; Atmar, Robert L.; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue. PMID:16707048

  14. Intranasal Delivery of NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Prevents Memory Loss in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rangasamy, Suresh B.; Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Modi, Khushbu K.; Bennett, David A.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Ghosh, Sankar; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is available to halt its progression. We found that NF-κB was activated within the hippocampus and cortex of AD subjects and that activated forms of NF-κB negatively correlated with cognitive function monitored by Mini-Mental State Examination and global cognitive z score. Accordingly, NF-κB activation was also observed in the hippocampus of a transgenic (5XFAD) mouse model of AD. It has been shown that peptides corresponding to the NF-κB essential modifier (NEMO)-binding domain (NBD) of IκB kinase α (IKKα) or IκB kinase β (IKKβ) specifically inhibit the induction of NF-κB activation without inhibiting the basal NF-κB activity. Interestingly, after intranasal administration, wild-type NBD peptide entered into the hippocampus, reduced hippocampal activation of NF-κB, suppressed hippocampal microglial activation, lowered the burden of Aβ in the hippocampus, attenuated apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, protected plasticity-related molecules, and improved memory and learning in 5XFAD mice. Mutated NBD peptide had no such protective effect, indicating the specificity of our finding. These results suggest that selective targeting of NF-κB activation by intranasal administration of NBD peptide may be of therapeutic benefit for AD patients. PMID:26401561

  15. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  16. Calcium-binding capacity of wheat germ protein hydrolysate and characterization of Peptide-calcium complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Ru; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zheng-Xing

    2013-08-07

    This study investigates the ability of various wheat germ protein hydrolysates (WGPHs) to bind calcium and characterizes the peptide-calcium complexes. We demonstrate that the amount of Ca bound depended greatly on the type of enzyme, degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, and molecular mass distribution of different hydrolysates. The maximum level of Ca bound (67.5 mg·g(-1)) occurred when Alcalase was used to hydrolyze wheat germ protein at a DH of 21.5%. Peptide fragments exhibiting high calcium-binding capacity had molecular mass <2000 Da. The calcium-binding peptides mainly consisted of Glu, Arg, Asp, and Gly, and the level of Ca bound was related to the hydrophobic amino acid content in WGPHs. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that amino nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms on the carboxyl group were involved in complexation. Therefore, wheat germ protein is a promising protein source for the production of calcium-binding peptides and could be utilized as a bioactive ingredient for nutraceutical food production.

  17. PEPTIDE BINDING AS A MODE OF ACTION FOR THE CARCINOGENICITY AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure leads to tumors in human skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Three likely initial stages of arsenical-macromolecular interaction are (1) binding of trivalent arsenicals to the sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, (2) arsenical-induced generation...

  18. CD44v6-Peptide Functionalized Nanoparticles Selectively Bind to Metastatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxian; Schmitt, Mark; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Orian-Rousseau, Veronique; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-01-01

    CD44v6 peptide functionalized nanoparticles are fabricated in a facile and controllable way to selectively bind to CD44v6 positive tumor cells with highly efficient anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The reported modular synthesis and facile preparation makes this system highly potent for developing novel multifunctional nanocarriers for therapeutic and/or diagnostic anticancer applications.

  19. Determinants of chymotrypsin C cleavage specificity in the calcium binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The pancreatic serine protease chymotrypsin C (CTRC) cleaves the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in the calcium binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen and thereby promotes its degradation. This serves as a protective mechanism against ectopic trypsinogen activation in the pancreas. In the present study we demonstrate that cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond by CTRC is highly specific and other human pancreatic chymotrypsins (CTRB1, CTRB2, CTRL1) and elastases (ELA2A, ELA3A, ELA3B) do not catalyze this reaction. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for CTRC specificity, we surveyed the primary (P1) cleavage preference of these pancreatic proteases on peptide substrates. We found that CTRC cleaved after a P1 Leu with at least 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency than other enzymes tested. To assess extended subsite interactions, we introduced Ala-mutations into human cationic trypsinogen at the P3, P1' P3' and P4' amino-acid positions, where P1-P1' corresponds to Leu81-Glu82. Interestingly, CTRC mediated cleavage was stimulated 3-fold by mutation E82A and unaffected by mutations E79A and N84A, but all three mutations compromised specificity and resulted in increased cleavage by ELA2A. Mutation E85A decreased CTRC cleavage by 2-fold. Remarkably, other chymotrypsins and elastases did not cleave human cationic trypsinogen even with the L81F or L81A mutations, which introduced favorable P1 residues for these enzymes. We conclude that specific cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in human cationic trypsinogen by CTRC is primarily determined by its distinctively high activity on leucyl peptide bonds, whereas the P1' Glu82, P3' Asn84 and P4' Glu85 residues serve as additional specificity determinants. PMID:23035638

  20. Bivalent cation binding effect on formation of the peptide bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Rode, Bernd Michael

    2000-01-01

    The reactions between formic acid (or glycine) and ammonia, without and with Mg 2+, Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ cations as catalysts, have been studied as model reactions for peptide bond formation using the Becke3LYP functional and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set of DFT theory. Enthalpies and free energies for the stationary points of each reaction have been calculated to determine the thermodynamics of reactions investigated. A substantial decrease in reaction enthalpies and free energies was found for formic acid-ammonia and glycine-ammonia reactions catalysed by Mg 2+, Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ ions compared with those of the uncatalysed amide bond formation. The catalytic effect of the transition metal ions Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ is of similar strength and more pronounced than that of the Mg 2+ cation.

  1. Preorganized Peptide Scaffolds as Mimics of Phosphorylated Proteins Binding Sites with a High Affinity for Uranyl.

    PubMed

    Starck, Matthieu; Sisommay, Nathalie; Laporte, Fanny A; Oros, Stéphane; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2015-12-07

    Cyclic peptides with two phosphoserines and two glutamic acids were developed to mimic high-affinity binding sites for uranyl found in proteins such as osteopontin, which is believed to be a privileged target of this ion in vivo. These peptides adopt a β-sheet structure that allows the coordination of the latter amino acid side chains in the equatorial plane of the dioxo uranyl cation. Complementary spectroscopic and analytical methods revealed that these cyclic peptides are efficient uranyl chelating peptides with a large contribution from the phosphorylated residues. The conditional affinity constants were measured by following fluorescence tryptophan quenching and are larger than 10(10) at physiological pH. These compounds are therefore promising models for understanding uranyl chelation by proteins, which is relevant to this actinide ion toxicity.

  2. Small Retinoprotective Peptides Reveal a Receptor-binding Region on Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Kenealey, Jason; Subramanian, Preeti; Comitato, Antonella; Bullock, Jeanee; Keehan, Laura; Polato, Federica; Hoover, David; Marigo, Valeria; Becerra, S. Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) require interactions between an as of a yet undefined region with a distinct ectodomain on the PEDF receptor (PEDF-R). Here we characterized the area in PEDF that interacts with PEDF-R to promote photoreceptor survival. Molecular docking studies suggested that the ligand binding site of PEDF-R interacts with the neurotrophic region of PEDF (44-mer, positions 78–121). Binding assays demonstrated that PEDF-R bound the 44-mer peptide. Moreover, peptide P1 from the PEDF-R ectodomain had affinity for the 44-mer and a shorter fragment within it, 17-mer (positions 98–114). Single residue substitutions to alanine along the 17-mer sequence were designed and tested for binding and biological activity. Altered 17-mer[R99A] did not bind to the P1 peptide, whereas 17-mer[H105A] had higher affinity than the unmodified 17-mer. Peptides 17-mer, 17-mer[H105A], and 44-mer exhibited cytoprotective effects in cultured retina R28 cells. Intravitreal injections of these peptides and PEDF in the rd1 mouse model of retinal degeneration decreased the numbers of dying photoreceptors, 17-mer[H105A] being most effective. The blocking peptide P1 hindered their protective effects both in retina cells and in vivo. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that the region composed of positions 98–114 of PEDF contains critical residues for PEDF-R interaction that mediates survival effects, the findings reveal distinct small PEDF fragments with neurotrophic effects on photoreceptors. PMID:26304116

  3. Discovery of peptidic miR-21 processing inhibitor by mirror image phage display: A novel method to generate RNA binding D-peptides.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Otake, Kentaro; Umemoto, Tadashi

    2017-02-15

    A novel method to generate RNA binding D-peptide has been developed. To achieve the screening method, phage display was applied to "Mirrored" RNA (L-enantiomer of RNA). We have selected pre-miR21 as an initial screening target to demonstrate the method. The mirrored pre-miR-21 binding peptide sequences were successfully obtained, and were chemically synthesized using D-amino acids. D-peptide is expected to have favorable properties as a drug candidate such as protease resistance and low immunogenicity. As a result of binding evaluation of the D-peptide to pre-miR-21, the EC50 value was 440nM. In addition, the D-peptide possessed inhibition activity to miR-21 processing.

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  5. Truncated and Helix-Constrained Peptides with High Affinity and Specificity for the cFos Coiled-Coil of AP-1

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Tara; Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Hill, Timothy A.; Hoang, Huy N.; Fairlie, David P.; Mason, Jody M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-based therapeutics feature large interacting surfaces. Protein folding endows structural stability to localised surface epitopes, imparting high affinity and target specificity upon interactions with binding partners. However, short synthetic peptides with sequences corresponding to such protein epitopes are unstructured in water and promiscuously bind to proteins with low affinity and specificity. Here we combine structural stability and target specificity of proteins, with low cost and rapid synthesis of small molecules, towards meeting the significant challenge of binding coiled coil proteins in transcriptional regulation. By iteratively truncating a Jun-based peptide from 37 to 22 residues, strategically incorporating i→i+4 helix-inducing constraints, and positioning unnatural amino acids, we have produced short, water-stable, α-helical peptides that bind cFos. A three-dimensional NMR-derived structure for one peptide (24) confirmed a highly stable α-helix which was resistant to proteolytic degradation in serum. These short structured peptides are entropically pre-organized for binding with high affinity and specificity to cFos, a key component of the oncogenic transcriptional regulator Activator Protein-1 (AP-1). They competitively antagonized the cJun–cFos coiled-coil interaction. Truncating a Jun-based peptide from 37 to 22 residues decreased the binding enthalpy for cJun by ∼9 kcal/mol, but this was compensated by increased conformational entropy (TΔS ≤7.5 kcal/mol). This study demonstrates that rational design of short peptides constrained by α-helical cyclic pentapeptide modules is able to retain parental high helicity, as well as high affinity and specificity for cFos. These are important steps towards small antagonists of the cJun-cFos interaction that mediates gene transcription in cancer and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23544065

  6. Rapid Generation of a Nanocrystal-Labeled Peptide Library for Specific Identification of the Bacterium Clostrium Botulinum

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, J B

    2004-11-11

    Several peptide libraries containing up to 2 million unique peptide ligands have been synthesized. The peptides are attached onto a 80 micron resin and the length of these peptide ligands ranges from 5 to 9 amino acid residues. Using a novel calorimetric assay, the libraries were screened for binding to the ganglioside-binding domain of Clostridium Tetanus Toxin, a structural similar analog of the Clostridium Botulinum toxin. Several binding peptide sequences were identified, in which the detailed binding kinetics are currently underway using the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique.

  7. Homology modelling of frequent HLA class-II alleles: A perspective to improve prediction of HLA binding peptide and understand the HLA associated disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Manju; Farooq, Umar; Jaiswal, Varun

    2016-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays significant role via the regulation of immune system and contribute in the progression and protection of many diseases. HLA molecules bind and present peptides to T- cell receptors which generate the immune response. HLA peptide interaction and molecular function of HLA molecule is the key to predict peptide binding and understanding its role in different diseases. The availability of accurate three dimensional (3D) structures is the initial step towards this direction. In the present work, homology modelling of important and frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles (07:01, 11:01 and 09:01) was done and acceptable models were generated. These modelled alleles were further refined and cross validated by using several methods including Ramachandran plot, Z-score, ERRAT analysis and root mean square deviation (RMSD) calculations. It is known that numbers of allelic variants are related to the susceptibility or protection of various infectious diseases. Difference in amino acid sequences and structures of alleles were also studied to understand the association of HLA with disease susceptibility and protection. Susceptible alleles showed more amino acid variations than protective alleles in three selected diseases caused by different pathogens. Amino acid variations at binding site were found to be more than other part of alleles. RMSD values were also higher at variable positions within binding site. Higher RMSD values indicate that mutations occurring at peptide binding site alter protein structure more than rest of the protein. Hence, these findings and modelled structures can be used to design HLA-DRB1 binding peptides to overcome low prediction accuracy of HLA class II binding peptides. Furthermore, it may help to understand the allele specific molecular mechanisms involved in susceptibility/resistance against pathogenic diseases.

  8. Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2009-03-31

    Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

  9. Arthritogenic peptide binding to DRB1*01 alleles correlates with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Roark, Christina L; Anderson, Kirsten M; Aubrey, Michael T; Rosloniec, Edward F; Freed, Brian M

    Genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often defined by the presence of a shared epitope (QKRAA, QRRAA, or RRRAA) at positions 70-74 in HLA-DRβ1. However, DRβ1*01:01 and 01:02 contain the same QRRAA epitope, but differ considerably in their susceptibility to RA. The purpose of this study was to determine if this difference could be explained by their ability to bind three arthritogenic peptides that we have previously shown to bind to the archetypal RA-susceptible allele, DRβ1*04:01, but not to the resistant DRβ1*08:01 allele. Binding of type II collagen(258-272), citrullinated and native vimentin(66-78), and citrullinated and native α-enolase(11-25) were measured on cell lines expressing either DRβ1*01:01, *01:02 or *01:03 in association with DRα1*01:01. DRβ1*01:01 and *01:02 both exhibited a 6.5-fold preference for citrullinated vimentin(66-78) compared to native vimentin. However, DRβ1*01:01 also exhibited a 1.7-fold preference for citrullinated α-enolase(11-25) and bound collagen(258-272), while DRβ1*01:02 bound neither of these peptides. Consistent with its known resistance to RA, DRβ1*01:03 preferentially bound native vimentin(66-78) and α-enolase(11-25) over the citrullinated forms of these peptides, and also failed to bind collagen(258-272). Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to determine which amino acid residues were responsible for the differences between these alleles. Mutating position 86 in DRβ1*01:01 from glycine to the valine residue found in DRβ1*01:02 eliminated binding of both citrullinated α-enolase(11-25) and collagen(258-272), thereby recapitulating the peptide-binding profile of DRβ1*01:02. The difference in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis between DRβ1*01:01 and *01:02 thus correlates with the effect of position 86 on the binding of these arthritogenic peptides. Consistent with their association with RA resistance, positions I67, D70 and E71 all contributed to the inability of DRβ1*01:03 to bind

  10. Functional interactions between polypyrimidine tract binding protein and PRI peptide ligand containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel B; Ascher, David B; Gooding, Clare; Lang, Emma; Maude, Hannah; Turner, David; Llorian, Miriam; Pires, Douglas E V; Attig, Jan; Smith, Christopher W J

    2016-08-15

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that plays roles in most stages of the life-cycle of pre-mRNA and mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PTBP1 has four RNA binding domains of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family, each of which can bind to pyrimidine motifs. In addition, RRM2 can interact via its dorsal surface with proteins containing short peptide ligands known as PTB RRM2 interacting (PRI) motifs, originally found in the protein Raver1. Here we review our recent progress in understanding the interactions of PTB with RNA and with various proteins containing PRI ligands.

  11. Docking studies of nickel-peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitors: exploring the new binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Datong; Wang, Jianwu; Cai, Zhengting; Xu, Weiren

    2006-06-20

    The binding modes of a series of known activity inhibitors docking to Peptide deformylase (PDF) have been studied using molecular docking software AutoDock3.0.5. In this study, good correlation (R(2)=0.894) between calculated binding energies and experimental inhibitory activities is obtained. We find that some shallow pockets near the known active pocket are very important which can accommodate the side-chains of the inhibitor. Moreover, a new binding pocket is also explored. All these may provide something useful for designing the potent inhibitors.

  12. Thermodynamic Study of Interactions Between ZnO and ZnO Binding Peptides Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Limo, Marion J; Perry, Carole C

    2015-06-23

    While material-specific peptide binding sequences have been identified using a combination of combinatorial methods and computational modeling tools, a deep molecular level understanding of the fundamental principles through which these interactions occur and in some instances modify the morphology of inorganic materials is far from being fully realized. Understanding the thermodynamic changes that occur during peptide-inorganic interactions and correlating these to structural modifications of the inorganic materials could be the key to achieving and mastering control over material formation processes. This study is a detailed investigation applying isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to directly probe thermodynamic changes that occur during interaction of ZnO binding peptides (ZnO-BPs) and ZnO. The ZnO-BPs used are reported sequences G-12 (GLHVMHKVAPPR), GT-16 (GLHVMHKVAPPR-GGGC), and alanine mutants of G-12 (G-12A6, G-12A11, and G-12A12) whose interaction with ZnO during solution synthesis studies have been extensively investigated. The interactions of the ZnO-BPs with ZnO yielded biphasic isotherms comprising both an endothermic and an exothermic event. Qualitative differences were observed in the isothermal profiles of the different peptides and ZnO particles studied. Measured ΔG values were between -6 and -8.5 kcal/mol, and high adsorption affinity values indicated the occurrence of favorable ZnO-BP-ZnO interactions. ITC has great potential in its use to understand peptide-inorganic interactions, and with continued development, the knowledge gained may be instrumental for simplification of selection processes of organic molecules for the advancement of material synthesis and design.

  13. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-01-01

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner. PMID:27225672

  14. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-05-26

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner.

  15. Ubiquitin binds to a short peptide segment of hydrolase UCH-L3: a study by FCS, RIfS, ITC and NMR.

    PubMed

    Roth, Günter; Freund, Stefan; Möhrle, Bernd; Wöllner, Karin; Brünjes, Jente; Gauglitz, Günter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Jung, Günther

    2007-02-12

    Screening for small peptidic affinity tags for the detection of ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins yielded the dodecapeptide amide DPDELRFNAIAL-NH(2) as a specific ubiquitin-interacting ligand. A peptide collection--based on crystal structures with ubiquitin-interacting proteins--was designed and confirmed by sequence comparison of ubiquitin-interacting motifs. Four independent physical detection methods demonstrated that the peptide binds to monomeric ubiquitin with an affinity of about 10 muM and with fast on and off rates. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with fluorescent peptides showed specific interaction with ubiquitin. Reflectometric interference spectroscopy with surface-immobilized peptides and isothermal calorimetry measurements confirmed the specific binding of ubiquitin and fast rate constants. (1)H,(15)N heteronuclear NMR localised the interaction site across the beta sheet of ubiquitin. The peptide aligns well with the ubiquitin-interacting motif and represents a lead structure for the rational design of high-affinity tags for targeting ubiquitinated protein in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides bind to common receptors in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, R A; Frank, H J; Levin, E; Pedram, A

    1991-08-01

    The recent discovery of brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) that stimulates natriuresis, diuresis, and vascular smooth muscle relaxation in a manner similar to that of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) suggests the possibility that these endocrine hormones function via some common mechanism. Indirect evidence from several laboratories suggests that BNP and ANP may bind to the same receptors. We examined whether ANP and BNP bind to a common set of receptors in cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells and in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Scatchard plot analysis of binding data shows a similar dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 0.3 nM and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 50 fmol/mg protein for both natriuretic peptides in brain capillary cells and 0.6 nM and 80 fmol/mg protein, respectively, in the aortic endothelial cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the affinity cross-linked receptor-ligand complex shows a strongly labeled 65-kDa receptor and a 125-kDa band that is likely to be a receptor of the guanylate cyclase type. ANP and BNP cross compete equally for binding to the two receptors identified on the gels. ANP and BNP also stimulate guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate production in these cells, consistent with the presence of a functional guanylate cyclase-linked B receptor. We conclude that ANP and BNP share common receptors in brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells.

  17. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  18. LINC Complexes Form by Binding of Three KASH Peptides to Domain Interfaces of Trimeric SUN Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa, Brian A.; Rothballer, Andrea; Kutay, Ulrike; Schwartz, Thomas U.

    2012-08-31

    Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes span the nuclear envelope and are composed of KASH and SUN proteins residing in the outer and inner nuclear membrane, respectively. LINC formation relies on direct binding of KASH and SUN in the perinuclear space. Thereby, molecular tethers are formed that can transmit forces for chromosome movements, nuclear migration, and anchorage. We present crystal structures of the human SUN2-KASH1/2 complex, the core of the LINC complex. The SUN2 domain is rigidly attached to a trimeric coiled coil that prepositions it to bind three KASH peptides. The peptides bind in three deep and expansive grooves formed between adjacent SUN domains, effectively acting as molecular glue. In addition, a disulfide between conserved cysteines on SUN and KASH covalently links both proteins. The structure provides the basis of LINC complex formation and suggests a model for how LINC complexes might arrange into higher-order clusters to enhance force-coupling.

  19. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-08-08

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor.

  20. Identification and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-binding peptides (PDMS-tag) for oriented immobilization of functional protein on a PDMS surface.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Yoichi; Otsuki, Ryoko; Sakoda, Yumiko; Akai, Ryota; Matoba, Kazutaka; Katayama, Junko; Kishimoto, Michimasa; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-10-20

    In this study we focused on identifying and characterizing polydimethylsiloxane-binding peptides (PDMS-tags) that show a strong binding affinity towards a PDMS surface. Three kinds of E. coli host proteins (ELN, OMC and TPA) that were preferentially adsorbed onto a PDMS surface were identified from the E. coli cell lysate via 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI TOF MS. Digestion of these PDMS-binding proteins by 3 types of proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin and V8 protease) resulted in the production of a wide variety of peptide fragments with different amino acid biases. Nine types of peptide fragments showing binding affinities to a PDMS surface were identified, and they were genetically fused at the C-terminal region of glutathione S-transferase (GST). The adsorption kinetics of peptide-fused GSTs to a PDMS surface were evaluated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor equipped with a sensor chip coated with a PDMS thin film. Consequently, all GSTs fused with the peptides adsorbed at a level higher than that of wild-type GST. In particular, the adsorption levels of GSTs fused with ELN-V81, TPA-V81, and OMC-V81 peptides were 8- to 10-fold higher than that of the wild-type GST. These results indicated that the selected peptides possessed a strong binding affinity towards a PDMS surface even in cases where they were introduced to the C-terminal region of a model protein. The remaining activities of GSTs with PDMS-binding peptides were also greater than that of the wild-type GST. Almost a third (30%) of enzymatic activity was maintained by genetic fusion of the peptide ELN-V81, compared with only 1.5% of wild-type GST in the adsorption state. Thus, the PDMS-binding peptides (PDMS-tags) identified in this study will be considerably useful for the site-specific immobilization of functional proteins to a PDMS surface, which will be a powerful tool in the fabrication of protein-based micro-reactors and biosearation chips.

  1. DNA minor groove binding of cross-linked lexitropsins: experimental conditions required to observe the covalently linked WPPW (groove wall-peptide-peptide-groove wall) motif.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y H; Lown, J W

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of binding interactions between covalently cross-linked lexitropsins and DNA is undertaken, in which a novel cyclic symmetric 2:2 dimeric lexitropsin-DNA-binding model is proposed. Applicability of commonly used techniques including NMR, quantitative footprinting, CD, and ethidium fluorometry to differentiate the covalently linked WPPW (groove Wall-Peptide-Peptide-groove Wall) from a 2:2 cross-linked lexitropsin-DNA duplex structure is examined. PMID:7612846

  2. The myeloid-binding peptide adenoviral vector enables multi-organ vascular endothelial gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi Hong; Kaliberov, Sergey; Zhang, Jingzhu; Muz, Barbara; Azab, Abdel K; Sohn, Rebecca E; Kaliberova, Lyudmila; Du, Yingqiu; Curiel, David T; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are ideal gene therapy targets as they provide widespread tissue access and are the first contact surfaces following intravenous vector administration. Human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most frequently used gene transfer system because of its appreciable transgene payload capacity and lack of somatic mutation risk. However, standard Ad5 vectors predominantly transduce liver but not the vasculature following intravenous administration. We recently developed an Ad5 vector with a myeloid cell-binding peptide (MBP) incorporated into the knob-deleted, T4 fibritin chimeric fiber (Ad.MBP). This vector was shown to transduce pulmonary ECs presumably via a vector handoff mechanism. Here we tested the body-wide tropism of the Ad.MBP vector, its myeloid cell necessity, and vector-EC expression dose response. Using comprehensive multi-organ co-immunofluorescence analysis, we discovered that Ad.MBP produced widespread EC transduction in the lung, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, pancreas, small bowel, and brain. Surprisingly, Ad.MBP retained hepatocyte tropism albeit at a reduced frequency compared with the standard Ad5. While binding specifically to myeloid cells ex vivo, multi-organ Ad.MBP expression was not dependent on circulating monocytes or macrophages. Ad.MBP dose de-escalation maintained full lung-targeting capacity but drastically reduced transgene expression in other organs. Swapping the EC-specific ROBO4 for the CMV promoter/enhancer abrogated hepatocyte expression but also reduced gene expression in other organs. Collectively, our multilevel targeting strategy could enable therapeutic biological production in previously inaccessible organs that pertain to the most debilitating or lethal human diseases.

  3. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models.

    PubMed

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-05-06

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers.

  4. Predicting DNA-Binding Specificities of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Adrian; Eichner, Johannes; Supper, Jochen; Eichner, Jonas; Wanke, Dierk; Henneges, Carsten; Zell, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Today, annotated amino acid sequences of more and more transcription factors (TFs) are readily available. Quantitative information about their DNA-binding specificities, however, are hard to obtain. Position frequency matrices (PFMs), the most widely used models to represent binding specificities, are experimentally characterized only for a small fraction of all TFs. Even for some of the most intensively studied eukaryotic organisms (i.e., human, rat and mouse), roughly one-sixth of all proteins with annotated DNA-binding domain have been characterized experimentally. Here, we present a new method based on support vector regression for predicting quantitative DNA-binding specificities of TFs in different eukaryotic species. This approach estimates a quantitative measure for the PFM similarity of two proteins, based on various features derived from their protein sequences. The method is trained and tested on a dataset containing 1 239 TFs with known DNA-binding specificity, and used to predict specific DNA target motifs for 645 TFs with high accuracy. PMID:21152420

  5. The common equine class I molecule Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and T cell epitope repertoires.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Tobias; Moore, Carrie; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca; Harman, Rebecca M; Oseroff, Carla; Wriston, Amanda; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Antczak, Douglas F; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I allele Eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of Thoroughbred horses. We determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. Subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (PSCL) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. Using this motif, we selected and tested 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) proteome for their capacity to bind Eqca-1*00101. PSCL predictions were very efficient, with an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance of 0.877, and 87 peptides derived from 40 different EHV-1 proteins were identified with affinities of 500 nM or higher. Quantitative analysis revealed that Eqca-1*00101 has a narrow peptide-binding repertoire, in comparison to those of most human, non-human primate, and mouse class I alleles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six EHV-1-infected, or vaccinated but uninfected, Eqca-1*00101-positive horses were used in IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. When we screened the 87 Eqca-1*00101-binding peptides for T cell reactivity, only one Eqca-1*00101 epitope, derived from the intermediate-early protein ICP4, was identified. Thus, despite its common occurrence in several horse breeds, Eqca-1*00101 is associated with a narrow binding repertoire and a similarly narrow T cell response to an important equine viral pathogen. Intriguingly, these features are shared with other human and macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with a similar specificity for D in position 2 or 3 in their main anchor motif.

  6. The common equine class I molecule Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and T cell epitope repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Tobias; Moore, Carrie; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca; Harman, Rebecca M.; Oseroff, Carla; Wriston, Amanda; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Antczak, Douglas F.; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I allele Eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of Thoroughbred horses. We determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. Subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (PSCL) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. Using this motif, we selected and tested 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) proteome for their capacity to bind Eqca-1*00101. PSCL predictions were very efficient, with an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance of 0.877, and 87 peptides derived from 40 different EHV-1 proteins were identified with affinities of 500 nM or higher. Quantitative analysis revealed that Eqca-1*00101 has a narrow peptide-binding repertoire, in comparison to those of most human, non-human primate, and mouse class I alleles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six EHV-1-infected, or vaccinated but uninfected, Eqca-1*00101-positive horses were used in IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. When we screened the 87 Eqca-1*00101-binding peptides for T cell reactivity, only one Eqca-1*00101 epitope, derived from the intermediate-early protein ICP4, was identified. Thus, despite its common occurrence in several horse breeds, Eqca-1*00101 is associated with a narrow binding repertoire and a similarly narrow T cell response to an important equine viral pathogen. Intriguingly, these features are shared with other human and macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with a similar specificity for D in position 2 or 3 in their main anchor motif. PMID:26399241

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of copper(I) binding to apo and metal-reconstituted zinc finger peptides.

    PubMed

    Doku, Reginald T; Park, Grace; Wheeler, Korin E; Splan, Kathryn E

    2013-08-01

    Cu(I) exhibits high affinity for thiolate ligands, suggesting that thiol-rich zinc or iron binding sites may be subject to disruption during copper stress conditions. Zinc fingers constitute a large class of metalloproteins that use a combination of cysteine and histidine residues that bind Zn(II) as a structural element. Despite the shared preference of both copper and zinc for thiolate and amine coordination, the susceptibility of zinc finger domains toward copper substitution is not well studied. We report spectroscopic studies that characterize the Cu(I) binding properties of the zinc finger consensus peptides CP-CCHH, CP-CCHC, and CP-CCCC and the C-terminal zinc finger domain of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein p7 (NCp7_C). Cu(I) binds to both the apopeptides and the Co(II)-substituted peptides, and the stoichiometry of Cu(I) binding is dependent on the number of cysteine thiols at the metal binding site. Fluorescence studies of the Zn(II)-NCp7_C complex indicate that Cu(I) also effectively competes with Zn(II) at the metal binding site, despite the high affinity of Zn(II) for the CCHC binding motif. Circular dichroism studies on both CP-CCHC and NCp7_C show that the conformations of the Cu(I)-bound complexes differ substantially from those of the Zn(II) species, implying that Cu(I) substitution is likely to impact zinc finger function. These results show that for the peptides studied here, Cu(I) is the thermodynamically favored metal despite the known high Zn(II) affinity of zinc finger domains, suggesting that Cu(I)-substituted zinc finger domains might be relevant in the context of both copper toxicity mechanisms and copper-responsive transcription factors.

  8. Non-DNA-binding cofactors enhance DNA-binding specificity of a transcriptional regulatory complex

    PubMed Central

    Siggers, Trevor; Duyzend, Michael H; Reddy, Jessica; Khan, Sidra; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of cofactors to specific DNA sites is integral for specificity in gene regulation. As a model system, we examined how targeting and transcriptional control of the sulfur metabolism genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is governed by recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Met4. We developed genome-scale approaches to measure transcription factor (TF) DNA-binding affinities and cofactor recruitment to >1300 genomic binding site sequences. We report that genes responding to the TF Cbf1 and cofactor Met28 contain a novel ‘recruitment motif' (RYAAT), adjacent to Cbf1 binding sites, which enhances the binding of a Met4–Met28–Cbf1 regulatory complex, and that abrogation of this motif significantly reduces gene induction under low-sulfur conditions. Furthermore, we show that correct recognition of this composite motif requires both non-DNA-binding cofactors Met4 and Met28. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of an RYAAT motif next to a Cbf1 site, rather than Cbf1 binding affinity, specifies Cbf1-dependent sulfur metabolism genes. Our results highlight the need to examine TF/cofactor complexes, as novel specificity can result from cofactors that lack intrinsic DNA-binding specificity. PMID:22146299

  9. Structural Stability and Binding Strength of a Designed Peptide-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Roxbury, Daniel; Zhang, Shao-Qing; Mittal, Jeetain; DeGrado, William F.; Jagota, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Biological polymers hybridized with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have elicited much interest recently for applications in SWCNT-based sorting as well as biomedical imaging, sensing, and drug delivery. Recently, de novo designed peptides forming a coiled-coil structure have been engineered to selectively disperse SWCNT of a certain diameter. Here we report on a study of the binding strength and structural stability of the hybrid between such a “HexCoil-Ala” peptide and the (6,5)-SWCNT. Using the competitive binding of a surfactant, we find that affinity strength of the peptide ranks in comparison to that of two single-stranded DNA sequences as (GT)30-DNA > HexCoil-Ala > (TAT)4T-DNA. Further, using replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), we show that the hexamer peptide complex has both similarities with and differences from the original design. While one of two distinct helix-helix interfaces of the original model was largely retained, a second interface showed much greater variability. These conformational differences allowed an aromatic tyrosine residue designed to lie along the solvent-exposed surface of the protein instead to penetrate between the two helices and directly contact the SWCNT. These insights will inform future designs of SWCNT-interacting peptides. PMID:24466357

  10. Cathepsin B carboxydipeptidase specificity analysis using internally quenched fluorescent peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Cezari, Maria Helena S; Puzer, Luciano; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Carmona, Adriana K; Juliano, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    We have examined in detail the specificity of the subsites S1, S2, S1' and S2' for the carboxydipeptidase activity of cathepsin B by synthesizing and assaying four series of internally quenched fluorescent peptides based on the sequence Dnp-GFRFW-OH, where Dnp (2,4-dinitrophenyl) is the quenching group of the fluorescence of the tryptophan residue. Each position, except the glycine, was substituted with 15 different naturally occurring amino acids. Based on the results we obtained, we also synthesized efficient and sensitive substrates that contained o -aminobenzoic acid and 3-Dnp-(2,3-diaminopropionic acid), or epsilon-amino-Dnp-Lys, as the fluorescence donor-receptor pair. The higher kinetic parameter values for the carboxydipeptidase compared with the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B allowed an accurate analysis of its specificity. The subsite S1 accepted preferentially basic amino acids for hydrolysis; however, substrates with phenylalanine and aliphatic side-chain-containing amino acids at P1 had lower K m values. Despite the presence of Glu245 at S2, this subsite presented clear preference for aromatic amino acid residues, and the substrate with a lysine residue at P2 was hydrolysed better than that containing an arginine residue. S1' is essentially a hydrophobic subsite, and S2' has particular preference for phenylalanine or tryptophan residues. PMID:12201820

  11. Mutated Leguminous Lectin Containing a Heparin-Binding like Motif in a Carbohydrate-Binding Loop Specifically Binds to Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Hirohito; Soga, Keisuke; Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously introduced random mutations in the sugar-binding loops of a leguminous lectin and screened the resulting mutated lectins for novel specificities using cell surface display. Screening of a mutated peanut agglutinin (PNA), revealed a mutated PNA with a distinct preference for heparin. Glycan microarray analyses using the mutated lectin fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin, revealed that a particular sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), heparin, had the highest binding affinity for mutated PNA among 97 glycans tested, although wild-type PNA showed affinity towards Galβ1-3GalNAc and similar galactosylated glycans. Further analyses of binding specificity using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay demonstrated that the mutated PNA specifically binds to heparin, and weakly to de-2-O-sulfated heparin, but not to other GAG chains including de-6-O-sulfated and de-N-sulfated heparins. The mutated PNA had six amino acid substitutions within the eight amino acid-long sugar-binding loop. In this loop, the heparin-binding like motif comprised three arginine residues at positions 124, 128, and 129, and a histidine at position 125 was present. Substitution of each arginine or histidine residue to alanine reduced heparin-binding ability, indicating that all of these basic amino acid residues contributed to heparin binding. Inhibition assay demonstrated that heparin and dextran sulfate strongly inhibited mutated PNA binding to heparin in dose-dependent manner. The mutated PNA could distinguish between CHO cells and proteoglycan-deficient mutant cells. This is the first report establishing a novel leguminous lectin that preferentially binds to highly sulfated heparin and may provide novel GAG-binding probes to distinguish between heterogeneous GAG repeating units. PMID:26714191

  12. Tyrosine sulfation influences the chemokine binding selectivity of peptides derived from chemokine receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, John Z; Millard, Christopher J; Ludeman, Justin P; Simpson, Levi S; Clayton, Daniel J; Payne, Richard J; Widlanski, Theodore S; Stone, Martin J

    2011-03-08

    The interactions of chemokines with their G protein-coupled receptors play critical roles in the control of leukocyte trafficking in normal homeostasis and in inflammatory responses. Tyrosine sulfation is a common post-translational modification in the amino-terminal regions of chemokine receptors. However, tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptors is commonly incomplete or heterogeneous. To investigate the possibility that differential sulfation of two adjacent tyrosine residues could bias the responses of chemokine receptor CCR3 to different chemokines, we have studied the binding of three chemokines (eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26) to an N-terminal CCR3-derived peptide in each of its four possible sulfation states. Whereas the nonsulfated peptide binds to the three chemokines with approximately equal affinity, sulfation of Tyr-16 gives rise to 9-16-fold selectivity for eotaxin-1 over the other two chemokines. Subsequent sulfation of Tyr-17 contributes additively to the affinity for eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 but cooperatively to the affinity for eotaxin-3. The doubly sulfated peptide selectively binds to both eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-3 approximately 10-fold more tightly than to eotaxin-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift mapping indicates that these variations in affinity probably result from only subtle differences in the chemokine surfaces interacting with these receptor peptides. These data support the proposal that variations in sulfation states or levels may regulate the responsiveness of chemokine receptors to their cognate chemokines.

  13. Binding Site Prediction of Proteins with Organic Compounds or Peptides Using GALAXY Web Servers.

    PubMed

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Baek, Minkyung; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    We introduce two GALAXY web servers called GalaxySite and GalaxyPepDock that predict protein complex structures with small organic compounds and peptides, respectively. GalaxySite predicts ligands that may bind the input protein and generates complex structures of the protein with the predicted ligands from the protein structure given as input or predicted from the input sequence. GalaxyPepDock takes a protein structure and a peptide sequence as input and predicts structures for the protein-peptide complex. Both GalaxySite and GalaxyPepDock rely on available experimentally resolved structures of protein-ligand complexes evolutionarily related to the target. With the continuously increasing size of the protein structure database, the probability of finding related proteins in the database is increasing. The servers further relax the complex structures to refine the structural aspects that are missing in the available structures or that are not compatible with the given protein by optimizing physicochemical interactions. GalaxyPepDock allows conformational change of the protein receptor induced by peptide binding. The atomistic interactions with ligands predicted by the GALAXY servers may offer important clues for designing new molecules or proteins with desired binding properties.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-09-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared (/sup 125/I)PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of (/sup 125/I)PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of (/sup 125/I)NPY binding sites.

  15. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC(50) determination.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC(50) (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC(50) value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC(50) is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes.

  16. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  17. Prediction of binding free energy for adsorption of antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPC membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Tolokh, Igor S.; Gray, C. G.

    2008-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of a zwitterionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with POPC is used as a model system for studying the details of membrane-peptide interactions, with the peptide selected because of its antimicrobial nature. Seventy-two 3 ns MD simulations, with six orientations of LFCinB at 12 different distances from a POPC membrane, are carried out to determine the potential of mean force (PMF) or free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the PMF for this relatively large system a new variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is developed. A simplified method for relating the PMF to the LFCinB-membrane binding free energy is described and used to predict a free energy of adsorption (or binding) of -1.05±0.39kcal/mol , and corresponding maximum binding force of about 20 pN, for LFCinB-POPC. The contributions of the ions-LFCinB and the water-LFCinB interactions to the PMF are discussed. The method developed will be a useful starting point for future work simulating peptides interacting with charged membranes and interactions involved in the penetration of membranes, features necessary to understand in order to rationally design peptides as potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics.

  18. Design of Compact Biomimetic Cellulose Binding Peptides as Carriers for Cellulose Catalytic Degradation.

    PubMed

    Khazanov, Netaly; Iline-Vul, Taly; Noy, Efrat; Goobes, Gil; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2016-01-21

    The conversion of biomass into biofuels can reduce the strategic vulnerability of petroleum-based systems and at the same time have a positive effect on global climate issues. Lignocellulose is the cheapest and most abundant source of biomass and consequently has been widely considered as a source for liquid fuel. However, despite ongoing efforts, cellulosic biofuels are still far from commercial realization, one of the major bottlenecks being the hydrolysis of cellulose into simpler sugars. Inspired by the structural and functional modularity of cellulases used by many organisms for the breakdown of cellulose, we propose to mimic the cellulose binding domain (CBD) and the catalytic domain of these proteins by small molecular entities. Multiple copies of these mimics could subsequently be tethered together to enhance hydrolytic activity. In this work, we take the first step toward achieving this goal by applying computational approaches to the design of efficient, cost-effective mimetics of the CBD. The design is based on low molecular weight peptides that are amenable to large-scale production. We provide an optimized design of four short (i.e., ∼18 residues) peptide mimetics based on the three-dimensional structure of a known CBD and demonstrate that some of these peptides bind cellulose as well as or better than the full CBD. The structures of these peptides were studied by circular dichroism and their interactions with cellulose by solid phase NMR. Finally, we present a computational strategy for predicting CBD/peptide-cellulose binding free energies and demonstrate its ability to provide values in good agreement with experimental data. Using this computational model, we have also studied the dissociation pathway of the CBDs/peptides from the surface of cellulose.

  19. Inhibition of HIV-1 enhancer-controlled transcription by artificial enhancer-binding peptides derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor.

    PubMed

    Caderas, G; Klauser, S; Liu, N; Bienz, A; Gutte, B

    1999-12-01

    An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding 42-residue peptide (R42) that had been derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor inhibited the cell-free in vitro transcription of HIV-1 enhancer-containing plasmids [Hehlgans, T., Stolz, M., Klauser, S., Cui, T., Salgam, P., Brenz Verca, S., Widmann, M., Leiser, A., Städler, K. & Gutte, B. (1993) FEBS Lett. 315, 51-55; Caderas, G. (1997) PhD Thesis, University of Zürich]. Here we show that, after N-terminal extension of R42 with a viral nuclear localization signal, the resulting nucR42 peptide was active in intact cells. NucR42 could be detected immunologically in nuclear extracts and produced a 60-70% reduction of the rate of transcription of an HIV-1 enhancer-carrying plasmid in COS-1 cells that had been cotransfected with the HIV enhancer plasmid, an expression plasmid for nucR42, and a control. NucR42 was also synthesized chemically and the synthetic product characterized by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and quantitative amino acid analysis. Band shift, footprint, and in vitro transcription assays in the presence of exogenous NF-kappaBp50 indicated that the binding sites of nucR42 and NF-kappaB on the HIV enhancers overlapped and that a relatively small excess of nucR42 sufficed to displace NF-kappaBp50. Band shift and in vitro transcription experiments showed also that exchange of the 434 repressor-derived nine-residue recognition helix of nucR42 for four glycines abolished the HIV enhancer binding specificity whereas leucine zipper- or retro-leucine zipper-mediated dimerization of R42 analogues increased it suggesting the potential application of such dimeric HIV enhancer-binding peptides as intracellular inhibitors of HIV replication.

  20. Introducing folding stability into the score function for computational design of RNA-binding peptides boosts the probability of success.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xingqing; Agris, Paul F; Hall, Carol K

    2016-05-01

    A computational strategy that integrates our peptide search algorithm with atomistic molecular dynamics simulation was used to design rational peptide drugs that recognize and bind to the anticodon stem and loop domain (ASL(Lys3)) of human tRNAUUULys3 for the purpose of interrupting HIV replication. The score function of the search algorithm was improved by adding a peptide stability term weighted by an adjustable factor λ to the peptide binding free energy. The five best peptide sequences associated with five different values of λ were determined using the search algorithm and then input in atomistic simulations to examine the stability of the peptides' folded conformations and their ability to bind to ASL(Lys3). Simulation results demonstrated that setting an intermediate value of λ achieves a good balance between optimizing the peptide's binding ability and stabilizing its folded conformation during the sequence evolution process, and hence leads to optimal binding to the target ASL(Lys3). Thus, addition of a peptide stability term significantly improves the success rate for our peptide design search.

  1. Chronic Beryllium Disease: revealing the role of beryllium ion and small peptides binding to HLA-DP2.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Wu, Bohua; Stefl, Shannon; Smith, Nick; Hyde-Volpe, David; Wang, Li; Alexov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Beryllium (Be) Disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder that predominantly affects the lung. The CBD is caused by Be exposure of individuals carrying the HLA-DP2 protein of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII). While the involvement of Be in the development of CBD is obvious and the binding site and the sequence of Be and peptide binding were recently experimentally revealed [1], the interplay between induced conformational changes and the changes of the peptide binding affinity in presence of Be were not investigated. Here we carry out in silico modeling and predict the Be binding to be within the acidic pocket (Glu26, Glu68 and Glu69) present on the HLA-DP2 protein in accordance with the experimental work [1]. In addition, the modeling indicates that the Be ion binds to the HLA-DP2 before the corresponding peptide is able to bind to it. Further analysis of the MD generated trajectories reveals that in the presence of the Be ion in the binding pocket of HLA-DP2, all the different types of peptides induce very similar conformational changes, but their binding affinities are quite different. Since these conformational changes are distinctly different from the changes caused by peptides normally found in the cell in the absence of Be, it can be speculated that CBD can be caused by any peptide in presence of Be ion. However, the affinities of peptides for Be loaded HLA-DP2 were found to depend of their amino acid composition and the peptides carrying acidic group at positions 4 and 7 are among the strongest binders. Thus, it is proposed that CBD is caused by the exposure of Be of an individual carrying the HLA-DP2*0201 allele and that the binding of Be to HLA-DP2 protein alters the conformational and ionization properties of HLA-DP2 such that the binding of a peptide triggers a wrong signaling cascade.

  2. Binding of antifusion peptides with HIVgp41 from molecular dynamics simulations: quantitative correlation with experiment.

    PubMed

    Strockbine, Bentley; Rizzo, Robert C

    2007-05-15

    Peptides based on C-terminal regions of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral protein gp41 represent an important new class of antiviral therapeutics called peptide fusion inhibitors. In this study, computational methods were used to model the binding of six peptides that contain residues that pack into a conserved hydrophobic pocket on HIVgp41, an attractive target site for the development of small molecule inhibitors. Free energies of binding were computed using molecular mechanics Generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) methods from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which employed either explicit (TIP3P) or continuum Generalized Born (GB) water models and strong correlations between experimental and computational affinities were obtained in both cases. Energy decomposition of the TIP3P-MD results (r2 = 0.75) reveals that variation in experimental affinity is highly correlated with changes in intermolecular van der Waals energies (deltaE(vdw)) on both a local (residue-based, r2 = 0.94) and global (peptide-based, r2 = 0.84) scale. The results show that differential association of C-peptides with HIVgp41 is driven solely by changes within the conserved pocket supporting the hypothesis that this region is an important drug target site. Such strong agreement with experiment is notable given the large size of the ligands (34 amino-acids) relative to the small range of experimental affinities (2 kcal/mol) and demonstrates good sensitivity of this computational method for simulating peptide fusion inhibitors. Finally, inspection of simulation trajectories identified a highly populated pi-type hydrogen bond, which formed between Gln575 on the receptor and the aromatic ring of peptide ligand Phe631, which could have important implications for drug design.

  3. Hydrophobic Peptides Affect Binding of Calmodulin and Ca2+ as Explored by H/D Amide Exchange and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Justin B.; Huang, Richard Y-C.; Zhu, Mei M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular sensor protein, binds Ca2+ and interacts with various targets as part of signal transduction. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) and a high resolution PLIMSTEX (Protein-Ligand Interactions by Mass Spectrometry, Titration, and H/D Exchange) protocol, we examined five different states of calmodulin: calcium-free, calcium-loaded, and three states of calcium-loaded in the presence of either melittin, mastoparan, or skeletal myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). When CaM binds Ca2+, the extent of HDX decreased, consistent with the protein becoming stabilized upon binding. Furthermore, Ca2+-saturated calmodulin exhibits increased protection when bound to the peptides, forming high affinity complexes. The protocol reveals significant changes in EF hands 1, 3, and 4 with saturating levels of Ca2+. Titration of the protein using PLIMSTEX provides the binding affinity of Ca2+ to calmodulin within previously reported values. The affinities of calmodulin to Ca2+ increase by factors of 300 and 1000 in the presence of melittin and mastoparan, respectively. A modified PLIMSTEX protocol whereby the protein is digested to component peptides gives a region-specific titration. The titration data taken in this way show a decrease in the root mean square fit of the residuals, indicating a better fit of the data. The global H/D exchange results and those obtained in a region-specific way provide new insight into the Ca2+-binding properties of this well-studied protein. PMID:21765646

  4. The host antimicrobial peptide Bac71-35 binds to bacterial ribosomal proteins and inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, Mario; Grzela, Renata; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry; Gennaro, Renato; Mergaert, Peter; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules from innate immunity with high potential as novel anti-infective agents. Most of them inactivate bacteria through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, but others cross the membrane without damages and act inside the cells, affecting vital processes. However, little is known about their intracellular bacterial targets. Here we report that Bac71-35, a proline-rich AMP belonging to the cathelicidin family, can reach high concentrations (up to 340 μM) inside the E. coli cytoplasm. The peptide specifically and completely inhibits in vitro translation in the micromolar concentration range. Experiments of incorporation of radioactive precursors in macromolecules with E. coli cells confirmed that Bac71-35 affects specifically protein synthesis. Ribosome coprecipitation and crosslinking assays showed that the peptide interacts with ribosomes, binding to a limited subset of ribosomal proteins. Overall, these results indicate that the killing mechanism of Bac71-35 is based on a specific block of protein synthesis.

  5. Copper(II) ions and the Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide: Affinity and stoichiometry of binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõugu, Vello; Friedemann, Merlin; Tiiman, Ann; Palumaa, Peep

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid plaques is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis this deposition is an early event and primary cause of the disease, however, the mechanisms that cause this deposition remain elusive. An increasing amount of evidence shows that the interactions of biometals can contribute to the fibrillization and amyloid formation by amyloidogenic peptides. From different anions the copper ions deserve the most attention since it can contribute not only toamyloid formation but also to its toxicity due to the generation of ROS. In this thesis we focus on the affinity and stoichiometry of copper(II) binding to the Aβ molecule.

  6. Effects of water molecules on binding kinetics of peptide receptor on a piezoelectric microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui Kim, Sang; Kyoung Yoo, Yong; Chae, Myung-Sic; Yoon Kang, Ji; Song Kim, Tae; Seon Hwang, Kyo; Hoon Lee, Jeong

    2012-12-01

    The use of highly selective reversible peptide receptors is essential for cantilever-based electronic nose systems. Here, we present the effects of water molecules on the binding kinetics of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) molecules with DNT selective peptide receptors linked with a tri(ethylene glycol)-based (TEG) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in a gas phase in a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor. We observed 1.5-times faster reaction kinetics in wet conditions compared with dry conditions. In a dissociation step, distinctive differences in the recovery time were observed in wet conditions, which could be attributed to water retention efficiency of TEG-linkers for the conformation of biomolecules.

  7. Rational optimization of conformational effects induced by hydrocarbon staples in peptides and their binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lama, Dilraj; Quah, Soo T; Verma, Chandra S; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Beuerman, Roger W; Lane, David P; Brown, Christopher J

    2013-12-13

    eIF4E is frequently over-expressed in different cancers and causes increased translation of oncogenic proteins via deregulated cap-dependent translation. Inhibitors of the eIF4E:eIF4G interactions represent an approach that would normalize cap-dependent translation. Stapled peptides represent an emerging class of therapeutics that can target protein: protein interactions. We present here molecular dynamics simulations for a set of rationally designed stapled peptides in solution and in complex with eIF4E, supported with biophysical and crystallographic data. Clustering of the simulated structures revealed the favoured conformational states of the stapled peptides in their bound or free forms in solution. Identifying these populations has allowed us to design peptides with improved affinities by introducing mutations into the peptide sequence to alter their conformational distributions. These studies emphasise the effects that engineered mutations have on the conformations of free and bound peptides, and illustrate that both states must be considered in efforts to attain high affinity binding.

  8. Rational Optimization of Conformational Effects Induced By Hydrocarbon Staples in Peptides and their Binding Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Dilraj; Quah, Soo T.; Verma, Chandra S.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Beuerman, Roger W.; Lane, David P.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    eIF4E is frequently over-expressed in different cancers and causes increased translation of oncogenic proteins via deregulated cap-dependent translation. Inhibitors of the eIF4E:eIF4G interactions represent an approach that would normalize cap-dependent translation. Stapled peptides represent an emerging class of therapeutics that can target protein: protein interactions. We present here molecular dynamics simulations for a set of rationally designed stapled peptides in solution and in complex with eIF4E, supported with biophysical and crystallographic data. Clustering of the simulated structures revealed the favoured conformational states of the stapled peptides in their bound or free forms in solution. Identifying these populations has allowed us to design peptides with improved affinities by introducing mutations into the peptide sequence to alter their conformational distributions. These studies emphasise the effects that engineered mutations have on the conformations of free and bound peptides, and illustrate that both states must be considered in efforts to attain high affinity binding.

  9. Bifunctional designed peptides induce mineralization and binding to TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Anna; Rapaport, Hanna

    2014-04-29

    A limitation of titanium implants is the rather poor bonding between the metal and the surrounding tissue. In this research, we aimed at developing functional peptides in the form of monomolecular coatings intended to improve adhesion between the native oxide of the metal (TiO2) and the calcium-phosphate mineralization layer with which it is in contact. Accordingly, a bifunctional peptide with a β-strand motif assumed to strongly bind to the oxide through two phosphorylated serine residues, both situated on the same face of the strand, was designed. The β-strand motif was extended by a mineralization "tail" composed of consecutive acidic amino acids capable of adsorbing calcium ions. This peptide was studied together with two additional control peptides, one serving to elucidate the role of the β-strand in stabilizing bonding with the oxide and the other demonstrating the ability of the tail to induce mineralization. The strong adsorption of the three peptides to the oxide surface was revealed by HPLC. That peptide presenting the mineralization tail showed the highest levels of adsorbed calcium and phosphate ions, as well as the largest area of cellular adherence, demonstrating its potential advantages for use with titanium implants in bone tissue.

  10. In vitro proliferative responses and antibody titers specific to human acetylcholine receptor synthetic peptides in patients with myasthenia gravis and relation to HLA class II genes.

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, S; Brautbar, C; Steinman, L; Abramsky, O; Rothbard, J; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S; Mozes, E

    1988-01-01

    To investigate which parts of the acetylcholine receptor are involved in the initiation and development of myasthenia gravis (MG), peptides representing different sequences of the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit were synthesized. These peptides were tested for their ability to stimulate T cells of myasthenic patients and healthy control patients in proliferation assays and to bind to sera antibodies. Three of eight peptides discriminated significantly between the two groups in the proliferation assay, as well as in their ability to bind to serum antibodies. HLA-DR3 and DR5 were associated with proliferative responses to specific AChR peptides in the group of myasthenics. Acetylcholine receptor epitopes that might play a specific role in myasthenia gravis thus were demonstrated. PMID:2461962

  11. Modeling the Interaction between Integrin-Binding Peptide (RGD) and Rutile Surface: The Effect of Na+ on Peptide Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chunya; Skelton, Adam; Chen, Mingjun; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of a single tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adsorbing onto negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution was studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the adsorbed Na{sup +} ions play an important role in determining the binding geometry of RGD. With an initial 'horseshoe' configuration, the charged side groups (COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}) of the peptide are able to interact with the surface through direct hydrogen bonds (H bonds) in the very early stage of adsorption. The Na{sup +} ions approach the positively charged Arg side chain, competing with the Arg side chain for adsorption to the negatively charged hydroxyl oxygen. In coordination with the structural adjustment of the peptide, the Arg residue is driven to detach from the rutile surface. In contrast, the Na+ ions in close proximity to the negatively charged Asp side chain contribute to the binding of the COO{sup -} group on the surface, helping the carboxyl oxygen not involved in COO{sup -}-surface H bonds to orientate toward the hydroxyl hydrogens. Once both carboxyl oxygens form enough H bonds with the hydroxyl hydrogens, the redundant ions move toward a more favorable adsorption site.

  12. Isolation and quantitation of a minor determinant of hen egg white lysozyme bound to I-Ak by using peptide-specific immunoaffinity.

    PubMed

    Gugasyan, R; Vidavsky, I; Nelson, C A; Gross, M L; Unanue, E R

    1998-12-01

    We report here the identification and quantitation of a minor epitope from hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) isolated from the class II MHC molecule I-Ak of APCs. We isolated and concentrated the peptides from the I-Ak extracts by a peptide-specific mAba, followed by their examination by electrospray mass spectrometry. This initial step improved the isolation, recovery, and quantitation and allowed us to identify 13 different minor peptides using the Ab specific for the HEL tryptic fragment 34-45. The HEL peptides varied on both the amino and carboxy termini. The shortest peptide was a 13-mer (residues 33-45), and the longest peptide was a 19-mer (residues 31-49). The two most abundant were 31-47 (1.3 pmol) and 31-46 (1 pmol), while the least abundant were 31-45 (40 fmol) and 32-45 (4 fmol). Only 0.3% of the total class II molecules were occupied by this family of HEL peptides. The amount of the 31-47 peptide, the predominant member of this series, was 22 times lower than that of 48-62, the major epitope of HEL. The 31-47 peptide bound about 20-fold weaker to I-Ak compared with the dominant 48-62 peptide. Thus, the lower abundance of the minor epitope correlated with its weaker binding strength.

  13. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery. PMID:26064887

  14. Identification of the bioactive and consensus peptide motif from Momordica charantia insulin receptor-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Many food bioactive peptides with diverse functions have been discovered by studying plant proteins. We have previously identified a 68-residue insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) from Momordica charantia that exhibits hypoglycemic effects in mice via interaction with IR. By in vitro digestion, we found that mcIRBP-19, spanning residues 50-68 of mcIRBP, enhanced the binding of insulin to IR, stimulated the phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt, induced the expression of glucose transporter 4, and stimulated both the uptake of glucose in cells and the clearance of glucose in diabetic mice. Furthermore, mcIRBP-19 homologs were present in various plants and shared similar β-hairpin structures and IR kinase-activating abilities to mcIRBP-19. In conclusion, our findings suggested that mcIRBP-19 is a blood glucose-lowering bioactive peptide that exhibits IR-binding potentials. Moreover, we newly identified novel IR-binding bioactive peptides in various plants which belonged to different taxonomic families.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of the human formyl peptide receptor ligand-binding region.

    PubMed Central

    Radel, S J; Genco, R J; De Nardin, E

    1994-01-01

    The formyl peptide (N-formyl-1-methionyl-1-leucyl-1-phenylalanine [FMLP]) receptor is involved in the activation of neutrophils and their subsequent response to chemotactic N-formylated peptides. Recently, we found that the first extracellular loop closest to the N-terminal end of the FMLP receptor exhibited the strongest ligand binding compared with that shown by other extracellular regions. By constructing amino acid substitutional variants of this domain, we have determined that residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 on this loop play major roles in ligand-binding activity. Furthermore, random rearrangement of the residues of this receptor region demonstrated that the position of these charged amino acids did not affect their involvement in ligand binding, although their presence was essential for this binding to occur. We propose that the portion of the first N-terminal extracellular loop of the FMLP receptor containing residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 contributes significantly to the active site in ligand-receptor binding. We further propose that this binding is not dependent on defined structure but rather that these charged moieties may function as important "contacts" in receptor-ligand interactions. Images PMID:8168934

  16. Structural specificity of mucosal-cell transport and metabolism of peptide drugs: implication for oral peptide drug delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, J. P.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The brush border membrane of intestinal mucosal cells contains a peptide carrier system with rather broad substrate specificity and various endo- and exopeptidase activities. Small peptide (di-/tripeptide)-type drugs with or without an N-terminal alpha-amino group, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are transported by the peptide transporter. Polypeptide drugs are hydrolyzed by brush border membrane proteolytic enzymes to di-/tripeptides and amino acids. Therefore, while the intestinal brush border membrane has a carrier system facilitating the absorption of di-/tripeptide drugs, it is a major barrier limiting oral availability of polypeptide drugs. In this paper, the specificity of peptide transport and metabolism in the intestinal brush border membrane is reviewed.

  17. Side-chain conformational space analysis (SCSA): a multi conformation-based QSAR approach for modeling and prediction of protein-peptide binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Xiang; Shang, Zhicai

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the concept of multi conformation-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (MCB-QSAR) is proposed, and based upon that, we describe a new approach called the side-chain conformational space analysis (SCSA) to model and predict protein-peptide binding affinities. In SCSA, multi-conformations (rather than traditional single-conformation) have received much attention, and the statistical average information on multi-conformations of side chains is determined using self-consistent mean field theory based upon side chain rotamer library. Thereby, enthalpy contributions (including electrostatic, steric, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond) and conformational entropy effects to the binding are investigated in terms of occurrence probability of residue rotamers. Then, SCSA was applied into the dataset of 419 HLA-A 0201 binding peptides, and nonbonding contributions of each position in peptide ligands are well determined. For the peptides, the hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions of the two ends are essential to the binding specificity, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions of all the positions ensure strong binding affinity, and the loss of conformational entropy at anchor positions partially counteracts other favorable nonbonding effects.

  18. Butelase 1 is an Asx-specific ligase enabling peptide macrocyclization and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Wang, Shujing; Qiu, Yibo; Hemu, Xinya; Lian, Yilong; Tam, James P

    2014-09-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous in nature, whereas naturally occurring peptide ligases, enzymes catalyzing the reverse reactions of proteases, are rare occurrences. Here we describe the discovery of butelase 1, to our knowledge the first asparagine/aspartate (Asx) peptide ligase to be reported. This highly efficient enzyme was isolated from Clitoria ternatea, a cyclic peptide-producing medicinal plant. Butelase 1 shares 71% sequence identity and the same catalytic triad with legumain proteases but does not hydrolyze the protease substrate of legumain. Instead, butelase 1 cyclizes various peptides of plant and animal origin with yields greater than 95%. With Kcat values of up to 17 s(-1) and catalytic efficiencies as high as 542,000 M(-1) s(-1), butelase 1 is the fastest peptide ligase known. Notably, butelase 1 also displays broad specificity for the N-terminal amino acids of the peptide substrate, thus providing a new tool for C terminus-specific intermolecular peptide ligations.

  19. Specific binding of a ligand of sigma-opioid receptors - N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10047) - with liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Samovilova, N.N.; Yarygin, K.N.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1986-08-01

    A ligand of the sigma-opioid receptors - N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10047) -binds specifically and reversible with rat liver membranes. In relation to a number of properties, the sites binding SKF 10047 in the liver are similar to the sigma-opioid receptors of the central nervous system. They do not interact with classical opiates (morphine, naloxone) and with opioid peptides, but bind well benzomorphans (bremazocine, SKF 10047) and a number of compounds of different chemical structures with a pronounced psychtropic action (haloperidol, imipramine, phencyclidine, etc.).

  20. Identification of an extracellular segment of the oxytocin receptor providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, S R; Howard, H C; Wheatley, M

    2001-03-01

    The effects of the peptide hormone oxytocin are mediated by oxytocin receptors (OTRs) expressed by the target tissue. The OTR is a member of the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Defining differences between the interaction of agonists and antagonists with the OTR at the molecular level is of fundamental importance, and is addressed in this study. Using truncated and chimaeric receptor constructs, we establish that a small 12-residue segment in the distal portion of the N-terminus of the human OTR provides important epitopes which are required for agonist binding. In contrast, this segment does not contribute to the binding site for antagonists, whether peptide or non-peptide. It does, however, have a role in agonist-induced OTR signalling. Oxytocin is also an agonist at the vasopressin V(1a) receptor (V(1a)R). A chimaeric receptor (V(1a)R(N)-OTR) was engineered in which the N-terminus of the OTR was substituted by the corresponding, but unrelated, sequence from the N-terminus of the V(1a)R. We show that the V(1a)R N-terminus present in V(1a)R(N)-OTR fully restored both agonist binding and intracellular signalling to a dysfunctional truncated OTR construct. The N-terminal segment does not, however, contribute to receptor-selective agonism between the OTR and the V(1a)R. Our data establish a key role for the distal N-terminus of the OTR in providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

  1. Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Roseri J A C; Zarzycka, Barbara; Amatdjais-Groenen, Helene I V; Jans, Sander C B; Nuijens, Timo; Quaedflieg, Peter J L M; van Delft, Floris L; Nabuurs, Sander B; Rutjes, Floris P J T

    2011-09-19

    The substrate mimetics approach is a versatile method for small-scale enzymatic peptide-bond synthesis in aqueous systems. The protease-recognized amino acid side chain is incorporated in an ester leaving group, the substrate mimetic. This shift of the specific moiety enables the acceptance of amino acids and peptide sequences that are normally not recognized by the enzyme. The guanidinophenyl group (OGp), a known substrate mimetic for the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, has now been applied for the first time in combination with papain, a cheap and commercially available cysteine protease. To provide insight in the binding mode of various Z-X(AA)-OGp esters, computational docking studies were performed. The results strongly point at enzyme-specific activation of the OGp esters in papain through a novel mode of action, rather than their functioning as mimetics. Furthermore, the scope of a model dipeptide synthesis was investigated with respect to both the amino acid donor and the nucleophile. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to prioritize 22 natural and unnatural amino acid donors for synthesis. Experimental results correlate well with the predicted ranking and show that nearly all amino acids are accepted by papain.

  2. pH-dependent specific binding and combing of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, J F; Bensimon, D; Jullien, L; Bensimon, A; Croquette, V

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the rapid sequencing, mapping, and analysis of DNA rely on the specific binding of DNA to specially treated surfaces. We show here that specific binding of DNA via its unmodified extremities can be achieved on a great variety of surfaces by a judicious choice of the pH. On hydrophobic surfaces the best binding efficiency is reached at a pH of approximately 5.5. At that pH a approximately 40-kbp DNA is 10 times more likely to bind by an extremity than by a midsegment. A model is proposed to account for the differential adsorption of the molecule extremities and midsection as a function of pH. The pH-dependent specific binding can be used to align anchored DNA molecules by a receding meniscus, a process called molecular combing. The resulting properties of the combed molecules will be discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9336201

  3. Engineered xyloglucan specificity in a carbohydrate-binding module.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Lavinia Cicortas; Zhou, Qi; Montanier, Cedric; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Brumer, Harry; Ohlin, Mats

    2006-12-01

    The field of plant cell wall biology is constantly growing and consequently so is the need for more sensitive and specific probes for individual wall components. Xyloglucan is a key polysaccharide widely distributed in the plant kingdom in both structural and storage tissues that exist in both fucosylated and non-fucosylated variants. Presently, the only xyloglucan marker available is the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M1 that is specific to terminal alpha-1,2-linked fucosyl residues on xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides. As a viable alternative to searches for natural binding proteins or creation of new monoclonal antibodies, an approach to select xyloglucan-specific binding proteins from a combinatorial library of the carbohydrate-binding module, CBM4-2, from xylanase Xyn10A of Rhodothermus marinus is described. Using phage display technology in combination with a chemoenzymatic method to anchor xyloglucan to solid supports, the selection of xyloglucan-binding modules with no detectable residual wild-type xylan and beta-glucan-binding ability was achieved.

  4. Damage-specific DNA-binding proteins from human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kanjilal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to detect and characterize factors from human cells that bind DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation. An application of the gel-shift assay was devised in which a DNA probe was UV-irradiated and compared with non-irradiated probe DNA for the ability to bind to such factors in cell extracts. UV-dose dependent binding proteins were identified. Formation of the DNA-protein complexes was independent of the specific sequence, form or source of the DNA. There was a marked preference for lesions on double stranded DNA over those on single stranded DNA. DNA irradiated with gamma rays did not compete with UV-irradiated DNA for the binding activities. Cell lines from patients with genetic diseases associated with disorders of the DNA repair system were screened for the presence of damaged-DNA-binding activities. Simultaneous occurrence of the clinical symptoms of some of these diseases had been previously documented and possible links between the syndromes proposed. However, supporting biochemical or molecular evidence for such associations were lacking. The data from the present investigations indicate that some cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group A, Cockayne's Syndrome, Bloom's Syndrome and Ataxia Telangiectasia, all of which exhibit sensitivity to UV or gamma radiation, share an aberrant damaged-DNA-binding factor. These findings support the hypothesis that some of the repair disorder diseases are closely related and may have arisen from a common defect. Partial purification of the binding activities from HeLa cells was achieved. Size-exclusion chromatography resolved the activities into various peaks, one of which was less damage-specific than the others as determined by competition studies using native or UV-irradiated DNA. Some of the activities were further separated by ion-exchange chromatography. On using affinity chromatography methods, the major damage-binding factor could be eluted in the presence of 2 M KCl and 1% NP-40.

  5. Human DC-SIGN binds specific human milk glycans.

    PubMed

    Noll, Alexander J; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Duska-McEwen, Geralyn; Buck, Rachael H; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-05-15

    Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBP) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) expressed by DCs for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglec-5 and Siglec-9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBP bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An α-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2'-fucosyl-lactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyl-lactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2'-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2'-FL had an IC50 of ∼1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2'-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBP expressed by DCs binds to α-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant.

  6. A novel Omp25-binding peptide screened by phage display can inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 infection in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbo; Guo, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Yin, Shuanghong; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans, and current antibiotic and vaccine strategies are not optimal. The surface-exposed protein Omp25 is involved in Brucella virulence and plays an important role in Brucella pathogenesis during infection, suggesting that Omp25 could be a useful target for selecting potential therapeutic molecules to inhibit Brucella pathogenesis. In this study, we identified, we believe for the first time, peptides that bind specifically to the Omp25 protein of pathogens, using a phage panning technique, After four rounds of panning, 42 plaques of eluted phages were subjected to pyrosequencing. Four phage clones that bound better than the other clones were selected following confirmation by ELISA and affinity constant determination. The peptides selected could significantly inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) internalization and intracellular growth in RAW264.7 macrophages, and significantly induce secretion of TNF-α and IL-12 in peptide- and S2308-treated cells. Any observed peptide (OP11, OP27, OP35 or OP40) could significantly inhibit S2308 infection in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the peptide OP11 was the best candidate peptide for inhibiting S2308 infection in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that peptide OP11 has potential for exploitation as a peptide drug in resisting S2308 infection. PMID:24722798

  7. Copper-binding peptides from human prion protein and newly designed peroxidative biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Kadono, Takashi; Uezu, Kazuya; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    A previous work suggested that peptides from the histidine-containing copper-binding motifs in human prion protein (PrP) function as peroxidase-like biocatalysts catalyzing the generation of superoxide anion radicals in the presence of neurotransmitters (aromatic monoamines) and phenolics such as tyrosine and tyrosyl residues on proteins. In this study, using various phenolic substrates, the phenol-dependent superoxide-generating activities of PrP-derived peptide sequences were compared. Among the peptides tested, the GGGTH pentapeptide was shown to be the most active catalyst for phenol-dependent reactions. Based on these results, we designed a series of oligoglycyl-histidines as novel peroxidative biocatalysts, and their catalytic performances including kinetics, heat tolerance, and freezing tolerance were analysed.

  8. Peptide-directed binding of quantum dots to integrins in human fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Chen, Hongfeng; Cho, Michael R; Stroscio, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    There is currently a major international effort aimed at integrating semiconductor nanostructures with biological structures. This paper reports the use of peptide sequences with certain motifs like artinine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) to functionalize zinc sulfide (ZnS)-capped cadmiun selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, so that the quantum dot-peptide complexes selectively bind to integrins on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells membrane. In this way, an interface between semiconductor nanocrystals and subcellular components was achieved, and the distribution pattern of RGD and LDV receptors on HT1080 cell membranes is revealed. These findings point the way to using a wide class of peptide-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots for the study of cellular processes involving integrins.

  9. Anti-idiotypic antibodies of a predefined specificity generated against CDR3VH synthetic peptides define a private anti-CD4 idiotype.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, R; Kennedy, R C; Allan, J S; Maino, V C; Buck, D; Kanda, P

    1990-06-01

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to the third complementarity determining region (CDR) of the heavy chain (CDR3VH) of anti-Leu3a, a monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody which inhibits HIV gp120 binding to CD4, was used to elicit specific anti-peptide antibodies in rabbits. The anti-peptide antisera showed anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) activity and recognized both the immunizing peptide and the intact cognate protein by ELISA. In addition, the antisera reacted with isolated heavy chains of anti-Leu3a by Western blot analysis. The lack of reactivity with a panel of monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies suggested that the anti-peptide antisera recognize a private idiotype (Id) associated with the anti-Leu3a CDR3VH region. Further studies demonstrated the inability of the rabbit antisera to inhibit the binding of anti-Leu3a to the CD4 molecule. In addition, soluble recombinant CD4 was unable to inhibit the binding of the rabbit anti-peptide antisera to anti-Leu3a indicating that the CDR3VH region may not be involved in CD4 recognition. Anti-Id containing sera from mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates immunized with the intact anti-Leu3a molecule did not bind the CDR3VH synthetic peptide, suggesting that the corresponding region of anti-Leu3a may not represent an immunodominant idiotypic determinant in thes e species. These results suggest the potential use of synthetic peptides corresponding to immunoglobulin variable (V) region amino acid sequences in generating anti-Id reagents of a predefined specificity. In addition, V-region synthetic peptides may be useful in mapping the idiotopes recognized by an anti-Id response to the cognate molecule.

  10. Imaging site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixin; Zhang, Miao; Yu, Ping

    2011-03-01

    We report imaging studies on site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using newly developed optical peptide probes and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system used two broadband superluminescent light emission diodes with different central wavelengths. An electro-optic modulation in the reference beam was used to get full-range deep imaging inside tumor tissues. The optical probes were based on Bombesin (BBN) that is a fourteen amino acid peptide. BBN has high binding affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors overexpressed on several human cancer cell lines. Fluorescence BBN probes were developed by conjugating the last eight residues of BBN, -Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH2), with Alexa Flour 680 or Alexa Fluor 750 dye molecules via amino acid linker -G-G-G. The SD-OCT imaging can identify normal tissue and tumor tissue through the difference in scattering coefficient, and trace the BBN conjugate probes through the absorption of the dye molecules using the twowavelength algorithm. We performed the specific uptake and receptor-blocking experiments of the optical BBN probes in severely compromised immunodeficient mouse model bearing human PC-3 prostate tumor xenografts. Tumor and muscle tissues were collected and used for SD-OCT imaging. The SD-OCT images showed fluorescence traces of the BBN probes in the peptide-targeted tumor tissues. Our results demonstrated that SD-OCT is a potential tool for preclinical and clinical early cancer detection.

  11. HLA class II peptide-binding and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gebe, J A; Swanson, E; Kwok, William W

    2002-02-01

    The HLA class II locus is located in the 6p21.3 region on the short arm of chromosome 6 and encompasses approximately 700 kb. It consists of over 30 gene loci including the major class II structural genes DP, DQ and DR. While autoimmune disease correlates to specific DP, DQ or DR alleles have been documented, due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between the different HLA alleles, especially between the DR and DQ, the precise identification of susceptible MHC alleles for a number of autoimmune diseases remains elusive.

  12. Sequence specific binding of chlamydial histone H1-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, R; Allen, M; Bradbury, E M; Wenman, W M

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the few prokaryotic organisms known to contain proteins that bear homology to eukaryotic histone H1. Changes in macromolecular conformation of DNA mediated by the histone H1-like protein (Hc1) appear to regulate stage specific differentiation. We have developed a cross-linking immunoprecipitation protocol to examine in vivo protein-DNA interaction by immune precipitating chlamydial Hc1 cross linked to DNA. Our results strongly support the presence of sequence specific binding sites on the chlamydial plasmid and hc1 gene upstream of its open reading frame. The preferential binding sites were mapped to 520 bp BamHI-XhoI and 547 bp BamHI-DraI DNA fragments on the plasmid and hc1 respectively. Comparison of these two DNA sequences using Bestfit program has identified a 24 bp region with >75% identity that is unique to the chlamydial genome. Double-stranded DNA prepared by annealing complementary oligonucleotides corresponding to the conserved 24 bp region bind Hc1, in contrast to control sequences with similar A+T ratios. Further, Hc1 binds to DNA in a strand specific fashion, with preferential binding for only one strand. The site specific affinity to plasmid DNA was also demonstrated by atomic force microscopy data images. Binding was always followed by coiling, shrinking and aggregation of the affected DNA. Very low protein-DNA ratio was required if incubations were carried out in solution. However, if DNA was partially immobilized on mica substrate individual strands with dark foci were still visible even after the addition of excess Hc1. PMID:8760883

  13. Cationic Peptides and Peptidomimetics Bind Glycosaminoglycans as Potential Sema3A Pathway Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Miriam; Bonet, Roman; Moure, Alejandra; Domingo, Cecilia; Bujons, Jordi; Alfonso, Ignacio; Pérez, Yolanda; Messeguer, Àngel

    2016-03-29

    Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is a vertebrate-secreted protein that was initially characterized as a repulsive-guidance cue. Semaphorins have crucial roles in several diseases; therefore, the development of Sema3A inhibitors is of therapeutic interest. Sema3A interacts with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), presumably through its C-terminal basic region. We used different biophysical techniques (i.e., NMR, surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and UV-visible spectroscopy) to characterize the binding of two Sema3A C-terminus-derived basic peptides (FS2 and NFS3) to heparin and chondroitin sulfate A. We found that these peptides bind to both GAGs with affinities in the low-micromolar range. On the other hand, a peptoid named SICHI (semaphorin-induced chemorepulsion inhibitor), which is positively charged at physiological pH, was first identified by our group as being able to block Sema3A chemorepulsion and growth-cone collapse in axons at the extracellular level. To elucidate the direct target for the reported SICHI inhibitory effect in the Sema3A signaling pathway, we looked first to the protein-protein interaction between secreted Sema3A and the Nrp1 receptor. However, our results show that SICHI does not bind directly to the Sema3A sema domain or to Nrp1 extracellular domains. We evaluated a new, to our knowledge, hypothesis, according to which SICHI binds to GAGs, thereby perturbing the Sema3A-GAG interaction. By using the above-mentioned techniques, we observed that SICHI binds to GAGs and competes with Sema3A C-terminus-derived basic peptides for binding to GAGs. These data support the ability of SICHI to block the biologically relevant interaction between Sema3A and GAGs, thus revealing SICHI as a new, to our knowledge, class of inhibitors that target the GAG-protein interaction.

  14. Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Hassanul G.; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Beis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors’ knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3–6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters. PMID:24920594

  15. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  16. Phosphinic peptides, the first potent inhibitors of astacin, behave as extremely slow-binding inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Yiallouros, I; Vassiliou, S; Yiotakis, A; Zwilling, R; Stöcker, W; Dive, V

    1998-01-01

    A series of phosphinic pseudo-peptides varying in length and composition have been designed as inhibitors of the crayfish zinc endopeptidase astacin, the prototype of the astacin family and of the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases. The most efficient phosphinic peptide, fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Lys-PhePsi(PO2CH2)Ala-P ro-Leu-Val, binds to astacin with a Ki value of 42 nM, which is about three orders of magnitude below the corresponding values for previously used hydroxamic acid derivatives. However, the rate constants for association (kon = 96.8 M-1.s-1) and dissociation (koff = 4.1 x 10(-6) s-1) are evidence for the extremely slow binding behaviour of this compound. N-terminally or C-terminally truncated phosphinic analogues of this parent molecule are much less potent, indicating a critical role of the peptide size on the potency. In particular, omission of the N-terminal proline residue leads to a 40-fold increase in Ki which is mostly due to a 75-fold higher koff value. These findings are consistent with the previously solved crystal structure of astacin complexed with one of the phosphinic peptides, benzyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Lys-PhePsi(PO2CH2)Ala-Pro-O-methyl, Ki = 14 microM [Grams, Dive, Yiotakis, Yiallouros, Vassiliou, Zwilling, Bode and Stöcker (1996) Nature Struct. Biol. 3, 671-675]. This structure also reveals that the phosphinic group binds to the active site as a transition-state analogue. The extremely slow binding behaviour of the phosphinic peptides is discussed in the light of the conformational changes involving a unique 'tyrosine switch' in the structure of astacin upon inhibitor binding. The phosphinic peptides may provide a rational basis for the design of drugs directed towards other members of the astacin family which, like bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1; i.e. the procollagen C-proteinase), have become targets of pharmacological research. PMID:9531473

  17. Assessing high affinity binding to HLA-DQ2.5 by a novel peptide library based approach.

    PubMed

    Jüse, Ulrike; Arntzen, Magnus; Højrup, Peter; Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2011-04-01

    Here we report on a novel peptide library based method for HLA class II binding motif identification. The approach is based on water soluble HLA class II molecules and soluble dedicated peptide libraries. A high number of different synthetic peptides are competing to interact with a limited amount of HLA molecules, giving a selective force in the binding. The peptide libraries can be designed so that the sequence length, the alignment of binding registers, the numbers and composition of random positions are controlled, and also modified amino acids can be included. Selected library peptides bound to HLA are then isolated by size exclusion chromatography and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry online coupled to liquid chromatography. The MS/MS data are subsequently searched against a library defined database using a search engine such as Mascot, followed by manual inspection of the results. We used two dodecamer and two decamer peptide libraries and HLA-DQ2.5 to test possibilities and limits of this method. The selected sequences which we identified in the fraction eluted from HLA-DQ2.5 showed a higher average of their predicted binding affinity values compared to the original peptide library. The eluted sequences fit very well with the previously described HLA-DQ2.5 peptide binding motif. This novel method, limited by library complexity and sensitivity of mass spectrometry, allows the analysis of several thousand synthetic sequences concomitantly in a simple water soluble format.

  18. Asp residues of βDELSEED-motif are required for peptide binding in the Escherichia coli ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Tayou, Junior; Laughlin, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the requirement of Asp-380 and Asp-386 in the βDELSEED-motif of Escherichia coli ATP synthase for peptide binding and inhibition. We studied the inhibition profiles of wild-type and mutant E. coli ATP synthase in presence of c-terminal amide bound melittin and melittin related peptide. Melittin and melittin related peptide inhibited wild-type ATPase almost completely while only partial inhibition was observed in single mutations with replacement of Asp to Ala, Gln, or Arg. Additionally, very little or no inhibition occurred among double mutants βD380A/βD386A, βD380Q/βD386Q, or βD380R/βD386R signifying that removal of one Asp residue allows limited peptide binding. Partial or substantial loss of oxidative phosphorylation among double mutants demonstrates the functional requirement of βD380 and βD386 Asp residues. Moreover, abrogation of wild-type E. coli cell growth and normal growth of mutant cells in presence of peptides provides strong evidence for the requirement of βDELSEED-motif Asp residues for peptide binding. It is concluded that while presence of one Asp residue may allow partial peptide binding, both Asp residues, βD380 and βD386, are essential for proper peptide binding and inhibition of ATP synthase.

  19. Measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin Peptide binding with Piezoresistive Microcantilever Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Navdeep K; Maldonado, Carlos J.; Thundat, Thomas George; Passian, Ali

    2014-03-24

    The effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1). Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We also demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  20. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, N.; Maldonado, C. J.; Thundat, T.; Passian, A.

    2014-03-01

    Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1). Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  1. Enhanced lubrication on tissue and biomaterial surfaces through peptide-mediated binding of hyaluronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anirudha; Corvelli, Michael; Unterman, Shimon A.; Wepasnick, Kevin A.; McDonnell, Peter; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2014-10-01

    Lubrication is key for the efficient function of devices and tissues with moving surfaces, such as articulating joints, ocular surfaces and the lungs. Indeed, lubrication dysfunction leads to increased friction and degeneration of these systems. Here, we present a polymer-peptide surface coating platform to non-covalently bind hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural lubricant in the body. Tissue surfaces treated with the HA-binding system exhibited higher lubricity values, and in vivo were able to retain HA in the articular joint and to bind ocular tissue surfaces. Biomaterials-mediated strategies that locally bind and concentrate HA could provide physical and biological benefits when used to treat tissue-lubricating dysfunction and to coat medical devices.

  2. Enhanced lubrication on tissue and biomaterial surfaces through peptide-mediated binding of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anirudha; Corvelli, Michael; Unterman, Shimon A; Wepasnick, Kevin A; McDonnell, Peter; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2014-10-01

    Lubrication is key for the efficient function of devices and tissues with moving surfaces, such as articulating joints, ocular surfaces and the lungs. Indeed, lubrication dysfunction leads to increased friction and degeneration of these systems. Here, we present a polymer-peptide surface coating platform to non-covalently bind hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural lubricant in the body. Tissue surfaces treated with the HA-binding system exhibited higher lubricity values, and in vivo were able to retain HA in the articular joint and to bind ocular tissue surfaces. Biomaterials-mediated strategies that locally bind and concentrate HA could provide physical and biological benefits when used to treat tissue-lubricating dysfunction and to coat medical devices.

  3. The paradox of conformational constraint in the design of Cbl(TKB)-binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Eric A.; Chen, Qianyi; Kizhake, Smitha; Kolar, Carol; Kang, Myungshim; Chang, Chia-en A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2013-01-01

    Solving the crystal structure of Cbl(TKB) in complex with a pentapeptide, pYTPEP, revealed that the PEP region adopted a poly-L-proline type II (PPII) helix. An unnatural amino acid termed a proline-templated glutamic acid (ptE) that constrained both the backbone and sidechain to the bound conformation was synthesized and incorporated into the pYTPXP peptide. We estimated imposing structural constraints onto the backbone and sidechain of the peptide and preorganize it to the bound conformation in solution will yield nearly an order of magnitude improvement in activity. NMR studies confirmed that the ptE-containing peptide adopts the PPII conformation, however, competitive binding studies showed an order of magnitude loss of activity. Given the emphasis that is placed on imposing structural constraints, we provide an example to support the contrary. These results point to conformational flexibility at the interface, which have implications in the design of potent Cbl(TKB)-binding peptides. PMID:23572190

  4. A luminescent affinity tag for proteins based on the terbium(III)-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shinji; Tanaka, Shogo; Inoue, Sayomi; Komatsu, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded tags attached to proteins of interest are widely exploited for proteome analysis. Here, we present Tb(3+)-binding peptides (TBPs) which can be used for both luminescent measurements and affinity purification of proteins. TBPs consist of acidic amino acid residues and tryptophan residues which serve as Tb(3+)-binding sites and sensitizers for Tb(3+) luminescence, respectively. The Tb(3+) complexes of TBPs fused to a target protein exhibited luminescence characteristic of Tb(3+) by excitation of the tryptophan residue, and fusion proteins fused to one of the TPBs were successfully isolated from Escherichia coli cell lysate by affinity chromatography with a Tb(3+)-immobilized solid support.

  5. Differential changes in atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin receptor bindings in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Katayama, E.; Ota, Z.; Ogawa, N.

    1987-01-19

    To elucidate the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP) in a hypertensive state, ANP and VP receptor bindings in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) kidney were analyzed using the radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) technique. Systolic blood pressure of SHR aged 12 weeks was statistically higher than that of age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of (/sup 125/I)-ANP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically lower than that of WKY rats, but dissociation constant (Kd) was not significantly different. On the other hand, Bmax of (/sup 3/H)-VP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically higher than that of WKY rats, but Kd were similar. Since the physiological action of ANP is natriuresis and VP is the most important antidiuretic hormone in mammalia, these opposite changes of ANP and VP receptor bindings in SHR kidney suggested that these peptides may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the hypertensive state, although it has not been confirmed as yet.

  6. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. This algorithm can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system. PMID:27558848

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi shows specificity of binding to glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Backenson, P B; Coleman, J L; Benach, J L

    1995-01-01

    Live but not fixed or heat-killed Borrelia burgdorferi bound to galactocerebroside, lactosylceramide, and ceramide trihexoside. In addition, this organism bound to the disialoganglioside GD1a and the trisialoganglioside GT1b but not to gangliosides GM1, GD1b, GM2, and GM3 and not to asialo GM1. This adhesion pattern confirmed earlier findings of binding to galactocerebroside and places this organism within a prokaryotic group which binds to lactosylceramide. The binding to GD1a and GT1b, both of which carry terminal as well as multiple sialic acids, indicates that B. burgdorferi can show specificity of binding within a group of acidic gangliosides. Adhesion could not be inhibited by several concentrations of sugars and sialic acid, indicating more complex binding requirements than for terminal carbohydrates alone. Low-passage strains adhered to the four substrates in greater numbers than strains in culture for long periods of time. OspB mutants in general bound better or at least equally well to several of the glycosphingolipids, and preincubation of substrates with soluble recombinant and affinity-purified Osp did not inhibitor or weakly inhibited the binding of the organisms. These findings suggest that outer surface lipoproteins A and B are not directly involved in adhesion to glycosphingolipids. PMID:7622201

  8. Importance of DNA stiffness in protein-DNA binding specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. E.; Austin, R. H.

    1987-09-01

    From the first high-resolution structure of a repressor bound specifically to its DNA recognition sequence1 it has been shown that the phage 434 repressor protein binds as a dimer to the helix. Tight, local interactions are made at the ends of the binding site, causing the central four base pairs (bp) to become bent and overtwisted. The centre of the operator is not in contact with protein but repressor binding affinity can be reduced at least 50-fold in response to a sequence change there2. This observation might be explained should the structure of the intervening DNA segment vary with its sequence, or if DNA at the centre of the operator resists the torsional and bending deformation necessary for complex formation in a sequence dependent fashion. We have considered the second hypothesis by demonstrating that DNA stiffness is sequence dependent. A method is formulated for calculating the stiffness of any particular DNA sequence, and we show that this predicted relationship between sequence and stiffness can explain the repressor binding data in a quantitative manner. We propose that the elastic properties of DNA may be of general importance to an understanding of protein-DNA binding specificity.

  9. The Specificity of Peptide Chain Extension by N-Carboxyanhydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ke; Orgel, Leslie E.

    2001-06-01

    We have used amino acids activated by carbonyldiimidazole to study the enantiospecificity of peptide elongation in aqueoussolution. Peptide `primers' Glu10 and Ala3Glu10were elongated with the enantiomers of arginine, glutamic acid,asparagine, phenylalanine, serine and valine. The homochiral addition was always the more efficient reaction; the enantiospecificity was large in some cases but very small in others. In every case Ala3Glu10 was elongated more efficiently than Glu10.

  10. Deconstructing the peptide-MHC specificity of T cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Michael E.; Mendoza, Jua