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Sample records for peptide bond hydrolysis

  1. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions on peptide bond formation and peptide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Marx, Dominik

    2009-09-30

    The mechanisms and free energetics underlying the formation of peptides from alpha-amino acids and alpha-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) in bulk water at both ambient and extreme temperature and pressure conditions were investigated using accelerated ab initio molecular dynamics. In particular, peptide bond formation using an activated amino acid in form of its NCA, subsequent decarboxylation, as well as hydrolysis of the formed peptide were studied using glycine. It is shown to what extent thermodynamic conditions affect the reaction mechanisms qualitatively and the energetics quantitatively in solution. In particular, the zwitterionic intermediate in the peptidization step found in ambient water degenerates into a transient species in hot-pressurized water, whereas the hydrolysis reaction is found to follow qualitatively different pathways at ambient and extreme conditions. The work also quantifies the impact of extreme solvent conditions on both peptide bond formation and peptide hydrolysis in aqueous media. Beyond the specific case, the results provide important insights into how elevated temperatures and increased pressures affect organic reactions in aqueous solutions.

  2. A density functional theory study on peptide bond cleavage at aspartic residues: direct vs cyclic intermediate hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sang-aroon, Wichien; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2013-12-01

    In this work, peptide bond cleavages at carboxy- and amino-sides of the aspartic residue in a peptide model via direct (concerted and step-wise) and cyclic intermediate hydrolysis reaction pathways were explored computationally. The energetics, thermodynamic properties, rate constants, and equilibrium constants of all hydrolysis reactions, as well as their energy profiles were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The result indicated that peptide bond cleavage of the Asp residue occurred most preferentially via the cyclic intermediate hydrolysis pathway. In all reaction pathways, cleavage of the peptide bond at the amino-side occurred less preferentially than at the carboxy-side. The overall reaction rate constants of peptide bond cleavage of the Asp residue at the carboxy-side for the assisted system were, in increasing order: concerted < step-wise < cyclic intermediate.

  3. Hydrolysis activities of the particle of agarose-Ce4+ complex for compounds containing phosphodiester or peptide bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lina; Wang, Dongfeng; Su, Lin; Luo, Yi; Sun, Liping; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Hydrolysis activities of PACC (particle of agarose-Ce4+ complex, newly made through double emulsification) for compounds containing phosphodiester or peptide bonds were studied. The results showed that PACC could hydrolyze organophosphorous pesticides not only in water but also in vegetable juice or tea extract. Hydrolysis rates of methamidophos, omethoate and chlorpyrifos in water are 32.39%, 27.12% and 46.62% respectively, those of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos in mung sprout juice 38.28% and 35.45% respectively, and that of chlorpyrifos in tea extract 59.76%. Hydrolysis rates of BSA (bovine serum albumin) in water and protein in tea extract by PACC increase by 54.30% and 86.46% respectively as compared with the control.

  4. Amide bond hydrolysis in peptides and cyclic peptides catalyzed by a dimeric Zr(IV)-substituted Keggin type polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Ly, Hong Giang T; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2013-08-14

    Detailed kinetic studies on the hydrolysis of glycylserine (Gly-Ser) and glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) in the presence of the dimeric zirconium(IV)-substituted Keggin type polyoxometalate (Et2NH2)8[{α-PW11O39Zr(μ-OH)(H2O)}2]·7H2O (1) were performed by a combination of (1)H, (13)C and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The observed rate constants for the hydrolysis of Gly-Ser and Gly-Gly at pD 5.4 and 60 °C were 63.3 × 10(-7) s(-1) and 4.44 × 10(-7) s(-1) respectively, representing a significant acceleration as compared to the uncatalyzed reactions. The pD dependence of the rate constant for both reactions exhibited a bell-shaped profile with the fastest hydrolysis observed in the pD range of 5.5-6.0. Interaction of 1 with Gly-Ser and Gly-Gly via their amine nitrogen and amide oxygen was proven by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The effective hydrolysis of Gly-Ser in the presence of 1 is most likely a combination of the polarization of the amide oxygen due to its binding to the Zr(IV) ion in 1 and the intramolecular attack of the Ser hydroxyl group on the amide carbonyl carbon. The effect of temperature, inhibitors, and ionic strength on the hydrolysis rate constant was also examined. The solution structure of 1 was investigated by means of (31)P NMR spectroscopy, revealing that its stability is highly dependent on pH, concentration and temperature. A 2.0 mM solution of 1 was found to be fully stable under hydrolytic conditions (pD 5.4 and 60 °C) both in the presence and in the absence of the dipeptides.

  5. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. Interaction Study and Reactivity of Zr(IV) -Substituted Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalate towards Hydrolysis of Peptide Bonds in Surfactant Solutions.

    PubMed

    Quanten, Thomas; Shestakova, Pavletta; Van Den Bulck, Dries; Kirschhock, Christine; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2016-03-07

    The interaction between the 1:2 Zr(IV) :Wells-Dawson complex, K15 H[Zr(α2 -P2 W17 O61 )2] (1), and a range of surfactants was studied in detail with the aim of developing metal-substituted POMs as potential artificial proteases for membrane proteins. The surfactants include the positively charged cetyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (CTAB), the negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the neutral Triton X-100 (TX-100), and zwitterionic 3-[dodecyl(dimethyl)ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Zw3-13) and 3-[dimethyl(3-{[(3α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]amino}propyl)ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). A combination of multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, and (31) P NMR spectroscopy, (1)H diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy ((1)H DOSY), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) was used to examine the interaction between 1 and each surfactant on the molecular level. Cationic surfactant CTAB caused precipitation of 1 due to strong electrostatic interactions, while the anionic SDS and neutral TX-100 surfactants did not exhibit any interaction at neutral pD. (1)H DOSY NMR spectroscopy indicated an interaction between 1 and zwitterionic surfactants Zw3-12 and CHAPS, which occurs via the positively charged ammonium group in the surfactant molecule. In the presence of anionic, neutral, and zwitterionic surfactants, 1 preserves its catalytic activity towards the hydrolysis of the peptide bond in the dipeptide glycyl-l-histidine (GH). The fastest hydrolysis was observed at pD 7.0 and could be rationalized by taking into account pD-dependent speciation of 1 and coordination properties of GH. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. [Hydrolysis of peptides by immobilized bacterial peptide hydrolases].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Deniakina, E K

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of hydrolysis of a mixture of peptides with an enzyme from the bacterium Xanthomonas rubrilineans, displaying a peptidase activity and immobilized on aluminum oxide, was studied. Kinetic schemes and equations allowing for approaching quantitative description of peptide hydrolysis in complex mixtures containing free amino acids and peptides were obtained. It was demonstrated that as a result of hydrolysis, the content of free amino acids in hydrolysates decreased 2.5- to 3-fold and the molecular weight of the constituent peptides, 2-fold.

  8. Formation versus hydrolysis of the peptide bond from a quantum-mechanical viewpoint: The role of mineral surfaces and implications for the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Rimola, Albert; Ugliengo, Piero; Sodupe, Mariona

    2009-03-01

    The condensation (polymerization by water elimination) of molecular building blocks to yield the first active biopolymers (e.g. of amino acids to form peptides) during primitive Earth is an intriguing question that nowadays still remains open since these processes are thermodynamically disfavoured in highly dilute water solutions. In the present contribution, formation and hydrolysis of glycine oligopeptides occurring on a cluster model of sanidine feldspar (001) surface have been simulated by quantum mechanical methods. Results indicate that the catalytic interplay between Lewis and Brønsted sites both present at the sanidine surface, in cooperation with the London forces acting between the biomolecules and the inorganic surface, plays a crucial role to: i) favour the condensation of glycine to yield oligopeptides as reaction products; ii) inhibit the hydrolysis of the newly formed oligopeptides. Both facts suggest that mineral surfaces may have helped in catalyzing, stabilizing and protecting from hydration the oligopeptides formed in the prebiotic era.

  9. Formation versus Hydrolysis of the Peptide Bond from a Quantum-mechanical Viewpoint: The Role of Mineral Surfaces and Implications for the Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rimola, Albert; Ugliengo, Piero; Sodupe, Mariona

    2009-01-01

    The condensation (polymerization by water elimination) of molecular building blocks to yield the first active biopolymers (e.g. of amino acids to form peptides) during primitive Earth is an intriguing question that nowadays still remains open since these processes are thermodynamically disfavoured in highly dilute water solutions. In the present contribution, formation and hydrolysis of glycine oligopeptides occurring on a cluster model of sanidine feldspar (001) surface have been simulated by quantum mechanical methods. Results indicate that the catalytic interplay between Lewis and Brønsted sites both present at the sanidine surface, in cooperation with the London forces acting between the biomolecules and the inorganic surface, plays a crucial role to: i) favour the condensation of glycine to yield oligopeptides as reaction products; ii) inhibit the hydrolysis of the newly formed oligopeptides. Both facts suggest that mineral surfaces may have helped in catalyzing, stabilizing and protecting from hydration the oligopeptides formed in the prebiotic era. PMID:19399219

  10. Microwave-assisted acid and base hydrolysis of intact proteins containing disulfide bonds for protein sequence analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reiz, Bela; Li, Liang

    2010-09-01

    Controlled hydrolysis of proteins to generate peptide ladders combined with mass spectrometric analysis of the resultant peptides can be used for protein sequencing. In this paper, two methods of improving the microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis process are described to enable rapid sequencing of proteins containing disulfide bonds and increase sequence coverage, respectively. It was demonstrated that proteins containing disulfide bonds could be sequenced by MS analysis by first performing hydrolysis for less than 2 min, followed by 1 h of reduction to release the peptides originally linked by disulfide bonds. It was shown that a strong base could be used as a catalyst for microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis, producing complementary sequence information to that generated by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. However, using either acid or base hydrolysis, amide bond breakages in small regions of the polypeptide chains of the model proteins (e.g., cytochrome c and lysozyme) were not detected. Dynamic light scattering measurement of the proteins solubilized in an acid or base indicated that protein-protein interaction or aggregation was not the cause of the failure to hydrolyze certain amide bonds. It was speculated that there were some unknown local structures that might play a role in preventing an acid or base from reacting with the peptide bonds therein.

  11. Base hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in pneumococcal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pujar, Narahari S; Huang, Ngan Fong; Daniels, Christopher L; Dieter, Lance; Gayton, Marshall G; Lee, Ann L

    2004-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the base hydrolysis of all phosphodiester bond-containing capsular polysaccharides of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is described here. Capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 6B, 10A, 17F, 19A, 19F, and 20 contain a phosphodiester bond that connects the repeating units in these polysaccharides (also referred to as backbone phosphodiester bonds), and polysaccharides from serotypes 11A, 15B, 18C, and 23F contain a phosphodiester bond that links a side chain to their repeating units. Molecular weight measurements of the polysaccharides, using high performance size exclusion chromatography with tandem multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detection, was used to evaluate the kinetics of hydrolysis. The measurement of molecular weight provides a high degree of sensitivity in the case of small extents of reaction, thus allowing reliable measurements of the kinetics over short times. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for these polysaccharides were estimated using a simple model that accounts for the polydispersity of the starting sample. It was found that the relative order of backbone phosphodiester bond instability due to base hydrolysis was 19A > 10A > 19F > 6B > 17F, 20. Degradation of side-chain phosphodiester bonds was not observed, although the high degree of sensitivity in measurements is lost in this case, due to the low contribution of the side chains to the total polysaccharide molecular weight. In comparison with literature data on pneumococcal polysaccharide 6A, 19A was found to be the more labile, and hence appears to be the most labile pneumococcal polysaccharide studied to date. The rate of hydrolysis increased at higher pH and in the presence of divalent cation, but the extent was lower than expected based on similar data on RNA. Finally, the differences in the phosphodiester bond stabilities were analyzed by considering stereochemical factors in these polysaccharides. These results also provide a framework

  12. Scandium(iii) triflate-promoted serine/threonine-selective peptide bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jizhi; Sohma, Youhei; Kanai, Motomu

    2017-02-01

    The site-selective cleavage of peptide bonds is an important chemical modification that is useful not only for the structural determination of peptides, but also as an artificial modulator of peptide/protein function and properties. Here we report site-selective hydrolysis of peptide bonds at the Ser and Thr positions with a high conversion yield. This chemical cleavage relies on Sc(iii)-promoted N,O-acyl rearrangement and subsequent hydrolysis. The method is applicable to a broad scope of polypeptides with various functional groups, including a post-translationally modified peptide that is unsuitable for enzymatic hydrolysis. The system was further extended to site-selective cleavage of a native protein, Aβ1-42, which is closely related to the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Mechanistic role of each metal ion in Streptomyces dinuclear aminopeptidase: PEPTIDE hydrolysis and 7x10(10)-fold rate enhancement of phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Tay, William M; Grossman, Steven H; Ming, Li-June

    2010-01-01

    The dinuclear aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus (SgAP) and its metal derivatives catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphoester bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and the phosphonate ester p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonate with extraordinary rate enhancements at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C [A. Ercan, H. I. Park, L.-J. Ming, Biochemistry 45, (2006) 13779-13793.], reaching 6.7 billion-fold in terms of the first-order rate constant of the di-Co(II) derivative with respect to the autohydrolytic rates. Since phosphoesters are transition state-like inhibitors in peptide hydrolysis, their hydrolysis by SgAP is quite novel. Herein, we report the investigation of this proficient alternative catalysis of SgAP and the role of each metal ion in the dinuclear site toward peptide and BNPP hydrolysis. Mn(II) selectively binds to one of the dinuclear metal sites (M1), affording MnE-SgAP with an empty (E) second site for the binding of another metal (M2), including Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II). Peptide hydrolysis is controlled by M2, wherein the k(cat) values for the derivatives MnM2-SgAP are different yet similar between MnCo- and CoCo-SgAP and pairs of other metal derivatives. On the other hand, BNPP hydrolysis is affected by metals in both sites. Thus, the two hydrolytic catalyses must follow different mechanisms. Based on crystal structures, docking, and the results presented herein, the M1 site is close to the hydrophobic specific site and the M2 site is next to Tyr246 that is H-bonded to a coordinated nucleophilic water molecule in peptide hydrolysis; whereas a coordinated water molecule on M1 becomes available as the nucleophile in phosphodiester hydrolysis.

  14. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-09-01

    Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. His-oriented peptide hydrolysis promoted by cis-[Pt(en)(H2O)2]2+: a new specific peptide cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin; Jiao, Yang; He, Weijiang; Guo, Zijian; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Longgen

    2010-09-06

    The new specific hydrolysis of histidine-containing peptides promoted by cis-[Pt(en)(H(2)O)(2)](2+) was investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). MS determination demonstrated that cis-[Pt(en)(H(2)O)(2)](2+) anchors to AcGHG with the stoichiometry of either 1:1 or 2:1 (Pt/peptide), but only with 1:1 stoichoimetry to AcGHL. Cis-[Pt(en)(H(2)O)(2)](2+) is able to promote the cleavage of the first downstream peptide bond from histidine at 60 degrees C and pH 2.65, and Pt-anchored peptides are the essential intermediates for the promoted hydrolysis. Moreover, the larger amount of Pt(II) complex results in higher fragmental yield and higher hydrolysis rate. In the presence of 1 equiv of Pt(II) complex, (1)H NMR determination confirmed the apparent first-order kinetics of the Pt(II)-promoted hydrolysis and the hydrolysis rate for AcGHG and AcGHL is 0.20 day(-1) and 0.14 day(-1), respectively. Moreover, Pt(II) coordinating to histidine imidazole is the key step to form the Pt(II)-anchored peptides. The Pt(II)-activating the first His-downstream carbonyl group via synergic coordinating to His imidazole and carbonyl O atom has been proposed for the Pt(II)-promoted his-oriented peptide hydrolysis. The lower rate for AcGHL should be correlated to the steric hindrance of Leu side chain to the second Pt(II) coordinating to tripeptide. In addition, the newly confirmed specific His-oriented peptide cleavage site implies a new potential strategy for target cleavage of peptides or proteins.

  16. Reduced peptide bond pseudopeptide analogues of neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Doulut, S; Rodriguez, M; Lugrin, D; Vecchini, F; Kitabgi, P; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin (H-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) were obtained by replacing each peptide bond by the reduced peptide bond CH2NH. The resulting analogues were then examined for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled neurotensin to new-born mouse brain membranes and for stimulation of guinea pig ileum contraction. Replacement of the Ile12-Leu13, Tyr11-Ile12, Pro10-Tyr11 and Lys9-Pro10 peptide bonds resulted in about 2000-, 3400-, 200- and 3400-fold losses, respectively, in binding affinity and 400-, 750-, 250- and 300-fold losses, respectively, in biological activity. Replacement of both Arg8 and Arg9 by lysine led to an analogue exhibiting the same pharmacological profile as the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin. Interestingly, replacement of the Lys8-Lys9 peptide bond by the CH2NH bond produced an analogue exhibiting the same affinity for neurotensin receptors, but 10 times more potent in stimulating guinea pig ileum contraction. N-terminal protected analogues (by the Boc group) showed decreased potency as compared with their amino-free corresponding compounds.

  17. Catalytic RNA and synthesis of the peptide bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Kozlowski, M.; Zou, X.

    1991-01-01

    We are studying whether the L-19 IVS ribozyme from Tetrahymena thermophila can catalyze the formation of the peptide bond when it is supplied with synthetic aminoacyl oligonucleotides. If this reaction works, it could give us some insight into the mechanism of peptide bond formation and the origin of coded protein synthesis. Two short oligoribonucleotides, CCCCC and a protected form of CCCCU were prepared; the former was made by the controlled hydrolysis of Poly(C), and the later by multistep chemical synthesis from the protected monomers. The homopentamer was then aminocylated using C-14 labelled Boc-protected glycine imidazolide. This aminoacylated oligo-nucleotide has now been shown to enter the active site of the L-19 IVS, and aminoacyl transfer, and peptide bond formation reactions are being sought. Our synthesis of CCCCU made us aware of the inadequacy of many of the 2'- hydroxyl protecting groups that are in use today and we therefore designed a new 2'- protecting group that is presently being tested.

  18. Mechanically activated rupture of single covalent bonds: evidence of force induced bond hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sebastian W; Kersch, Alfred; Beyer, Martin K; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke

    2011-04-07

    We have used temperature-dependent single molecule force spectroscopy to stretch covalently anchored carboxymethylated amylose (CMA) polymers attached to an amino-functionalized AFM cantilever. Using an Arrhenius kinetics model based on a Morse potential as a one-dimensional representation of covalent bonds, we have extracted kinetic and structural parameters of the bond rupture process. With 35.5 kJ mol(-1), we found a significantly smaller dissociation energy and with 9.0 × 10(2) s(-1) to 3.6 × 10(3) s(-1) also smaller Arrhenius pre-factors than expected for homolytic bond scission. One possible explanation for the severely reduced dissociation energy and Arrhenius pre-factors is the mechanically activated hydrolysis of covalent bonds. Both the carboxylic acid amide and the siloxane bond in the amino-silane surface linker are in principle prone to bond hydrolysis. Scattering, slope and curvature of the scattered data plots indicate that in fact two competing rupture mechanisms are observed.

  19. Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Toh, Yukimatsu; Suto, Kyoko; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi; Tomita, Kozo

    2007-10-18

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase (LF-transferase) catalyses peptide-bond formation by using Leu-tRNA(Leu) (or Phe-tRNA(Phe)) and an amino-terminal Arg (or Lys) of a protein, as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. However, the catalytic mechanism of peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase remained obscure. Here we determine the structures of complexes of LF-transferase and phenylalanyl adenosine, with and without a short peptide bearing an N-terminal Arg. Combining the two separate structures into one structure as well as mutation studies reveal the mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase. The electron relay from Asp 186 to Gln 188 helps Gln 188 to attract a proton from the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Arg of the acceptor peptide. This generates the attacking nucleophile for the carbonyl carbon of the aminoacyl bond of the aminoacyl-tRNA, thus facilitating peptide-bond formation. The protein-based mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase is similar to the reverse reaction of the acylation step observed in the peptide hydrolysis reaction by serine proteases.

  20. Interaction of molybdocene dichloride with cysteine-containing peptides: coordination, regioselective hydrolysis, and intramolecular aminolysis.

    PubMed

    Erxleben, Andrea

    2005-02-21

    Reactions of the organometallic compound molybdocene dichloride (Cp2MoCl2, Cp = eta5-cyclopentadienyl) with the cysteine-containing peptides L-cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (AcCys), glycyl-L-cysteine (Gly-Cys), glycyl-L-cysteinylglycine (Gly-Cys-Gly), and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (glutathione, GSH) have been studied in aqueous solution in the pH range 2-9. The dipeptides Cys-Gly and Gly-Cys and the acetylated amino acid AcCys form 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of composition [Cp2Mo(peptide-S)(OH(2))]n+/- and [Cp2Mo(peptide-S)2]n+/- as well as the chelates [Cp2Mo(AcCys-S,O)], [Cp2Mo(Gly-Cys-S,O)]+, and [Cp2Mo(Cys-Gly-S,N)] with the Cp2Mo2+ unit binding to the deprotonated thiolate group and the free amino or carboxylate group of the cysteine residue. Upon treatment of Gly-Cys-Gly and the naturally occurring tripeptide GSH with Cp2MoCl2 at elevated temperature, release of free glycine was observed. The Cp2Mo2+ entity coordinates to the thiolate group of GSH and mediates regioselective hydrolysis of the Cys-Gly peptide bond by intramolecular metal hydroxide activation. Cp2Mo2+-promoted hydrolysis of GSH was followed at pD 7.4 and 5.2 and 40 and 60 degrees C. By contrast, the Cys-Gly bond in [Cp2Mo(Gly-Cys-Gly-S,N)] is cleaved by intramolecular aminolysis at pD > or = 7.4 and 60 degrees C leading to glycine and the Cp2Mo2+ complex of the 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative cyclo-(Gly-Cys). Chelating coordination of the Cp2Mo2+ moiety to the thiolate group and to the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the tripeptide changes the configuration of the peptide bond from (preferred) trans to cis, thus enabling nucleophilic attack of the primary amino group at the Cys-Gly bond. The reaction product [Cp2Mo{cyclo-(Gly-Cys)}] x 2H2O has been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  1. Cellular disulfide bond formation in bioactive peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitin A; Tailhades, Julien; Hughes, Richard Anthony; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2015-01-14

    Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes--a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor--that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery.

  2. Cellular Disulfide Bond Formation in Bioactive Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nitin A.; Tailhades, Julien; Hughes, Richard Anthony; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D.; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes—a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor—that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery. PMID:25594871

  3. Synthesis and enzymic hydrolysis of cyclic peptides containing an anthranilic acid residue.

    PubMed

    Mazaleyrat, J P; Reboud-Ravaux, M; Wakselman, M

    1987-11-01

    Two cyclic peptides cyclo (Phe-MeAnt-Glyn) with MeAnt = 5-methyl-anthranilic acid residue, n = 4 (3b) and n = 6 (4b), have been synthesized in solution and their reaction with alpha-chymotrypsin analyzed. The polyglycyl chain was prepared by the phosphazo method; cyclization at the Gly-Phe site occurred in good yield using the azide method. Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptides 3b and 4b by alpha-chymotrypsin was characterized at 37 degrees by the apparent second-order rate constants kcat/Km 0.12 and 1.15 M-1 S-1, respectively, in agreement with the usual acceleration observed upon enlargement of the size of the peptidic ring in cyclic peptides. alpha-Chymotrypsin specifically split the Phe-MeAnt amide bond in cyclopeptide 4b. This specific orientation suggests that analogous structures with a functionalized methylene group instead of the methyl substituent can be used in the design of suicide substrates for serine proteases.

  4. [Hydrolysis by enteropeptidase of nonspecific (model) peptide sequences and possible physiological role of this phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Likhareva, V V; Mikhaĭlova, A G; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    Enteropeptidase (enterokinase) (EC 3.4.21.9), a highly specific processing protease, initiating a cascade of reactions activating the digestion enzymes. Catalyzing trypsinogen activation enteropeptidase exhibits unique properties for high efficiency hydrolysis of the polypeptide chain after lysine-15 residue in the -DDDDK15- sequence. In 1998 we found an unusual calcium-dependent autolysis of the enteropeptidase heavy chain leading to the drastic loss of its activity towards trypsinogen: after lysine-360 (-NNYEK360-INCN-), -), arginine-384 (-NEWER384-TQGS-), arginine-422 (-GRRER422-VGLL-) and lysine-465 (-QNMEK465-TIFQ-) residues. We used hepta-nona-peptides as the model substrates for autolysys: human angiotensin II--DRVYIHPF and cattle hemoglobin b-chain fragments: LTAEEKA and MLTAEEKAA. Kinetic parameters of enteropeptidase hydrolysis for these substrates were determined. Recent study demonstrates the ability of enteropeptidase to hydrolyze peptide bonds formed by carboxyl groups of Lys or Arg residues if less than four but at least one negative charged amino acid residue is in any of substrate P2-P5 positions. Ca(2+)-dependent autolysis of enteropeptidase heavy chain and of trypsin were compared; the second one serves as the natural defense mechanism against the undesirable premature proenzymes activation in pancreas leading to pancreatitis. The corresponding enteropeptidase inactivation in low Ca2+ environment ought to be the component of the same protective mechanism.

  5. Structural analysis of peptide fragments following the hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin by trypsin and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Akten, E Demet; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-05-01

    Peptide bond hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by chymotrypsin and trypsin was investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. As a fluorescent cross-linking reagent, N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide (PM) was attached to BSA, through all free amine groups of arginine, lysine, and/or single free thiol (Cys34). Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor fluorescence decays analyzed by exponential series method to obtain the changes in lifetime distributions. After the exposure of synthesized protein substrate PM-BSA to chymotrypsin and trypsin, it is observed that each protease produced a distinct change in the lifetime distribution profile, which was attributed to distinct chemical environments created by short peptide fragments in each hydrolysate. The persistence of excimer emission at longer lifetime regions for chymotrypsin, as opposed to trypsin, suggested the presence of small-scale hydrophobic clusters that might prevent some excimers from being completely quenched. It is most likely that the formation of these clusters is due to hydrophobic end groups of peptide fragments in chymotrypsin hydrolysate. A similar hydrophobic shield was not suggested for trypsin hydrolysis, as the end groups of peptide fragments would be either arginine or lysine. Overall, in case the target protein's 3D structure is known, the structural analysis of possible excimer formation presented here can be used as a tool to explain the differences in activity between two proteases, i.e. the peak's intensity and location in the profile. Furthermore, this structural evaluation might be helpful in obtaining the optimum experimental conditions in order to generate the highest amount of PM-BSA complexes.

  6. Amino acid side chain induced selectivity in the hydrolysis of peptides catalyzed by a Zr(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson type polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecht, Stef; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2013-11-21

    In this paper the reactivity of K15H[Zr(α2-P2W17O61)2]·25H2O (1), a Zr(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate, is examined towards a series of Gly-Aa, Aa-Gly or Aa-Ser dipeptides, in which the nature and the size of the Aa amino acid side chain were varied. The rate of peptide bond hydrolysis, determined by (1)H NMR experiments, in Gly-Aa dipeptides is strongly dependent on the molecular volume and the chemical structure of the Aa side chain. When the volume of the aliphatic side chain of the Aa residue in Gly-Aa increased, a clear decrease in the hydrolysis rate was observed. Replacing one α-H in the C-terminal Gly residue of Gly-Gly by a methyl group (Gly-Ala) resulted in a 6-fold reactivity decrease, pointing towards the importance of steric factors for efficient peptide bond hydrolysis. The rate constants for peptide bond hydrolysis in Gly-Aa dipeptides at pD 5.0 and 60 °C ranged from 208.0 ± 15.6 × 10(-6) min(-1) for Gly-Ser to 5.0 ± 1.0 × 10(-6) min(-1) for Gly-Glu, reflecting the influence of the different nature of the amino acid side chains on the hydrolysis rate. Faster hydrolysis was observed for peptides containing Ser and Thr since the hydroxyl group in their side chain is able to facilitate amide bond hydrolysis by promoting an N→O acyl rearrangement. Peptides containing positively charged side chains at pD 5.0 show enhanced hydrolysis rates as a result of the secondary electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged surface of the polyoxometalate, which stabilize the peptide-polyoxometalate complex. A slow hydrolysis rate was observed for Gly-Glu, because of the preferential coordination of the carboxylate group in the side chain of Glu to Zr(IV), which prevents coordination of the peptide carbonyl group and its activation towards hydrolysis.

  7. Understanding regioselective cleavage in peptide hydrolysis by a palladium(II) aqua complex: a theoretical point of view.

    PubMed

    Yeguas, Violeta; Campomanes, Pablo; López, Ramón; Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas

    2010-07-01

    Hydrolytic cleavage of the oligopeptides Ace-Ala-Lys-Tyr-Gly approximately Gly-Met-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala and Ace-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly approximately Pro-Met-Ala-Ala-Arg-Gly by [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+) was theoretically investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanical calculations. The Pd anchorage to the peptide sequence is crucial to provoke the cleavage of the second bond upstream from the anchored methionine. For both cases, the most favorable reaction mechanism is a three-step route. The first step coincides with the experimental suggestion found for the Gly approximately Pro-Met sequence on a cleavage caused by an external attack of a water molecule to a complex in trans conformation of the scissile Gly approximately Gly and Gly approximately Pro peptide bonds. However, our results uncover the important role played by the presence of a Pd-coordinated water molecule, which simultaneously interacts with the carbonyl oxygen atom of the Gly amino acid in the Gly approximately Gly and Gly approximately Pro bonds. In accordance with experimental facts, the rise of the hydrolysis reaction rate when the Pro amino acid is located in the scissile peptide bond was also corroborated. The findings obtained at a molecular level from the present computations not only are relevant to rationalize the previously reported experiments but also could be of importance in designing new Pd(II) complexes for the regioselective cleavage of peptides and proteins.

  8. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  9. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  10. Interactions of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions with the hydrolysis products of the C-terminal -ESHH- motif of histone H2A model peptides. Association of the stability of the complexes formed with the cleavage of the -E-S- bond.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Marios; Plakatouras, John C; Hadjiliadis, Nick

    2004-12-21

    We studied the interactions of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions with the synthetic tetrapeptides SHHK- and SAHK-, which were blocked by amidation making them more realistic models of the hydrolysis peptidic products of the hexapeptides models of H2A histone. A combination of potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques (UV/Vis, CD, NMR and EPR) suggested that at pH > 7 both tetrapeptides coordinated equatorially through the imidazole ring of His in position 3, the N-terminal amino group and the two amide nitrogens existing between these groups {NH2, 2N-, NIm} forming 4N square-planar complexes. While in the case of the CuH(-1)L complex with SHHK- a possible axial coordination of the imidazole ring of His in position 2 was suggested, in the case of the analogous NiH(-1)L complex a completely different interaction of the same ring with metal ions was observed. As expected these complexes have the same structures with the hydrolysis products produced from the Ni(II)- or Cu(II)-assisted hydrolysis of previously studied hexapeptide models of the C-terminal of histone H2A, due to their predominance at pH > 7.4. In addition, the competition plots presented herein showed that the synthetic tetrapeptides SHHK- and SAHK- have higher affinity towards Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions than the previously studied hexapeptides, suggesting that metal ions remain bound to the peptidic products during the hydrolysis cleavage. Thus, it can be concluded that the stability of Ni(II) or Cu(II) complexes with the synthetic tetrapeptides and consequently with the real hydrolysis peptidic products is the driving force of the hydrolysis reaction of H2A histone blocked hexapeptide models, presented in previous studies.

  11. Hydrolysis of triple-helical collagen peptide models by matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Lauer-Fields, J L; Tuzinski, K A; Shimokawa, K i; Nagase, H; Fields, G B

    2000-05-05

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family has been implicated in the process of a variety of diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, and tumor cell metastasis. To study the mechanisms of MMP action on collagenous substrates, we have constructed homotrimeric triple-helical peptide (THP) models of the collagenase cleavage sites in types I and II collagen. The THPs incorporate either the alpha1(I)772-786 or the alpha1(II)772-783 sequence. The alpha1(I)772-786 and alpha1(II)772-783 THPs were hydrolyzed by MMP-1 at the Gly-Ile and Gly-Leu bonds, respectively, analogous to the bonds cleaved in corresponding native collagens. Thus, the THPs contained all necessary information to direct MMP-1 binding and proteolysis. Subsequent investigations using the alpha1(I)772-786 THP showed hydrolysis by MMP-2, MMP-13, and a COOH-terminal domain-deleted MMP-1 (MMP-1(Delta(243-450))) but not by MMP-3 or a COOH-terminal domain-deleted MMP-3 (MMP-3(Delta(248-460))). Kinetic analyses showed a k(cat)/K(m) value of 1,808 s(-1) m(-1) for MMP-1 hydrolysis of alpha1(I)772-786 THP, approximately 10-fold lower than for type I collagen. The effect is caused primarily by relative K(m) values. MMP-2 and MMP-13 cleaved the THP more rapidly than MMP-1, but MMP-2 cleavage occurred at distinct multiple sites. Comparison of MMP-1 and MMP-1(Delta(243-450)) hydrolysis of alpha1(I)772-786 THP showed that both can cleave a triple-helical substrate with a slightly higher K(m) value for MMP-1(Delta(243-450)). We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of MMPs is necessary for orienting whole, native collagen molecules but may not be necessary for binding to and cleaving a THP. This proposal is consistent with the large distance between the MMP-1 catalytic and COOH-terminal domains observed by three-dimensional structural analysis and supports previous suggestions that the features of the catalytic domain contribute significantly toward enzyme specificity.

  12. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-09-23

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favorable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708-8719), but the reaction mechanisms are noticeably different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behavior of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system.

  13. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favourable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708–8719) but the reaction mechanisms are noticeable different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behaviour of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system. PMID:26325003

  14. Effects of Chemical Structure on Hydrolysis Pathways of Small Peptides in Coastal Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Reyna, N. E.; Hamdan, L. J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Deciphering peptide hydrolysis pathways is key to understanding the mechanism of peptide hydrolysis, in particular the types of extracellular enzymes that are active in seawater. From the hydrolyzed fragments of small peptides, one can estimate the role of amino-, carboxy-, and endopeptidases in a quantitative way. In this study, we incubated several small peptides with different amino acid compositions, alanine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (AVFA), phenylalanine-alanine-serine-tryptophan-glycine-alanine (FASWGA), VFA, SWGA, VVFA, arginine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (RVFA), SVFA, aspartic acid-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (DVFA), trialanine (AAA), and AVF in two coastal seawaters (ship channel seawater in the western Gulf of Mexico and Sta. C6 seawater in the northern Gulf of Mexico). In both seawaters, aminopeptidases played a more dominant role (22-67%) in hydrolyzing peptides with hydrophobic amino acid at the N-terminus, such as AVFA, VVFA, VFA, and AAA, or with basic amino acid at the N-terminus (RVFA), as compared to those with N-terminal polar amino acid (SVFA, SWGA) or acidic amino acid (DVFA) (0-24%). This result indicates that amino acid composition in a peptide structure affects how the peptide is hydrolyzed. We also found that peptides in the C6 seawater were hydrolyzed dominantly by aminopeptidases (10-59%), while those in the ship channel seawater also by endo- or carboxypeptidases (9-69%). This pattern suggests that peptide hydrolysis pathways depend on specific environment conditions, such as bacterial community structure, that can lead to variations in abundances or activities among amino-, carboxy- and endopeptidases. Overall, the results provide insights into the effects of chemical structure and seawater environment on peptide hydrolysis pathways.

  15. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides with different degrees of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Mio; Taira, Toshiaki; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the degree of hydrolysis on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides were evaluated based on surface and interfacial tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) analyses. Of the five evaluated soybean peptides (SP95, SP87, SP75, SP49, and SP23), those with higher degrees of hydrolysis (SP95 and SP87) did not exhibit noticeable surface-active properties in water, whereas those with relatively low degrees of hydrolysis (SP75, SP49, and SP23) exhibited remarkable surface tension-lowering activity. The latter set (SP75, SP49, and SP23) also formed giant associates with average sizes ranging from 64.5 nm to 82.6 nm above their critical association concentration (CAC). Moreover, SP23 with the lowest degree of hydrolysis exhibited excellent emulsifying activity for soybean oil, and FF-TEM analysis demonstrated that the emulsions were stabilized by a lamella-like multilayer peptide structure on the oil droplets that prevented coagulation. The peptide with the lowest degree of hydrolysis (SP23) was effective not only for soybean oil emulsification, but also for the emulsification of liquid paraffin and silicon oil that are generally difficult to emulsify.

  16. Conjugation of synthetic peptides to proteins: quantitation from S-carboxymethylcysteine released upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, N; Robey, F A

    1990-05-15

    A method described here for conjugating synthetic peptides to carrier proteins provides a convenient method for determining peptide-to-carrier protein ratios. N-Bromoacetyl-containing peptides are reacted in situ with carrier proteins in which the disulfide bonds were reduced with tri-n-butylphosphine. At pH 7-8 and ambient temperature, the newly formed sulfhydryl groups of the carrier protein react exclusively with the bromoacetyl mokiety of the peptide to form conjugates having stable thio ether linkages. Acid hydrolyses of these conjugates release S-carboxymethylcysteine in amounts proportional to the amounts of peptides conjugated and thus allow determination of peptide-to-protein ratios.

  17. The proteolytic stability of 'designed' beta-peptides containing alpha-peptide-bond mimics and of mixed alpha,beta-peptides: application to the construction of MHC-binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Hook, David F; Bindschädler, Pascal; Mahajan, Yogesh R; Sebesta, Radovan; Kast, Peter; Seebach, Dieter

    2005-05-01

    Whereas alpha-peptides are rapidly degraded in vivo and in vitro by a multitude of peptidases, substrates constructed entirely of or incorporating homologated alpha-amino acid (i.e., beta-amino acid) units exhibit a superior stability profile. Efforts made so far to proteolytically hydrolyze a beta-beta peptide bond have not proved fruitful; a study aimed at breaching this proteolytic stability is discussed here. A series of such bonds have been designed with side-chain groups similar in relative positions (constitution) and three-dimensional arrangements (configuration) as found about alpha-peptidic amide bonds. Increasing the prospect for degradation would permit the tuning of beta-peptide stability; here, however, no cleavage was observed (1, 2, 4-6, Table 1). Peptides comprised of alpha- and beta-amino acids (mixed alpha,beta-peptides, 8-11) are expected to benefit from both recognition by a natural receptor and a high level of proteolytic stability, ideal characteristics of pharmacologically active compounds. Beta3-peptides containing alpha-amino acid moieties at the N-terminus are degraded, albeit slowly, by several peptidases. Of particular interest is the ability of pronase to cleave an alpha-beta peptide bond, namely that of alphaAla-beta3 hAla. Significantly, successful hydrolysis is independent of the configuration of the beta-amino acid. Some of the alpha,beta-peptides discussed here are being investigated for their binding affinities to class I MHC proteins. The computer-programming steps required to prepare alpha,beta-peptides on an automated peptide synthesizer are presented.

  18. Activation of carboxyl group with cyanate: peptide bond formation from dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Danger, Grégoire; Charlot, Solenne; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The reaction of cyanate with C-terminal carboxyl groups of peptides in aqueous solution was considered as a potential pathway for the abiotic formation of peptide bonds under the condition of the primitive Earth. The catalytic effect of dicarboxylic acids on cyanate hydrolysis was definitely attributed to intramolecular nucleophilic catalysis by the observation of the 1H-NMR signal of succinic anhydride when reacting succinic acid with KOCN in aqueous solution (pH 2.2-5.5). The formation of amide bonds was noticed when adding amino acids or amino acid derivatives into the solution. The reaction of N-acyl aspartic acid derivatives was observed to proceed similarly and the scope of the cyanate-promoted reaction was analyzed from the standpoint of prebiotic peptide formation. The role of cyanate in activating peptide C-terminus constitutes a proof of principle that intramolecular reactions of adducts of peptides C-terminal carboxyl groups with activating agents represent a pathway for peptide activation in aqueous solution, the relevance of which is discussed in connexion with the issue of the emergence of homochirality.

  19. Effects of Ligand Environment in Zr(IV) Assisted Peptide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Sharma, Gaurav; Paul, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Zachary; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2017-05-22

    In this DFT study, activities of 11 different N2O4, N2O3, and NO2 core containing Zr(IV) complexes, 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (I'N2O4), 1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane (I'N2O3), and 2-(2-methoxy)ethanol (I'NO2), respectively, and their analogues in peptide hydrolysis have been investigated. Based on the experimental information, these molecules were created by altering protonation states (singly protonated, doubly protonated, or doubly deprotonated) and number of their ligands. The energetics of the I'N2O4, and I'NO2 and their analogues predicted that both stepwise and concerted mechanisms occurred either with similar barriers, or the latter was more favorable than the former. They also showed that the doubly deprotonated form hydrolyzed the peptide bond with substantially lower barriers than the barriers for other protonation states. For NO2 core possessing complexes, Zr-(NO2)(OH(H))(H2O/OH)n for n = 1-3, the hydroxyl group containing molecules were found to be more reactive than their water ligand possessing counterparts. The barriers for these complexes reduced with an increase in the coordination number (6-8) of the Zr(IV) ion. Among all 11 molecules, the NO2 core possessing and two hydroxyl group containing I'DNO2-2H complex was found to be the most reactive complex with a barrier of 28.9 kcal/mol. Furthermore, barriers of 27.5, 28.9, and 32.0 kcal/mol for hydrolysis of Gly-Glu (negative), Gly-Gly (neutral), and Gly-Lys (positive) substrates, respectively, by this complex were in agreement with experiments. The activities of these complexes were explained in terms of basicity of their ligand environment and nucleophilicity of the Zr(IV) center using metal-ligand distances, charge on the metal ion, and the metal-nucleophile distance as parameters. These results provide a deeper understanding of the functioning of these complexes and will help design Zr(IV)-based synthetic metallopeptidases.

  20. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Peanut Flour Produces Bioactive Peptides with Reduced Allergenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies due to its life-threatening nature and persistency. Current immunotherapy methods, though effective, are often accompanied by allergic side-effects. Enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut flour has the potential to produce bioactive peptides with impro...

  1. Oral absorption of peptides: influence of pH and inhibitors on the intestinal hydrolysis of leu-enkephalin and analogues.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D I; Amidon, G L

    1991-01-01

    Leu-enkephalin (YGGFL) and several analogues were chosen as model peptides for the study of peptide absorption and hydrolysis in the rat jejunum. An HPLC assay was adapted to detect YGGFL or the analogues and metabolites. Peptide hydrolysis was studied in the rat jejunum using a single-pass perfusion method. Extensive hydrolysis of YGGFL was observed in the rat jejunum and approaches to reduce its metabolism were studied. The brush border enzymes are a major site of enkephalin hydrolysis. Lumenal peptidases were secondary to the brush border enzymes in hydrolyzing the enkephalins in this system. In the in situ perfusion system, YGGFL is hydrolyzed primarily to Tyr and GGFL by the brush border aminopeptidase and to YGG and FL by brush border endopeptidase. Lowering the jejunal pH below 5.0 significantly reduces aminopeptidase activity and, to a lesser extent, endopeptidase activity. An aminopeptidase inhibitor, amastatin, produced more pronounced inhibitory effects at higher pH and the endopeptidase inhibitors, tripeptides YGG and GGF, are effective even below pH 5.0. Coperfusion of YGGFL with a combination of aminopeptidase and endopeptidase inhibitors, e.g., amastatin and YGG, is more effective in inhibiting hydrolysis since both metabolic pathways are inhibited. Leu-D(Ala)2-enkephalin, while showing enhanced stability against aminopeptidase hydrolysis, is hydrolyzed at the Gly-Phe bond by the endopeptidase. Its hydrolysis is not affected by pH changes or amastatin but is decreased by YGG. The YGGFL wall permeability was estimated and is not a limiting factor for oral absorption.

  2. Evolutionary importance of the intramolecular pathways of hydrolysis of phosphate ester mixed anhydrides with amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  3. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  4. Halogen Bonding: A Powerful Tool for Modulation of Peptide Conformation.

    PubMed

    Danelius, Emma; Andersson, Hanna; Jarvoll, Patrik; Lood, Kajsa; Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Erdélyi, Máté

    2017-06-27

    Halogen bonding is a weak chemical force that has so far mostly found applications in crystal engineering. Despite its potential for use in drug discovery, as a new molecular tool in the direction of molecular recognition events, it has rarely been assessed in biopolymers. Motivated by this fact, we have developed a peptide model system that permits the quantitative evaluation of weak forces in a biologically relevant proteinlike environment and have applied it for the assessment of a halogen bond formed between two amino acid side chains. The influence of a single weak force is measured by detection of the extent to which it modulates the conformation of a cooperatively folding system. We have optimized the amino acid sequence of the model peptide on analogues with a hydrogen bond-forming site as a model for the intramolecular halogen bond to be studied, demonstrating the ability of the technique to provide information about any type of weak secondary interaction. A combined solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and computational investigation demonstrates that an interstrand halogen bond is capable of conformational stabilization of a β-hairpin foldamer comparable to an analogous hydrogen bond. This is the first report of incorporation of a conformation-stabilizing halogen bond into a peptide/protein system, and the first quantification of a chlorine-centered halogen bond in a biologically relevant system in solution.

  5. Counting peptide-water hydrogen bonds in unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haipeng; Porter, Lauren L; Rose, George D

    2011-02-01

    It is often assumed that the peptide backbone forms a substantial number of additional hydrogen bonds when a protein unfolds. We challenge that assumption in this article. Early surveys of hydrogen bonding in proteins of known structure typically found that most, but not all, backbone polar groups are satisfied, either by intramolecular partners or by water. When the protein is folded, these groups form approximately two hydrogen bonds per peptide unit, one donor or acceptor for each carbonyl oxygen or amide hydrogen, respectively. But when unfolded, the backbone chain is often believed to form three hydrogen bonds per peptide unit, one partner for each oxygen lone pair or amide hydrogen. This assumption is based on the properties of small model compounds, like N-methylacetamide, or simply accepted as self-evident fact. If valid, a chain of N residues would have approximately 2N backbone hydrogen bonds when folded but 3N backbone hydrogen bonds when unfolded, a sufficient difference to overshadow any uncertainties involved in calculating these per-residue averages. Here, we use exhaustive conformational sampling to monitor the number of H-bonds in a statistically adequate population of blocked polyalanyl-six-mers as the solvent quality ranges from good to poor. Solvent quality is represented by a scalar parameter used to Boltzmann-weight the population energy. Recent experimental studies show that a repeating (Gly-Ser) polypeptide undergoes a denaturant-induced expansion accompanied by breaking intramolecular peptide H-bonds. Results from our simulations augment this experimental finding by showing that the number of H-bonds is approximately conserved during such expansion⇋compaction transitions.

  6. Peptide Bond Formation in Water Mediated by Carbon Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Leman, Luke J; Huang, Zheng-Zheng; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2015-09-01

    Demonstrating plausible nonenzymatic polymerization mechanisms for prebiotic monomers represents a fundamental goal in prebiotic chemistry. While a great deal is now known about the potentially prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, our understanding of abiogenic polymerization processes to form polypeptides is less well developed. Here, we show that carbon disulfide (CS2), a component of volcanic emission and sulfide mineral weathering, and a widely used synthetic reagent and solvent, promotes peptide bond formation in modest yields (up to ∼20%) from α-amino acids under mild aqueous conditions. Exposure of a variety of α-amino acids to CS2 initially yields aminoacyl dithiocarbamates, which in turn generate reactive 2-thiono-5-oxazolidone intermediates, the thio analogues of N-carboxyanhydrides. Along with peptides, thiourea and thiohydantoin species are produced. Amino acid stereochemistry was preserved in the formation of peptides. Our findings reveal that CS2 could contribute to peptide bond formation, and possibly other condensation reactions, in abiogenic settings.

  7. An endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase from Treponema denticola ATCC 35405: evidence of hydrolysis of human bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, P L; Mäkinen, K K; Syed, S A

    1994-11-01

    An endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase (prolyl oligopeptidase [POPase], EC 3.4.21.26) was purified to homogeneity from the Triton X-100 extracts of cells of Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 (a human oral spirochete) by a procedure that comprised five successive fast protein liquid chromatography steps. The POPase is a cell-associated 75- to 77-kDa protein with an isoelectric point of ca. 6.5. The enzyme hydrolyzed (optimum pH 6.5) the Pro-pNA bond in carbobenzoxy-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide (Z-Gly-Pro-pNA) and bonds at the carboxyl side of proline in several human bioactive peptides, such as bradykinin, substance P, neurotensin, angiotensins, oxytocin, vasopressin, and human endothelin fragment 22-38. The minimum hydrolyzable peptide size was tetrapeptide P3P2P1P'1, while the maximum substrate size was ca. 3 kDa. An imino acid residue in position P1 was absolutely necessary. The hydrolysis of Z-Gly-Pro-pNA was potently inhibited by the following, with the Ki(app) (in micromolar) in parentheses: insulin B-chain (0.7), human endothelin-1 (0.5), neuropeptide Y (1.7), substance P (32.0), T-kinin (4.0), neurotensin (5.0), and bradykinin (16.0). Chemical modification and inhibition studies suggest that the POPase is a serine endopeptidase whose activity depends on the catalytic triad of COOH ... Ser ... His but not on a metal. The amino acid sequence around the putative active-site serine is Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Pro-Gly. The enzyme is suggested to contain a reactive cysteinyl residue near the active site. Amino acid residues 4 to 24 of the first 24 N-terminal residues showed a homology of 71% with the POPase precursor from Flavobacterium meningosepticum and considerable homology with the Aeromonas hydrophila POPase. The ready hydrolysis of human bioactive peptides at bonds involving an imino acid residue suggests that enzymes like POPase may contribute to the chronicity of periodontal infections by participating in the peptidolytic processing of those peptides.

  8. Molecular modeling of bioorganometallic compounds: thermodynamic properties of molybdocene-glutathione complexes and mechanism of Peptide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Dimas; Díaz, Natalia

    2015-06-08

    The computational study of bioinorganic complexes between transition metals and flexible ligands is still challenging, given that, besides requiring extensive conformational searches, the treatment of metal-ligand bonds demands the application of quantum chemical methods. Herein, the adducts formed between molybdocene, which exhibits antitumor activity and reacts with thiol groups to give stable water-soluble complexes, and the tripeptide glutathione, which is a major source of biological thiols, are studied. Conformational searches are performed using the semiempirical PM6 method followed by geometry optimizations and single-point calculations using density functional theory methods. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations of the molybdocene-glutathione complex involved in the regioselective hydrolysis of the Cys-Gly linkage are performed in explicit solvent. The reactive process is also studied theoretically on cluster models of both the molybdocene-bound and the free peptide.

  9. Influence of ion-associated water on the hydrolysis of Si-O bonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Adam F; Gibbs, G V; Dove, Patricia M

    2010-02-25

    Previous studies show the demineralization of biogenic, amorphous, and crystalline forms of silica is enhanced in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth cations. The origins of this effect are difficult to explain in light of work suggesting predominantly weak outer-sphere type interactions between these ions and silica. Here we investigate the ability of M(II) aqua ions to promote the hydrolysis of Si-O bonded interactions relative to ion-free water using electronic structure methods. Reaction pathways for Si-O hydrolysis are calculated with the B3LYP and PBE1PBE density functionals at the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) levels in the presence of water, and both inner- and outer-sphere adsorption complexes of Mg(2+)(6H(2)O) and Ca(2+)(6H(2)O). All reaction trajectories involving hydrated ions are characterized by one or more surmountable barriers associated with the rearrangement of ion-associated water molecules, and a single formidable barrier corresponding to hydrolysis of the Si-O bonded interaction. The hydrolysis step for outer-sphere adsorption is slightly less favorable than the water-induced reaction. In contrast, the barrier opposing Si-O hydrolysis in the presence of inner-sphere species is generally reduced relative to the water-induced pathway, indicating that the formation of inner-sphere complexes may be prerequisite to the detachment of Si species from highly coordinated surface sites. The results suggest a two-part physical model for ion-promoted Si-O hydrolysis that is consistent with experimental rate measurements. First, a bond path is formed between the cation and a bridging oxygen site on the silica surface that weakens the surrounding Si-O interactions, making them more susceptible to attack by water. Second, Si-O hydrolysis occurs adjacent to these inner-sphere species in proportion to the frequency of ion-associated solvent reorganization events. Both processes are dependent upon the particular ion hydration environment, which suggests

  10. Bioactive properties of peptides obtained from Argentinian defatted soy flour protein by Corolase PP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Amorim, Maria M; Voss, Glenise B; Nerli, Bibiana B; Picó, Guillermo A; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean meal protein isolate (SPI) obtained under two temperature conditions with Corolase PP was studied, assessing the impact of hydrolysis on potential antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. The protein was isolated from soybean meal under controlled conditions of time and temperature (70 °C, 1h; 90 °C, 30 min). Degree of hydrolysis assessed the progress of hydrolysis at different sampling times. For hydrolysates the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were measured. As observed, the DH was increasing until reaching 20% at 10h with disappearance of globular proteins and generation of low molecular weight peptides (less than 3kDa). A significant increase in antioxidant and ACE inhibitory capacities was observed. Five main peptides were identified, which may explain through their sequences the bioactive properties analyzed. Through this study was possible to obtain for the first time with Corolase PP soy hydrolysates with potential antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities, which can be used to obtain new added value functional ingredients from soy meal.

  11. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide–phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation. PMID:25501391

  12. Role of peptide bond in the realization of biological activity of short peptides.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Tarnovskaya, S I; Lin'kova, N S; Chervyakova, N A; Nichik, T E; Elashkina, E V; Chalisova, N I

    2015-02-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of biological activity of Lys-Glu peptide and its amino acid constituents. It was established that Lys-Glu stimulated proliferation of splenic cells in organotypic culture, while the mixture of glutamic acid and lysine inhibited culture growth. Using the method of molecular docking, we showed that glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide can interact with different DNA sequences. The energy of interaction and the most beneficial localization of glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide in DNA molecule was calculated. We demonstrated the interaction of the peptide and amino acids with DNA along the minor groove. The energy of DNA interaction with the peptide is higher than with individual amino acids. The peptide bonds increase the interaction of Lys-Glu peptide with DNA, which potentiates the biological effect on cell proliferation in organotypic culture of splenic cells.

  13. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics. 2. A computational study of the conformational ramifications of peptide bond replacement.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brian E; Urban, Joseph J

    2010-01-21

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to examine the conformational ramifications of replacing peptide bonds with fluoroalkene moieties, thus generating peptidomimetics. The alanine dipeptide analogue (ADA) was chosen as a model compound. Three peptidomimetic systems were investigated including one generated by replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA, designated as DFA, and those generated by the single replacement of the C-terminal peptide bond and N-terminal peptide bond, designated as CFA and NFA, respectively. Conformations for all three systems were generated by exhaustive Monte Carlo searching. Relative conformational energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ/MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ (for DFA), MP2/-aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d), and MMFF levels of theory. Aqueous phase conformational preferences were determined through calculations making use of continuum hydration models. The results indicate that replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA generates a peptidomimetic with conformational preferences where extended conformations are favored and the conformational profile is relatively insensitive to the nature of the surrounding medium. This is in contrast to ADA where the conformational preferences depend highly on the surrounding medium and where folded conformations with intramolecular hydrogen bonds are important in the absence of an interacting solvent. CFA and NFA are found to exhibit conformational preferences that do in some ways more closely resemble those of the alanine dipeptide analogue. This is particularly true in the case of NFA where interactions between the NH and CF groups are reminiscent of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding possible in ADA.

  14. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-07

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases.

  15. Controlling hydrolysis reaction rates with binary ionic liquid mixtures by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-02-16

    The ability of a binary ionic liquid (IL) system consisting of a phosphonium transition state analogue (TSA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf(2)]) to accelerate the rate of the well-studied hydrolysis of a tert-alkyl picolinium salt by influencing the solvent structure was investigated. A significant rate enhancement was observed in the presence of the TSA; however, comparison with other cations illustrated that this enhancement was not unique to the chosen TSA. Instead, the rate enhancements were correlated with the dilution of hydrogen bonding by the added cations. This phenomenon was further examined by the use of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][NTf(2)]) as a cosolvent and the use of Reichardt's dye to measure the extent of hydrogen bonding on solutes in these systems. The rate increases are rationalized in terms of weaker hydrogen bonding from the solvent system to water.

  16. cis-Peptide Bonds: A Key for Intestinal Permeability of Peptides? .

    PubMed

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Ovadia, Oded; Frank, Andreas Oliver; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Gilon, Chaim; Hoffman, Amnon; Kessler, Horst

    2015-10-19

    Recent structural studies on libraries of cyclic hexapeptides led to the identification of common backbone conformations that may be instrumental to the oral availability of peptides. Furthermore, the observation of differential Caco-2 permeabilities of enantiomeric pairs of some of these peptides strongly supports the concept of conformational specificity driven uptake and also suggests a pivotal role of carrier-mediated pathways for peptide transport, especially for scaffolds of polar nature. This work presents investigations on the Caco-2 and PAMPA permeability profiles of 13 selected N-methylated cyclic pentaalanine peptides derived from the basic cyclo(-D-Ala-Ala4 -) template. These molecules generally showed moderate to low transport in intestinal epithelia with a few of them exhibiting a Caco-2 permeability equal to or slightly higher than that of mannitol, a marker for paracellular permeability. We identified that the majority of the permeable cyclic penta- and hexapeptides possess an N-methylated cis-peptide bond, a structural feature that is also present in the orally available peptides cyclosporine A and the tri-N-methylated analogue of the Veber-Hirschmann peptide. Based on these observations it appears that the presence of N-methylated cis-peptide bonds at certain locations may promote the intestinal permeability of peptides through a suitable conformational preorganization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Immobilization of trypsin in organic and aqueous media for enzymatic peptide synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.

    PubMed

    Stolarow, Julia; Heinzelmann, Manuel; Yeremchuk, Wladimir; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-08-19

    Immobilization of enzymes onto different carriers increases enzyme's stability and reusability within biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. However, some immobilization techniques are associated with loss of enzymatic specificity and/or activity. Possible reasons for this loss are mass transport limitations or structural changes. For this reason an immobilization method must be selected depending on immobilisate's demands. In this work different immobilization media were compared towards the synthetic and hydrolytic activities of immobilized trypsin as model enzyme on magnetic micro-particles. Porcine trypsin immobilization was carried out in organic and aqueous media with magnetic microparticles. The immobilization conditions in organic solvent were optimized for a peptide synthesis reaction. The highest carrier activity was achieved at 1 % of water (v/v) in dioxane. The resulting immobilizate could be used over ten cycles with activity retention of 90 % in peptide synthesis reaction in 80 % (v/v) ethanol and in hydrolysis reaction with activity retention of 87 % in buffered aqueous solution. Further, the optimized method was applied in peptide synthesis and hydrolysis reactions in comparison to an aqueous immobilization method varying the protein input. The dioxane immobilization method showed a higher activity coupling yield by factor 2 in peptide synthesis with a maximum activity coupling yield of 19.2 % compared to aqueous immobilization. The hydrolysis activity coupling yield displayed a maximum value of 20.4 % in dioxane immobilization method while the aqueous method achieved a maximum value of 38.5 %. Comparing the specific activity yields of the tested immobilization methods revealed maximum values of 5.2 % and 100 % in peptide synthesis and 33.3 % and 87.5 % in hydrolysis reaction for the dioxane and aqueous method, respectively. By immobilizing trypsin in dioxane, a beneficial effect on the synthetic trypsin activity resilience

  18. Characterization of P-S bond hydrolysis in organophosphorothioate pesticides by organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lai, K; Stolowich, N J; Wild, J R

    1995-04-01

    The extensive use of organophosphorothioate insecticides in agriculture has resulted in the risk of environmental contamination with a variety of broadly based neurotoxins that inhibit the acetylcholinesterases of many different animal species. Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1) is a broad-spectrum phosphotriesterase that is capable of detoxifying a variety of organophosphorus neurotoxins by hydrolyzing various phosphorus-ester bonds (P-O, P-F, P-CN, and P-S) between the phosphorus center and an electrophilic leaving group. OPH is capable of hydrolyzing the P-X bond of various organophosphorus compounds at quite different catalytic rates: P-O bonds (kcat = 67-5000 s-1), P-F bonds (kcat = 0.01-500 s-1), and P-S bonds (kcat = 0.0067 to 167 s-1). P-S bond cleavage was readily demonstrated and characterized in these studies by quantifying the released free thiol groups using 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid or by monitoring an upfield shift of approximately 31 ppm by 31P NMR. A decrease in the toxicity of hydrolyzed products was demonstrated by directly quantifying the loss of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Phosphorothiolate esters, such as demeton-S, provided noncompetitive inhibition for paraoxon (a P-O triester) hydrolysis, suggesting that the binding of these two different classes of substrates was not identical.

  19. Evolutionary optimization of peptide substrates for proteases that exhibit rapid hydrolysis kinetics.

    PubMed

    Boulware, Kevin T; Jabaiah, Abeer; Daugherty, Patrick S

    2010-06-15

    Protease cleavage site recognition motifs can be identified using protease substrate discovery methodologies, but typically exhibit non-optimal specificity and activity. To enable evolutionary optimization of substrate cleavage kinetics, a two-color cellular library of peptide substrates (CLiPS) methodology was developed. Two-color CLiPS was applied to identify peptide substrates for the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease from a random pentapeptide library, which were then optimized by screening of a focused, extended substrate library. Quantitative library screening yielded seven amino acid substrates exhibiting rapid hydrolysis by TEV protease and high sequence similarity to the native seven-amino-acid substrate, with a strong consensus of EXLYPhiQG. Comparison of hydrolysis rates for a family of closely related substrates indicates that the native seven-residue TEV substrate co-evolved with TEV protease to facilitate highly efficient hydrolysis. Consensus motifs revealed by screening enabled database identification of a family of related, putative viral protease substrates. More generally, our results suggest that substrate evolution using CLiPS may be useful for optimizing substrate selectivity and activity to enable the design of more effective protease activity probes, molecular imaging agents, and prodrugs.

  20. Vibrational characterization of the peptide bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrebout, W.; Clou, K.; Desseyn, H. O.; Blaton, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the complete vibrational analysis of N, N'-dimethyloxamide, CH 3HNCOCONHCH 3, on basis of the infrared and Raman spectra of four isotopes (H, D, CH 3, CD 3). Force field calculations on the monomers and multimers ( n=5) combined with solid state spectra in the -196 to +100 °C temperature range have been used to obtain a better understanding of the influence of hydrogen bonding on the typical amide fundamentals. The cooperative effect in de series monomer→multimers→solid state at decreasing temperatures has been demonstrated. Nine typical so-called 'amide bands' have been further characterized and special attention has been given to the Amide IV mode. The influence of the CH and CD vibrations on the amide fundamentals, has been studied by comparison with the calculated and experimental fundamentals and P.E.D. values of the CH 3 and CD 3 isotopes. The most important amide bands have further been assigned in X-CONHCH 3 molecules where X=methyl, amide, thioamide, ester, salt, cyanide and acid functional groups.

  1. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  2. Genetic evidence for role of DPP IV in intestinal hydrolysis and assimilation of prolyl peptides.

    PubMed

    Tiruppathi, C; Miyamoto, Y; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

    1993-07-01

    The functional role of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) in the intestinal hydrolysis and assimilation of prolyl peptides was investigated using Japan F344 rats, which genetically lack this enzyme. USA F344 rats possess normal activity of this enzyme and served as matched controls. Intestinal brush-border membranes from the control rats were able to hydrolyze several proline-containing peptides. The hydrolytic ability of the brush-border membranes from the Japan rats against these peptides was markedly low. The difference in the hydrolytic activities between the two groups of rats was solely due to the absence of DPP IV in the Japan rats. There was no difference in the growth rate between the two groups of rats fed a reference diet whose protein constituents were not rich in proline. When the protein source was changed to gliadin, a proline-rich protein, USA F344 rats maintained their body weight for a 4-wk period on this diet, whereas the Japan rats experienced a significant weight loss under similar conditions. In situ perfusion experiments in intact animals revealed that the ability of morphiceptin (a peptide primarily hydrolyzable by DPP IV), when administered into the intestinal lumen, to block the cholera toxin-induced water secretion was significantly greater in Japan F344 rats than in USA F344 rats, indicating the resistance of morphiceptin to hydrolytic breakdown in the intestinal lumen of the Japan rats. It is concluded that the intestinal DPP IV plays a significant role in the hydrolysis of prolyl peptides and assimilation of proline-rich proteins.

  3. Variability of hydrolysis of β-, αs1-, and αs2-caseins by 10 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and resulting bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Miclo, Laurent; Roux, Emeline; Genay, Magali; Brusseaux, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Jameh, Nawara; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie

    2012-01-18

    Milk proteins contain numerous potential bioactive peptides, which may be released by digestive proteases or by the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria during food processing. The capacity of Streptococcus thermophilus to generate peptides, especially bioactive peptides, from bovine caseins was investigated. Strains expressing various levels of the cell envelope proteinase, PrtS, were incubated with α(s1)-, α(s2)-, or β-casein. Analysis of the supernatants by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the β-casein was preferentially hydrolyzed, followed by α(s2)-casein and then α(s1)-casein. Numbers and types of peptides released were strain-dependent. Hydrolysis appeared to be linked with the accessibility of different casein regions by protease. Analysis of bonds hydrolyzed in the region 1-23 of α(s1)-casein suggests that PrtS is at least in part responsible for the peptide production. Finally, among the generated peptides, 13 peptides from β-casein, 5 from α(s2)-casein, and 2 from α(s1)-casein have been reported as bioactive, 15 of them being angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  4. Study of nonplanarity of peptide bond using theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Selvarengan, P; Kolandaivel, P

    2005-08-01

    The conformational dependence of nonplanarity of the peptide bond of formylglycinamide has been studied using ab initio and density functional theory methods. Hartree-Fock self-consistent field theory (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) of ab initio and B3LYP level of theory of dft method have been used employing 6-31++G** basis set. The MP2 method predicts better results than HF and B3LYP levels of theory for conformational stability dependence of nonplanarity. Systematic dependence of planarity deviation has been observed in MP2 theory. The chemical hardness values successfully predict the conformational region, but fail to obey maximum hardness principle. It is concluded that the most reliable dft method could not successfully predict the planarity of peptide bond in comparison with electron correlated method of ab initio method.

  5. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers.

  6. Amide and Peptide Bond Formation in Water at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Christopher M; Keener, Megan; Gallou, Fabrice; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2015-08-21

    A general and environmentally responsible method for the formation of amide/peptide bonds in an aqueous micellar medium is described. Use of uronium salt (1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylidenaminooxy)dimethylaminomorpholinocarbenium hexafluorophosphate (COMU) as a coupling reagent, 2,6-lutidine, and TPGS-750-M represents mild conditions associated with these valuable types of couplings. The aqueous reaction medium is recyclable leading to low E Factors.

  7. Covalent-bonded immobilization of lipase on poly(phenylene sulfide) dendrimers and their hydrolysis ability.

    PubMed

    Yemul, Omprakash; Imae, Toyoko

    2005-01-01

    Covalent-bonded immobilization of lipase from burkholderia cepacia onto two poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) dendrimers with different generations (two and three) was achieved using carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. The hydrolysis activity of olive oil to fatty acid was studied on enzyme-immobilized PPS dendrimers. Enzyme activity was proportional to the enzyme loading, and highest recovered activity was obtained at the medium enzyme loading for both G2 and G3 dendrimers. The immobilization improved the optimum pH and caused the temperature range to widen. Immobilization of enzyme has enhanced the thermal stability of enzyme activity in comparison with free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme as a biocatalyst for batch hydrolysis of olive oil retained 80 approximately 90% activity even after 20 times of recycling. This retention of activity after recycle is very valuable and powerful in enzyme technology. The present noteworthy and vital availability on enzyme reaction of the covalently bonded immobilized lipase on dendrimer came from the structure of dendrimer with a large number of functional terminal groups, which are easily available for immobilization of many lipases at the situation keeping reactive enzymes on the surface of dendrimer.

  8. Valorization of cruor slaughterhouse by-product by enzymatic hydrolysis for the production of antibacterial peptides: focus on α 1-32 family peptides mechanism and kinetics modeling.

    PubMed

    Hedhili, K; Dimitrov, K; Vauchel, P; Sila, A; Chataigné, G; Dhulster, P; Nedjar, N

    2015-10-01

    Bovine hemoglobin is the major component of the cruor (slaughterhouse by-product) and can be considered as an important source of active peptides that could be obtained by pepsic hydrolysis. The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of several antibacterial peptides from α 1-32 family during hydrolysis of synthesized α 1-32 peptide, of purified bovine hemoglobin and of cruor was studied, and reaction scheme for the hydrolysis of α 1-32 family peptides from these three sources was determined. On this basis, a mathematical model was proposed to predict the concentration of each peptide of interest of this family depending on hydrolysis time, and also on temperature (in the range 15-37 °C), pH (in the range 3.5-5.5) and enzyme to substrate ratio (in the range 1/50-1/200 for the synthesized peptide and 1/5-1/20 for purified bovine hemoglobin and cruor). Apparent rate constants of reactions were determined by applying the model on a set of experimental data and it was shown that they depended on the temperature according to Arrhenius's law, that their dependence on the pH was linear, and that enzyme to substrate ratio influence was limited (in the studied range).

  9. Hydrolysis of milk-derived bioactive peptides by cell-associated extracellular peptidases of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Zeeshan; Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Julien; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie; Miclo, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The trend to confer new functional properties to fermented dairy products by supplementation with bioactive peptides is growing in order to encounter the challenge of health-promoting foods. But these functional ingredients have not to be hydrolysed by proteases of bacteria used in the manufacture of these products. One of the two yoghurt bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus, has long been considered as weakly proteolytic since its only cell wall-associated subtilisin-like protease, called PrtS, is not always present. Nevertheless, a recent study pointed out a possible peptidase activity in certain strains. In this present study, the stability of milk-derived bioactive peptides, e.g. the anxiolytic peptide, αs1-CN-(f91-97), in the presence of two different S. thermophilus strains with PrtS+ or PrtS− phenotype was studied. Both strains appeared to be capable of hydrolysing the αs1-CN-(f91-97) and other bioactive peptides by recurrent removal of N-terminal residues. The hydrolysis was neither due to intracellular peptidases nor to HtrA protease. Results obtained showed that the observed activity originates from the presence at the surface of both strains of an extracellular aminopeptidase activity. Moreover, a cell wall-associated X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity was also highlighted when β-casomorphin-7 was used as substrate. All of these findings suggest that, in order to use fermented milks as vector of bioactive peptides, the stability of these bioactive peptides in this kind of products implies to carefully characterize the potential action of the surface proteolytic enzymes of S. thermophilus.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of heated whey: iron-binding ability of peptides and antigenic protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Seo, I S; Khan, M A; Ki, K S; Lee, W S; Lee, H J; Shin, H S; Kim, H S

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of various enzymes on the hydrolysis of whey protein concentrate (WPC) to reduce its antigenic fractions and to quantify the peptides having iron-binding ability in its hydrolysates. Heated (for 10 min at 100 degrees C) WPC (2% protein solution) was incubated with 2% each of Alcalase, Flavourzyme, papain, and trypsin for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min at 50 degrees C. The highest hydrolysis of WPC was observed after 240 min of incubation with Alcalase (12.4%), followed by Flavourzyme (12.0%), trypsin (10.4%), and papain (8.53%). The nonprotein nitrogen contents of WPC hydrolysate followed the hydrolytic pattern of whey. The major antigenic fractions (beta-lactoglobulin) in WPC were degraded within 60 min of its incubation with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, or papain. Chromatograms of enzymatic hydrolysates of heated WPC also indicated complete degradation of beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and BSA. The highest iron solubility was noticed in hydrolysates derived with Alcalase (95%), followed by those produced with trypsin (90%), papain (87%), and Flavourzyme (81%). Eluted fraction 1 (F-1) and fraction 2 (F-2) were the respective peaks for the 0.25 and 0.5 M NaCl chromatographic step gradient for analysis of hydrolysates. Iron-binding ability was noticeably higher in F-1 than in F-2 of all hydrolysates of WPC. The highest iron contents in F-1 were observed in WPC hydrolysates derived with Alcalase (0.2 mg/kg), followed by hydrolysates derived with Flavourzyme (0.14 mg/kg), trypsin (0.14 mg/kg), and papain (0.08 mg/kg). Iron concentrations in the F-2 fraction of all enzymatic hydrolysates of WPC were low and ranged from 0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg. Fraction 1 may describe a new class of iron chelates based on the reaction of FeSO4 x 7 H2O with a mixture of peptides obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC. The chromatogram of Alcalase F-1 indicated numerous small peaks of shorter wavelengths, which probably indicated a variety of

  11. Peptide bond formation via glycine condensation in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Van Dornshuld, Eric; Vergenz, Robert A; Tschumper, Gregory S

    2014-07-24

    Four unique gas phase mechanisms for peptide bond formation between two glycine molecules have been mapped out with quantum mechanical electronic structure methods. Both concerted and stepwise mechanisms, each leading to a cis and trans glycylglycine product (four mechanisms total), were examined with the B3LYP and MP2 methods and Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets as large as aug-cc-pVTZ. Electronic energies of the stationary points along the reaction pathways were also computed with explicitly correlated MP2-F12 and CCSD(T)-F12 methods. The CCSD(T)-F12 computations indicate that the electronic barriers to peptide bond formation are similar for all four mechanisms (ca. 32-39 kcal mol(-1) relative to two isolated glycine fragments). The smallest barrier (32 kcal mol(-1)) is associated with the lone transition state for the concerted mechanism leading to the formation of a trans peptide bond, whereas the largest barrier (39 kcal mol(-1)) was encountered along the concerted pathway leading to the cis configuration of the glycylglycine dipeptide. Two significant barriers are encountered for the stepwise mechanisms. For both the cis and trans pathways, the early electronic barrier is 36 kcal mol(-1) and the subsequent barrier is approximately 1 kcal mol(-1) lower. A host of intermediates and transition states lie between these two barriers, but they all have very small relative electronic energies (ca. ± 4 kcal mol(-1)). The isolated cis products (glycylglycine + H2O) are virtually isoenergetic with the isolated reactants (within -1 kcal mol(-1)), whereas the trans products are about 5 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy. In both products, however, the water can hydrogen bond to the dipeptide and lower the energy by roughly 5-9 kcal mol(-1). This study indicates that the concerted process leading to a trans configuration about the peptide bond is marginally favored both thermodynamically (exothermic by ca. 5 kcal mol(-1)) and kinetically (barrier height ≈ 32 kcal mol(-1

  12. The partial charge of the nitrogen atom in peptide bonds.

    PubMed Central

    Milner-White, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    A majority of the standard texts dealing with proteins portray the peptide link as a mixture of two resonance forms, in one of which the nitrogen atom has a positive charge. As a consequence, it is often believed that the nitrogen atom has a net positive charge. This is in apparent contradiction with the partial negative charge on the nitrogen that is used in force fields for molecular modeling. However, charges on resonance forms are best regarded as formal rather than actual charges and current evidence clearly favors a net negative charge for the nitrogen atom. In the course of the discussion, new ideas about the electronic structure of amides and the peptide bond are presented. PMID:9385654

  13. DNA-specific autoantibody cleaves DNA by hydrolysis of phosphodiester and glycosidic bond.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Jang, Young-Ju; Jeong, Sunjoo; Yu, Jaehoon

    2003-11-21

    The DNA-recognizing autoantibodies were prepared in milligram scale and their catalytic activities were investigated using various standard substrates for hydrolysis of natural biomolecules such as DNA, carbohydrates, and proteins. Only phosphatase and glycosidase activity was found and no peptidase, sulfatase, or esterase activity was detected in most of anti-DNA monoclonal autoantibodies we tested. Antibody G1-2 showed the highest catalytic activities and its enzymatic characteristics were further investigated. The antibody showed phosphatase activity with sub-millimolar substrate specificity and 10(4)-10(5) rate enhancements. However, Ab G1-2 showed low micro-molar specificity with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosamide with 10(4)-10(5) rate enhancements. Both of the catalytic activities showed pH maximum at 4-5, suggesting that the carboxylate(s) in antigen-binding site is involved in the catalytic mechanism. Chemical protection of carboxylate(s) with diazoacetamide showed much reduced activity of the Ab, confirming that the catalytic activity comes from carboxylate(s) in the Ag-binding region. The activities of phosphatase and glycosidase were thoroughly inhibited by DNA with almost identical K(i) values. These data suggest that DNA-binding site(s) is the enzymatic active site of the catalytic Abs. Capabilities of the DNA recognition might make it possible to confer the Ab the catalytic activity of phosphate and glycosidic bond hydrolysis, which can be the main cause of DNA cleavage.

  14. Pilot-scale pressurized base hydrolysis of HMX plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.A.; Brewer, G.R.; Harradine, D.M.; Polston, C.E.; Le, L.A.; Bishop, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Flesner, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    A pilot-scale, pressurized, base hydrolysis reactor has been designed and its construction is nearly completed. Up to 120 L of 1--6 M NaOH aqueous solutions will convert as much as 25 kg of consolidated, explosive pieces to non-energetic compounds. Temperatures approaching 155 C in the pressurized unit will reduce reaction times significantly for the destruction of plastic-bonded explosives compared to previous atmospheric-pressure reactors. The hydrolysis effluent is then pumped into a holding tank where it is fed into a hydrothermal oxidation reactor for complete destruction to non-hazardous products. The hydrothermal unit operates at 480 C and 100 MPa and hydrogen peroxide fed into the reactor at two points will ensure complete destruction of all organic species and nitrogen-containing salts. The entire system is comprised of eight major components and is assembled on five separate and transportable skids. Following construction and preliminary testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the unit will be shipped to the Pantex Plant where it will be used for continuous demilitarization activities.

  15. Protein Sequence Alignment Taking the Structure of Peptide Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Toshihide; Sato, Keiko; Ohya, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    In a previous paper1 we proposed a new method for performing pairwise alignment of protein sequences. The method, called MTRAP, achieves the highest performance compared with other alignment methods such as ClustalW22,3 on two benchmarks for alignment accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a new measure between two amino acids based on the formation of peptide bonds. The measure is implemented into MTRAP software to further improve alignment accuracy. Our alignment software is available at

  16. Peptide-Like Molecules (PLMs): A Journey from Peptide Bond Isosteres to Gramicidin S Mimetics and Mitochondrial Targeting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wipf, Peter; Xiao, Jingbo; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are natural ligands and substrates for receptors and enzymes and exhibit broad physiological effects. However, their use as therapeutic agents often suffers from poor bioavailability and insufficient membrane permeability. The success of peptide mimicry hinges on the ability of bioisosteres, in particular peptide bond replacements, to adopt suitable secondary structures relevant to peptide strands and position functional groups in equivalent space. This perspective highlights past and ongoing studies in our group that involve new methods development as well as specific synthetic library preparations and applications in chemical biology, with the goal to enhance the use of alkene and cyclopropane peptide bond isosteres. PMID:20725595

  17. Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Peptide and Modified Jeffamine Organogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel; Richardson, Adam

    2011-03-01

    In these studies, we present two systems whereby supramolecular assembly results in rigid organogels. First, a series of AB diblock copolymers consisting of poly(Lysine(Z)) (P(Lys(Z)) blocks were synthesized and found to form stable, rigid organogels in THF (ca. 1 - 1.5 wt.% solutions) and chloroform at room temperature. In these systems, the protecting group on the P(Lys) side-chains remains intact and gel formation results from the assembly of the solventphobic P(Lys(Z)) chains through intermolecular beta-sheet formation. The non-peptide block was found to have an effect on organogel properties due to interfacial frustration, which disrupts H-bonding. Second, Jeffamine polymers were modified in a facile way to incorporate intermolecular H-bonding groups to yield networks able to gel various solvents as well as mineral and canola oil. We present the physical and rheological properties of the organogels produced.

  18. Bivalent cation binding effect on formation of the peptide bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Rode, Bernd Michael

    2000-01-01

    The reactions between formic acid (or glycine) and ammonia, without and with Mg 2+, Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ cations as catalysts, have been studied as model reactions for peptide bond formation using the Becke3LYP functional and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set of DFT theory. Enthalpies and free energies for the stationary points of each reaction have been calculated to determine the thermodynamics of reactions investigated. A substantial decrease in reaction enthalpies and free energies was found for formic acid-ammonia and glycine-ammonia reactions catalysed by Mg 2+, Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ ions compared with those of the uncatalysed amide bond formation. The catalytic effect of the transition metal ions Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ is of similar strength and more pronounced than that of the Mg 2+ cation.

  19. Which one among aspartyl protease, metallopeptidase, and artificial metallopeptidase is the most efficient catalyst in peptide hydrolysis?

    PubMed

    Bora, Ram Prasad; Barman, Arghya; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Ozbil, Mehmet; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2010-08-26

    In this comparative DFT study, the hydrolysis of a peptide bond (Phe1-Phe2) by the following three types of catalysts has been studied: (1) beta-secretase (BACE2), (2) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and (3) [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+) (I(MPC)) and [Pd(2)(mu-OH)([18]aneN(6))](3+) (I(DPC)). The computed energetics predict that among these catalysts, the Zn(2+) metal center containing MMP is the most efficient in catalyzing this reaction. The two active site aspartate residues containing BACE2 catalyze this reaction with 5.0 kcal/mol higher barrier than MMP. The substitution of a His ligand with Glu in the metal center of MMP generates the active site of IDE that catalyzes the reaction with a 6.9 kcal/mol higher barrier than MMP. Both artificial peptidases I(MPC) and I(DPC) catalyze this reaction with significantly high barriers of 35.4 and 31.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The computed energetics of all the catalysts are in line with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  20. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry as a Tool for the Structural Characterization of Peptides Bearing Intramolecular Disulfide Bond(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Philippe; Haler, Jean R. N.; Upert, Gregory; Degueldre, Michel; Morsa, Denis; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mourier, Gilles; Gilles, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-10-01

    Disulfide bonds are post-translationnal modifications that can be crucial for the stability and the biological activities of natural peptides. Considering the importance of these disulfide bond-containing peptides, the development of new techniques in order to characterize these modifications is of great interest. For this purpose, collision cross cections (CCS) of a large data set of 118 peptides (displaying various sequences) bearing zero, one, two, or three disulfide bond(s) have been measured in this study at different charge states using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. From an experimental point of view, CCS differences (ΔCCS) between peptides bearing various numbers of disulfide bonds and peptides having no disulfide bonds have been calculated. The ΔCCS calculations have also been applied to peptides bearing two disulfide bonds but different cysteine connectivities (Cys1-Cys2/Cys3-Cys4; Cys1-Cys3/Cys2-Cys4; Cys1-Cys4/Cys2-Cys3). The effect of the replacement of a proton by a potassium adduct on a peptidic structure has also been investigated.

  1. Hydrolysis of Surfactants Containing Ester Bonds: Modulation of Reaction Kinetics and Important Aspects of Surfactant Self-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Dan; Stjerndahl, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-assembly on the hydrolysis kinetics of surfactants that contain ester bonds are discussed. A number of examples on how reaction rates and apparent reaction orders can be modulated by changes in the conditions, including an instance of apparent zero-order kinetics, are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that the examples on…

  2. Hydrolysis of Surfactants Containing Ester Bonds: Modulation of Reaction Kinetics and Important Aspects of Surfactant Self-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Dan; Stjerndahl, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-assembly on the hydrolysis kinetics of surfactants that contain ester bonds are discussed. A number of examples on how reaction rates and apparent reaction orders can be modulated by changes in the conditions, including an instance of apparent zero-order kinetics, are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that the examples on…

  3. Partial Molecular Characterization of Arctium minus Aspartylendopeptidase and Preparation of Bioactive Peptides by Whey Protein Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Cecilia V; Colombo, María Laura; Liggieri, Constanza; Bruno, Mariela; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we report the cloning of an aspartic protease (AP) from flowers of Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) along with the use of depigmented aqueous flower extracts, as a source of APs, for the hydrolysis of whey proteins. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids called arctiumisin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of typical plant APs. Bovine whey protein hydrolysates, obtained employing the enzyme extracts of A. minus flowers, displayed inhibitory angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and antioxidant activities. Hydrolysates after 3 and 5 h of reaction (degree of hydrolysis 2.4 and 5.6, respectively) and the associated peptide fraction with molecular weight below 3 kDa were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry, and reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the viability of using proteases from A. minus to increase the antioxidant and inhibitory ACE capacity of whey proteins.

  4. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions, isolation, and identification of neuroprotective peptides derived from seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Ryu, Bomi; Himaya, Swa; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-08-01

    Hippocampus trimaculatus is one of the most heavily traded seahorse species for traditional medicine purposes in many countries. In the present study, we showed neuroprotective effects of peptide derived from H. trimaculatus against amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) toxicity which are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Firstly, H. trimaculatus was separately hydrolyzed by four different enzymes and tested for their protective effect on Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Pronase E hydrolysate exerted highest protection with cell viability value of 88.33 ± 3.33 %. Furthermore, we used response surface methodology to optimize pronase E hydrolysis conditions and found that temperature at 36.69 °C with the hydrolysis time 20.01 h, enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratio of 2.02 % and pH 7.34 were the most optimum conditions. Following several purification steps, H. trimaculatus-derived neuroprotective peptides (HTP-1) sequence was identified as Gly-Thr-Glu-Asp-Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys (906.4 Da). HTP-1 protected PC12 cells from Aβ42-induced neuronal death with the cell viability value of 85.52 ± 2.22 % and up-regulated pro-survival gene (Bcl-2) expressions. These results suggest that HTP-1 has the potential to be used in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly AD. Identification, characterization, and synthesis of bioactive components derived from H. trimaculatus have the potential to replace or at least complement the use of seahorse as traditional medicine, which further may become an approach to minimize seahorse exploitation in traditional medicine.

  5. Performance of coupled enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation bioreactor for antihypertensive peptides production from Porphyra yezoensis protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore more efficient production methods of antihypertensive peptides from Porphyra yezoensis protein, three methods of coupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation (CEH-MS) were studied and compared with the traditional EH and offline MS method. The results showed that the conversio...

  6. Influence of denaturation and aggregation of β-lactoglobulin on its tryptic hydrolysis and the release of functional peptides.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Elena; Götz, Alexander; Letzel, Thomas; Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2015-11-15

    Whereas previous studies showed that thermal pre-treatment of whey proteins promote their enzymatic hydrolysis, to date no correlation between the conformation of denatured protein and the release of individual peptides has been considered. Hence, in this study total denaturation of β-lactoglobulin was performed at defined pH-values to enable the generation of different denatured particles. The denatured proteins were used as substrate for tryptic hydrolysis and the hydrolysis progress was characterised by the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the release of functional peptides, detected using LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Denaturation and subsequent aggregation of β-lactoglobulin, induced by thermal treatment at pH 5.1, altered the DH slightly, whereas the release of investigated peptides was significantly decreased. Contrary, denaturation at pH 6.8 and 8.0 led to formation of non-native monomers and reduced the DH to 75%, but showed promoting as well as reducing effects on the release of peptides, depending on their location within the protein.

  7. Mechanistic insights into metal (Pd2+, Co2+, and Zn2+)-β-cyclodextrin catalyzed peptide hydrolysis: a QM/MM approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2014-04-17

    In this study, mechanistic insights into the hydrolysis of an extremely stable tertiary peptide bond (Ser-Pro) in the Ser-Pro-Phe sequence by an artificial enzyme, metal (Pd(2+), Co(2+), or Zn(2+))-β-cyclodextrin (CD) complex, have been provided. In particular, the exact reaction mechanism, the location of CD (number of -CH2 groups downstream from the metal center), conformation of CD (primary or secondary rim of CD facing the substrate), the number of CD (one or two), and the optimum metal ion (Pd(2+), Co(2+), or Zn(2+)) have been suggested using a state-of-the-art hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM: B3LYP/Amber) approach. The QM/MM calculations suggest that the internal delivery mechanism is the most energetically feasible for the peptide hydrolysis. The inclusion of a CD ring at two CH2 groups downstream from the metal center can provide 3 × 10(5) times acceleration in the activity, while the replacement of Pd(2+) with Co(2+) enhances the rate activity another 3.7 × 10(4) times.

  8. Formation of activated biomolecules by condensation on mineral surfaces--a comparison of peptide bond formation and phosphate condensation.

    PubMed

    Georgelin, Thomas; Jaber, Maguy; Bazzi, Houssein; Lambert, Jean-François

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have reported condensation reactions of prebiotic molecules, such as the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids, to occur to some degree on mineral surfaces. We have studied several such reactions on the same divided silica. When drying steps are applied, the equilibria of peptide formation from glycine, and polyphosphate formation from monophosphate, are displaced to the right because these reactions are dehydrating condensations, accompanied by the emission of water. In contrast, the equilibrium of AMP dismutation is not significantly favored by drying. The silica surface plays little role (if any) in the thermochemistry of the condensation reactions, but is does play a significant kinetic role by acting as a catalyst, lowering the condensation temperatures with respect to bulk solids. Of course, the surface also catalyzes the inverse hydrolysis reactions.

  9. Disulfide bond cleavage in TEMPO-free radical initiated peptide sequencing mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhee; Lee, Younjin; Kang, Minhyuk; Park, Hyeyeon; Seong, Yeonmi; Sung, Bong June; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Han Bin

    2011-08-01

    The gas-phase free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) fragmentation behavior of o-TEMPO-Bz-conjugated peptides with an intra- and intermolecular disulfide bond was investigated using MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Investigated peptides included four peptides with an intramolecular cyclic disulfide bond, Bactenecin (RLCRIVVIRVCR), TGF-α (CHSGYVGVRC), MCH (DFDMLRCMLGRVFRPCWQY) and Adrenomedullin (16-31) (CRFGTCTVQKLAHQIY), and two peptides with an intermolecular disulfide bond. Collisional activation of the benzyl radical conjugated peptide cation, which was generated through the release of a TEMPO radical from o-TEMPO-Bz-conjugated peptides upon initial collisional activation, produced a large number of peptide backbone fragments in which the S-S or C-S bond was readily cleaved. The observed peptide backbone fragments included a-, c-, x- or z-types, which indicates that the radical-driven peptide fragmentation mechanism plays an important role in TEMPO-FRIPS mass spectrometry. FRIPS application of the linearly linked disulfide peptides further showed that the S-S or C-S bond was selectively and preferentially cleaved, followed by peptide backbone dissociations. In the FRIPS mass spectra, the loss of •SH or •SSH was also abundantly found. On the basis of these findings, FRIPS fragmentation pathways for peptides with a disulfide bond are proposed. For the cleavage of the S-S bond, the abstraction of a hydrogen atom at C(β) by the benzyl radical is proposed to be the initial radical abstraction/transfer reaction. On the other hand, H-abstraction at C(α) is suggested to lead to C-S bond cleavage, which yields [ion ± S] fragments or the loss of •SH or •SSH.

  10. Anandamide hydrolysis in FAAH reveals a dual strategy for efficient enzyme-assisted amide bond cleavage via nitrogen inversion.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Campomanes, Pablo; Cavalli, Andrea; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-01-22

    Herein, we combined classical molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to unravel the whole catalytic cycle of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in complex with anandamide, the main neurotransmitters involved in the control of pain. While microsecond MD simulations of FAAH in a realistic membrane/water environment provided a solid model for the reactant state of the enzymatic complex (Palermo et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 1202-1213.), QM/MM simulations depict now a highly concerted two-step catalytic mechanism characterized by (1) acyl-enzyme formation after hydrolysis of the substrate amide bond and (2) deacylation reaction with restoration of the catalytic machinery. We found that a crucial event for anandamide hydrolysis is the inversion of the reactive nitrogen of the scissile amide bond, which occurs during the acylation rate-limiting step. We show that FAAH uses an exquisite catalytic strategy to induce amide bond distortion, reactive nitrogen inversion, and amide bond hydrolysis, promoting catalysis to completion. This new strategy is likely to be of general applicability to other amidases/peptidases that show similar catalytic site architectures, providing crucial insights for de novo enzyme design or drug discovery efforts.

  11. Heterologous expression of five disulfide-bonded insecticidal spider peptides.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Georgina; Silva, Anita O; Villegas, Elba; Ortiz, Ernesto; Beirão, Paulo S L; Corzo, Gerardo

    2016-09-01

    The genes of the five disulfide-bonded peptide toxins 1 and 2 (named Oxytoxins or Oxotoxins) from the spider Oxyopes lineatus were cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag and a Factor Xa proteolytic cleavage region. These two recombinant vectors were transfected into Escherichia coli BL21 cells and expressed under induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). The product of each gene was named HisrOxyTx1 or HisrOxyTx2, and the protein expression was ca 14 and 6 mg/L of culture medium, respectively. Either recombinant toxin HisrOxyTx1 or HisrOxyTx2 were found exclusively in inclusion bodies, which were solubilized using a chaotropic agent, and then, purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). The HisrOxyTx1 and HisrOxyTx2 products, obtained from the affinity chromatographic step, showed several peptide fractions having the same molecular mass of 9913.1 and 8030.1 Da, respectively, indicating that both HisrOxyTx1 and HisrOxyTx2 were oxidized forming several distinct disulfide bridge arrangements. The isoforms of both HisrOxyTx1 and HisrOxyTx2 after DTT reduction eluted from the column as a single protein component of 9923 and 8040 Da, respectively. In vitro folding of either HisrOxyTx1 or HisrOxyTx2 yielded single oxidized components, which were cleaved independently by the proteolytic enzyme Factor Xa to give the recombinant peptides rOxyTx1 and rOxyTx2. The experimental molecular masses of rOxyTx1 and rOxyTx2 were 8059.0 and 6176.4 Da, respectively, which agree with their expected theoretical masses. The recombinant peptides rOxyTx1 and rOxyTx2 showed lower but comparable toxicity to the native toxins when injected into lepidopteran larvae; furthermore, rOxyTx1 was able to inhibit calcium ion currents on dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons from Periplaneta americana.

  12. o-Phthalaldehyde catalyzed hydrolysis of organophosphinic amides and other P([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-NH containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin-Jie; Simard, Ryan D; Beauchemin, André M

    2017-08-11

    Over 50 years ago, Jencks and Gilchrist showed that formaldehyde catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphoramidate through electrophilic activation, induced by covalent attachment to its nitrogen atom. Given our interest in the use of aldehydes as catalysts, this work was revisited to identify a superior catalyst, o-phthalaldehyde, which facilitates hydrolyses of various organophosphorus compounds bearing P([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-NH subunits under mild conditions. Interestingly, chemoselective hydrolysis of the P([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-N bonds could be accomplished in the presence of P([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-OR bonds.

  13. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Segura Campos, Maira Rubi; Peralta González, Fanny; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction's amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427–455 mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system. PMID:26904588

  14. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Segura Campos, Maira Rubi; Peralta González, Fanny; Chel Guerrero, Luis; Betancur Ancona, David

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction's amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5-2.5 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427-455 mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  15. Potential antioxidant peptides produced from whey hydrolysis with an immobilized aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gabriela Fernanda; Kise, Francisco; Rosso, Adriana Mabel; Parisi, Mónica Graciela

    2017-12-15

    An aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits was successfully immobilized onto an activated support of glutaraldehyde agarose. The immobilized enzyme presented higher thermal stability than the free enzyme from 40°C to 50°C and high reusability, retaining 54% of the initial activity after ten cycles of the process. Whey protein concentrates (WPC) were hydrolyzed with both free and immobilized enzyme, reaching a similar degree of hydrolysis of approximately 6-8% after 20h. In addition, the immobilized derivate hydrolyzed α-lactalbumin protein with a higher affinity than β-lactoglobulin. The hydrolysate was ultra-filtrated, and the fractions were evaluated for antioxidant activities with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method. The fraction containing peptides with a molecular mass below 3kDa demonstrated a strong radical quenching effect (IC50: 0.48mg/ml). These results suggest that hydrolyzed WPC could be considered as a promising source of natural food antioxidants for the development of functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relay stations for electron hole migration in peptides: possibility for formation of three-electron bonds along peptide chains.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Jilai; Wang, Wen; Bu, Yuxiang

    2008-11-13

    Our calculations found that the O thereforeO three-electron (3e) bonds (2.16 approximately 2.27 A) can be formed not only between two neighboring peptide units in a main chain but also between two adjacent peptide units in two different main chains in proteins. This finding may address electron hole migration from one peptide unit to the next in proteins. Evidently, stability of the O thereforeO 3e bonded species is strongly dependent on the component of the oligopeptides and is reduced owing to the steric hindrance of the side chains when the big chains present in oligopeptides. Besides, formation of the O thereforeO 3e bonds competes with the formation of the other forms of three-electron bonds depending on the component of the polypeptides. Formation of the O thereforeS 3e bond is thermodynamically more favorable than that of the O thereforeO 3e bond for the oligopeptides containing sulfur atom in their side chains. Similarly, formation of the O thereforepi 3e bond between aromatic ring of the side chain and the neighboring peptide unit is more stable than that of the O thereforeO 3e bond when the aromatic amino acids present in the oligopeptides. We infer that a series of three-electron bonds may be formed during the electron hole migration along the peptide backbone in proteins and assist electron hole transport as relay stations, supporting the peptide chain as a conduction wire. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the polypeptides also support this conclusion.

  17. Ala-His Mediated Peptide Bond Formation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Deana C.; Martinis, Susan A.; Roberts, Deborah J.; Fox, George E.

    2001-12-01

    The historical origin of the translation machinery remains unresolved. Although the large 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is almost certainly the catalytic component of the peptidyl transferase center in the modern ribosome, it is likely that greatly simplified systems were initially employed in the late stages of the prebiotic world. In particular, it has been suggested that small RNAs carrying amino acids were important for the genesis of protein synthesis. Consistent with this, a dipeptide, Ala-His, was previously claimed to be a prebiotically feasible catalyst mediating peptide bond formation in the presence of aminoacylated tRNA and cognate mRNA template, in the absence of other ribosomal components (Shimizu, 1996). We herein report a detailed study of putative dipeptide formation by Ala-His and RNAs carrying leucine. Based on the results presented here, it is unlikely that the dipeptide, Ala-His, catalyzes significant levels of Leu-Leu dipeptide formation in solution. A product is produced which can be readily mistaken for a dipeptide in the TLC separation systems employed in earlier work. We offer explanations for the formation of this product as well as another unexpected product. The results presented here are consistent with the notion that the translation machinery was likely based on catalytic RNA from its very inception.

  18. Selectivity of peptide bond dissociation on excitation of a core electron: Effects of a phenyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Jien-Lian; Hu, Wei-Ping; Lin, Yi-Shiue; Lin, Huei-Ru; Lee, Tsai-Yun; Lee, Yuan T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Liu, Chen-Lin

    2016-09-01

    The selective dissociation of a peptide bond upon excitation of a core electron in acetanilide and N-benzylacetamide was investigated. The total-ion-yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra were recorded and compared with the predictions from time-dependent density functional theory. The branching ratios for the dissociation of a peptide bond are observed as 16-34% which is quite significant. This study explores the core-excitation, the X-ray photodissociation pathways, and the theoretical explanation of the NEXAFS spectra of organic molecules containing both a peptide bond and a phenyl group.

  19. The Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds: integrating testosterone and peptide responses for classifying social behavioral contexts.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Kuo, Patty X

    2011-10-01

    Hormones, and hormone responses to social contexts, are the proximate mechanisms of evolutionary pathways to pair bonds and other social bonds. Testosterone (T) is implicated in tradeoffs relevant to pair bonding, and oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are positively tied to social bonding in a variety of species. Here, we present the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds (S/P Theory), which integrates T and peptides to provide a model, set of predictions, and classification system for social behavioral contexts related to social bonds. The S/P Theory also resolves several paradoxes apparent in the literature on social bonds and hormones: the Offspring Defense Paradox, Aggression Paradox, and Intimacy Paradox. In the S/P Theory, we partition aggression into antagonistic and protective aggression, which both increase T but exert distinct effects on AVP and thus social bonds. Similarly, we partition intimacy into sexual and nurturant intimacy, both of which increase OT and facilitate social bonds, but exert distinct effects on T. We describe the utility of the S/P Theory for classifying 'tricky' behavioral contexts on the basis of their hormonal responses using partner cuddling, a behavior which is assumed to be nurturant but increases T, as a test case of the S/P Theory. The S/P Theory provides a comparative basis for conceptualizing and testing evolved hormonal pathways to pair bonds with attention to species, context, and gender/sex specificities and convergences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical methods for producing disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins to study folding regulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Shimamoto, Shigeru; Hidaka, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the folding of secretory and membrane proteins. Oxidative folding reactions of disulfide bond-containing proteins typically require several hours or days, and numerous misbridged disulfide isomers are often observed as intermediates. The rate-determining step in refolding is thought to be the disulfide-exchange reaction from nonnative to native disulfide bonds in folding intermediates, which often precipitate during the refolding process because of their hydrophobic properties. To overcome this, chemical additives or a disulfide catalyst, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), are generally used in refolding experiments to regulate disulfide-coupled peptide and protein folding. This unit describes such methods in the context of the thermodynamic and kinetic control of peptide and protein folding, including (1) regulation of disulfide-coupled peptides and protein folding assisted by chemical additives, (2) reductive unfolding of disulfide-containing peptides and proteins, and (3) regulation of disulfide-coupled peptide and protein folding using PDI.

  1. Ribosomal crystallography: peptide bond formation, chaperone assistance and antibiotics activity.

    PubMed

    Yonath, Ada

    2005-08-31

    The peptidyl transferase center (PTC) is located in a protein free environment, thus confirming that the ribosome is a ribozyme. This arched void has dimensions suitable for accommodating the 3' ends of the A-and the P-site tRNAs, and is situated within a universal sizable symmetry-related region that connects all ribosomal functional centers involved in amino-acid polymerization. The linkage between the elaborate PTC architecture and the A-site tRNA position revealed that the A- to P-site passage of the tRNA 3' end is performed by a rotatory motion, which leads to stereochemistry suitable for peptide bond formation and for substrate mediated catalysis, thus suggesting that the PTC evolved by gene-fusion. Adjacent to the PTC is the entrance of the protein exit tunnel, shown to play active roles in sequence-specific gating of nascent chains and in responding to cellular signals. This tunnel also provides a site that may be exploited for local co-translational folding and seems to assist in nascent chain trafficking into the hydrophobic space formed by the first bacterial chaperone, the trigger factor. Many antibiotics target ribosomes. Although the ribosome is highly conserved, subtle sequence and/or conformational variations enable drug selectivity, thus facilitating clinical usage. Comparisons of high-resolution structures of complexes of antibiotics bound to ribosomes from eubacteria resembling pathogens, to an archaeon that shares properties with eukaryotes and to its mutant that allows antibiotics binding, demonstrated the unambiguous difference between mere binding and therapeutical effectiveness. The observed variability in antibiotics inhibitory modes, accompanied by the elucidation of the structural basis to antibiotics mechanism justifies expectations for structural based improved properties of existing compounds as well as for the development of novel drugs.

  2. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  3. Antioxidative peptides derived from enzyme hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-11-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  4. Structure-energy analysis of the role of metal ions in phosphodiester bond hydrolysis by DNA polymerase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fothergill, M.; Goodman, M.F.; Petruska, J.; Warsehl, A.

    1995-11-29

    The detailed mechanism of DNA hydrolysis by enzymes is of significant current interest. One of the most important questions in this respect is the catalytic role of metal ions such as Mg{sup 2+}. Experimental evaluation of the catalytic effects of the cations is problematic, since the cations are intimately involved in substrate binding. This problem is explored here by using a theoretical approach to analyze and interpret the key structural and biochemical experiments. Taking the X-ray structure of the exonuclease domain in the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I we use the empirical valence bond method to examine different feasible mechanisms for phosphodiester bond cleavage in the exonuclease site. This approach indicates that phosphodiester bond hydrolysis involves catalysis by an OH{sup -} ion from aqueous solution around the protein, rather than a general base catalysis by an active site residue. The catalytic effect of two divalent metal cations in the active site is found to be primarily electrostatic. The first cation provides a strong electrostatic stabilization to the OH{sup -} nucleophile, while the second cation provides a very large catalytic effect by its interaction with the negative charge being transferred to the transition state during the nucleophilic attack step. The calculations also demonstrate that the second metal ion is not likely to be involved in a previously proposed strain mechanism. 35 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage within peptides via ultraviolet irradiation of an electrospray plume.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2013-05-21

    Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage in peptides was demonstrated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the electrospray ionization (ESI) plume using a low pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp. Tandem mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurements confirmed that the primary reaction products were due to disulfide bond cleavage to form thiol (-SH) and sulfinyl radical (-SO˙). Mechanistic studies showed that the 185 nm emission from a LP-Hg lamp was responsible for UV photolysis of atmospheric O2, which further initiated secondary radical formation and subsequent disulfide bond cleavage by radical attack. The radical induced disulfide bond cleavage was found to be analytically useful in providing rich sequence information for naturally occurring peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds. The utility of this method was also demonstrated for facile disulfide peptide identification and characterization from protein digests.

  6. Unexpectedly fast cis/trans isomerization of Xaa-Pro peptide bonds in disulfide-constrained cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiesheng; Spain, Stephen M; Rabenstein, Dallas L

    2004-01-28

    Acyclic dithiol and cyclic disulfide forms of the peptides Ac-Cys-Pro-Xaa-Cys-NH2 (Xaa = Phe, His, Tyr, Gly, and Thr) and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-NH2 and the peptide Ac-Ala-Gly-Pro-Ala-NH2 were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Rate constants kct and ktc for cis-to-trans and trans-to-cis isomerization, respectively, across the Cys-Pro or Gly-Pro peptide bonds were determined by magnetization transfer NMR techniques over a range of temperatures, and activation parameters were derived from the temperature dependence of the rate constants. It was found that constraints imposed by the disulfide bond confer an unexpected rate enhancement for cis/trans isomerization, ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. It is proposed that the rate enhancements are a result of an intramolecular catalysis mechanism in which the NH proton of the Pro-Xaa peptide bond hydrogen bonds to the proline nitrogen in the transition state. The peptides Ac-Cys-Pro-Xaa-Cys-NH2 and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-NH2 are model compounds for proline-containing active sites of the thioredoxin superfamily of oxidoreductase enzymes; the results suggest that the backbones of the active sites of the oxidized form of these enzymes may have unusual conformational flexibility.

  7. In situ observation of peptide bond formation at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Elizabeth C; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-09-25

    We report unambiguous spectroscopic evidence of peptide bond formation at the air-water interface, yielding a possible mechanism providing insight into the formation of modern ribosomal peptide bonds, and a means for the emergence of peptides on early Earth. Protein synthesis in aqueous environments, facilitated by sequential amino acid condensation forming peptides, is a ubiquitous process in modern biology, and a fundamental reaction necessary in prebiotic chemistry. Such reactions, however, are condensation reactions, requiring the elimination of a water molecule for every peptide bond formed, and are thus unfavorable in aqueous environments both from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We use the hydrophobic environment of the air-water interface as a favorable venue for peptide bond synthesis, and demonstrate the occurrence of this chemistry with in situ techniques using Langmuir-trough methods and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Leucine ethyl ester (a small amino acid ester) first partitions to the water surface, then coordinates with Cu(2+) ions at the interface, and subsequently undergoes a condensation reaction selectively forming peptide bonds at the air-water interface.

  8. Spontaneous intermolecular amide bond formation between side chains for irreversible peptide targeting.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Howarth, Mark

    2010-04-07

    Peptides and synthetic peptide-like molecules are powerful tools for analysis and control of biological function. One major limitation of peptides is the instability of their interactions with biomolecules, because of the limited accessible surface area for noncovalent interactions and the intrinsic flexibility of peptides. Peptide tags are nonetheless fundamental for protein detection and purification, because their small size minimizes the perturbation to protein function. Here we have designed a 16 amino acid peptide that spontaneously forms an amide bond to a protein partner, via reaction between lysine and asparagine side chains. This depended upon splitting a pilin subunit from a human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, which usually undergoes intramolecular amide bond formation to impart mechanical and proteolytic stability to pili. Reaction of the protein partner was able to proceed to 98% conversion. The amide bond formation was independent of redox state and occurred at pH 5-8. The reaction was efficient in phosphate buffered saline and a wide range of biological buffers. Surprisingly, amide bond formation occurred at a similar rate at 4 and 37 degrees C. Both peptide and protein partners are composed of the regular 20 amino acids and reconstituted efficiently inside living E. coli. Labeling also showed high specificity on the surface of mammalian cells. Irreversible targeting of a peptide tag may have application in bioassembly, in cellular imaging, and to lock together proteins subject to high biological forces.

  9. Insect kinin analogs with cis-peptide bond motif 4-aminopyroglutamate: Optimal stereochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides, though they are subject to rapid degradation by internal peptidases. Insect kinin analogs incorporating stereochemical variants of (2S,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamate (APy), a cis-peptide bond motif, demon...

  10. Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Amado, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL−1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL−1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL−1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  11. Identification of the major ACE-inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate from cuttlefish wastewater.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-03-10

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC₅₀ = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL⁻¹) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC₅₀ value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL⁻¹. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A-D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC₅₀ values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL⁻¹, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions.

  12. Exploration of an imide capture/N,N-acyl shift sequence for asparagine native peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Mhidia, Reda; Boll, Emmanuelle; Fécourt, Fabien; Ermolenko, Mikhail; Ollivier, Nathalie; Sasaki, Kaname; Crich, David; Delpech, Bernard; Melnyk, Oleg

    2013-06-15

    Imide capture of a C-terminal peptidylazide with a side-chain thioacid derivative of an N-terminally protected aspartyl peptide leads to the formation of an imide bond bringing the two peptide ends into close proximity. Unmasking of the N(α) protecting group and intramolecular acyl migration results in the formation of a native peptide bond to asparagine.

  13. Efficient Covalent Bond Formation in Gas-Phase Peptide-Peptide Ion Complexes with the Photoleucine Stapler.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher J; Andrikopoulos, Prokopis C; Řezáč, Jan; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Tureček, František

    2016-04-01

    Noncovalent complexes of hydrophobic peptides GLLLG and GLLLK with photoleucine (L*) tagged peptides G(L* n L m )K (n = 1,3, m = 2,0) were generated as singly charged ions in the gas phase and probed by photodissociation at 355 nm. Carbene intermediates produced by photodissociative loss of N2 from the L* diazirine rings underwent insertion into X-H bonds of the target peptide moiety, forming covalent adducts with yields reaching 30%. Gas-phase sequencing of the covalent adducts revealed preferred bond formation at the C-terminal residue of the target peptide. Site-selective carbene insertion was achieved by placing the L* residue in different positions along the photopeptide chain, and the residues in the target peptide undergoing carbene insertion were identified by gas-phase ion sequencing that was aided by specific (13)C labeling. Density functional theory calculations indicated that noncovalent binding to GL*L*L*K resulted in substantial changes of the (GLLLK + H)(+) ground state conformation. The peptide moieties in [GL*L*LK + GLLLK + H](+) ion complexes were held together by hydrogen bonds, whereas dispersion interactions of the nonpolar groups were only secondary in ground-state 0 K structures. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for 100 ps trajectories of several different conformers at the 310 K laboratory temperature showed that noncovalent complexes developed multiple, residue-specific contacts between the diazirine carbons and GLLLK residues. The calculations pointed to the substantial fluidity of the nonpolar side chains in the complexes. Diazirine photochemistry in combination with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is a promising tool for investigations of peptide-peptide ion interactions in the gas phase. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Efficient Covalent Bond Formation in Gas-Phase Peptide-Peptide Ion Complexes with the Photoleucine Stapler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Christopher J.; Andrikopoulos, Prokopis C.; Řezáč, Jan; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Tureček, František

    2016-04-01

    Noncovalent complexes of hydrophobic peptides GLLLG and GLLLK with photoleucine (L*) tagged peptides G(L* n L m )K (n = 1,3, m = 2,0) were generated as singly charged ions in the gas phase and probed by photodissociation at 355 nm. Carbene intermediates produced by photodissociative loss of N2 from the L* diazirine rings underwent insertion into X-H bonds of the target peptide moiety, forming covalent adducts with yields reaching 30%. Gas-phase sequencing of the covalent adducts revealed preferred bond formation at the C-terminal residue of the target peptide. Site-selective carbene insertion was achieved by placing the L* residue in different positions along the photopeptide chain, and the residues in the target peptide undergoing carbene insertion were identified by gas-phase ion sequencing that was aided by specific 13C labeling. Density functional theory calculations indicated that noncovalent binding to GL*L*L*K resulted in substantial changes of the (GLLLK + H)+ ground state conformation. The peptide moieties in [GL*L*LK + GLLLK + H]+ ion complexes were held together by hydrogen bonds, whereas dispersion interactions of the nonpolar groups were only secondary in ground-state 0 K structures. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for 100 ps trajectories of several different conformers at the 310 K laboratory temperature showed that noncovalent complexes developed multiple, residue-specific contacts between the diazirine carbons and GLLLK residues. The calculations pointed to the substantial fluidity of the nonpolar side chains in the complexes. Diazirine photochemistry in combination with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is a promising tool for investigations of peptide-peptide ion interactions in the gas phase.

  15. Characterization of Secondary Amide Peptide Bonds Isomerization: Thermodynamics and Kinetics from 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Germann, Markus W.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary amide cis peptide bonds are of even lower abundance than the cis tertiary amide bonds of prolines, yet they are of biochemical importance. Using 2D NMR exchange spectroscopy we investigated the formation of cis peptide bonds in several oligopeptides: Ac-G-G-G-NH2, Ac-I-G-G-NH2, Ac-I-G-G-N-NH2 and its cyclic form: I-G-G-N in DMSO. From the NMR studies, using the amide protons as monitors, an occurrenc.e of 0.13% – 0.23% of cis bonds was obtained at 296 K. The rate constants for the trans to cis conversion determined from 2D EXSY spectroscopy were 4–9·10−3 s−1. Multiple minor conformations were detected for most peptide bonds. From their thermodynamic and kinetic properties the cis isomers are distinguished from minor trans isomers that appear because of an adjacent cis peptide bond. Solvent and sequence effects were investigated utilizing N-methylacetamide and various peptides, which revealed an unique enthalpy profile in DMSO. The cyclization of a tetrapeptide resulted in greatly lowered cis populations and slower isomerization rate compared to its linear counterpart, further highlighting the impact of structural constraints. PMID:21538331

  16. Energies of peptide peptide and peptide water hydrogen bonds in collagen: Evidences from infrared spectroscopy, quartz piezogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boryskina, O. P.; Bolbukh, T. V.; Semenov, M. A.; Gasan, A. I.; Maleev, V. Ya.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present work is a quantitative estimation of energies of peptide-peptide N 1sbnd H 1⋯O 2dbnd C 2 and peptide-water hydrogen bonds in collagen type I and model collagen polypeptide poly(Gly-Pro-Pro). Being a challenging theoretical task this is also an issue that can clarify the physical basis of stability of collagen structures that play a very important structural role in connective tissue. The study was performed on the basis of a complex approach of a number of experimental techniques, namely infrared spectroscopy, quartz piezogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results indicate that binding of 3-4 water molecules of the internal hydration shell to each -Gly-X-Y- unit of poly(Gly-Pro-Pro) and collagen leads to simultaneous conformational reorganization of the triple helix and strengthening of the peptide-peptide hydrogen bonds. Enthalpies of hydration of poly(Gly-Pro-Pro) and collagen constitute -10.9 and -12.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Enthalpies of peptide-peptide N 1sbnd H 1⋯O 2dbnd C 2 hydrogen bonds are -7.6 and -6.0 kJ/mol in poly(Gly-Pro-Pro) and collagen, correspondently. The results obtained can be used for evaluation of the impacts of energies of different types of interactions into the total energy of stabilization of native triple helical collagen and poly(Gly-Pro-Pro).

  17. Overview of the regulation of disulfide bond formation in Peptide and protein folding.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the maintenance of the native conformation of proteins under thermodynamic control. In general, disulfide bond formation is associated with protein folding, and this restricts the formation of folding intermediates such as misbridged disulfide isomers or kinetically trapped conformations, which provide important information related to how proteins fold into their native conformation. Therefore, numerous studies have focused on the structural analysis of folding intermediates in vitro. However, isolating or trapping folding intermediates, as well as the entire proteins, including mutant proteins, is not an easy task. Several chemical methods have recently been developed for examining peptide and protein folding and for producing, e.g., intact, post-translationally modified, or kinetically trapped proteins, or proteins with misbridged disulfide bonds. This overview introduces chemical methods for regulating the formation of disulfide bonds of peptides and proteins in the context of the thermodynamic and kinetic control of peptide and protein folding.

  18. Catalysis of hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution at the P-N bond of phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleotides in phosphate buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Rosenbach, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine 5'-monophosphates, henceforth called ImpN's, exhibit enhanced rates of degradation in the presence of aqueous inorganic phosphate in the range 4.0 < or = pH < or = 8.6. This degradation is been attributed to (i) nucleophilic substitution of the imidazolide and (ii) catalysis of the P-N bond hydrolysis by phosphate. The first reaction results in the formation of nucleoside 5'-diphosphate and the second in nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Analysis of the observed rates as well as the product ratios as a function of pH and phosphate concentration allow distinction between various mechanistic possibilities. The results show that both H2PO4- and HPO4(2-) participate in both hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution. Statistically corrected biomolecular rate constants indicate that the dianion is 4 times more effective as a general base than the monoanion, and 8 times more effective as nucleophile. The low Bronsted value beta = 0.15 calculated for these phosphate species, presumed to act as general bases in facilitating water attack, is consistent with the fact that catalysis of the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in ImpN's has not been detected before. The beta nuc = 0.35 calculated for water, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), and hydroxide acting as nucleophiles indicates a more associative transition state for nucleotidyl (O2POR- with R = nucleoside) transfers than that observed for phosphoryl (PO3(2-)) transfers (beta nuc = 0.25). With respect to the stability/reactivity of ImpN's under prebiotic conditions, our study shows that these materials would not suffer additional degradation due to inorganic phosphate, assuming the concentrations of phosphate, Pi, on prebiotic Earth were similar to those in the present oceans ([Pi] approximately 2.25 micromoles).

  19. Catalysis of hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution at the P-N bond of phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleotides in phosphate buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Rosenbach, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine 5'-monophosphates, henceforth called ImpN's, exhibit enhanced rates of degradation in the presence of aqueous inorganic phosphate in the range 4.0 < or = pH < or = 8.6. This degradation is been attributed to (i) nucleophilic substitution of the imidazolide and (ii) catalysis of the P-N bond hydrolysis by phosphate. The first reaction results in the formation of nucleoside 5'-diphosphate and the second in nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Analysis of the observed rates as well as the product ratios as a function of pH and phosphate concentration allow distinction between various mechanistic possibilities. The results show that both H2PO4- and HPO4(2-) participate in both hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution. Statistically corrected biomolecular rate constants indicate that the dianion is 4 times more effective as a general base than the monoanion, and 8 times more effective as nucleophile. The low Bronsted value beta = 0.15 calculated for these phosphate species, presumed to act as general bases in facilitating water attack, is consistent with the fact that catalysis of the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in ImpN's has not been detected before. The beta nuc = 0.35 calculated for water, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), and hydroxide acting as nucleophiles indicates a more associative transition state for nucleotidyl (O2POR- with R = nucleoside) transfers than that observed for phosphoryl (PO3(2-)) transfers (beta nuc = 0.25). With respect to the stability/reactivity of ImpN's under prebiotic conditions, our study shows that these materials would not suffer additional degradation due to inorganic phosphate, assuming the concentrations of phosphate, Pi, on prebiotic Earth were similar to those in the present oceans ([Pi] approximately 2.25 micromoles).

  20. Antimicrobial activities of amphiphilic peptides covalently bonded to a water-insoluble resin.

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, S L; Crum, G A; Doele, B A

    1995-01-01

    A series of polymer-bound antimicrobial peptides was prepared, and the peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The immobilized peptides were prepared by a strategy that used solid-phase peptide synthesis that linked the carboxy-terminal amino acid with an ethylenediamine-modified polyamide resin (PepsynK). The acid-stable, permanent amide bond between the support and the nascent peptide renders the peptide resistant to cleavage from the support during the final acid-catalyzed deprotection step in the synthesis. Select immobilized peptides containing amino acid sequences that ranged from the naturally occurring magainin to simpler synthetic sequences with idealized secondary structures were excellent antimicrobial agents against several organisms. The immobilized peptides typically reduced the number of viable cells by > or = 5 log units. We show that the reduction in cell numbers cannot be explained by the action of a soluble component. We observed no leached or hydrolyzed peptide from the resin, nor did we observe any antimicrobial activity in soluble extracts from the immobilized peptide. The immobilized peptides were washed and reused for repeated microbial contact and killing. These results suggest that the surface actions by magainins and structurally related antimicrobial peptides are sufficient for their lethal activities. PMID:7726486

  1. Slow peptide bond formation by proline and other N-alkylamino acids in translation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Watts, Richard E.; Tan, Zhongping; Cornish, Virginia W.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are made from 19 aa and, curiously, one N-alkylamino acid (“imino acid”), proline (Pro). Pro is thought to be incorporated by the translation apparatus at the same rate as the 19 aa, even though the alkyl group in Pro resides directly on the nitrogen nucleophile involved in peptide bond formation. Here, by combining quench-flow kinetics and charging of tRNAs with cognate and noncognate amino acids, we find that Pro incorporates in translation significantly more slowly than Phe or Ala and that other N-alkylamino acids incorporate much more slowly. Our results show that the slowest step in incorporation of N-alkylamino acids is accommodation/peptidyl transfer after GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu. The relative incorporation rates correlate with expectations from organic chemistry, suggesting that amino acid sterics and basicities affect translation rates at the peptidyl transfer step. Cognate isoacceptor tRNAs speed Pro incorporation to rates compatible with in vivo, although still 3–6 times slower than Phe incorporation from Phe-tRNAPhe depending on the Pro codon. Results suggest that Pro is the only N-alkylamino acid in the genetic code because it has a privileged cyclic structure that is more reactive than other N-alkylamino acids. Our data on the variation of the rate of incorporation of Pro from native Pro-tRNAPro isoacceptors at 4 different Pro codons help explain codon bias not accounted for by the “tRNA abundance” hypothesis. PMID:19104062

  2. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate with Bacillus licheniformis protease: aggregating capacities of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Creusot, Nathalie; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-11-12

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating peptides, as a function of concentration, and their aggregating capacities toward added intact proteins. The amount of aggregated material and the composition of the aggregates obtained were measured by nitrogen concentration and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The results showed that of the four fractions obtained from the aggregating peptides, two were insoluble, while the other two consisted of 1:1 mixture of low and high solubility peptides. Therefore, insoluble peptides coaggregated, assumedly via hydrophobic interactions, other relatively more soluble peptides. It was also shown that aggregating peptides could aggregate intact protein nonspecifically since the same peptides were involved in the aggregation of whey proteins, beta-casein, and bovine serum albumin. Both insoluble and partly insoluble peptides were required for the aggregation of intact protein. These results are of interest for the applications of protein hydrolysates, as mixtures of intact protein and peptides are often present in these applications.

  3. Valorisation of tuna processing waste biomass for recovery of functional and antioxidant peptides using enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Sami; Ben Amar, Raja

    2016-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis using Prolyve BS coupled to membrane process (Ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF)) is a means of biotransformation of tuna protein waste to Tuna protein hydrolysate (TPH) with higher added values. This method could be an effective solution for the production of bioactive compounds used in various biotechnological applications and minimizing the pollution problems generated by the seafood processing industries. The amino acid composition, functional and antioxidant properties of produced TPH were evaluated. The results show that the glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, alaline, valine and leucine were the major amino acids detected in the TPH profile. After membrane fractionation process, those major amino acids were concentrated in the NF retentate (NFR). The NFR and NF permeate (NFP) have a higher protein solubility (>95 %) when compared to TPH (80 %). Higher oil and water binding capacity were observed in TPH and higher emulsifying and foam stability was found in UF retentate. The NFP showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (65 %). The NFR contained antioxidant amino acid (30.3 %) showed the highest superoxide radical and reducing power activities. The TPH showed the highest iron chelating activity (75 %) compared to other peptide fractions. The effect of the membrane fractionation on the molecular weight distribution of the peptide and their bioactivities was underlined. We concluded that the TPH is a valuable source of bioactive peptides and their peptide fractions may serve as useful ingredients for application in food industry and formulation of nutritional products.

  4. The Effects of H-Bond Cooperativity upon the Secondary Structures of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, J. J.

    2006-08-01

    Molecular orbital calculations show that amidic H-bonds within peptide structures can be extremely cooperative in some cases (α-helices), or not (collagen-like triple helices), while in others (β-sheets) cooperativity becomes masked by interactions that are weakened when new H-bonds are formed. There are cases where cooperativity is unimportant and H-bonding interactions can reasonably be approximated as being additive. In such cases, empirically derived pair-wise additive potentials might be expected to reproduce structures. However, those cases where cooperativity is important require more sophisticated analysis as the cooperative interactions between the individual H-bonds can become the dominant energetic driving force for the observed peptide structures. As in the case of many molecular crystals, pairwise additivity of the interactions of individual H-bonds can seriously underestimate the stability of the structure(s), leading to erroneous predicted structures.

  5. Estimation of peptide N-Cα bond cleavage efficiency during MALDI-ISD using a cyclic peptide.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) induces N-Cα bond cleavage via hydrogen transfer from the matrix to the peptide backbone, which produces a c'/z• fragment pair. Subsequently, the z• generates z' and [z + matrix] fragments via further radical reactions because of the low stability of the z•. In the present study, we investigated MALDI-ISD of a cyclic peptide. The N-Cα bond cleavage in the cyclic peptide by MALDI-ISD produced the hydrogen-abundant peptide radical [M + 2H](+) • with a radical site on the α-carbon atom, which then reacted with the matrix to give [M + 3H](+) and [M + H + matrix](+) . For 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN) adducts with z fragments, post-source decay of [M + H + 1,5-DAN](+) generated from the cyclic peptide showed predominant loss of an amino acid with 1,5-DAN. Additionally, MALDI-ISD with Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry allowed for the detection of both [M + 3H](+) and [M + H](+) with two (13) C atoms. These results strongly suggested that [M + 3H](+) and [M + H + 1,5-DAN](+) were formed by N-Cα bond cleavage with further radical reactions. As a consequence, the cleavage efficiency of the N-Cα bond during MALDI-ISD could be estimated by the ratio of the intensity of [M + H](+) and [M + 3H](+) in the Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance spectrum. Because the reduction efficiency of a matrix for the cyclic peptide cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Val) was correlated to its tendency to cleave the N-Cα bond in linear peptides, the present method could allow the evaluation of the efficiency of N-Cα bond cleavage for MALDI matrix development. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Selective cleavage of isoaspartyl peptide bonds by hydroxylamine after methyltransferase priming.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jeff X; Aswad, Dana W

    2007-05-01

    Formation of atypical isoaspartyl (isoAsp) sites in peptides and proteins via the deamidation-linked isomerization of asparaginyl-Xaa bonds or direct isomerization of aspartyl-Xaa bonds is a major contributor to spontaneous protein damage under mild conditions. This nonenzymatic reaction reroutes the Asx-Xaa peptide bond through the beta-carbonyl of asparaginyl or aspartyl residues, thereby adding an extra carbon to the polypeptide backbone. Formation of isoAsp has been implicated in protein inactivation, aggregation, degradation, and autoimmunity. Knowing the location of isoAsp sites in proteins is important for understanding mechanisms of protein damage and for characterizing protein pharmaceuticals. Here we present a simple nonradioactive method for direct localization of isoAsp residues in peptides or proteins. Using three model peptides, we demonstrate that isoAsp linkages can be cleaved selectively and in high yield by a two-step process in which (i) the isoAsp linkage is converted into a succinimide on incubation with S-adenosyl-l-methionine and the commercially available enzyme, protein l-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase, and (ii) the succinimidyl bond is then cleaved by hydroxylamine under conditions that minimize cleavage of the traditional hydroxylamine-sensitive Asn-Gly and related peptide bonds. Location of the isoAsp linkage is then inferred by identifying the cleavage products by mass spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing.

  7. Selective Cleavage of Isoaspartyl Peptide Bonds by Hydroxylamine after Methyltransferase Priming

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jeff X.; Aswad, Dana W.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of atypical isoaspartyl (isoAsp) sites in peptides and proteins via the deamidation-linked isomerization of asparaginyl-Xaa bonds or direct isomerization of aspartyl-Xaa bonds is a major contributor to spontaneous protein damage under mild conditions. This nonenzymatic reaction reroutes the Asx-Xaa peptide bond through the β-carbonyl of asparaginyl or aspartyl residues, thereby adding an extra carbon to the polypeptide backbone. Formation of isoAsp has been implicated in protein inactivation, aggregation, degradation, and autoimmunity. Knowing the location of isoAsp sites in proteins is important for understanding mechanisms of protein damage and for characterizing protein pharmaceuticals. Here we present a simple nonradioactive method for direct localization of isoAsp residues in peptides or proteins. Using three model peptides, we demonstrate that isoAsp linkages can be cleaved selectively and in high yield by a two-step process in which (i) the isoAsp linkage is converted into a succinimide on incubation with S-adenosyl-L-methionine and the commercially available enzyme, protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase, and (ii) the succinimidyl bond is then cleaved by hydroxylamine under conditions that minimize cleavage of the traditional hydroxylamine-sensitive Asn-Gly and related peptide bonds. Location of the isoAsp linkage is then inferred by identifying the cleavage products by mass spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. PMID:17376395

  8. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics: a computational study of structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Urban, Joseph J; Tillman, Brendon G; Cronin, William Andrew

    2006-09-28

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to characterize prototypical fluoroalkenes (fluoroethylene and 2-fluoro-2-butene) with respect to key properties of peptides (amides) including structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding. The results are compared to those obtained for model peptides (formamide, N-methylacetamide). Calculations have been carried out at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with the 6-311++G(2d,p) and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis sets. The results suggest that the fluoroalkene is similar in steric requirements to a peptide bond but that there is less charge separation. Calculations of the hydration free energies with the PCM bulk continuum solvent model indicate that the fluoroalkene has much smaller hydration free energies than an amide but that the difference in solvation free energy for cis and trans isomers is comparable. In studies of complexes with water molecules, the fluoroalkene is found to engage in interactions that are analogous to backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions that govern many properties of natural peptides and proteins but with smaller interaction energies. In addition, key structural differences are noted when the fluoroalkene is playing the role of hydrogen-bond acceptor which may have implications in binding, aggregation, and conformational preferences in fluoroalkene peptidomimetics. The issue of cooperativity in hydrogen-bonding interactions in complexes with multiple waters has also been investigated. The fluoroalkene is found to exhibit cooperative effects that mirror those of the peptide but are smaller in magnitude. Thus, pairwise addivitity of interactions appears to more adequately describe the fluoroalkenes than the peptides they are intended to mimic.

  9. Theoretical study of prebiotic precursors: the peptide bond and its silicon, sulphur and phosphorous analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaramello, J. M.; Talbi, D.; Berthier, G.; Ellinger, Y.

    2005-04-01

    This paper looks at the possibility that the peptide bond may be more common than originally thought, leading to molecules of prebiotic interest containing heavier atoms of the second row of the periodic table. Ab initio Möller-Plesset (MP2) coupled-cluster molecular orbital methods and density functional theory have been used. A first investigation of the six-atom system [C,3H,O,N] showed that formamide, NH2[bond]CH[double bond]O, is the most stable system that can be formed. Systematic studies on this same system in which C, O and N were respectively replaced by Si, S and P were then carried out. It has been found that the peptide-like linkage is the most stable for [C,3H,S,N] and [Si,3H,O,N] where NH2[bond]CH[double bond]S and NH2[bond]SiH[double bond]O are about 10-14 kcal mol[minus sign]1 more favourable than the corresponding enol tautomers and well below other isomers on the energy scale. For [C,3H,O,P], the most stable species is CH3[bond]P[double bond]O, which is found 18 kcal mol[minus sign]1 below the PH2[bond]CH[double bond]O peptide analogue. By correcting the known inadequacies in the calculations with the average theoretical to experimental ratio from the benchmark molecules of the system, it is possible to obtain a best estimate of rotational constants and infrared frequencies that should be precise enough to initiate laboratory experiments and/or observations. The corrected values of B=6.0342 GHz and C=5.4921 GHz for NH2[bond]CH[double bond]S; B=9.2292 GHz and C=6.1164 GHz for NH2[bond]SiH[double bond]O; B=8.0275 GHz and C=6.4779 GHz for CH3[bond]P[double bond]O should be accurate to within a few tenths of a per cent. Theoretical infrared spectra are also provided to assist in identification of these exotic species.

  10. REACTION OF AMINO-ACIDS AND PEPTIDE BONDS WITH FORMALDEHYDE AS MEASURED BY CHANGES IN THE ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMINO ACIDS , CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*PEPTIDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*FORMALDEHYDE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY, PROTEINS), ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CHEMICAL BONDS, AMIDES, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, REACTION KINETICS

  11. Uncommonly thorough hydrolysis of peptides during ripening of Ragusano cheese revealed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Carpino, Stefania; Pediliggieri, Concetta; Jardin, Julien; Lortal, Sylvie; Licitra, Giuseppe

    2011-12-14

    Ragusano is a pasta filata cheese produced from raw milk in Sicily. The proteolysis was extensively analyzed after stretching (day 0), at 4 and 7 months of ripening through soluble nitrogen, urea-PAGE, and peptide identification by tandem mass spectrometry. After stretching, 123 peptides were identified: 72 arising from β-casein, 34 from α(s1)-casein, and 17 from α(s2)-casein. The main protein splitting corresponded to the action of plasmin, chymosin, cathepsin D, cell envelope proteinase, and peptidase activities of lactic acid bacteria. Unlike other types of cheeses, <10% residual β- and α(s)-caseins remained intact at 7 months, indicating original network organization based on large casein fragments. The number of identified soluble peptides also dramatically decreased after 4 and 7 months of ripening, to 47 and 25, respectively. Among them, bioactive peptides were found, that is, mineral carrier, antihypertensive, and immunomodulating peptides and phosphopeptides.

  12. Fragmentation of intra-peptide and inter-peptide disulfide bonds of proteolytic peptides by nanoESI collision-induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Mormann, Michael; Eble, Johannes; Schwöppe, Christian; Mesters, Rolf M; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Pohlentz, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Characterisation and identification of disulfide bridges is an important aspect of structural elucidation of proteins. Covalent cysteine-cysteine contacts within the protein give rise to stabilisation of the native tertiary structure of the molecules. Bottom-up identification and sequencing of proteins by mass spectrometry most frequently involves reductive cleavage and alkylation of disulfide links followed by enzymatic digestion. However, when using this approach, information on cysteine-cysteine contacts within the protein is lost. Mass spectrometric characterisation of peptides containing intra-chain disulfides is a challenging analytical task, because peptide bonds within the disulfide loop are believed to be resistant to fragmentation. In this contribution we show recent results on the fragmentation of intra and inter-peptide disulfide bonds of proteolytic peptides by nano electrospray ionisation collision-induced dissociation (nanoESI CID). Disulfide bridge-containing peptides obtained from proteolytic digests were submitted to low-energy nanoESI CID using a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument as a mass analyser. Fragmentation of the gaseous peptide ions gave rise to a set of b and y-type fragment ions which enabled derivation of the sequence of the amino acids located outside the disulfide loop. Surprisingly, careful examination of the fragment-ion spectra of peptide ions comprising an intramolecular disulfide bridge revealed the presence of low-abundance fragment ions formed by the cleavage of peptide bonds within the disulfide loop. These fragmentations are preceded by proton-induced asymmetric cleavage of the disulfide bridge giving rise to a modified cysteine containing a disulfohydryl substituent and a dehydroalanine residue on the C-S cleavage site.

  13. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  14. Aspartate-bond isomerization affects the major conformations of synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, G I; Fabian, H; Mantsch, H H; Lovas, S; Nyéki, O; Schön, I; Otvos, L

    1994-12-15

    The aspartic acid bond changes to an beta-aspartate bond frequently as a side-reaction during peptide synthesis and often as a post-translational modification of proteins. The formation of beta-asparate bonds is reported to play a major role not only in protein metabolism, activation and deactivation, but also in pathological processes such as deposition of the neuritic plaques of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we reported how conformational changes following the aspartic-acid-bond isomerization may help the selective aggregation and retention of the amyloid beta peptide in affected brains (Fabian et al., 1994). In the current study we used circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling to characterize the general effect of the beta-aspartate-bond formation on the conformation of five sets of synthetic model peptides. Each of the non-modified, parent peptides has one of the major secondary structures as the dominant spectroscopically determined conformation: a type I beta turn, a type II beta turn, short segments of alpha or 3(10) helices, or extended beta strands. We found that both types of turn structures are stabilized by the aspartic acid-bond isomerization. The isomerization at a terminal position did not affect the helix propensity, but placing it in mid-chain broke both the helix and the beta-pleated sheet with the formation of reverse turns. The alteration of the geometry of the lowest energy reverse turn was also supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The tendency of the aspartic acid-bond isomerization to stabilize turns is very similar to the effect of incorporating sugars into synthetic peptides and suggests a common feature of these post-translational modifications in defining the secondary structure of protein fragments.

  15. Efficient and directed peptide bond formation in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions.

    PubMed

    McGee, William M; McLuckey, Scott A

    2014-01-28

    Amide linkages are among the most important chemical bonds in living systems, constituting the connections between amino acids in peptides and proteins. We demonstrate the controlled formation of amide bonds between amino acids or peptides in the gas phase using ion/ion reactions in a mass spectrometer. Individual amino acids or peptides can be prepared as reagents by (i) incorporating gas phase-labile protecting groups to silence otherwise reactive functional groups, such as the N terminus; (ii) converting the carboxyl groups to the active ester of N-hydroxysuccinimide; and (iii) incorporating a charge site. Protonation renders basic sites (nucleophiles) unreactive toward the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents, resulting in sites with the greatest gas phase basicities being, in large part, unreactive. The N-terminal amines of most naturally occurring amino acids have lower gas phase basicities than the side chains of the basic amino acids (i.e., those of histidine, lysine, or arginine). Therefore, reagents may be directed to the N terminus of an existing "anchor" peptide to form an amide bond by protonating the anchor peptide's basic residues, while leaving the N-terminal amine unprotonated and therefore reactive. Reaction efficiencies of greater than 30% have been observed. We propose this method as a step toward the controlled synthesis of peptides in the gas phase.

  16. Minimal transition state charge stabilization of the oxyanion during peptide bond formation by the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Nicolas; Hiller, David A; Strobel, Scott A

    2011-12-06

    Peptide bond formation during ribosomal protein synthesis involves an aminolysis reaction between the aminoacyl α-amino group and the carbonyl ester of the growing peptide via a transition state with a developing negative charge, the oxyanion. Structural and molecular dynamic studies have suggested that the ribosome may stabilize the oxyanion in the transition state of peptide bond formation via a highly ordered water molecule. To biochemically investigate this mechanistic hypothesis, we estimated the energetic contribution to catalytic charge stabilization of the oxyanion using a series of transition state mimics that contain different charge distributions and hydrogen bond potential on the functional group mimicking the oxyanion. Inhibitors containing an oxyanion mimic that carried a neutral charge and a mimic that preserved the negative charge but could not form hydrogen bonds had less than a 3-fold effect on inhibitor binding affinity. These observations argue that the ribosome provides minimal transition state charge stabilization to the oxyanion during peptide bond formation via the water molecule. This is in contrast to the substantial level of oxyanion stabilization provided by serine proteases. This suggests that the oxyanion may be neutralized via a proton shuttle, resulting in an uncharged transition state.

  17. Sugar-peptidic bond interactions: spectroscopic characterization of a model system.

    PubMed

    Camiruaga, Ander; Usabiaga, Imanol; Insausti, Aran; León, Iker; Fernández, José A

    2017-05-17

    Sugars are small carbohydrates which play numerous roles in living organisms such as storage of energy or as structural components. Modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate's overall biological function as it happens with nucleic acids and proteins. Hence, identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects is essential. A study of such processes requires of a deep knowledge of the interaction mechanism at the molecular level. Here, we use a combination of laser spectroscopy in jets and quantum mechanical calculations to characterize the interaction between phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and N-methylacetamide as a model to understand the interaction between a sugar and a peptide bond. The most stable structure of the molecular aggregate shows that the main interaction between the peptide fragment and the sugar proceeds via a C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-O2 hydrogen bond. A second conformer was also found, in which the peptide establishes a C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-O6 hydrogen bond with the hydroxymethyl substituent of the sugar unit. All the conformers present an additional interaction point with the aromatic ring. This particular preference of the peptide for the hydroxyl close to the aromatic ring could explain why glycogenin uses tyrosine in order to convert glucose into glycogen by exposing the O4H hydroxyl group for the other glucoses for the polymerization to take place.

  18. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, A; Neitz, S; Mägert, H J; Schulz, A; Forssmann, W G; Schulz-Knappe, P; Adermann, K

    2000-09-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.

  19. Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptides and Isolation of a Novel Peptide from Lizard Fish (Saurida elongata) Muscle Protein Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shanguang; Sun, Jianhua; Tong, Zhangfa; Lan, Xiongdiao; Zhao, Zhongxing; Liao, Dankui

    2012-01-01

    Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) muscle protein was hydrolyzed using neutral protease to produce protein hydrolysate (LFPH), and the hydrolysis conditions were investigated using response-surface methodology. The optimum conditions for producing peptides with the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were the following: enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 10,000 U/g, temperature of 48 °C, pH 7.0, and hydrolysis time of 2 h. Under these conditions, the ACE-inhibitory activity of LFPH and the degree of hydrolysis were 84% and 24%, respectively. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide was isolated from LFPH using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the ACE-inhibitory peptide was identified as Ser-Pro-Arg-Cys-Arg (SPRCR), and its IC50 was 41 ± 1 µM. PMID:22822357

  20. Tumor-targeted liposomal drug delivery mediated by a diseleno bond-stabilized cyclic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chong; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Deng, Li; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Zhangbao

    2013-01-01

    Peptide ligands have played an important role in tumor-targeted drug delivery as targeting moieties. The in vivo fate of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and the following antitumor effects may greatly depend on the stability of the peptide ligand. In the current study, a tumor-targeting cyclic peptide screened by phage display, Lyp-1 (a peptide that specifically binds to tumor and endothelial cells of tumor lymphatics in certain tumors), was structurally modified by replacement of the original intramolecular disulfide bond with a diseleno bond. The produced analog Syp-1 (seleno derivative of Lyp-1) maintained specific binding ability to the target protein p32 (Kd = 18.54 nM), which is similar to that of Lyp-1 (Kd = 10.59 nM), indicated by surface plasmon resonance assay. Compared with Lyp-1, Syp-1 showed significantly improved stability against serum. After the peptide attached onto the surface of fluorophore-encapsulating liposomes, the more efficient tumor uptake of liposomal fluorophore mediated by Syp-1 was observed. Furthermore, Syp-1 modified liposomal doxorubicin presented the most potent tumor growth inhibitory ability among all the therapeutic groups, with a low half maximal inhibitory concentration of 588 nM against MDA-MB-435 cells in vitro and a high tumor inhibition rate of 73.5% in vivo. These findings clearly indicated that Syp-1 was a stable and effective tumor targeting ligand and suggest that the sulfur-to-selenium replacement strategy may help stabilize the phage-displayed cyclic peptide containing disulfide-bond under physiological conditions and strongly support the validity of peptide-mediated drug targeting. PMID:23515368

  1. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 Å resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases, but with notable differences such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional co-crystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently-bound transition state mimic, provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily. PMID:22035792

  2. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2011-12-22

    Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases but with notable differences, such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional cocrystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently bound transition state mimic provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

  3. Cutting edge: HLA-DM-mediated peptide exchange functions normally on MHC class II-peptide complexes that have been weakened by elimination of a conserved hydrogen bond.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Andrea; Gorski, Jack

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism by which HLA-DM (DM) promotes exchange of peptides bound to HLA-DR (DR) is still unclear. We have shown that peptide interaction with DR1 can be considered a folding process as evidenced by cooperativity. However, in DM-mediated ligand exchange, prebound peptide release is noncooperative, which could be a function of the breaking of a critical interaction. The hydrogen bond (H-bond) between beta-chain His(81) and the peptide backbone at the -1 position is a candidate for such a target. In this study, we analyze the exchange of peptides bound to a DR1 mutant in which formation of this H-bond is impaired. We observe that DM still functions normally. However, as expected of a cooperative model, this H-bond contributes to the overall energetics of the complex and its disruption impacts the ability of the exchange ligand to fold with the binding groove into a stable complex.

  4. The evolving ribosome: from non-coded peptide bond formation to sophisticated translation machinery.

    PubMed

    Davidovich, Chen; Belousoff, Matthew; Bashan, Anat; Yonath, Ada

    2009-09-01

    Structural analysis supported by biochemical, mutagenesis and computational evidence, revealed that the contemporary ribosome's active site is a universal symmetrical pocket made of ribosomal RNA. This pocket seems to be the remnant of the proto-ribosome, a dimeric RNA assembly evolved by gene duplication, capable of autonomously catalyzing peptide bond formation and non-coded amino acid polymerization.

  5. Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Fierer, Jacob O; Celik, Emrah; Chittock, Emily C; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich; Moy, Vincent T; Howarth, Mark

    2012-03-20

    Protein interactions with peptides generally have low thermodynamic and mechanical stability. Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein FbaB contains a domain with a spontaneous isopeptide bond between Lys and Asp. By splitting this domain and rational engineering of the fragments, we obtained a peptide (SpyTag) which formed an amide bond to its protein partner (SpyCatcher) in minutes. Reaction occurred in high yield simply upon mixing and amidst diverse conditions of pH, temperature, and buffer. SpyTag could be fused at either terminus or internally and reacted specifically at the mammalian cell surface. Peptide binding was not reversed by boiling or competing peptide. Single-molecule dynamic force spectroscopy showed that SpyTag did not separate from SpyCatcher until the force exceeded 1 nN, where covalent bonds snap. The robust reaction conditions and irreversible linkage of SpyTag shed light on spontaneous isopeptide bond formation and should provide a targetable lock in cells and a stable module for new protein architectures.

  6. Do zwitterionic species exist in the non-enzymatic peptide bond formation?

    PubMed

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Tuñón, Iñaki; Martí, Sergio; Moliner, Vicent; Bertrán, Juan

    2012-11-25

    The use of proper computational methods and models has allowed answering the controversial question of whether zwitterionic species exist in the mechanism of peptide bond synthesis in aqueous solution. In fact, the different conformations of zwitterionic species open the door to different mechanistic paths.

  7. Enhancement of peptide bond formation by polyribonucleotides on clay surfaces in fluctuating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The selective effects of polyribonucleotides on the formation of glycine peptide bonds in glycine on clay surfaces are investigated as a model for a template mechanism for the effects of polynucleotides on peptide bond formation. Free oligoglycine yields were determined for the cycling reaction of glycine in the presence and absence of clay and polyribonucleotides or polydeoxyribonucleotides. The polyribonucleotides are observed to lead to increases of up to fourfold increases in oligoglycine formed, with greater enhancements for poly-G nucleotides than for poly-A, poly-U and poly-C, indicating a codonic bias. Polydeoxyribonucleotides are found to provide no enhancement in peptide formation rates, and yields were also greatly reduced in the absence of clay. A mechanism for peptide synthesis is proposed which involves the activation of glycine on the clay surface, followed by the formation of esters between glycine and the 2-prime OH groups of the polyribonucleotide and peptide bonds between adjacent amino acyl esters. It is pointed out that if this mechanism is correct, it may provide a basis for a direct template translation process, which would produce a singlet genetic code.

  8. Enhancement of peptide bond formation by polyribonucleotides on clay surfaces in fluctuating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The selective effects of polyribonucleotides on the formation of glycine peptide bonds in glycine on clay surfaces are investigated as a model for a template mechanism for the effects of polynucleotides on peptide bond formation. Free oligoglycine yields were determined for the cycling reaction of glycine in the presence and absence of clay and polyribonucleotides or polydeoxyribonucleotides. The polyribonucleotides are observed to lead to increases of up to fourfold increases in oligoglycine formed, with greater enhancements for poly-G nucleotides than for poly-A, poly-U and poly-C, indicating a codonic bias. Polydeoxyribonucleotides are found to provide no enhancement in peptide formation rates, and yields were also greatly reduced in the absence of clay. A mechanism for peptide synthesis is proposed which involves the activation of glycine on the clay surface, followed by the formation of esters between glycine and the 2-prime OH groups of the polyribonucleotide and peptide bonds between adjacent amino acyl esters. It is pointed out that if this mechanism is correct, it may provide a basis for a direct template translation process, which would produce a singlet genetic code.

  9. A structural view on the mechanism of the ribosome-catalyzed peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Simonović, Miljan; Steitz, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    The ribosome is a large ribonucleoprotein particle that translates genetic information encoded in mRNA into specific proteins. Its highly conserved active site, the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC), is located on the large (50S) ribosomal subunit and is comprised solely of rRNA, which makes the ribosome the only natural ribozyme with polymerase activity. The last decade witnessed a rapid accumulation of atomic-resolution structural data on both ribosomal subunits as well as on the entire ribosome. This has allowed studies on the mechanism of peptide bond formation at a level of detail that surpasses that for the classical protein enzymes. A current understanding of the mechanism of the ribosome-catalyzed peptide bond formation is the focus of this review. Implications on the mechanism of peptide release are discussed as well.

  10. Optimizing the MALDI-TOF-MS Observation of Peptides Containing Disulfide Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Kristin G.; Mosher, Deane F.; Vestling, Martha M.

    2003-01-01

    The observation of peaks corresponding to both disulfide-bonded and reduced peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of disulfides could suggest that the samples are either mixtures prior to analysis or that the measurement process has converted single compounds into mixtures. This is an important distinction when characterizing potentially disulfide-bonded peptides obtained from proteolyzed proteins or from oxidized synthetic peptides. It is well documented that disulfides can undergo in-source decay (ISD) when using a 337-nm laser. However, the mixed matrix 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid:α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (1:10) not only suppresses the ISD reduction of disulfides to thiols but allows the same low threshold laser power generally used with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid to be applied. PMID:14715887

  11. Mechanism of peptide hydrolysis by co-catalytic metal centers containing leucine aminopeptidase enzyme: a DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Barman, Arghya; Ozbil, Mehmet; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Shanghao; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2012-02-01

    In this density functional theory study, reaction mechanisms of a co-catalytic binuclear metal center (Zn1-Zn2) containing enzyme leucine aminopeptidase for two different metal bridging nucleophiles (H(2)O and -OH) have been investigated. In addition, the effects of the substrate (L-leucine-p-nitroanilide → L-leucyl-p-anisidine) and metal (Zn1 → Mg and Zn2 → Co, i.e., Mg1-Zn2 and Mg1-Co2 variants) substitutions on the energetics of the mechanism have been investigated. The general acid/base mechanism utilizing a bicarbonate ion followed by this enzyme is divided into two steps: (1) the formation of the gem-diolate intermediate, and (2) the cleavage of the peptide bond. With the computed barrier of 17.8 kcal/mol, the mechanism utilizing a hydroxyl nucleophile was found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured barrier of 18.7 kcal/mol. The rate-limiting step for reaction with L-leucine-p-nitroanilide is the cleavage of the peptide bond with a barrier of 17.8 kcal/mol. However, for L-leucyl-p-anisidine all steps of the mechanism were found to occur with similar barriers (18.0-19.0 kcal/mol). For the metallovariants, cleavage of the peptide bond occurs in the rate-limiting step with barriers of 17.8, 18.0, and 24.2 kcal/mol for the Zn1-Zn2, Mg1-Zn2, and Mg1-Co2 enzymes, respectively. The nature of the metal ion was found to affect only the creation of the gem-diolate intermediate, and after that all three enzymes follow essentially the same energetics. The results reported in this study have elucidated specific roles of both metal centers, the nucleophile, indirect ligands, and substrates in the catalytic functioning of this important class of binuclear metallopeptidases.

  12. Isolation and identification of anti-proliferative peptides from Spirulina platensis using three-step hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. In this study, whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions (Tr1-Tr4) were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti-proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2 and SGC-7901), with IC50 values of <31.25, 36.42 and 48.25 µg mL(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, a new peptide, HVLSRAPR, was identified from fraction Tr1. This peptide exhibited strong inhibition on HT-29 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 99.88 µg mL(-1) . Taken together, these peptides possessed anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells and low cytotoxicity on normal cells, suggesting that they might serve as a natural anticancer agent for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Induction of peptide bond dipoles drives cooperative helix formation in the (AAQAA)3 peptide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2014-08-19

    Cooperativity is a central feature in the formation of secondary structures in proteins. However, the driving forces behind this cooperativity are poorly understood. The present work shows that the cooperativity of helix formation in the acetyl-(AAQAA)3-NH2 peptide is significantly enhanced using an empirical force field that explicitly includes the treatment of electronic polarizability. Polarizable simulations yield helical content consistent with experimental measurements and indicate that the dependence of helical content on temperature is improved over additive models, though further sampling is required to fully validate this conclusion. Cooperativity is indicated by the peptide sampling either the coiled state or long helices with relatively low populations of short helices. The cooperativity is shown to be associated with enhanced dipole moments of the peptide backbone upon helix formation. These results indicate the polarizable force field to more accurately model peptide-folding cooperativity based on its physically realistic treatment of electronic polarizability.

  14. Induction of Peptide Bond Dipoles Drives Cooperative Helix Formation in the (AAQAA)3 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperativity is a central feature in the formation of secondary structures in proteins. However, the driving forces behind this cooperativity are poorly understood. The present work shows that the cooperativity of helix formation in the acetyl-(AAQAA)3-NH2 peptide is significantly enhanced using an empirical force field that explicitly includes the treatment of electronic polarizability. Polarizable simulations yield helical content consistent with experimental measurements and indicate that the dependence of helical content on temperature is improved over additive models, though further sampling is required to fully validate this conclusion. Cooperativity is indicated by the peptide sampling either the coiled state or long helices with relatively low populations of short helices. The cooperativity is shown to be associated with enhanced dipole moments of the peptide backbone upon helix formation. These results indicate the polarizable force field to more accurately model peptide-folding cooperativity based on its physically realistic treatment of electronic polarizability. PMID:25140435

  15. Classification of Lactococcus lactis cell envelope proteinase based on gene sequencing, peptides formed after hydrolysis of milk, and computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Børsting, M W; Qvist, K B; Brockmann, E; Vindeløv, J; Pedersen, T L; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis strains depend on a proteolytic system for growth in milk to release essential AA from casein. The cleavage specificities of the cell envelope proteinase (CEP) can vary between strains and environments and whether the enzyme is released or bound to the cell wall. Thirty-eight Lc. lactis strains were grouped according to their CEP AA sequences and according to identified peptides after hydrolysis of milk. Finally, AA positions in the substrate binding region were suggested by the use of a new CEP template based on Streptococcus C5a CEP. Aligning the CEP AA sequences of 38 strains of Lc. lactis showed that 21 strains, which were previously classified as group d, could be subdivided into 3 groups. Independently, similar subgroupings were found based on comparison of the Lc. lactis CEP AA sequences and based on normalized quantity of identified peptides released from αS1-casein and β-casein. A model structure of Lc. lactis CEP based on the crystal structure of Streptococcus C5a CEP was used to investigate the AA positions in the substrate-binding region. New AA positions were suggested, which could be relevant for the cleavage specificity of CEP; however, these could only explain 2 out of 3 found subgroups. The third subgroup could be explained by 1 to 5 AA positions located opposite the substrate binding region. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing the hydrolysis constant of the reactive site upon introduction of an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kumazaki, Takashi; Kojima, Shuichi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Miura, Kin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    P14C/N39C is the disulfide variant of the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant (OMSVP3) introducing an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond near the reactive site on the basis of the sequence homology between OMSVP3 and ascidian trypsin inhibitor. This variant exhibits a narrower inhibitory specificity. We have examined the effects of introducing a Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the flexible N-terminal loop of OMSVP3 on the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis, as well as the thermal stability of reactive site intact inhibitors. P14C/N39C can be selectively cleaved by Streptomyces griseus protease B at the reactive site of OMSVP3 to form a reactive site modified inhibitor. The conversion rate of intact to modified P14C/N39C is much faster than that for wild type under any pH condition. The pH-independent hydrolysis constant (K(hyd) °) is estimated to be approximately 5.5 for P14C/N39C, which is higher than the value of 1.6 for natural OMSVP3. The reactive site modified form of P14C/N39C is thermodynamically more stable than the intact one. Thermal denaturation experiments using intact inhibitors show that the temperature at the midpoint of unfolding at pH 2.0 is 59 °C for P14C/N39C and 58 °C for wild type. There have been no examples, except P14C/N39C, where introducing an engineered disulfide causes a significant increase in K(hyd) °, but has no effect on the thermal stability. The site-specific disulfide introduction into the flexible N-terminal loop of natural Kazal-type inhibitors would be useful to further characterize the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis.

  17. Free Energy Diagram for the Heterogeneous Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Bonds in Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Trine Holst; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2015-09-04

    Kinetic and thermodynamic data have been analyzed according to transition state theory and a simplified reaction scheme for the enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose. For the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei), we were able to measure or collect relevant values for all stable and activated complexes defined by the reaction scheme and hence propose a free energy diagram for the full heterogeneous process. For other Cel7A enzymes, including variants with and without carbohydrate binding module (CBM), we obtained activation parameters for the association and dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex. The results showed that the kinetics of enzyme-substrate association (i.e. formation of the Michaelis complex) was almost entirely entropy-controlled and that the activation entropy corresponded approximately to the loss of translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the dissolved enzyme. This implied that the transition state occurred early in the path where the enzyme has lost these degrees of freedom but not yet established extensive contact interactions in the binding tunnel. For dissociation, a similar analysis suggested that the transition state was late in the path where most enzyme-substrate contacts were broken. Activation enthalpies revealed that the rate of dissociation was far more temperature-sensitive than the rates of both association and the inner catalytic cycle. Comparisons of one- and two-domain variants showed that the CBM had no influence on the transition state for association but increased the free energy barrier for dissociation. Hence, the CBM appeared to promote the stability of the complex by delaying dissociation rather than accelerating association.

  18. Free Energy Diagram for the Heterogeneous Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Bonds in Cellulose*

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Trine Holst; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic and thermodynamic data have been analyzed according to transition state theory and a simplified reaction scheme for the enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose. For the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei), we were able to measure or collect relevant values for all stable and activated complexes defined by the reaction scheme and hence propose a free energy diagram for the full heterogeneous process. For other Cel7A enzymes, including variants with and without carbohydrate binding module (CBM), we obtained activation parameters for the association and dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex. The results showed that the kinetics of enzyme-substrate association (i.e. formation of the Michaelis complex) was almost entirely entropy-controlled and that the activation entropy corresponded approximately to the loss of translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the dissolved enzyme. This implied that the transition state occurred early in the path where the enzyme has lost these degrees of freedom but not yet established extensive contact interactions in the binding tunnel. For dissociation, a similar analysis suggested that the transition state was late in the path where most enzyme-substrate contacts were broken. Activation enthalpies revealed that the rate of dissociation was far more temperature-sensitive than the rates of both association and the inner catalytic cycle. Comparisons of one- and two-domain variants showed that the CBM had no influence on the transition state for association but increased the free energy barrier for dissociation. Hence, the CBM appeared to promote the stability of the complex by delaying dissociation rather than accelerating association. PMID:26183776

  19. Nonspecific protease-catalyzed hydrolysis/synthesis of a mixture of peptides: product diversity and ligand amplification by a molecular trap.

    PubMed

    Swann, P G; Casanova, R A; Desai, A; Frauenhoff, M M; Urbancic, M; Slomczynska, U; Hopfinger, A J; Le Breton, G C; Venton, D L

    1996-01-01

    We sought to develop a peptide library in solution and dynamically screen this library for peptides that would bind to macromolecules of interest. Peptide diversity was achieved in an initial stock solution of peptides by using proteases under conditions in which both hydrolysis and synthesis occurred. As an example, a simple reaction containing YGG, FL and thermolysin resulted in the synthesis of YGGFL as well as many other undefined products. When low molecular weight products of a reaction containing VA, AL, and thermolysin were subsequently exposed to dipeptidase, 7 out of 9 potential dipeptides were observed. Incubation of protease with an hydrolysate of albumin and a radiolabeled peptide resulted in the radiolabel participating in reactions other than simple hydrolysis and, after 24 h, the specific activity of radiolabel was shown by high performance liquid chromatography to disperse to a level that would be necessary in the event of maximum theoretical diversity. When a binding macromolecule was exposed to this system, ligand production was amplified relative to reactions run in the absence of binding macromolecule. This protease-based peptide scrambling and binding system was utilized for the discovery of novel peptides that bind to fibrinogen.

  20. Conformations of heterochiral and homochiral proline-pseudoproline segments in peptides: context dependent cis-trans peptide bond isomerization.

    PubMed

    Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Raghavender, Upadhyayula Surya; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2009-01-01

    The pseudoproline residue (Psi Pro, L-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) has been introduced into heterochiral diproline segments that have been previously shown to facilitate the formation of beta-hairpins, containing central two and three residue turns. NMR studies of the octapeptide Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-(D)Pro-Psi Pro-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (1), Boc-Leu-Val-Val-(D)Pro-Psi Pro-Leu-Val-Val-OMe (2), and the nonapeptide sequence Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-(D)Pro-Psi Pro-(D)Ala-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (3) established well-registered beta-hairpin structures in chloroform solution, with the almost exclusive population of the trans conformation for the peptide bond preceding the Psi Pro residue. The beta-hairpin conformation of 1 is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Truncation of the strand length in Boc-Val-(D)Pro-Psi Pro-Leu-OMe (4) results in an increase in the population of the cis conformer, with a cis/trans ratio of 3.65. Replacement of Psi Pro in 4 by (L)Pro in 5, results in almost exclusive population of the trans form, resulting in an incipient beta-hairpin conformation, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Further truncation of the sequence gives an appreciable rise in the population of cis conformers in the tripeptide Piv-(D)Pro-Psi Pro-Leu-OMe (6). In the homochiral segment Piv-Pro-Psi Pro-Leu-OMe (7) only the cis form is observed with the NMR evidence strongly supporting a type VIa beta-turn conformation, stabilized by a 4-->1 hydrogen bond between the Piv (CO) and Leu (3) NH groups. The crystal structure of the analog peptide 7a (Piv-Pro-Psi(H,CH3)Pro-Leu-NHMe) confirms the cis peptide bond geometry for the Pro-Psi(H,CH3)Pro peptide bond, resulting in a type VIa beta-turn conformation.

  1. Drosophila Ebony: a novel type of nonribosomal peptide synthetase related enzyme with unusually fast peptide bond formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Silvia; Dovengerds, Christine; Herrmann, Christian; Hovemann, Bernhard T

    2014-11-01

    Drosophila Ebony is a β-alanyl biogenic amine synthetase with proven function in cuticle and in glia of the nervous system. It is closely related to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which typically consist of at least an adenylation, a peptidyl carrier protein and a peptide bond forming condensation domain. Besides its role in cuticle formation, Ebony is in most glia of the brain thought to convert biogenic amines to β-alanyl conjugates. If the metabolization of the neurotransmitter histamine to β-alanyl histamine requires a fast reaction in visual signal transduction, Ebony must be able to fulfill this requirement. Since NRPSs are in general slowly acting multi-modular protein machineries, the enigma of how Ebony quickly facilitates this inactivation remains a key question for understanding its role in vision. To quantitatively analyze the reaction kinetics, we used phosphopantetheinylated holo-Ebony prepared from Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells. Kinetic parameters for the loading reaction, e.g. the formation of β-alanyl-Ebony thioester, complied with those of slow NRPSs. In contrast, single-turnover analysis of the last reaction step, peptide bond formation between pre-activated β-alanyl Ebony thioester and histamine, revealed a very rapid conjugation reaction. This biphasic nature of activity identifies Ebony as a novel type of NRPS related molecule that combines a slow amino acid activation phase with a very fast product formation step.

  2. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S → N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Is the peptide bond formation activated by Cu(2+) interactions? Insights from density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Rimola, A; Rodríguez-Santiago, L; Ugliengo, P; Sodupe, M

    2007-05-24

    The catalytic role that Cu(2+) cations play in the peptide bond formation has been addressed by means of density functional calculations. First, the Cu(2+)-(glycine)2 --> Cu(2+)-(glycylglycine) + H2O reaction was investigated since mass spectrometry low collision activated dissociation (CAD) spectra of Cu(2+)-(glycine)2 led to the elimination of a water molecule, which suggested that an intracomplex peptide bond formation might have occurred. Results show that this intracomplex condensation is associated to a very high free energy barrier (97 kcal mol(-1)) and reaction free energy (66 kcal mol(-1)) because of the loss of metal coordination during the reaction. Second, on the basis of the salt-induced peptide formation theory, the condensation reaction between two glycines was studied in aqueous solution using discrete water molecules and the conductor polarized continuum model (CPCM) continuous method. It is found that the synergy between the interaction of glycines with Cu(2+) and the presence of water molecules acting as proton-transfer helpers significantly lower the activation barrier (from 55 kcal/mol for the uncatalyzed system to 20 kcal/mol for the Cu(2+) solvated system) which largely favors the formation of the peptide bond.

  4. D-β-aspartyl residue exhibiting uncommon high resistance to spontaneous peptide bond cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aki, Kenzo; Okamura, Emiko

    2016-02-01

    Although L-amino acids were selected as main constituents of peptides and proteins during chemical evolution, D-aspartyl (Asp) residue is found in a variety of living tissues. In particular, D-β-Asp is thought to be stable than any other Asp isomers, and this could be a reason for gradual accumulation in abnormal proteins and peptides to modify their structures and functions. It is predicted that D-β-Asp shows high resistance to biomolecular reactions. For instance, less reactivity of D-β-Asp is expected to bond cleavage, although such information has not been provided yet. In this work, the spontaneous peptide bond cleavage was compared between Asp isomers, by applying real-time solution-state NMR to eye lens αΑ-crystallin 51–60 fragment, S51LFRTVLD58SG60 and αΒ-crystallin 61–67 analog, F61D62TGLSG67 consisting of L-α- and D-β-Asp 58 and 62, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed how tough the uncommon D-β-Asp residue was against the peptide bond cleavage as compared to natural L-α-Asp. Differences in pKa and conformation between L-α- and D-β-Asp side chains were plausible factors to determine reactivity of Asp isomers. The present study, for the first time, provides a rationale to explain less reactivity of D-β-Asp to allow abnormal accumulation.

  5. Desolvation penalty for burying hydrogen-bonded peptide groups in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Robert L

    2010-12-16

    A novel analysis of the enthalpy of protein unfolding is proposed and used to test for a desolvation penalty when hydrogen-bonded peptide groups are desolvated via folding. The unfolding enthalpy has three components, (1) the change when peptide hydrogen bonds are broken and the exposed -CO and -NH groups are solvated, (2) the change when protein-protein van der Waals interactions are broken and replaced by protein-water van der Waals interactions, and (3) the change produced by the hydrophobic interaction when nonpolar groups in the protein interior (represented as a liquid hydrocarbon) are transferred to water. A key feature of the analysis is that the enthalpy change from the hydrophobic interaction goes through 0 at 22 °C according to the liquid hydrocarbon model. Protein unfolding enthalpies are smaller at 22 °C than the enthalpy change for unfolding an alanine peptide helix. Data in the literature indicate that the van der Waals contribution to the unfolding enthalpy is considerably larger than the unfolding enthalpy itself at 22 °C, and therefore, a sizable desolvation penalty is predicted. Such a desolvation penalty was predicted earlier from electrostatic calculations of a stabilizing interaction between water and the hydrogen-bonded peptide group.

  6. UV resonance Raman finds peptide bond-Arg side chain electronic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhavya; Asher, Sanford A

    2011-05-12

    We measured the UV resonance Raman excitation profiles and Raman depolarization ratios of the arginine (Arg) vibrations of the amino acid monomer as well as Arg in the 21-residue predominantly alanine peptide AAAAA(AAARA)(3)A (AP) between 194 and 218 nm. Excitation within the π → π* peptide bond electronic transitions result in UVRR spectra dominated by amide peptide bond vibrations. The Raman cross sections and excitation profiles indicate that the Arg side chain electronic transitions mix with the AP peptide bond electronic transitions. The Arg Raman bands in AP exhibit Raman excitation profiles similar to those of the amide bands in AP which are conformation specific. These Arg excitation profiles distinctly differ from the Arg monomer. The Raman depolarization ratios of Arg in monomeric solution are quite simple with ρ = 0.33 indicating enhancement by a single electronic transition. In contrast, we see very complex depolarization ratios of Arg in AP that indicate that the Arg residues are resonance enhanced by multiple electronic transitions.

  7. Efficient routes to carbon-silicon bond formation for the synthesis of silicon-containing peptides and azasilaheterocycles.

    PubMed

    Min, Geanna K; Hernández, Dácil; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-02-19

    Silasubstitution, where silicon is substituted for carbon at specific sites of the substrate, has become a growing practice in medicinal chemistry. Introducing silicon into bioactive compounds provides slight physical and electronic alterations to the parent compound, which in certain instances could make the substrate a more viable candidate for a drug target. One application is in the field of protease inhibition. Various silane diol isosteres can act as potent inhibitors of aspartic and metalloproteases because of their ability to mimic the high-energy tetrahedral intermediate in peptide bond hydrolysis. In particular, since 1998, the Sieburth group has prepared a number of functionalized peptide silane diol isosteres. In a seminal study, they demonstrated that these molecules can bind to the active site of the enzymes. Inspired by these results, we initiated a study to develop a concise and straightforward route to access highly functionalized silicon diol based peptidomimetic analogs, which we describe in this Account. The synthesis of such analogs is challenging because the dipeptide mimics require the formation of two carbon-silicon bonds as well as two chiral carbon centers. Our first strategy was to assemble the two C-Si bonds from diphenylsilane through an initial regioselective hydrosilylation step of a terminal alkene, followed by lithiation of the formed alkyldiphenylsilane by a simple lithium metal reduction. Subsequent diastereoselective addition of this silyllithium species to a tert-butylsulfinimine provided a rapid method to assemble the dipeptide mimic with stereochemical control at the new chiral carbon center adjacent to the silicon. This strategy worked with a wide range of functional groups. However, there were some limitations with the more elaborate targets. In particular, we needed to exchange the phenyl groups of the diphenylsilane with aryl groups that were more labile under acidic conditions in order to introduce Si-O bonds in the end

  8. ONIOM and ab-initio calculations on the mechanism of uncatalyzed peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Monajemi, Hadieh; Daud, Mohammad Noh; Mohd Zain, Sharifuddin; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin

    2012-12-01

    Finding a proper transition structure for the peptide bond formation process can lead one to a better understanding of the role of ribosome in catalyzing this reaction. Using computer simulations, we performed the potential energy surface scan on the ester bond dissociation of P-site aminoacyl-tRNA and the peptide bond formation of P-site and A-site amino acids. The full fragments of initiator tRNA(i)(met) and elongator tRNA(phe) are attached to both cognate and non-cognate amino acids as the P-site substrate. The A-site amino acid for all four calculations is methionine. We used ONIOM calculations to reduce the computational cost. Our study illustrates the reduced rate of peptide bond formation for misacylated tRNA(i)(met) in the absence of ribosomal bases. The misacylated elongator tRNA(phe), however, did not show any difference in its PES compared with that for the phe-tRNA(phe). This demonstrates the structural specification of initiator tRNA(i)(met) for the amino acids side chain.

  9. An activated triple bond linker enables 'click' attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides on solid support.

    PubMed

    Wenska, Malgorzata; Alvira, Margarita; Steunenberg, Peter; Stenberg, Asa; Murtola, Merita; Strömberg, Roger

    2011-11-01

    A general procedure, based on a new activated alkyne linker, for the preparation of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) on solid support has been developed. With this linker, conjugation is effective at room temperature (RT) in millimolar concentration and submicromolar amounts. This is made possible since the use of a readily attachable activated triple bond linker enhances the Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ('click' reaction). The preferred scheme for conjugate preparation involves sequential conjugation to oligonucleotides on solid support of (i) an H-phosphonate-based aminolinker; (ii) the triple bond donor p-(N-propynoylamino)toluic acid (PATA); and (iii) azido-functionalized peptides. The method gives conversion of oligonucleotide to the POC on solid support, and only involves a single purification step after complete assembly. The synthesis is flexible and can be carried out without the need for specific automated synthesizers since it has been designed to utilize commercially available oligonucleotide and peptide derivatives on solid support or in solution. Methodology for the ready conversion of peptides into 'clickable' azidopeptides with the possibility of selecting either N-terminus or C-terminus connection also adds to the flexibility and usability of the method. Examples of synthesis of POCs include conjugates of oligonucleotides with peptides known to be membrane penetrating and nuclear localization signals.

  10. Oxytocin, the peptide that bonds the sexes also divides them

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Yin, Yu; Hu, Jiehui; Gao, Zhao; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, Rene; Yao, Dezhong; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation of social attraction and bonding by the evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin is well-established in female mammals. However, accumulating behavioral evidence suggests that oxytocin may have evolved sex-specific functional roles in the domain of human social cognition. A critical question is how oxytocin differentially modulates neural processing of social information in men and women, leading to divergent behavioral responses. Here we show that intranasal oxytocin treatment produces sex- and valence-dependent increases in amygdala activation when women view individuals identified as praising others but in men those who criticize them. Women subsequently show increased liking for the faces of these individuals, whereas in men it is reduced. Thus, oxytocin may act differentially via the amygdala to enhance the salience of positive social attributes in women but negative ones in men. We hypothesize that oxytocin may have evolved different but complementary roles to help ensure successful reproduction by encouraging mothers to promote a prosocial rearing environment for offspring and fathers to protect against antisocial influences. PMID:27325780

  11. Oxytocin, the peptide that bonds the sexes also divides them.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Yin, Yu; Hu, Jiehui; Gao, Zhao; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, Rene; Yao, Dezhong; Kendrick, Keith M

    2016-07-05

    Facilitation of social attraction and bonding by the evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin is well-established in female mammals. However, accumulating behavioral evidence suggests that oxytocin may have evolved sex-specific functional roles in the domain of human social cognition. A critical question is how oxytocin differentially modulates neural processing of social information in men and women, leading to divergent behavioral responses. Here we show that intranasal oxytocin treatment produces sex- and valence-dependent increases in amygdala activation when women view individuals identified as praising others but in men those who criticize them. Women subsequently show increased liking for the faces of these individuals, whereas in men it is reduced. Thus, oxytocin may act differentially via the amygdala to enhance the salience of positive social attributes in women but negative ones in men. We hypothesize that oxytocin may have evolved different but complementary roles to help ensure successful reproduction by encouraging mothers to promote a prosocial rearing environment for offspring and fathers to protect against antisocial influences.

  12. Nonenzymatic oxidative cleavage of peptide bonds in apoprotein B-100.

    PubMed

    Fong, L G; Parthasarathy, S; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1987-12-01

    Incubation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with endothelial cells converts it to a form that is avidly degraded by macrophages via the acetyl LDL receptor. This modification has previously been shown to be accompanied by extensive breakdown of the major LDL protein (apoB-100) to smaller peptides. ApoB-100 is known to undergo partial degradation during isolation and purification which is commonly attributed to proteolytic enzymes derived from plasma or to contaminant bacteria. In the present studies addition of any of ten different inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes failed to inhibit the endothelial cell-induced degradation of LDL apoB-100 or its subsequent enhanced rate of degradation by macrophages (termed biological modification). Conversely, deliberate digestion of LDL with any of five well-characterized proteolytic enzymes degraded apoB-100 extensively but did not cause biological modification. The disappearance of intact apoB-100 during incubation with endothelial cells paralleled the formation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substances and the breakdown could be completely prevented by the addition of antioxidants or metal chelators. Finally, the incubation of LDL with a free radical-generating system (dihydroxyfumaric acid and Fe3+-ADP) in the absence of cells resulted in the breakdown of apoB-100. These results suggest that the breakdown of apoB-100 during oxidative modification of LDL, whether cell-induced or catalyzed by transition metals, is not mediated by proteolytic enzymes but rather is linked to oxidative attack on the polypeptide chain, either directly or secondary to peroxidation of closely associated LDL lipids.

  13. Peptide bond formation of alanine on silica and alumina surfaces as a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Martí, E.

    2012-09-01

    Polymerization of amino acids has been important for the origin of life because the peptides may have been the first self-replicating systems. The amino acid concentrations in the oceans may have been too diluted in the early phases of the Earth. The formation of the biopolymers could have been due to the catalytic action of various minerals (such as silica or alumina). Our work is based on the comparison between alumina and silica minerals with and without prior activation of their silanol groups for the formation of peptide bonds using alanina like amino acid which it is the simplest quiral amino acid.

  14. Does silica surface catalyse peptide bond formation? New insights from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Rimola, Albert; Tosoni, Sergio; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2006-01-16

    The role that silica surface could have played in prebiotic chemistry as a catalyst for peptide bond formation has been addressed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level for a model reaction involving glycine and ammonia on a silica cluster mimicking an isolated terminal silanol group present at the silica surface. Hydrogen-bond complexation between glycine and the silanol is followed by the formation of the mixed surface anhydride Si(surf)-O-C(=O)-R, which has been suggested in the literature to activate the C=O bond towards nucleophilic attack by a second glycine molecule, here simulated by the simpler NH3 molecule. However, B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations show that formation of the surface mixed anhydride Si(surf)-O-C(=O)-R is disfavoured (delta(r)G298 approximately 6 kcal mol(-1)), and that the surface bond only moderately lowers the free-energy barrier of the nucleophilic attack responsible for peptide bond formation (deltaG298(double dagger) approximately 48 kcal mol(-1)) in comparison with the uncatalysed reaction (deltaG298(double dagger) approximately 52 kcal mol(-1)). A further decrease of the free-energy barrier of peptide bond formation (deltaG298(double dagger) approximately 41 kcal mol(-1)) is achieved by a single water molecule close to the reaction centre acting as a proton-transfer helper in the activated complex. A possible role of strained silica surface defects on the formation of the surface mixed anhydride Si(surf)-O-C(=O)-R has also been addressed.

  15. The transition state for formation of the peptide bond in the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Gindulyte, Asta; Bashan, Anat; Agmon, Ilana; Massa, Lou; Yonath, Ada; Karle, Jerome

    2006-09-05

    Using quantum mechanics and exploiting known crystallographic coordinates of tRNA substrate located in the ribosome peptidyl transferase center around the 2-fold axis, we have investigated the mechanism for peptide-bond formation. The calculation is based on a choice of 50 atoms assumed to be important in the mechanism. We used density functional theory to optimize the geometry and energy of the transition state (TS) for peptide-bond formation. The TS is formed simultaneously with the rotatory motion enabling the translocation of the A-site tRNA 3' end into the P site, and we estimated the magnitude of rotation angle between the A-site starting position and the place at which the TS occurs. The calculated TS activation energy, E(a), is 35.5 kcal (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)/mol, and the increase in hydrogen bonding between the rotating A-site tRNA and ribosome nucleotides as the TS forms appears to stabilize it to a value qualitatively estimated to be approximately 18 kcal/mol. The optimized geometry corresponds to a structure in which the peptide bond is being formed as other bonds are being broken, in such a manner as to release the P-site tRNA so that it may exit as a free molecule and be replaced by the translocating A-site tRNA. At TS formation the 2' OH group of the P-site tRNA A76 forms a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group of the amino acid attached to the A-site tRNA, which may be indicative of its catalytic role, consistent with recent biochemical experiments.

  16. Enhancement of gene delivery using novel homodimeric tat peptide formed by disulfide bond.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Doh, Kyung-Oh

    2011-08-01

    Cationic liposomes have been actively used as gene delivery vehicle because of their minimal toxicity, but their relatively low efficiency of gene delivery is the major disadvantage of these vectors. Recently, cysteine residue incorporation to HIV-1 Tat peptide increased liposomemediated transfection compared with unmodified Tat peptide. Therefore, we designed a novel modified Tat peptide having a homodimeric (Tat-CTHD, Tat-NTHD) and closed structure (cyclic Tat) simply by using the disulfide bond between cysteines to develop a more efficient and safe nonviral gene delivery system. The mixing of Tat-CTHD and Tat-NTHD with DNA before mixing with lipofectamine increased the transfection efficiency compared with unmodified Tat peptide and lipofectamine only in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and rat vascular smooth muscle cells. However, cyclic Tat did not show any improvement in the transfection efficiency. In the gel retardation assay, Tat-CTHD and Tat-NTHD showed more strong binding with DNA than unmodified Tat and cyclic Tat peptide. This enhancement was only shown when Tat-CTHD and Tat-NTHD were mixed with DNA before mixing with lipofectamine. The effects of Tat- CTHD and Tat-NTHD were also valid in the experiment using DOTAP and DMRIE instead of lipofectamine. We could not find any significant cytotoxicity in the working concentration and more usage of these peptides. In conclusion, we have designed a novel transfection-enhancing peptide by easy homodimerization of Tat peptide, and the simple mix of these novel peptides with DNA increased the gene transfer of cationic lipids more efficiently with no additional cytotoxicity.

  17. Immobilization of RGD peptide on HA coating through a chemical bonding approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunli; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian; Yang, Chunyu

    2009-11-01

    In this work, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence containing peptide was immobilized on hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings through a chemical bonding approach in two steps, surface modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and RGD immobilization. The results indicate that RGD has been successfully immobilized on HA coatings. Comparing with physical adsorption coatings, the chemically bonded RGD on the coatings shows much better anti-wash-out ability. Since RGD is able to recognize cell-membrane integrins on biointerfaces, the present method will be an effective way to favor interaction of cells with HA coatings.

  18. Catalysis of peptide bond formation by histidyl-histidine in a fluctuating clay environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The condensation of glycine to form oligoglycines during wet-dry fluctuations on clay surfaces was enhanced up to threefold or greater by small amounts of histidyl-histidine. In addition, higher relative yields of the longer oligomers were produced. Other specific dipeptides tested gave no enhancement, and imidazole, histidine, and N-acetylhistidine gave only slight enhancements. Histidyl-histidine apparently acts as a true catalyst (in the sense of repeatedly catalyzing the reaction), since up to 52 nmol of additional glycine were incorporated into oligoglycine for each nmol of catalyst added. This is the first known instance of a peptide or similar molecule demonstrating a catalytic turnover number greater than unity in a prebiotic oligomer synthesis reaction, and suggests that histidyl-histidine is a model for a primitive prebiotic proto-enzyme. Catalysis of peptide bond synthesis by a molecule which is itself a peptide implies that related systems may be capable of exhibiting autocatalytic growth.

  19. Catalysis of peptide bond formation by histidyl-histidine in a fluctuating clay environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The condensation of glycine to form oligoglycines during wet-dry fluctuations on clay surfaces was enhanced up to threefold or greater by small amounts of histidyl-histidine. In addition, higher relative yields of the longer oligomers were produced. Other specific dipeptides tested gave no enhancement, and imidazole, histidine, and N-acetylhistidine gave only slight enhancements. Histidyl-histidine apparently acts as a true catalyst (in the sense of repeatedly catalyzing the reaction), since up to 52 nmol of additional glycine were incorporated into oligoglycine for each nmol of catalyst added. This is the first known instance of a peptide or similar molecule demonstrating a catalytic turnover number greater than unity in a prebiotic oligomer synthesis reaction, and suggests that histidyl-histidine is a model for a primitive prebiotic proto-enzyme. Catalysis of peptide bond synthesis by a molecule which is itself a peptide implies that related systems may be capable of exhibiting autocatalytic growth.

  20. A two-step chemical mechanism for ribosome-catalysed peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, David A; Singh, Vipender; Zhong, Minghong; Strobel, Scott A

    2011-07-17

    The chemical step of natural protein synthesis, peptide bond formation, is catalysed by the large subunit of the ribosome. Crystal structures have shown that the active site for peptide bond formation is composed entirely of RNA. Recent work has focused on how an RNA active site is able to catalyse this fundamental biological reaction at a suitable rate for protein synthesis. On the basis of the absence of important ribosomal functional groups, lack of a dependence on pH, and the dominant contribution of entropy to catalysis, it has been suggested that the role of the ribosome is limited to bringing the substrates into close proximity. Alternatively, the importance of the 2'-hydroxyl of the peptidyl-transfer RNA and a Brønsted coefficient near zero have been taken as evidence that the ribosome coordinates a proton-transfer network. Here we report the transition state of peptide bond formation, based on analysis of the kinetic isotope effect at five positions within the reaction centre of a peptidyl-transfer RNA mimic. Our results indicate that in contrast to the uncatalysed reaction, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and proton transfer from the nucleophilic nitrogen both occur in the rate-limiting step. Unlike in previous proposals, the reaction is not fully concerted; instead, breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate occurs in a separate fast step. This suggests that in addition to substrate positioning, the ribosome is contributing to chemical catalysis by changing the rate-limiting transition state.

  1. Computational study of peptide bond formation in the gas phase through ion-molecule reactions.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pilar; Martínez, Henar; Cimas, Alvaro; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2013-08-21

    A computational study of peptide bond formation from gas-phase ion-molecule reactions has been carried out. We have considered the reaction between protonated glycine and neutral glycine, as well as the reaction between two neutral glycine molecules for comparison purposes. Two different mechanisms, concerted and stepwise, were studied. Both mechanisms show significant energy barriers for the neutral reaction. The energy requirements for peptide bond formation are considerably reduced upon protonation of one of the glycine molecules. For the reaction between neutral glycine and N-protonated glycine the lowest energy barrier is observed for the concerted mechanism. For the reaction between neutral glycine and protonated glycine at carbonyl oxygen, the preferred mechanism is the stepwise one, with a relatively small energy barrier (23 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K) and leading to the lowest-lying protonated glycylglycine isomer. In the case that the reaction could be initiated by protonated glycine at hydroxyl oxygen the process would be barrier-free and clearly exothermic. In that case peptide bond formation could take place even under interstellar conditions if glycine is present in space.

  2. Peptide bond formation does not involve acid-base catalysis by ribosomal residues.

    PubMed

    Bieling, Peter; Beringer, Malte; Adio, Sarah; Rodnina, Marina V

    2006-05-01

    Ribosomes catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between aminoacyl esters of transfer RNAs within a catalytic center composed of ribosomal RNA only. Here we show that the reaction of P-site formylmethionine (fMet)-tRNA(fMet) with a modified A-site tRNA substrate, Phelac-tRNA(Phe), in which the nucleophilic amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl group, does not show the pH dependence observed with small substrate analogs such as puromycin and hydroxypuromycin. This indicates that acid-base catalysis by ribosomal residues is not important in the reaction with the full-size substrate. Rather, the ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation by positioning the tRNAs, or their 3' termini, through interactions with rRNA that induce and/or stabilize a pH-insensitive conformation of the active site and provide a preorganized environment facilitating the reaction. The rate of peptide bond formation with unmodified Phe-tRNA(Phe) is estimated to be >300 s(-1).

  3. Hydrogen bond based smart polymer for highly selective and tunable capture of multiply phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Qing, Guangyan; Lu, Qi; Li, Xiuling; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-09-06

    Multisite phosphorylation is an important and common mechanism for finely regulating protein functions and subsequent cellular responses. However, this study is largely restricted by the difficulty to capture low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) from complex biosamples owing to the limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here we show that smart polymer can serve as an ideal platform to resolve this challenge. Driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions, the smart polymer displays differential complexation with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides. Importantly, MPP binding can be modulated conveniently and precisely by solution conditions, resulting in highly controllable MPP adsorption on material surface. This facilitates excellent performance in MPP enrichment and separation from model proteins and real biosamples. High enrichment selectivity and coverage, extraordinary adsorption capacities and recovery towards MPPs, as well as high discovery rates of unique phosphorylation sites, suggest its great potential in phosphoproteomics studies.Capture of low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) is difficult due to limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here the authors show, a smart polymer driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions can differentially complex with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides.

  4. Peptide-drug conjugate linked via a disulfide bond for kidney targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qian; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-Rong

    2012-06-20

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, and unfortunately, the therapeutic index of clinically available drugs is limited. Thus, there is a great need to exploit effective treatment strategies, and the carrier-drug approach is an attractive method to improve the kidney specificity of the therapeutic agents. The aim of this present study is to develop a peptide-drug conjugate for the kidney targeted delivery of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (CAP), since G3-C12 peptide (ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR) could specifically accumulate in the kidney after intravenous injection. Therefore, FITC labeled G3-C12 peptide (G3-C12-FITC) and peptide-drug conjugate (G3-C12-CAP) with a disulfide bond which can be cleaved by reduced glutathione in the kidney were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The fluorescence imaging of G3-C12-FITC revealed that the labeled peptide specifically accumulated in the kidney soon after i.v. injection to mice, and the accumulation is due largely to the reabsorption of the peptide by the proximal renal tubule cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the corresponding nonconjugated form, a 2.7-fold increase in renal area under concentration-time curve produced by the conjugate was observed in mice. Interestingly, the CAP entirely released in the kidney even at 0.05 h postinjection through disulfide reduction. As a consequence, the in vivo renal ACE inhibition was significantly increased. In conclusion, these findings suggest the potential of G3-C12 peptide serving as a suitable candidate carrier for kidney-targeted drug delivery.

  5. Intramolecular general acid catalysis of the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl phosphate, and bond length-reactivity correlations for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Tiago A S; Orth, Elisa S; Rocha, Willian R; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Bunton, Clifford A; Nome, Faruk

    2007-05-11

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl hydrogen phosphate (IMPP) in water at pH<6 indicate that activation by the imidazolium moiety disappears with the deprotonation of the phosphate group, and the reaction involves the hydrogen-bonding of the imidazolium NH with the aryl oxygen leaving group. The reaction should involve a near-planar conformation of the imidazolium and the phenyl groups in the activated complex, which favors proton-transfer. The crystal structure of IMPP was solved, and a bond length-reactivity correlation for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions is described.

  6. Preparation and analysis of peptide fragments produced by pepsin hydrolysis of human plasma albumin and their relationship to its structure

    PubMed Central

    Franglen, G.; Swaniker, G. R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Human plasma albumin was prepared and subjected to proteolysis by pepsin at pH2·45 at 25° for 10min. with albumin/pepsin ratio 3000:1. Five peptide fragments were detected in the proteolysate by means of zone electrophoresis and gel filtration; these were separated and purified. Molecular weights, amino acid composition and disulphide bond content of the purified fragments were determined. The results show that a high proportion of the polypeptide chain of albumin appears to have a low cystine content, and at low pH values the molecule would be expected to have a considerable degree of freedom in its structure in these regions of the chain. A tripartite model for the structure of plasma albumin is proposed. PMID:4876098

  7. UV Resonance Raman Elucidation of the Terminal and Internal Peptide Bond Conformations of Crystalline and Solution Oligoglycines

    PubMed Central

    Bykov, Sergei V.; Asher, Sanford A.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of macromolecules generally attempt to interpret the measured spectra in terms of the summed contributions of the different molecular fragments. This is the basis of the local mode approximation in vibrational spectroscopy. In the case of resonance Raman spectroscopy independent contributions of molecular fragments require both a local mode-like behavior and the uncoupled electronic transitions. Here we show that the deep UV resonance Raman spectra of aqueous solution phase oligoglycines show independent peptide bond molecular fragment contributions indicating that peptide bonds electronic transitions and vibrational modes are uncoupled. We utilize this result to separately determine the conformational distributions of the internal and penultimate peptide bonds of oligoglycines. Our data indicate that in aqueous solution the oligoglycine terminal residues populate conformations similar to those found in crystals (31-helices and β-strands), but with a broader distribution, while the internal peptide bond conformations are centered around the 31-helix Ramachandran angles. PMID:20657703

  8. The role of 23S ribosomal RNA residue A2451 in peptide bond synthesis revealed by atomic mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kathrin; Erlacher, Matthias; Wilson, Daniel N; Micura, Ronald; Polacek, Norbert

    2008-05-01

    Peptide bond formation is a fundamental reaction in biology, catalyzed by the ribosomal peptidyl-transferase ribozyme. Although all active-site 23S ribosomal RNA nucleotides are universally conserved, atomic mutagenesis suggests that these nucleobases do not carry functional groups directly involved in peptide bond formation. Instead, a single ribose 2'-hydroxyl group at A2451 was identified to be of pivotal importance. Here, we altered the chemical characteristics by replacing its 2'-hydroxyl with selected functional groups and demonstrate that hydrogen donor capability is essential for transpeptidation. We propose that the A2451-2'-hydroxyl directly hydrogen bonds to the P-site tRNA-A76 ribose. This promotes an effective A76 ribose C2'-endo conformation to support amide synthesis via a proton shuttle mechanism. Simultaneously, the direct interaction of A2451 with A76 renders the intramolecular transesterification of the peptide from the 3'- to 2'-oxygen unfeasible, thus promoting effective peptide bond synthesis.

  9. Creating carbon-carbon bonds with samarium diiodide for the synthesis of modified amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Ebran, Jean-Philippe; Jensen, Christina M; Johannesen, Sine A; Karaffa, Jakob; Lindsay, Karl B; Taaning, Rolf; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2006-10-07

    In this perspective, an overview of our experiences on the application of samarium diiodide in organic synthesis for the preparation of amino acid and peptide analogues is presented. Three different carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are discussed, including side chain introductions, gamma-amino acid synthesis and acyl-like radical additions for the construction of C-C mimics of the peptidic bonds.

  10. Comparison of Insect Kinin Analogs With cis-Peptide Bond Motif 4-Aminopyroglutamate Identifies Optimal Stereochemistry for Diuretic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of Insect Kinin Analogs With cis-Peptide Bond Motif 4-Aminopyroglutamate Identifies Optimal Stereochemistry for Diuretic Activity...the other three variants, which may explain its greater potency. The work identifies the optimal stereochemistry for the APy scaffold with which to...Comparison of Insect Kinin Analogs With cis-Peptide Bond Motif 4-Aminopyroglutamate Identifies Optimal Stereochemistry for Diuretic Activity Correspondence to

  11. Enhancing peptide ligand binding to vascular endothelial growth factor by covalent bond formation.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Bernadette V; Beck, Heather E; Aweda, Tolulope A; Phinney, Brett; Holsclaw, Cynthia; Jewell, William; Tran, Diana; Day, Jeffrey J; Peiris, Malalage N; Nwosu, Charles; Lebrilla, Carlito; Meares, Claude F

    2012-05-16

    Formation of a stable covalent bond between a synthetic probe molecule and a specific site on a target protein has many potential applications in biomedical science. For example, the properties of probes used as receptor-imaging ligands may be improved by increasing their residence time on the targeted receptor. Among the more interesting cases are peptide ligands, the strongest of which typically bind to receptors with micromolar dissociation constants, and which may depend on processes other than simple binding to provide images. The side chains of cysteine, histidine, or lysine are attractive for chemical attachment to improve binding to a receptor protein, and a system based on acryloyl probes attaching to engineered cysteine provides excellent positron emission tomographic images in animal models (Wei et al. (2008) J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1828-1835). In nature, lysine is a more common but less reactive residue than cysteine, making it an interesting challenge to modify. To seek practically useful cross-linking yields with naturally occurring lysine side chains, we have explored not only acryloyl but also other reactive linkers with different chemical properties. We employed a peptide-VEGF model system to discover that a 19mer peptide ligand, which carried a lysine-tagged dinitrofluorobenzene group, became attached stably and with good yield to a unique lysine residue on human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), even in the presence of 70% fetal bovine serum. The same peptide carrying acryloyl and related Michael acceptors gave low yields of attachment to VEGF, as did the chloroacetyl peptide.

  12. Characterization of Sviceucin from Streptomyces Provides Insight into Enzyme Exchangeability and Disulfide Bond Formation in Lasso Peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Ducasse, Rémi; Zirah, Séverine; Blond, Alain; Goulard, Christophe; Lescop, Ewen; Giraud, Caroline; Hartke, Axel; Guittet, Eric; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Rebuffat, Sylvie

    2015-11-20

    Lasso peptides are bacterial ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. They have sparked increasing interest in peptide-based drug development because of their compact, interlocked structure, which offers superior stability and protein-binding capacity. Disulfide bond-containing lasso peptides are rare and exhibit highly sought-after activities. In an effort to expand the repertoire of such molecules, we heterologously expressed, in Streptomyces coelicolor, the gene cluster encoding sviceucin, a type I lasso peptide with two disulfide bridges originating from Streptomyces sviceus, which allowed it to be fully characterized. Sviceucin and its reduced forms were characterized by mass spectrometry and peptidase digestion. The three-dimensional structure of sviceucin was determined using NMR. Sviceucin displayed antimicrobial activity selectively against Gram-positive bacteria and inhibition of fsr quorum sensing in Enterococcus faecalis. This study adds sviceucin to the type I lasso peptide family as a new representative. Moreover, new clusters encoding disulfide-bond containing lasso peptides from Actinobacteria were identified by genome mining. Genetic and functional analyses revealed that the formation of disulfide bonds in sviceucin does not require a pathway-encoded thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase. Most importantly, we demonstrated the functional exchangeability of the sviceucin and microcin J25 (a non-disulfide-bridged lasso peptide) macrolactam synthetases in vitro, highlighting the potential of hybrid lasso synthetases in lasso peptide engineering.

  13. HLA-DM targets the hydrogen bond between the histidine at position β81 and peptide to dissociate HLA-DR–peptide complexes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kedar; Chou, Chih-Ling; Kim, AeRyon; Hartman, Isamu Z; Dalai, Sarat; Khoruzhenko, Stanislav; Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade

    2010-01-01

    The peptide editor HLA-DM (DM) mediates exchange of peptides bound to major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules during antigen processing; however, the mechanism by which DM displaces peptides remains unclear. Here we generated a soluble mutant HLA-DR1 with a histidine-to-asparagine substitution at position 81 of the β-chain (DR1βH81N) to perturb an important hydrogen bond between MHC class II and peptide. Peptide–DR1βH81N complexes dissociated at rates similar to the dissociation rates of DM-induced peptide–wild-type DR1, and DM did not enhance the dissociation of peptide–DR1βH81N complexes. Reintroduction of an appropriate hydrogen bond (DR1βH81N βV85H) restored DM-mediated peptide dissociation. Thus, DR1βH81N might represent a `post-DM effect' conformation. We suggest that DM may mediate peptide dissociation by a `hit-and-run' mechanism that results in conformational changes in MHC class II molecules and disruption of hydrogen bonds between βHis81 and bound peptide. PMID:17143275

  14. Programmable Assembly of Peptide Amphiphile via Noncovalent-to-Covalent Bond Conversion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kohei; Ji, Wei; Palmer, Liam C; Weber, Benjamin; Barz, Matthias; Stupp, Samuel I

    2017-07-05

    Controlling the number of monomers in a supramolecular polymer has been a great challenge in programmable self-assembly of organic molecules. One approach has been to make use of frustrated growth of the supramolecular assembly by tuning the balance of attractive and repulsive intermolecular forces. We report here on the use of covalent bond formation among monomers, compensating for intermolecular electrostatic repulsion, as a mechanism to control the length of a supramolecular nanofiber formed by self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles. Circular dichroism spectroscopy in combination with dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography, and transmittance electron microscope analyses revealed that hydrogen bonds between peptides were reinforced by covalent bond formation, enabling the fiber elongation. To examine these materials for their potential biomedical applications, cytotoxicity of nanofibers against C2C12 premyoblast cells was tested. We demonstrated that cell viability increased with an increase in fiber length, presumably because of the suppressed disruption of cell membranes by the fiber end-caps.

  15. Mass spectral study of hybrid peptides derived from (R)-aminoxy ester and [beta]-amino acids: The influence of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) on peptide fragmentation under electrospray ionization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Sharma, G. V. M.; Manohar, V.

    2009-04-01

    A new class of Boc-protected aminoxy hybrid peptides containing repeats of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama-, and [beta]-Caa-(R)-Ama- ([beta]-hAla = [beta]3-(S)-hAlanine, (R)-Ama = (R)-aminoxy ester, and [beta]-Caa = (R)-C-linked carbo-[beta]3-amino acid) have been studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) of their protonated, cationized, and negative ions. MS3 CID of protonated aminoxy peptides of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama- yield intense [beta]-amino acid characteristic retro-Mannich fragmentation. The bn+ and [bn-methyl imine]+ (n = 3, 5) ions formed by cleavage of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) are more intense than bn+ (n = 2, 4) formed by that of peptide bond (CO-NH-C) cleavage. Another characteristic ion observed is due to loss of H3NO from yn+ ions. The cationized (Li+, and Na+) peptides dissociate differently compared to protonated peptides. Intense cationized cn and zn ions are formed due to the cleavage of N-O bond. The deprotonated peptides also show abundant cn- and zn- ions (n = 1, 3, 5) and do not form any yn- ions. All these results clearly indicate the influence of aminoxy peptide bond on fragmentation of these hybrid peptides.

  16. The determinants of bond angle variability in protein/peptide backbones: A comprehensive statistical/quantum mechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Improta, Roberto; Vitagliano, Luigi; Esposito, Luciana

    2015-11-01

    The elucidation of the mutual influence between peptide bond geometry and local conformation has important implications for protein structure refinement, validation, and prediction. To gain insights into the structural determinants and the energetic contributions associated with protein/peptide backbone plasticity, we here report an extensive analysis of the variability of the peptide bond angles by combining statistical analyses of protein structures and quantum mechanics calculations on small model peptide systems. Our analyses demonstrate that all the backbone bond angles strongly depend on the peptide conformation and unveil the existence of regular trends as function of ψ and/or φ. The excellent agreement of the quantum mechanics calculations with the statistical surveys of protein structures validates the computational scheme here employed and demonstrates that the valence geometry of protein/peptide backbone is primarily dictated by local interactions. Notably, for the first time we show that the position of the H(α) hydrogen atom, which is an important parameter in NMR structural studies, is also dependent on the local conformation. Most of the trends observed may be satisfactorily explained by invoking steric repulsive interactions; in some specific cases the valence bond variability is also influenced by hydrogen-bond like interactions. Moreover, we can provide a reliable estimate of the energies involved in the interplay between geometry and conformations.

  17. Magnesium ion catalyzed P-N bond hydrolysis in imidazolide-activated nucleotides - Relevance to template-directed synthesis of polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Bernasconi, Claude F.; Doodokyan, Donald L.; Alberas, Diann J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed study of the P-N bond hydrolysis in guanosine 5-prime-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5-prime-imidazolide (ImpG) in the presence of 0-0.50 M Mg(2+). Pseudo-first-order rate constants of these compounds were obtained as a function of Mg(2+) concentration, for pH values between 6 and 10 and 37 C. It was found that Mg(2+) catalysis was most effective at pH 10, where a 15-fold increase in hydrolysis was achieved in 0.02 M Mg; at 0.2 M, a 115-fold increase was observed. Implication of these results for the mechanism of template-directed oligomerization is discussed.

  18. Magnesium ion catalyzed P-N bond hydrolysis in imidazolide-activated nucleotides - Relevance to template-directed synthesis of polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Bernasconi, Claude F.; Doodokyan, Donald L.; Alberas, Diann J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed study of the P-N bond hydrolysis in guanosine 5-prime-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5-prime-imidazolide (ImpG) in the presence of 0-0.50 M Mg(2+). Pseudo-first-order rate constants of these compounds were obtained as a function of Mg(2+) concentration, for pH values between 6 and 10 and 37 C. It was found that Mg(2+) catalysis was most effective at pH 10, where a 15-fold increase in hydrolysis was achieved in 0.02 M Mg; at 0.2 M, a 115-fold increase was observed. Implication of these results for the mechanism of template-directed oligomerization is discussed.

  19. Properties of synthetic ferrihydrite as an amino acid adsorbent and a promoter of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, G; Blanot, D

    2004-03-01

    Ferrihydrite, an iron oxide hydroxide, is found in all kinds of environments, from hydrothermal hot springs to extraterrestrial materials. It has been shown that this material is nanoporous, and because of its high surface area, it has outstanding adsorption properties and in some cases catalysis properties. In this work we studied the adsorption properties of ferrihydrite with respect to amino acids. Samples of pure ferrihydrite were synthesised and exposed to solutions of amino acids including both proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous species. These experiments revealed important characteristics of this mineral as both an adsorbent of amino acids and a promoter of peptide bond formation.

  20. Zymogen activation confers thermodynamic stability on a key peptide bond and protects human cationic trypsin from degradation.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Radisky, Evette S; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2014-02-21

    Human cationic trypsinogen, precursor of the digestive enzyme trypsin, can be rapidly degraded to protect the pancreas when pathological conditions threaten, while trypsin itself is impressively resistant to degradation. For either form, degradation is controlled by two necessary initial proteolytic events: cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond by chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and cleavage of the Arg122-Val123 peptide bond by trypsin. Here we demonstrate that the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond of human cationic trypsin, but not trypsinogen, is thermodynamically stable, such that cleavage by CTRC leads to an equilibrium mixture containing 10% cleaved and 90% uncleaved trypsin. When cleaved trypsin was incubated with CTRC, the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond was re-synthesized to establish the same equilibrium. The thermodynamic stability of the scissile peptide bond was not dependent on CTRC or Leu-81, as re-synthesis was also accomplished by other proteases acting on mutated cationic trypsin. The Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond is located within a calcium binding loop, and thermodynamic stability of the bond was strictly dependent on calcium and on the calcium-coordinated residue Glu-85. Trypsinolytic cleavage of the Arg122-Val123 site was also delayed in trypsin relative to trypsinogen in a calcium-dependent manner, but for this bond cleavage was modulated by kinetic rather than thermodynamic control. Our results reveal that the trypsinogen to trypsin conformational switch modulates cleavage susceptibility of nick sites by altering both the thermodynamics and kinetics of cleavage to protect human cationic trypsin from premature degradation.

  1. Multinuclear diffusion NMR spectroscopy and DFT modeling: a powerful combination for unraveling the mechanism of phosphoester bond hydrolysis catalyzed by metal-substituted polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Luong, Thi Kim Nga; Shestakova, Pavletta; Mihaylov, Tzvetan T; Absillis, Gregory; Pierloot, Kristine; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2015-03-09

    A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed for the hydrolysis of the phosphoester bonds in the DNA model substrate bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) in the presence of the Zr(IV)-substituted Keggin type polyoxometalate (Et2NH2)8[{α-PW11O39Zr(μ-OH)(H2O)}2]⋅7 H2O (ZrK 2:2) at pD 6.4. Low-temperature (31)P DOSY spectra at pD 6.4 gave the first experimental evidence for the presence of ZrK 1:1 in fast equilibrium with ZrK 2:2 in purely aqueous solution. Moreover, theoretical calculations identified the ZrK 1:1 form as the potentially active species in solution. The reaction intermediates involved in the hydrolysis were identified by means of (1)H/(31)P NMR studies, including EXSY and DOSY NMR spectroscopy, which were supported by DFT calculations. This experimental/theoretical approach enabled the determination of the structures of four intermediate species in which the starting compound BNPP, nitrophenyl phosphate (NPP), or the end product phosphate (P) is coordinated to ZrK 1:1. In the proposed reaction mechanism, BNPP initially coordinates to ZrK 1:1 in a monodentate fashion, which results in hydrolysis of the first phosphoester bond in BNPP and formation of NPP. EXSY NMR studies showed that the bidentate complex between NPP and ZrK 1:1 is in equilibrium with monobound and free NPP. Subsequently, hydrolysis of NPP results in P, which is in equilibrium with its monobound form.

  2. Purification, Identification, and Cloning of Lysoplasmalogenase, the Enzyme That Catalyzes Hydrolysis of the Vinyl Ether Bond of Lysoplasmalogen*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lai-Chu; Pfeiffer, Douglas R.; Calhoon, Elisabeth A.; Madiai, Francesca; Marcucci, Guido; Liu, Shujun; Jurkowitz, Marianne S.

    2011-01-01

    Lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2 and EC 3.3.2.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmalogen, forming fatty aldehyde and glycerophosphoethanolamine or glycerophosphocholine and is specific for the sn-2-deacylated form of plasmalogen. Here we report the purification, characterization, identification, and cloning of lysoplasmalogenase. Rat liver microsomal lysoplasmalogenase was solubilized with octyl glucoside and purified 500-fold to near homogeneity using four chromatography steps. The purified enzyme has apparent Km values of ∼50 μm for both lysoplasmenylcholine and lysoplasmenylethanolamine and apparent Vm values of 24.5 and 17.5 μmol/min/mg protein for the two substrates, respectively. The pH optimum was 7.0. Lysoplasmalogenase was competitively inhibited by lysophosphatidic acid (Ki ∼20 μm). The predominant band on a gel at ∼19 kDa was subjected to trypsinolysis, and the peptides were identified by mass spectrometry as Tmem86b, a protein of unknown function. Transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells showed that TMEM86b cDNA yielded lysoplasmalogenase activity, and Western blot analyses confirmed the synthesis of TMEM86b protein. The protein was localized in the membrane fractions. The TMEM86b gene was also transformed into Escherichia coli, and its expression was verified by Western blot and activity analyses. Tmem86b is a hydrophobic transmembrane protein of the YhhN family. Northern blot analyses demonstrated that liver expressed the highest level of Tmem86b, which agreed with tissue distribution of activity. Overexpression of TMEM86b in HEK 293T cells resulted in decreased levels of plasmalogens, suggesting that the enzyme may be important in regulating plasmalogen levels in animal cells. PMID:21515882

  3. Purification, identification, and cloning of lysoplasmalogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmalogen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lai-Chu; Pfeiffer, Douglas R; Calhoon, Elisabeth A; Madiai, Francesca; Marcucci, Guido; Liu, Shujun; Jurkowitz, Marianne S

    2011-07-15

    Lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2 and EC 3.3.2.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmalogen, forming fatty aldehyde and glycerophosphoethanolamine or glycerophosphocholine and is specific for the sn-2-deacylated form of plasmalogen. Here we report the purification, characterization, identification, and cloning of lysoplasmalogenase. Rat liver microsomal lysoplasmalogenase was solubilized with octyl glucoside and purified 500-fold to near homogeneity using four chromatography steps. The purified enzyme has apparent K(m) values of ∼50 μm for both lysoplasmenylcholine and lysoplasmenylethanolamine and apparent V(m) values of 24.5 and 17.5 μmol/min/mg protein for the two substrates, respectively. The pH optimum was 7.0. Lysoplasmalogenase was competitively inhibited by lysophosphatidic acid (K(i) ∼20 μm). The predominant band on a gel at ∼19 kDa was subjected to trypsinolysis, and the peptides were identified by mass spectrometry as Tmem86b, a protein of unknown function. Transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells showed that TMEM86b cDNA yielded lysoplasmalogenase activity, and Western blot analyses confirmed the synthesis of TMEM86b protein. The protein was localized in the membrane fractions. The TMEM86b gene was also transformed into Escherichia coli, and its expression was verified by Western blot and activity analyses. Tmem86b is a hydrophobic transmembrane protein of the YhhN family. Northern blot analyses demonstrated that liver expressed the highest level of Tmem86b, which agreed with tissue distribution of activity. Overexpression of TMEM86b in HEK 293T cells resulted in decreased levels of plasmalogens, suggesting that the enzyme may be important in regulating plasmalogen levels in animal cells.

  4. Photo-stability of peptide-bond aggregates: N-methylformamide dimers.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Mardykov, Artur; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Sander, Wolfram; Barbatti, Mario

    2014-09-21

    The formation of weakly-bound dimers of N-methylformamide (NMF) and the photochemistry of these dimers after irradiation at 248 nm were explored using matrix-isolation spectroscopy. Calculations were used to characterize the diverse isomers and assign their IR spectra; non-adiabatic dynamics was simulated to understand their photo-deactivation mechanism. The most stable dimers, and , were obtained by trans-trans aggregation (N-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]C interactions) and could be identified in the matrix. The main products formed after irradiation are the trans-cis dimers ( and ), also stabilized by N-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]C interactions. In contrast to the photochemistry of the monomers, no dissociative products were observed after 248 nm irradiation of the dimers. The absence of dissociative products can be explained by a proton-transfer mechanism in the excited state that is faster than the photo-dissociative mechanism. The fact that hydrogen bonding has such a significant effect on the photochemical stability of NMF has important implications to understand the stability of peptide-bonded systems to UV irradiation.

  5. Low molecular weight bioactive peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen after isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process of turkey by-products.

    PubMed

    Khiari, Zied; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Betti, Mirko

    2014-09-01

    A process based on the isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) method was developed to recover collagen from low value poultry by-products. The application of the ISP process to turkey heads generated protein isolates and an insoluble biomass that was used to extract collagen. Isolated turkey head collagen was then enzymatically hydrolyzed for different time periods using alcalase, flavorzyme, and trypsin. The enzymatic hydrolysis approaches consisted of digesting collagen with each one of the 3 enzymes alone (alcalase, flavorzyme, or trypsin), or one of the 3 combinations of 2 enzymes (alcalase/flavorzyme, alcalase/trypsin, or flavorzyme/trypsin), or a cocktail of all 3 enzymes together (alcalase/flavorzyme/trypsin). The molecular weight distribution of turkey head collagen hydrolysates was determined using size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The enzyme cocktail produced collagen hydrolysates with the greatest amount of low molecular weight peptides ranging from 555.26 to 2,093.74 Da. These collagen peptides showed excellent solubility over a wide pH range (2 -: 8) and were able to bind cholic and deoxycholic acids and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited plasma amine oxidase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ISP process combined with enzyme cocktail hydrolysis represents a potential new way to produce low molecular weight bioactive collagen peptides from low value poultry by-products.

  6. Identification of active sites in amidase: Evolutionary relationship between amide bond- and peptide bond-cleaving enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Michihiko; Fujiwara, Yoshie; Goda, Masahiko; Komeda, Hidenobu; Shimizu, Sakayu

    1997-01-01

    Mainly based on various inhibitor studies previously performed, amidases came to be regarded as sulfhydryl enzymes. Not completely satisfied with this generally accepted interpretation, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis studies on one particular amidase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 that was involved in its nitrile metabolism. For these experiments, the recombinant amidase was produced as the inclusion body in Escherichia coli to greatly facilitate its recovery and subsequent purification. With regard to the presumptive active site residue Cys203, a Cys203 → Ala mutant enzyme still retained 11.5% of the original specific activity. In sharp contrast, substitutions in certain other positions in the neighborhood of Cys203 had a far more dramatic effect on the amidase. Glutamic acid substitution of Asp191 reduced the specific activity of the mutant enzyme to 1.33% of the wild-type activity. Furthermore, Asp191 → Asn substitution as well as Ser195 → Ala substitution completely abolished the specific activity. It would thus appear that, among various conserved residues residing within the so-called signature sequence common to all amidases, the real active site residues are Asp191 and Ser195 rather than Cys203. Inasmuch as an amide bond (CO-NH2) in the amide substrate is not too far structurally removed from a peptide bond (CO-NH-), the signature sequences of various amidases were compared with the active site sequences of various types of proteases. It was found that aspartic acid and serine residues corresponding to Asp191 and Ser195 of the Rhodococcus amidase are present within the active site sequences of aspartic proteinases, thus suggesting the evolutionary relationship between the two. PMID:9342349

  7. Characterization of the unique function of a reduced amide bond in a cytolytic peptide that acts on phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Oh, J E; Lee, K H

    2000-01-01

    The incorporation of a reduced amide bond, psi(CH(2)NH), into peptide results in an increase in the net positive charge and the perturbation of alpha-helical structure. By using this characteristic of the reduced amide bond, we designed and synthesized novel pseudopeptides containing reduced amide bonds, which had a great selectivity between bacterial and mammalian cells. A structure-activity relationship study on pseudopeptides indicated that the decrease in alpha-helicity and the increase in net positive charge in the backbone, caused by the incorporation of a reduced amide bond into the peptide, both contributed to an improvement in the selectivity between lipid membranes with various surface charges. However, activity results in vitro indicated that a perturbation of alpha-helical structure rather than an increase in net positive charge in the backbone is more important in the selectivity between bacterial and mammalian cells. The present result revealed that the backbone of membrane-active peptides were important not only in maintaining the secondary structure for the interactions with lipid membranes but also in direct interactions with lipid membranes. The present study showed the unique function of a reduced amide bond in cytolytic peptides and a direction for developing novel anti-bacterial agents from cytolytic peptides that act on the lipid membrane of micro-organisms. PMID:11104671

  8. Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase: Substrate Isosteres in Which an (E)- or (Z)-Alkene Replaces the Prolyl Peptide Bond.

    PubMed

    Vasta, James D; Choudhary, Amit; Jensen, Katrina H; McGrath, Nicholas A; Raines, Ronald T

    2017-01-10

    Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (CP4Hs) catalyze a prevalent posttranslational modification, the hydroxylation of (2S)-proline residues in protocollagen strands. The ensuing (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline residues are necessary for the conformational stability of the collagen triple helix. Prolyl peptide bonds isomerize between cis and trans isomers, and the preference of the enzyme is unknown. We synthesized alkene isosteres of the cis and trans isomers to probe the conformational preferences of human CP4H1. We discovered that the presence of a prolyl peptide bond is necessary for catalysis. The cis isostere is, however, an inhibitor with a potency greater than that of the trans isostere, suggesting that the cis conformation of a prolyl peptide bond is recognized preferentially. Comparative studies with a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P4H, which has a similar catalytic domain but lacks an N-terminal substrate-binding domain, showed a similar preference for the cis isostere. These findings support the hypothesis that the catalytic domain of CP4Hs recognizes the cis conformation of the prolyl peptide bond and inform the use of alkenes as isosteres for peptide bonds.

  9. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Kasatsky, Pavel; Kartsev, Victor G.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of the tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome. PMID:28505372

  10. Proton-driven amide bond-cleavage pathways of gas-phase peptide ions lacking mobile protons.

    PubMed

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Suhai, Sándor; Somogyi, Arpád; Paizs, Béla

    2009-10-07

    The mobile proton model (Dongre, A. R., Jones, J. L., Somogyi, A. and Wysocki, V. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118 , 8365-8374) of peptide fragmentation states that the ionizing protons play a critical role in the gas-phase fragmentation of protonated peptides upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). The model distinguishes two classes of peptide ions, those with or without easily mobilizable protons. For the former class mild excitation leads to proton transfer reactions which populate amide nitrogen protonation sites. This enables facile amide bond cleavage and thus the formation of b and y sequence ions. In contrast, the latter class of peptide ions contains strongly basic functionalities which sequester the ionizing protons, thereby often hindering formation of sequence ions. Here we describe the proton-driven amide bond cleavages necessary to produce b and y ions from peptide ions lacking easily mobilizable protons. We show that this important class of peptide ions fragments by different means from those with easily mobilizable protons. We present three new amide bond cleavage mechanisms which involve salt-bridge, anhydride, and imine enol intermediates, respectively. All three new mechanisms are less energetically demanding than the classical oxazolone b(n)-y(m) pathway. These mechanisms offer an explanation for the formation of b and y ions from peptide ions with sequestered ionizing protons which are routinely fragmented in large-scale proteomics experiments.

  11. Production of disulfide bond-rich peptides by fusion expression using small transmembrane proteins of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ziwei; Lu, Ming; Ma, Yunqi; Kwag, Dong-Geon; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Park, Ji-Min; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; An, Cheul-Min; Li, Huayue; Jung, Jee H; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli allows the simple, economical, and effective production of bioactive peptides. On the other hand, the production of native peptides, particularly those rich in disulfide bonds, is a major problem. Previous studies have reported that the use of carrier proteins for fusion expression can result in good peptide yields, but few are folded correctly. In this study, two transmembrane small proteins in E. coli, YoaJ and YkgR, which both orientate with their N-termini in cytoplasm and their C-termini in periplasm, were used for fusion expression. The recombinant production of two peptides, asteropsin A (ASPA) and β-defensin (BD), was induced in the periplasm of E. coli using a selected carrier protein. Both peptides were expressed at high levels, at yields of approximately 5-10 mg/L of culture. Mass spectrometry showed that the resulting peptide had the same molecular weight as their natural forms. After purification, single peaks were observed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), demonstrating the absence of isoforms. Furthermore, cytoplasmically expressed fusion proteins with a carrier at their C-termini did not contain disulfide bonds. This study provides new carrier proteins for fusion expression of disulfide bond-rich peptides in E. coli.

  12. Synergistic action of an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and a non-specific aminopeptidase in protein hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Byun, T; Kofod, L; Blinkovsky, A

    2001-04-01

    Non-specific monoaminopeptidase (AP; E.C. 3.4.11) and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; E.C. 3.4.14.5), both from Aspergillus oryzae, demonstrate strong synergism in hydrolyzing proline-containing peptides. Incubation of AP alone with the peptide Ala-Pro-Gly-Asp-Arg-Ile-Tyr-Val-His-Pro-Phe does not generate free amino acids. However, when AP and X-PDAP are added in combination, complete and immediate hydrolysis of all peptide bonds, other than X-Pro bonds, is observed. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, soy, and gluten, degree of hydrolysis (DH) values of 54, 54, and 47% were achieved, respectively, when subtilisin (E.C. 3.4.21.62) was supplemented with AP. Addition of a third enzyme, X-PDAP, resulted in significantly higher DH values of 69, 72, and 64%, respectively, establishing the utility of this synergism in protein hydrolysis.

  13. Analysis of hydrogen bonds in peptides, based on the hydration affinity of amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perczel, András; Lengyel, Istvan; Mantsch, Henry H.; Fasman, Gerald D.

    1993-08-01

    The difference in the affinity for water of peptide groups embedded in different molecular environments was investigated. The chemical shift of an amide proton is sensitive to conformational variations, as well as to changes in the molecular environment [D.S. Wishat, B.D. Sykes and F.M. Richards, J. Mol. Biol., 222 (1991) 311-333]. Therefore, if the conformational motions are minimized or excluded, the observed changes in the chemical shift can simply be related to the environmental effects. The conformation(s) of the cyclic β-turn models studied in this work has been previously reported using X-ray, NMR, circular dichroism, and (FT-IR) spectroscopic methods, as well as MD calculations. [M. Hollósi, K.E. Köver, S. Holly, L. Radics and G.D. Fasman, Biopolymers, 26 (1987) 1527-1572; A. Perczel, M. Hollósi, B.M. Foxman and G.D. Fasman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113 (1991) 9772-9784; and H.H. Mantsch, A. Perczel, M. Hollósi and G.D. Fasman, Biopolymers, 33 (1993) 201-207]. The backbone of the cyclo[(δ)Ava—Gly—Pro—Aaa—Gly] (where Aaa = Ser(O tBu), Ser or Thr(O tBu), and δ(Ava) is δ-aminovaleric acid) compounds was found to be rigidly incorporated in the structure and to contain two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. These β-turn models also include one (or two) "free" amide group(s) that are not involved in any type of interaction. The "water titration" of these amide groups in acetonitrile, where they are involved in various degrees of hydrogen bonding, revealed their molecular environment. Owing to the rigidity of these structures, the observed changes in the amide proton chemical shifts, during titration were attributed to their involvement in hydrogen bonding. This was confirmed by monitoring the water titration simultaneously with FT-IR spectroscopy. The phenomenon described here, with the proposed characterization of the investigated peptide/water system, comprise an improvement in the NMR method for analyzing the hydrogen bonding of small rigid peptides.

  14. Disruption of disulfide bond formation alters the trafficking of prothyrotropin releasing hormone (proTRH)-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Barker, Alison J; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2006-01-15

    Rat prothyrotropin releasing hormone (proTRH) is processed in the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) of neuroendocrine cells yielding five TRH peptides and several non-TRH peptides. It is not understood how these peptides are targeted to the RSP. We show here that a disulfide bond in the carboxy-terminus of proTRH plays an important role in the trafficking of this prohormone. Recombinant proTRH was observed to migrate faster on a native gel when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) suggesting the presence of a disulfide bond. In vitro disulfide bond formation was prevented either by DTT treatment or by mutating cysteines 213 and 219 to glycines. In both cases the peptides derived from these mutants exhibited increased constitutive release and processing defects when expressed in AtT20 cells, a neuroendocrine cell line used in our prior studies on proTRH processing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that wild-type proTRH and mutant proTRH localized in a punctate pattern typical of proteins sorted to the regulated secretory pathway. These data suggest that the proposed disulfide bond of proTRH is involved in sorting of proTRH-derived peptides and in their retention within maturing secretory granules. This is the first evidence of structural motifs being important for the sorting of proTRH.

  15. Peptide bond cleavage site determination of novel proteolytic enzymes found in ROS 17/2.8 cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Guidon, P T; Perrin, D; Harrison, P

    1996-02-01

    We have identified proteolytic activities in the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 which are capable of cleaving a peptide substrate for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation (PSPKC, Pro-Leu-Ser-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala-Ala-Lys). Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions similar to those used to resolve small molecular weight proteins, the peptide bonds of PSPKC which are cleaved by the proteolytic activities present in ROS 17/2.8 cell lysates have been determined. These activities cleave the Ser-Arg, Thr-Leu, and Ser-Val peptide bonds. To date, no proteolytic activities present in osteoblast cell lysates have been described with the aforementioned peptide bond specificities, suggesting that these activities are novel. The PSPKC-cleaved peptide fragment pattern generated was similar for several different osteoblast cell lysates. Lysates generated from different rat tissues were also able to cleave PSPKC, but the peptide fragment pattern generated by ROS 17/2.8 cell lysates appeared to be unique amongst these tissues.

  16. Effects of three peptidase inhibitors, amastatin, captopril and phosphoramidon, on the hydrolysis of [Met5]-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and other opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Hiranuma, T; Kitamura, K; Taniguchi, T; Kobayashi, T; Tamaki, R; Kanai, M; Akahori, K; Iwao, K; Oka, T

    1998-03-01

    The contents of [Met5]-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 (met-enk-RF) and its six hydrolysis products: Y, YG, YGG, YGGF, YGGFM, and YGGFMR were estimated after incubating met-enk-RF with either a guinea-pig ileal or striatal membrane fraction for various times at 37 degrees C. After 45 min incubation with either ileal or striatal membranes, met-enk-RF was completely hydrolyzed, yielding Y as the major product. Incubation with either membrane preparation for 60 min in the presence of the aminopeptidase inhibitor amastatin hydrolyzed 90 or 92% of met-enk-RF, respectively, with YGG being the major product. If the dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I inhibitor captopril is also included in the incubation, met-enk-RF hydrolysis decreases by about half for both membranes, with YGG remaining the major product. Inclusion of three peptidase inhibitors, amastatin, captopril, and phosphoramidon (inhibition of endopeptidase-24.11) further reduced met-enk-hydrolysis, with 87% or more remaining intact. This shows that met-enk-RF was mainly hydrolyzed by three enzymes, amastatin-sensitive aminopeptidase, captopril-sensitive dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I and phosphoramidon-sensitive endopeptidase-24.11, in both ileal and striatal membranes. Additionally, estimations of [Leu5]-enkephalin (leu-enk), alpha- and beta-neoendorphins (alpha- and beta-neoends), and dynorphin B (dyn B) contents after incubating the individual peptides with striatal membrane for 60 min in the presence of the three peptidase inhibitors showed that 98, 32, 5, and 23%, respectively, remained intact. Our previous studies together with the data obtained here show that one group of endogenous opioid peptides: met-enk, leu-enk, met-enk-RF, met-enk-RGL, and dyn A-(1-8) are largely or almost exclusively hydrolyzed by the three enzymes, amastatin-sensitive aminopeptidase, captopril-sensitive dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I, and phosphoramidon-sensitive endopeptidase-24.11, and indicate that an unidentified fourth enzyme(s) is involved in

  17. Intermolecular charge flux as the origin of infrared intensity enhancement upon halogen-bond formation of the peptide group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    The changes in the vibrational properties of the peptide group upon formation of O⋯X and N⋯X halogen bonds are studied theoretically. Calculations are carried out for complexes of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a well known model molecule of the peptide group, with halogen-containing molecules. For comparison, calculations are also carried out for some NMA-water hydrogen-bonding complexes. It is shown that the infrared (IR) intensity of the amide I mode of the peptide group is enhanced significantly (up to about 520 km mol-1 or 2.6 times) upon CO⋯X halogen-bond formation, in spite of rather modest magnitudes of the intermolecular electric field and of the changes in the CO bond length and in the amide I vibrational frequency as compared with the cases of the CO⋯H(D) hydrogen bonding. From the analysis of the changes in the dipole derivative and in the electronic structure, it is shown that this IR intensity enhancement arises from the intermolecular charge flux. For the N⋯X halogen bonding complexes, some characteristic changes in the vibrational properties are seen, among which the IR intensity enhancement of the ND out-of-plane wagging mode is most notable. The reason why such large IR intensity enhancements are seen for these particular vibrational modes is examined.

  18. Intermolecular charge flux as the origin of infrared intensity enhancement upon halogen-bond formation of the peptide group.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hajime

    2010-07-21

    The changes in the vibrational properties of the peptide group upon formation of O...X and N...X halogen bonds are studied theoretically. Calculations are carried out for complexes of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a well known model molecule of the peptide group, with halogen-containing molecules. For comparison, calculations are also carried out for some NMA-water hydrogen-bonding complexes. It is shown that the infrared (IR) intensity of the amide I mode of the peptide group is enhanced significantly (up to about 520 km mol(-1) or 2.6 times) upon C=O...X halogen-bond formation, in spite of rather modest magnitudes of the intermolecular electric field and of the changes in the C=O bond length and in the amide I vibrational frequency as compared with the cases of the C=O...H(D) hydrogen bonding. From the analysis of the changes in the dipole derivative and in the electronic structure, it is shown that this IR intensity enhancement arises from the intermolecular charge flux. For the N...X halogen bonding complexes, some characteristic changes in the vibrational properties are seen, among which the IR intensity enhancement of the ND out-of-plane wagging mode is most notable. The reason why such large IR intensity enhancements are seen for these particular vibrational modes is examined.

  19. A novel peptide-processing activity of insect peptidyl-dipeptidase A (angiotensin I-converting enzyme): the hydrolysis of lysyl-arginine and arginyl-arginine from the C-terminus of an insect prohormone peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R; Schoofs, L; Williams, T A; Veelaert, D; Sajid, M; Corvol, P; Coates, D

    1998-01-01

    Insect peptidyl-dipeptidase A [angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)] is a soluble single-domain peptidyl-dipeptidase that has many properties in common with the C-domain of mammalian somatic ACE and with the single-domain mammalian germinal ACE. Mammalian somatic ACE is important in blood homoeostasis, but the role of ACE in insects is not known. Immunocytochemistry has been used to localize ACE in the neuroendocrine system of the locust, Locusta migratoria. Staining was observed in five groups of neurosecretory cells in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion, in the nervi corpori cardiaci, the storage part of the corpora cardiaca and in the nervi corpori allati. In three groups of neurosecretory cells, ACE co-localized with locustamyotropins, suggesting a possible role for the enzyme in the metabolism of these neuropeptides. We demonstrate in vitro a novel activity of ACE that removes pairs of basic amino acid residues from a locustamyotropin peptide extended at the C-terminus with either Gly-Lys-Arg or Gly-Arg-Arg, corresponding to a consensus recognition sequence for endoproteolysis of prohormone proteins by prohormone convertases. The low Km and high kcat values (Km 7.3 and 5.0 microM, kcat 226 and 207 s-1 for the hydrolysis of Phe-Ser-Pro-Arg-Leu-Gly-Lys-Arg and Phe-Ser-Pro-Arg-Leu-Gly-Arg-Arg, respectively) obtained for the hydrolysis of these two peptides by insect ACE means that these peptides, along with mammalian bradykinin, are the most favoured in vitro ACE substrates so far identified. The discovery of this in vitro prohormone-processing activity of insect ACE provides a possible explanation for the intracellular co-localization of the enzyme with locustamyotropin peptides, and provides evidence for a new role for ACE in the biosynthesis of peptide hormones and transmitters. PMID:9461491

  20. Insights into the catalysis of a lysine-tryptophan bond in bacterial peptides by a SPASM domain radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) peptide cyclase.

    PubMed

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Decamps, Laure; Guillot, Alain; Kubiak, Xavier; Ruffié, Pauline; Sandström, Corine; Berteau, Olivier

    2017-06-30

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes are emerging as a major superfamily of biological catalysts involved in the biosynthesis of the broad family of bioactive peptides called ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). These enzymes have been shown to catalyze unconventional reactions, such as methyl transfer to electrophilic carbon atoms, sulfur to Cα atom thioether bonds, or carbon-carbon bond formation. Recently, a novel radical SAM enzyme catalyzing the formation of a lysine-tryptophan bond has been identified in Streptococcus thermophilus, and a reaction mechanism has been proposed. By combining site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical assays, and spectroscopic analyses, we show here that this enzyme, belonging to the emerging family of SPASM domain radical SAM enzymes, likely contains three [4Fe-4S] clusters. Notably, our data support that the seven conserved cysteine residues, present within the SPASM domain, are critical for enzyme activity. In addition, we uncovered the minimum substrate requirements and demonstrate that KW cyclic peptides are more widespread than anticipated, notably in pathogenic bacteria. Finally, we show a strict specificity of the enzyme for lysine and tryptophan residues and the dependence of an eight-amino acid leader peptide for activity. Altogether, our study suggests novel mechanistic links among SPASM domain radical SAM enzymes and supports the involvement of non-cysteinyl ligands in the coordination of auxiliary clusters. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Thermal Condensation of Glycine and Alanine on Metal Ferrite Surface: Primitive Peptide Bond Formation Scenario.

    PubMed

    Iqubal, Md Asif; Sharma, Rachana; Jheeta, Sohan; Kamaluddin

    2017-03-27

    The amino acid condensation reaction on a heterogeneous mineral surface has been regarded as one of the important pathways for peptide bond formation. Keeping this in view, we have studied the oligomerization of the simple amino acids, glycine and alanine, on nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄), cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄), copper ferrite (CuFe₂O₄), zinc ferrite (ZnFe₂O₄), and manganese ferrite (MnFe₂O₄) nanoparticles surfaces, in the temperature range from 50-120 °C for 1-35 days, without applying any wetting/drying cycles. Among the metal ferrites tested for their catalytic activity, NiFe₂O₄ produced the highest yield of products by oligomerizing glycine to the trimer level and alanine to the dimer level, whereas MnFe₂O₄ was the least efficient catalyst, producing the lowest yield of products, as well as shorter oligomers of amino acids under the same set of experimental conditions. It produced primarily diketopiperazine (Ala) with a trace amount of alanine dimer from alanine condensation, while glycine was oligomerized to the dimer level. The trend in product formation is in accordance with the surface area of the minerals used. A temperature as low as 50 °C can even favor peptide bond formation in the present study, which is important in the sense that the condensation process is highly feasible without any sort of localized heat that may originate from volcanoes or hydrothermal vents. However, at a high temperature of 120 °C, anhydrides of glycine and alanine formation are favored, while the optimum temperature for the highest yield of product formation was found to be 90 °C.

  2. Thermal Condensation of Glycine and Alanine on Metal Ferrite Surface: Primitive Peptide Bond Formation Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Iqubal, Md. Asif; Sharma, Rachana; Jheeta, Sohan; Kamaluddin

    2017-01-01

    The amino acid condensation reaction on a heterogeneous mineral surface has been regarded as one of the important pathways for peptide bond formation. Keeping this in view, we have studied the oligomerization of the simple amino acids, glycine and alanine, on nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4), cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), copper ferrite (CuFe2O4), zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), and manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles surfaces, in the temperature range from 50–120 °C for 1–35 days, without applying any wetting/drying cycles. Among the metal ferrites tested for their catalytic activity, NiFe2O4 produced the highest yield of products by oligomerizing glycine to the trimer level and alanine to the dimer level, whereas MnFe2O4 was the least efficient catalyst, producing the lowest yield of products, as well as shorter oligomers of amino acids under the same set of experimental conditions. It produced primarily diketopiperazine (Ala) with a trace amount of alanine dimer from alanine condensation, while glycine was oligomerized to the dimer level. The trend in product formation is in accordance with the surface area of the minerals used. A temperature as low as 50 °C can even favor peptide bond formation in the present study, which is important in the sense that the condensation process is highly feasible without any sort of localized heat that may originate from volcanoes or hydrothermal vents. However, at a high temperature of 120 °C, anhydrides of glycine and alanine formation are favored, while the optimum temperature for the highest yield of product formation was found to be 90 °C. PMID:28346388

  3. Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles involved in malarial peptide bonds determine sterile protective immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Bermudez, Adriana

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles determine sterile protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified peptide's tendency to assume a regular conformation related to a PPII{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural modifications in mHABPs induce Ab and protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mHABP backbone atom's interaction with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} is stabilised by H-bonds. -- Abstract: Modified HABP (mHABP) regions interacting with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules have a more restricted conformation and/or sequence than other mHABPs which do not fit perfectly into their peptide binding regions (PBR) and do not induce an acceptable immune response due to the critical role of their {Phi} and {Psi} torsion angles. These angle's critical role was determined in such highly immunogenic, protection-inducing response against experimental malaria using the conformers (mHABPs) obtained by {sup 1}H-NMR and superimposed into HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator }-like Aotus monkey molecules; their phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles were measured and the H-bond formation between these molecules was evaluated. The aforementioned mHABP propensity to assume a regular conformation similar to a left-handed polyproline type II helix (PPII{sub L}) led to suggesting that favouring these conformations according to their amino acid sequence would lead to high antibody titre production and sterile protective immunity induction against malaria, thereby adding new principles or rules for vaccine development, malaria being one of them.

  4. Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Roseri J A C; Zarzycka, Barbara; Amatdjais-Groenen, Helene I V; Jans, Sander C B; Nuijens, Timo; Quaedflieg, Peter J L M; van Delft, Floris L; Nabuurs, Sander B; Rutjes, Floris P J T

    2011-09-19

    The substrate mimetics approach is a versatile method for small-scale enzymatic peptide-bond synthesis in aqueous systems. The protease-recognized amino acid side chain is incorporated in an ester leaving group, the substrate mimetic. This shift of the specific moiety enables the acceptance of amino acids and peptide sequences that are normally not recognized by the enzyme. The guanidinophenyl group (OGp), a known substrate mimetic for the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, has now been applied for the first time in combination with papain, a cheap and commercially available cysteine protease. To provide insight in the binding mode of various Z-X(AA)-OGp esters, computational docking studies were performed. The results strongly point at enzyme-specific activation of the OGp esters in papain through a novel mode of action, rather than their functioning as mimetics. Furthermore, the scope of a model dipeptide synthesis was investigated with respect to both the amino acid donor and the nucleophile. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to prioritize 22 natural and unnatural amino acid donors for synthesis. Experimental results correlate well with the predicted ranking and show that nearly all amino acids are accepted by papain.

  5. Quantum-mechanical study on the mechanism of peptide bond formation in the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Silva, Carles; Bertran, Joan; Branchadell, Vicenç; Oliva, Antoni

    2012-04-04

    Ribosomes transform the genetic information encoded within genes into proteins. In recent years, there has been much progress in the study of this complex molecular machine, but the mechanism of peptide bond formation and the origin of the catalytic power of this ancient enzymatic system are still an unsolved puzzle. A quantum-mechanical study of different possible mechanisms of peptide synthesis in the ribosome has been carried out using the M06-2X density functional. The uncatalyzed processes in solution have been treated with the SMD solvation model. Concerted and two-step mechanisms have been explored. Three main points suggested in this work deserve to be deeply analyzed. First, no zwitterionic intermediates are found when the process takes place in the ribosome. Second, the proton shuttle mechanism is suggested to be efficient only through the participation of the A2451 2'-OH and two crystallographic water molecules. Finally, the mechanisms in solution and in the ribosome are very different, and this difference may help us to understand the origin of the efficient catalytic role played by the ribosome.

  6. Cyclodipeptide synthases are a family of tRNA-dependent peptide bond-forming enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gondry, Muriel; Sauguet, Ludovic; Belin, Pascal; Thai, Robert; Amouroux, Rachel; Tellier, Carine; Tuphile, Karine; Jacquet, Mickaël; Braud, Sandrine; Courçon, Marie; Masson, Cédric; Dubois, Steven; Lautru, Sylvie; Lecoq, Alain; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2009-06-01

    Cyclodipeptides and their derivatives belong to the diketopiperazine (DKP) family, which is comprised of a broad array of natural products that exhibit useful biological properties. In the few known DKP biosynthetic pathways, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are involved in the synthesis of cyclodipeptides that constitute the DKP scaffold, except in the albonoursin (1) pathway. Albonoursin, or cyclo(alpha,beta-dehydroPhe-alpha,beta-dehydroLeu), is an antibacterial DKP produced by Streptomyces noursei. In this pathway, the formation of the cyclo(Phe-Leu) (2) intermediate is catalyzed by AlbC, a small protein unrelated to NRPSs. We demonstrated that AlbC uses aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates to catalyze the formation of the DKP peptide bonds. Moreover, several other bacterial proteins, presenting moderate similarity to AlbC, also use aminoacyl-tRNAs to synthesize various cyclodipeptides. Therefore, AlbC and these related proteins belong to a newly defined family of enzymes that we have named cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs).

  7. Synthesis of oligopeptides containing an oxirane ring in the place of a peptidic bond.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M

    1999-01-01

    Oligopeptides containing an oxirane ring have recently been identified as inhibitors of a variety of proteases (1-3). These peptidomimetics have the potential to coordinate with metal present in the active site and, after nucleophilic ring opening, irreversibly blocking the enzyme. For this reason, oxirane containing peptidomimetics are good candidates to became transition states analogs or suicide inhibitors with long term efficacy in vivo (3). Synthetic routes to a variety of terminal (4-8) and internal epoxide peptidomimetics (9-11) have been reported but there are no examples of incorporation of such epoxides into oligopeptides. The focus of this chapter will be on the preparation of oligopeptides (up to a three-peptide) containing an epoxide in the place of the peptide bond. The structures prepared here can be identified, using the notation suggested by Spatola (12) as AAxψ[traws-epoxy]-AAy. The general synthetic approach described in this chapter is based on the aldol type reaction of a silylketene thioacetal and a β-amino α-selenyl aldehyde derived from an oligopeptide. This reaction stereoselectively generates a vicinal hydroxy selenide which can be further oxidized to epoxide (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Retrosynthetic analysis of oxirane peptidomimetrics.

  8. Invention of stimulus-responsive peptide-bond-cleaving residue (Spr) and its application to chemical biology tools.

    PubMed

    Shigenaga, Akira; Yamamoto, Jun; Kohiki, Taiki; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Otaka, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Elucidation of biological functions of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding peptide/protein-related biological events and developing drugs. Caged peptides and proteins that release a parent active peptide/protein by photo-irradiation have successfully been employed to elucidate the functions. Whereas the usual caged peptide/protein enables conversion of an inactive form to an active form (OFF-to-ON conversion) by photo-induced deprotection, photo-triggered main chain cleavage is reported to be applicable to ON-to-OFF conversion. These peptides and proteins are photo-responsive; however, if peptides and proteins could respond to other stimuli such as disease-related environment or enzymes, their range of application should be widened. To convert the photo-responsive peptide/protein into other stimulus-responsive peptide/protein, quite laborious de novo design and synthesis of the stimulus-responsive unit are required. In this context, we designed a stimulus-responsive peptide-bond-cleaving residue (Spr) in which the stimuli available for the main chain cleavage vary according to the choice of protecting groups on the residue. In this review, design and synthesis of Spr are introduced, and challenges to apply Spr to other fields to enable, for example, functional control, localization control, delivery of cargos, labeling of a protein of interest in living cells, and identification of target proteins of bioactive ligands are discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of hydrogen bonding on amide-proton chemical shift anisotropy in a proline-containing model peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichumani, Kumar; George, Gijo; Hebbar, Sankeerth; Chatterjee, Bhaswati; Raghothama, Srinivasarao

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal relaxation due to cross-correlation between dipolar (1HN-1Hα) and amide-proton chemical shift anisotropy (1HN CSA) has been measured in a model tripeptide Piv-LPro-LPro-LPhe-OMe. The peptide bond across diproline segment is known to undergo cis/trans isomerization and only in the cis form does the lone Phe amide-proton become involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The strength of the cross correlated relaxation interference is found to be significantly different between cis and trans forms, and this difference is shown as an influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the amide-proton CSA.

  10. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ωB97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  11. Presolvated Low Energy Electron Attachment to Peptide Methyl esters in Aqueous Solution: C-O Bond Cleavage at 77K

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Jeanette; Chomicz, Lidia; Engle, Alyson; Rak, Janusz; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the reactions of presolvated electrons with glycine methyl ester and N-acetylalanylalanine methyl ester (N-aAAMe) are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Electrons were produced by gamma irradiation in neutral 7.5 M LiCl-D2O aqueous glasses at low temperatures. For glycine methyl ester electron addition at 77K results in both N-terminal deamination to form a glycyl radical and C-O ester bond cleavage to form methyl radicals. For samples of N-acetylalanylalanine methyl ester electrons are found to add to the peptide bonds at 77K and cleave the carboxyl ester groups to produce methyl radicals. On annealing to 160K electron adducts at the peptide links undergo chain scission to produce alanyl radicals and further annealing to 170K α-carbon peptide backbone radicals are produced by hydrogen abstraction. DFT calculations for electron addition to the methyl ester portion of N-aAAMe show the cleavage reaction is highly favorable (free energy equals to −30.7 kcal/mol) with the kinetic barrier of only 9.9 kcal/mol. A substantial electron affinity of the ester link (38.0 kcal/mol) provides more than sufficient energy to overcome this small barrier. Protonated peptide bond electron adducts, also show favorable N-C chain cleavage reactions of −12.7 to −15.5 kcal/mol with a barrier from 7.4 to 10.0 kcal/mol. The substantial adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the peptide bond and ester groups provides sufficient energy for the bond dissociation. PMID:23406302

  12. Presolvated low energy electron attachment to peptide methyl esters in aqueous solution: C-O bond cleavage at 77 K.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Jeanette; Chomicz, Lidia; Engle, Alyson; Rak, Janusz; Sevilla, Michael D

    2013-03-14

    In this study, the reactions of presolvated electrons with glycine methyl ester and N-acetylalanylalanine methyl ester (N-aAAMe) are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Electrons were produced by γ-irradiation in neutral 7.5 M LiCl-D2O aqueous glasses at low temperatures. For glycine methyl ester, electron addition at 77 K results in both N-terminal deamination to form a glycyl radical and C-O ester bond cleavage to form methyl radicals. For samples of N-acetylalanylalanine methyl ester, electrons are found to add to the peptide bonds at 77 K and cleave the carboxyl ester groups to produce methyl radicals. On annealing to 160 K, electron adducts at the peptide links undergo chain scission to produce alanyl radicals and on further annealing to 170 K α-carbon peptide backbone radicals are produced by hydrogen abstraction. DFT calculations for electron addition to the methyl ester portion of N-aAAMe show the cleavage reaction is highly favorable (free energy equals to -30.7 kcal/mol) with the kinetic barrier of only 9.9 kcal/mol. A substantial electron affinity of the ester link (38.0 kcal/mol) provides more than sufficient energy to overcome this small barrier. Protonated peptide bond electron adducts also show favorable N-C chain cleavage reactions of -12.7 to -15.5 kcal/mol with a barrier from 7.4 to 10.0 kcal/mol. The substantial adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the peptide bond and ester groups provides sufficient energy for the bond dissociation.

  13. Investigation of Serine-Proteinase-Catalyzed Peptide Splicing in Analogues of Sunflower Trypsin Inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1).

    PubMed

    Karna, Natalia; Łęgowska, Anna; Malicki, Stanisław; Dębowski, Dawid; Golik, Przemysław; Gitlin, Agata; Grudnik, Przemysław; Wladyka, Benedykt; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Dubin, Grzegorz; Rolka, Krzysztof

    2015-09-21

    Serine-proteinase-catalyzed peptide splicing was demonstrated in analogues of the trypsin inhibitor SFTI-1: both single peptides and two-peptide chains (C- and N-terminal peptide chains linked by a disulfide bridge). In the second series, peptide splicing with catalytic amount of proteinase was observed only when formation of acyl-enzyme intermediate was preceded by hydrolysis of the substrate Lys-Ser peptide bond. Here we demonstrate that with an equimolar amount of the proteinase, splicing occurs in all the two-peptide-chain analogues. This conclusion was supported by high resolution crystal structures of selected analogues in complex with trypsin. We showed that the process followed a direct transpeptidation mechanism. Thus, the acyl-enzyme intermediate was formed and was immediately used for a new peptide bond formation; products associated with the hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme were not observed. The peptide splicing was sequence- not structure-specific.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Disulfide Bonds in Proteins and Peptides from Tandem MS Data by Use of the MassMatrix MS/MS Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Zhang, Liwen; Freitas, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A new database search algorithm has been developed to identify disulfide-linked peptides in tandem MS data sets. The algorithm is included in the newly developed tandem MS database search program, MassMatrix. The algorithm exploits the probabilistic scoring model in MassMatrix to achieve identification of disulfide bonds in proteins and peptides. Proteins and peptides with disulfide bonds can be identified with high confidence without chemical reduction or other derivatization. The approach was tested on peptide and protein standards with known disulfide bonds. All disulfide bonds in the standard set were identified by MassMatrix. The algorithm was further tested on bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNaseA). The 4 native disulfide bonds in RNaseA were detected by MassMatrix with multiple validated peptide matches for each disulfide bond with high statistical scores. Fifteen nonnative disulfide bonds were also observed in the protein digest under basic conditions (pH = 8.0) due to disulfide bond interchange. After minimizing the disulfide bond interchange (pH = 6.0) during digestion, only one nonnative disulfide bond was observed. The MassMatrix algorithm offers an additional approach for the discovery of disulfide bond from tandem mass spectrometry data. PMID:18072732

  15. [Chemical ribonucleases. 3. Synthesis of organic catalysts of hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds based on quaternary salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane].

    PubMed

    Konevets, D A; Bekk, I E; Sil'nikov, V N; Zenkova, M A; Shishkin, G V

    2000-11-01

    On the basis of imidazole and bisquaternary salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a number of highly effective catalysts of the nDm series (here, n is the number of positive charges at neutral pH values and m is the digital code of the catalytically active fragment: 1, histamine, and 2, histidine methyl ester) were synthesized for the cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in ribonucleic acids. A general method for the synthesis of chemical ribonucleases was suggested, which helps vary both the number of positive charges in their RNA-binding domain and the catalytic center. By the example of hydrolysis under physiological conditions of the in vitro transcript of tRNA(Lys) from human mitochondria, it was shown that the RNA cleavage rate with the nDm conjugates increases approximately 30-fold along with the increase in the number of positive charges from two to four.

  16. An unusual interstrand H-bond stabilizes the heteroassembly of helical αβγ-chimeras with natural peptides.

    PubMed

    Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Rezaei Araghi, Raheleh; Mortier, Jérémie; Wieczorek, Sebastian; Baldauf, Carsten; Wolber, Gerhard; Koksch, Beate

    2014-03-21

    The substitution of α-amino acids by homologated amino acids has a strong impact on the overall structure and topology of peptides, usually leading to a loss in thermal stability. Here, we report on the identification of an ideal core packing between an α-helical peptide and an αβγ-chimera via phage display. Selected peptides assemble with the chimeric sequence with thermal stabilities that are comparable to that of the parent bundle consisting purely of α-amino acids. With the help of MD simulations and mutational analysis this stability could be explained by the formation of an interhelical H-bond between the selected cysteine and a backbone carbonyl of the β/γ-segment. Gained results can be directly applied in the design of biologically relevant peptides containing β- and γ-amino acids.

  17. Fluorescent primuline derivatives inhibit hepatitis C virus NS3-catalyzed RNA unwinding, peptide hydrolysis and viral replicase formation.

    PubMed

    Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Sourav; Shadrick, William R; Hanson, Alicia M; Sweeney, Noreena L; Bartczak, Diana; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2012-11-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) multifunctional nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is a protease that cleaves viral and host proteins and a helicase that separates DNA and RNA structures in reactions fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Li et al. (2012) recently synthesized a series of new NS3 helicase inhibitors from the benzothiazole dimer component of the fluorescent yellow dye primuline. This study further characterizes a subset of these primuline derivatives with respect to their specificity, mechanism of action, and effect on cells harboring HCV subgenomic replicons. All compounds inhibited DNA and RNA unwinding catalyzed by NS3 from different HCV genotypes, but only some inhibited the NS3 protease function, and few had any effect on HCV NS3 catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. A different subset contained potent inhibitors of RNA stimulated ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the related NS3 protein from Dengue virus. In assays monitoring intrinsic protein fluorescence in the absence of nucleic acids, the compounds cooperatively bound NS3 with K(d)s that reflect their potency in assays. The fluorescent properties of the primuline derivatives both in vitro and in cells are also described. The primuline derivative that was the most active against subgenomic replicons in cells caused a 14-fold drop in HCV RNA levels (IC(50)=5±2μM). In cells, the most effective primuline derivative did not inhibit the cellular activity of NS3 protease but disrupted HCV replicase structures.

  18. Hydrolysis of substance P in the presence of the osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2: release of free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Marini, Mario; Roda, L Giorgio; Tarantino, Umberto; Valenti, Angela

    2011-12-01

    The possible hydrolysis of substance P (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met) in presence of the osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2 was measured by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass detection. The results obtained indicate that a very rapid disappearance of the intact undecapeptide was associated to a slower appearance of seven of its eight component amino acids. These results can be interpreted as indicating that an extremely fast hydrolysis of substance P by endopeptidases, which released peptidic by-products, was followed by a noticeably slower secondary degradation which released free amino acids. In decreasing quantitative importance, these phenomena appear to originate by the hydrolysis of the Pro(4)-Gln(5) bond, followed by C-terminal sequential degradation of the Arg(1)-Pro(4) tetrapeptide; by the hydrolysis of or Phe(7)-Phe(8) bond (or, possibly, of Gln(6)-Phe(7)) leading to release of free Phe and Gln; by hydrolysis of the Gly(9)-Leu(10) bond with subsequent release of Met and Leu. Results obtained appear to be compatible with the expression by SaOS-2 cells of enzymes already known to catalyze substance P hydrolysis, together with an apparent low efficiency of aminopeptidases. Because of the activity of C-terminal fragments on NK1 receptors, the delay between primary hydrolysis of substance P and secondary hydrolysis of its peptidic fragments indicated by the data shown implies a possible persistence of substance P physiological effects even after degradation of the intact peptide.

  19. Cα-C bond cleavage of the peptide backbone in MALDI in-source decay using salicylic acid derivative matrices.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H](+). The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H](+) to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H](+) of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ≒ 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ≒ 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the Cα-C bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the Cα-C bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  20. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P{sub 1} by serine proteases with hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Mohammad A.; Song, Jikui; Markley, John L.; Laskowski, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. {yields} Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. {yields} Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S{sub 1} pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and {approx}10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  1. Phosphate triester hydrolysis promoted by an N2S(thiolate)Zn complex: mechanistic implications for the metal-dependent reactivity of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David P; diTargiani, Robert C; Namuswe, Frances; Minnihan, Ellen C; Chang, SeChin; Zakharov, Lev N; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2005-10-17

    The zinc(II) complex (PATH)ZnOH, where PATH is an N2S(thiolate) ligand, has been investigated for its ability to promote the hydrolysis of the phosphate triester tris(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (TNP). The hydrolysis of TNP was examined as a function of PATH-zinc(II) complex concentration, substrate concentration, and pH in a water/ethanol mixture (66:33 v/v) at 25 degrees C. The reaction is first order in both zinc(II) complex and substrate, and the second-order rate constants were derived from linear plots of the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants versus zinc complex concentration at different pH values. A pH-rate profile yielded a kinetic pK(a) of 8.52(5) for the zinc-bound water molecule and a pH-independent rate constant of 16.1(7) M(-1) s(-1). Temperature-dependent studies showed linear Eyring behavior, yielding the activation parameters DeltaH++ = 36.9(1) kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -106.7(4) J mol(-1) K(-1). Interpretation of the kinetic data leads to the conclusion that hydrolysis of TNP takes place through a hybrid mechanism, in which the metal center plays a dual role of providing a nucleophilic hydroxide and activating the substrate through a Lewis acid effect. The synthesis and structural characterization of the related nickel(II) and iron(II) complexes [(PATH)2Ni2]Br2 (2) and (PATH)2Fe2Cl2 (3) are also described. Taken together, these data suggest a possible explanation for the low reactivity of the zinc(II) form of peptide deformylase as compared to the iron(II) form.

  2. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described.

  3. Antioxidant activities of the synthesized thiol-contained peptides derived from computer-aided pepsin hydrolysis of yam tuber storage protein, dioscorin.

    PubMed

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Liu, Ju-Chi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2013-06-01

    Our previous report showed that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibit radical scavenging activities; however, the functions of these peptic hydrolases are still under investigation. In this study, the thiol-containing peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of dioscorin, namely, KTCGNGME (diotide1), PPCSE (diotide2), CDDRVIRTPLT (diotide3), KTCGY (diotide4), and PPCTE (diotide5) were synthesized to compare their antioxidant activities with GSH and/or carnosine by examining hydroxyl radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance spectrometry, anti-low-density lipoprotein peroxidation, anti-AAPH-induced hemolysis, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity. We found that while all the synthesized diotides showed antioxidant activity, diotide4 exhibited the highest levels. Moreover, all diotides (100 μM) showed protective effects against methylglyoxal-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell death. These results suggest that thiol-containing diotides derived from dioscorin hydrolysis exhibit antioxidant activities and reveal the benefits of yam tuber as an antioxidant-rich food.

  4. From peptides to their alternating ester-urea analogues: synthesis and influence of hydrogen bonding motif and stereochemistry on aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sebastian; Schwarz, Jutta; Hecht, Stefan

    2010-02-05

    Peptide-mimicking scaffolds with an incorporated ester-urea motif, replacing two adjacent amide residues, were synthesized and their aggregation behavior was studied in dependence of hydrogen bonding sites as well as backbone stereochemistry. Two oligomer series containing either 50% or 100% ester-urea units and either all-(l) or (d)-alt-(l) backbone configuration were prepared via ester and amide couplings, using a divergent/convergent exponential growth strategy. Their aggregation behavior in organic solution was investigated by means of concentration-dependent NMR spectroscopy and compared to the parent peptide series. Interestingly, the naturally occurring peptide scaffold exhibits the largest tendency to associate in combination with the strongest difference in aggregation behavior between all-(l) and (d)-alt-(l) backbone stereochemistry. With increasing incorporation of the ester-urea motif the aggregation strength decreases and become much less dependent on the backbone configuration. The obtained structure-aggregation relationships reveal the importance of the commensurability and multivalency of hydrogen bonding sites as well as conformational restriction for peptide association and should hence aid the design of peptide mimics, such as beta-sheet breakers or gelators.

  5. Influence of Peptide Dipoles and Hydrogen Bonds on Reactive Cysteine pKa Values in Fission Yeast DJ-1

    PubMed Central

    Madzelan, Peter; Labunksa, Tetyana; Wilson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine residues with depressed pKa values are critical for the functions of many proteins. Several types of interactions can stabilize cysteine thiolate anions, including hydrogen bonds between thiol(ate)s and nearby residues as well as electrostatic interactions involving charged residues or dipoles. Dipolar stabilization of thiolates by peptide groups has been suggested to play a particularly important role near the N-termini of α-helices. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectroscopic methods, we show that the reactive cysteine residue (Cys111) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe DJ-1 experiences a 0.6 unit depression of its thiol pKa as a consequence of a hydrogen bond donated by a threonine sidechain (Thr114) to a nearby peptide carbonyl oxygen at the N-terminus of an α-helix. This extended hydrogen bonded interaction is consistent with a sum of dipoles model whereby the distal hydrogen bond polarizes and strengthens the direct hydrogen bond between the proximal amide hydrogen and the cysteine thiol(ate). Therefore, our results suggest that the local dipolar enhancement of hydrogen bonds can appreciably stabilize cysteine thiolate formation. However, the substitution of a valine residue with a proline at the i+3 position has only a minor effect (0.3 units) on the pKa of Cys111. As proline has a reduced peptide dipole moment, this small effect suggests that a more extended helix macrodipolar effect does not play a major role in this system. PMID:22971103

  6. Role of solvent on nonenzymatic peptide bond formation mechanisms and kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Tuñón, Iñaki; Martí, Sergio; Moliner, Vicent; Bertrán, Juan

    2013-06-12

    Based on the hypothesis that similar mechanisms are involved in the peptide bond formation in aqueous solution and in the ribosome, the aminolysis of esters in aqueous solution has been the subject of numerous studies as the reference reaction for the catalyzed process. The mechanisms proposed in the literature have been explored in the present paper by hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations. The free energy profiles have been computed with the QM region of the system described at semiempirical AM1 level and by DFT within the M06-2X functional. According to the results, the formation of adduct zwitterion species is a preliminary step required for all possible mechanisms. Then, from different conformers of this species, four different paths were found: three of them taking place through concerted mechanisms of four-, six- and eight-membered ring transition states, and a stepwise mechanism through a neutral intermediate. Comparison of the free energy profiles indicates that the concerted mechanisms would be kinetically favored, with free energy barriers in very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects, when including the solute interactions with the first solvation shell, show that the 8-membered ring TS renders values in better agreement with available experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies can be attributed to different employed models in experiments and calculations.

  7. The transition state for peptide bond formation reveals the ribosome as a water trap.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Göran; Aqvist, Johan

    2010-02-02

    Recent progress in elucidating the peptide bond formation process on the ribosome has led to notion of a proton shuttle mechanism where the 2'-hydroxyl group of the P-site tRNA plays a key role in mediating proton transfer between the nucleophile and leaving group, whereas ribosomal groups do not actively participate in the reaction. Despite these advances, the detailed nature of the transition state for peptidyl transfer and the role of several trapped water molecules in the peptidyl transferase center remain major open questions. Here, we employ high-level quantum chemical ab initio calculations to locate and characterize global transition states for the reaction, described by a molecular model encompassing all the key elements of the reaction center. The calculated activation enthalpy as well as structures are in excellent agreement with experimental data and point to feasibility of an eight-membered "double proton shuttle" mechanism in which an auxiliary water molecule, observed both in computer simulations and crystal structures, actively participates. A second conserved water molecule is found to be of key importance for stabilizing developing negative charge on the substrate oxyanion and its presence is catalytically favorable both in terms of activation enthalpy and entropy. Transition states calculated both for six- and eight-membered mechanisms are invariably late and do not involve significant charge development on the attacking amino group. Predicted kinetic isotope effects consistent with this picture are similar to those observed for uncatalyzed ester aminolysis reactions in solution.

  8. Mechanism of the discrepancy in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency between defatted peanut flour and peanut protein isolate by Flavorzyme.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Yijun; Xiao, Chuqiao; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan

    2015-02-01

    Both defatted peanut flour (DPF) and peanut protein isolate (PPI) are widely used to prepare peanut protein hydrolysates. To compare their enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies, DPF and PPI were hydrolysed by Alcalase, Neutrase, Papain, Protamex and Flavorzyme. Alcalase and Flavorzyme were found to be the most efficient proteases to hydrolyse both DPF and PPI. The efficiency was comparable to each other when using Alcalase, while PPI was hydrolysed less efficiently than DPF when using Flavorzyme. Analysis of changes in the protein solubility, subunit and conformation, and amino acid composition of DPF, PPI and their Flavorzyme hydrolysis residues indicated that the PPI preparation process had minimal effect on it, but peptide aggregation via non-covalent bonding (including hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds) during hydrolysis and/or thermal treatment after hydrolysis were likely responsible for the reduced hydrolysis efficiency of PPI by Flavorzyme.

  9. The Pediocin PA-1 Accessory Protein Ensures Correct Disulfide Bond Formation in the Antimicrobial Peptide Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Oppegård, Camilla; Fimland, Gunnar; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2015-05-19

    Peptides, in contrast to proteins, are generally not large enough to form stable and well-defined three-dimensional structures. However, peptides are still able to form correct disulfide bonds. Using pediocin-like bacteriocins, we have examined how this may be achieved. Some pediocin-like bacteriocins, such as pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C], have four cysteines. There are three possible ways by which the four cysteines may combine to form two disulfide bonds, and the three variants are expected to be produced in approximately equal amounts if their formation is random. Pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C] with correct disulfide bonds were the main products when they were secreted by the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and accessory protein, but when they were secreted by the corresponding secretion machinery for sakacin A, a pediocin-like bacteriocin with one disulfide bond (two cysteines), peptides with all three possible disulfide bonds were produced in approximately equal amounts. All five cysteines in the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and the two cysteines (that form a CxxC motif) in the accessory protein were individually replaced with serines to examine their involvement in disulfide bond formation in pediocin PA-1. The Cys86Ser mutation in the accessory protein caused a 2-fold decrease in the amount of pediocin PA-1 with correct disulfide bonds, while the Cys83Ser mutation nearly abolished the production of pediocin PA-1 and resulted in the production of all three disufide bond variants in equal amounts. The Cys19Ser mutation in the ABC transporter completely abolished secretion of pediocin PA-1, suggesting that Cys19 is in the proteolytic active site and involved in cleaving the prebacteriocin. Replacing the other four cysteines in the ABC transporter with serines caused a slight reduction in the overall amount of secreted pediocin PA-1, but the relative amount with the correct disulfide bonds remained large. These results indicate that the pediocin

  10. Simultaneous determination of interfacial molarities of amide bonds, carboxylate groups, and water by chemical trapping in micelles of amphiphiles containing peptide bond models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Romsted, Laurence S; Zhuang, Lanzhen; de Jong, Sander

    2013-01-15

    Chemical trapping is a powerful approach for obtaining experimental estimates of interfacial molarities of weakly basic nucleophiles in the interfacial regions of amphiphile aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that the chemical probe 4-hexadecyl-2,6-dimethylbenzenediazonium ion (16-ArN(2)(+)) reacts competitively with interfacial water, with the amide carbonyl followed by cleavage of the headgroups from the tail at the amide oxygen, and with the terminal carboxylate groups in micelles of two N-acyl amino-acid amphiphiles, sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate (SLS) and sodium N-lauroylglycinate (SLG), simple peptide bond model amphiphiles. Interfacial molarities (in moles per liter of interfacial volume) of these three groups were obtained from product yields, assuming that selectivity toward a particular nucleophile compared to water is the same in an aqueous reference solution and in the interfacial region. Interfacial carboxylate group molarities are ~1.5 M in both SLS and SLG micelles, but the concentration of the amide carbonyl for SLS micelles is ~4.6-5 times less (ca. 0.7 M) than that of SLG micelles (~3 M). The proton on the secondary N of SLG helps solubilize the amide bond in the aqueous region, but the methyl on the tertiary N of SLS helps solubilize the amide bond in the micellar core, reducing its reaction with 16-ArN(2)(+). Application of chemical trapping to proteins in membrane mimetic interfaces should provide insight into the topology of the protein within the interface because trapping of the amide carbonyl and cleavage at the C-N bond occurs only within the interface, and fragment characterization marks those peptide bonds located within the interface.

  11. Synthesis of a fluorine-substituted puromycin derivative for Brønsted studies of ribosomal-catalyzed peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kensuke; Hirota, Takashi; Kingery, David A; Nagasawa, Hideko

    2009-03-20

    The mechanism by which the ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation remains controversial. Here we describe the synthesis of a nucleoside that can be used in Brønsted experiments to assess the transition state of ribosome catalyzed peptide bond formation. This substrate is the nucleoside 3'-amino-3'-deoxy-3'-[(3''R)-3-fluoro-l-phenyl-alanyl]-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine, which was prepared from (1R,2R)-2-amino-1-phenylpropane-1,3-diol. This substrate is active in peptide bond formation on the ribosome and is a useful probe for Brønsted analysis experiments on the ribosome.

  12. A proton wire to couple aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation and peptide-bond formation on the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Polikanov, Yury S; Steitz, Thomas A; Innis, C Axel

    2014-09-01

    During peptide-bond formation on the ribosome, the α-amine of an aminoacyl-tRNA attacks the ester carbonyl carbon of a peptidyl-tRNA to yield a peptide lengthened by one amino acid. Although the ribosome's contribution to catalysis is predominantly entropic, the lack of high-resolution structural data for the complete active site in complex with full-length ligands has made it difficult to assess how the ribosome might influence the pathway of the reaction. Here, we present crystal structures of preattack and postcatalysis complexes of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome at ~2.6-Å resolution. These structures reveal a network of hydrogen bonds along which proton transfer could take place to ensure the concerted, rate-limiting formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. We propose that, unlike earlier models, the ribosome and the A-site tRNA facilitate the deprotonation of the nucleophile through the activation of a water molecule.

  13. Role of the P-F bond in fluoride-promoted aqueous VX hydrolysis: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi

    2012-11-16

    Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX.

  14. Application of MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation for the identification of disulfide-bonded peptides.

    PubMed

    Janecki, Dariusz J; Nemeth, Jennifer F

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a method for the fast identification and composition of disulfide-bonded peptides. A unique fragmentation signature of inter-disulfide-bonded peptides is detected using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrometry and high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). This fragmentation pattern identifies peptides with an interconnected disulfide bond and provides information regarding the composition of the peptides involved in the pairing. The distinctive signature produced using CID is a triplet of ions resulting from the cleavage of the disulfide bond to produce dehydroalanine, cysteine or thiocysteine product ions. This method is not applicable to intra-peptide disulfide bonds, as the cleavage mechanism is not the same and a triplet pattern is not observed. This method has been successfully applied to identifying disulfide-bonded peptides in a number of control digestions, as well as study samples where disulfide bond networks were postulated and/or unknown.

  15. Cationic reverse micelles create water with super hydrogen-bond-donor capacity for enzymatic catalysis: hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate by alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Fernando; Falcone, R Dario; Mejuto, J C; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano

    2010-08-02

    Reverse micelles (RMs) are very good nanoreactors because they can create a unique microenvironment for carrying out a variety of chemical and biochemical reactions. The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of different RM interfaces on the hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA) by alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT). The reaction was studied in water/benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)/benzene RMs and, its efficiency compared with that observed in pure water and in sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) RMs. Thus, the hydrolysis rates of 2-NA catalyzed by alpha-CT were determined by spectroscopic measurements. In addition, the method used allows the joint evaluation of the substrate partition constant K(p) between the organic and the micellar pseudophase and the kinetic parameters: catalytic rate constant k(cat), and the Michaelis constant K(M) of the enzymatic reaction. The effect of the surfactant concentration on the kinetics parameters was determined at constant W(0)=[H(2)O]/[surfactant], and the variation of W(0) with surfactant constant concentration was investigated. The results show that the classical Michaelis-Menten mechanism is valid for alpha-CT in all of the RMs systems studied and that the reaction takes place at both RM interfaces. Moreover, the catalytic efficiency values k(cat)/K(M) obtained in the RMs systems are higher than that reported in water. Furthermore, there is a remarkable increase in alpha-CT efficiency in the cationic RMs in comparison with the anionic system, presumably due to the unique water properties found in these confined media. The results show that in cationic RMs the hydrogen-bond donor capacity of water is enhanced due to its interaction with the cationic interface. Hence, entrapped water can be converted into "super-water" for the enzymatic reaction studied in this work.

  16. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Yudong; Wu, Jian; Wang, Lu-Ning; Yuan, Zhenya; Peng, Jiang; Meng, Haoye

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC) by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p) via covalent bonds to form Schiff’s base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:26229466

  17. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Yudong; Wu, Jian; Wang, Lu-Ning; Yuan, Zhenya; Peng, Jiang; Meng, Haoye

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC) by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p) via covalent bonds to form Schiff's base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration.

  18. Does the cis/trans configuration of peptide bonds in bioactive tripeptides play a role in ACE-1 enzyme inhibition?

    PubMed Central

    Siltari, Aino; Viitanen, Riikka; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Valjakka, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    Background The milk casein-derived bioactive tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) have been shown to prevent development of hypertension in animal models and to lower blood pressure in moderately hypertensive subjects in most but not all clinical trials. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE-1) has been suggested as the explanation for these antihypertensive and beneficial vascular effects. Previously, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have not been used to test ACE-1 inhibiting properties of casein derived tripeptides in vasculature. Purpose We focused on the cis/trans configurations of the peptide bonds in proline-containing tripeptides in order to discover whether the different structural properties of these peptides influence their activity in ACE-1 inhibition. We hypothesized that the configuration of proline-containing peptides plays a significant role in enzyme inhibition. Methods AutoDock 4.2 docking software was used to predict suitable peptide bond configurations of the tripeptides. Besides modeling studies, we completed ACE-1 activity measurements in vitro using HUVEC cultures. Results In HUVEC cells, both IPP and VPP inhibited ACE-1. Based on molecular docking studies, we propose that in ACE-1 inhibition IPP and VPP share a similar cis configuration between the first aliphatic (isoleucine or valine) and the second (proline) amino acid residues and more different configurations between two proline residues. In vivo experiments are needed to validate the significance of the present findings. PMID:24596454

  19. Ion mobility mass spectrometry as a potential tool to assign disulfide bonds arrangements in peptides with multiple disulfide bridges.

    PubMed

    Echterbille, Julien; Quinton, Loïc; Gilles, Nicolas; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-05-07

    Disulfide bridges play a major role in defining the structural properties of peptides and proteins. However, the determination of the cysteine pairing is still challenging. Peptide sequences are usually achieved using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of the totally reduced unfolded species, but the cysteine pairing information is lost. On the other hand, MS/MS experiments performed on native folded species show complex spectra composed of nonclassical ions. MS/MS alone does not allow either the cysteine pairing or the full sequence of an unknown peptide to be determined. The major goal of this work is to set up a strategy for the full structural characterization of peptides including disulfide bridges annotation in the sequence. This strategy was developed by combining ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID). It is assumed that the opening of one S-S bridge in a peptide leads to a structural evolution which results in a modification of IMS drift time. In the presence of multiple S-S bridges, the shift in arrival time will depend on which disulfide(s) has (have) been reduced and on the shape adopted by the generated species. Due to specific fragmentations observed for each species, CID experiments performed after the mobility separation could provide not only information on peptide sequence but also on the localization of the disulfide bridges. To achieve this goal, synthetic peptides containing two disulfides were studied. The openings of the bridges were carried out following different experimental conditions such as reduction, reduction/alkylation, or oxidation. Due to disulfide scrambling highlighted with the reduction approaches, oxidation of S-S bonds into cysteic acids appeared to be the best strategy. Cysteine connectivity was then unambiguously determined for the two peptides, without any disulfide scrambling interference.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides generated by tryptic hydrolysis of a whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Silvana T; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Recio, Isidra; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2013-11-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of β-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to β-lactoglobulin f(78-82) which IC50 value was 44.7μM. The results suggest that peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes.

  1. The amino acid sequences of eleven tryptic peptides of papaya mosaic virus protein by electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parente, A; Short, M N; Self, R; Parsley, K R

    1982-04-01

    Eleven of the fourteen tryptic peptides of papaya mosaic virus protein have been sequenced by electron ionization mass spectrometry using chemical and enzymic hydrolyses and mixture analysis as required. Mid-chain cleavages of N-C bonds produced secondary ion series which allowed up to 16 residues to be sequenced without further hydrolysis. Mixture analysis on hydrolysis products enabled a 24 residue tryptic peptide to be sequenced from the data recorded in a single mass spectrum.

  2. Interaction between the antibiotic spiramycin and a ribosomal complex active in peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Dinos, G; Synetos, D; Coutsogeorgopoulos, C

    1993-10-12

    The inhibition of peptide bond formation by spiramycin was studied in an in vitro system derived from Escherichia coli. Peptide bonds are formed between puromycin (S) and Ac-Phe-tRNA, which is a component of complex C, i.e., of the [Ac-Phe-tRNA-70S ribosome-poly(U)] complex, according to the puromycin reaction: C+S (Ks)<==>CS (k3)==>C'+P [Synetos, D., & Coutsogeorgopoulos, C. (1987) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 923, 275-285]. It is shown that spiramycin (A) reacts with complex C and forms the spiramycin complex C*A, which is inactive toward puromycin. C*A is the tightest complex formed between complex C and any of a number of antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol, blasticidin S, lincomycin, or sparsomycin. C*A remains stable following gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Detailed kinetic study suggests that C*A is formed in a variation of a two-step mechanism in which the initial encounter complex CA is kinetically insignificant and C*A is the product of a conformational change of complex CA according to the equation, C+A (kassoc)<==>(kdissoc) C*A. The rate constants of this reaction (spiramycin reaction) are kassoc = 3.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 and kdissoc = 5.0 x 10(-5) s-1. Such values allow the classification of spiramycin as a slow-binding, slowly reversible inhibitor; they also lead to the calculation of an apparent overall dissociation constant equal to 1.8 nM for the C*A complex. Furthermore, they render spiramycin a useful tool in the study of antibiotic action on protein synthesis in vitro. Thus, the spiramycin reaction, in conjunction with the puromycin reaction, is applied (i) to detect a strong preincubation effect exerted by chloramphenicol and lincomycin (this effect constitutes further evidence that these two antibiotics combine with complex C as slow-binding inhibitors) and (ii) to determine the rate constant for the regeneration (k7 = 2.0 x 10(-3) s-1) of complex C from the sparsomycin complex C*I [Theocharis, D. A

  3. Inefficient delivery but fast peptide bond formation of unnatural L-aminoacyl-tRNAs in translation.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Forster, Anthony C; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2012-10-31

    Translations with unnatural amino acids (AAs) are generally inefficient, and kinetic studies of their incorporations from transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are few. Here, the incorporations of small and large, non-N-alkylated, unnatural l-AAs into dipeptides were compared with those of natural AAs using quench-flow techniques. Surprisingly, all incorporations occurred in two phases: fast then slow, and the incorporations of unnatural AA-tRNAs proceeded with rates of fast and slow phases similar to those for natural Phe-tRNA(Phe). The slow phases were much more pronounced with unnatural AA-tRNAs, correlating with their known inefficient incorporations. Importantly, even for unnatural AA-tRNAs the fast phases could be made dominant by using high EF-Tu concentrations and/or lower reaction temperature, which may be generally useful for improving incorporations. Also, our observed effects of EF-Tu concentration on the fraction of the fast phase of incorporation enabled direct assay of the affinities of the AA-tRNAs for EF-Tu during translation. Our unmodified tRNA(Phe) derivative adaptor charged with a large unnatural AA, biotinyl-lysine, had a very low affinity for EF-Tu:GTP, while the small unnatural AAs on the same tRNA body had essentially the same affinities to EF-Tu:GTP as natural AAs on this tRNA, but still 2-fold less than natural Phe-tRNA(Phe). We conclude that the inefficiencies of unnatural AA-tRNA incorporations were caused by inefficient delivery to the ribosome by EF-Tu, not slow peptide bond formation on the ribosome.

  4. Route of uptake of palmitoylated encephalitogenic peptides of myelin proteolipid protein by antigen-presenting cells: importance of the type of bond between lipid chain and peptide and relevance to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pfender, Nadège A; Grosch, Sylvie; Roussel, Guy; Koch, Marc; Trifilieff, Elisabeth; Greer, Judith M

    2008-02-01

    Previously, we have shown that thiopalmitoylation of peptides of myelin proteolipid protein, as occurs naturally in vivo, increases their ability to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis, and skews the autoimmune response toward a CD4(+)-mediated response. In contrast, the same peptide, when synthesized with a stable amide bond between peptide and lipid, inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and skews the response toward a CD8(+) response. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanisms responsible for these observations. We show that proteolipid protein lipopeptides, when synthesized with a thioester bond between the lipid and the peptide, are taken up into APCs via an actin-independent endocytic route, the thioester bond is cleaved in the endosome, and the peptide is subsequently displayed on the surface of the APC in the context of MHC class II. The same peptide, when synthesized with the lipid attached via a stable amide bond, rapidly enters into the cytoplasm of the APC and forms micelles; however, the bond between peptide and lipid is not cleaved, and the micelles travel via the endoplasmic reticulum to complex with MHC class I. These findings have implications for vaccine development and for the development of MHC class II-restricted autoimmune diseases, as many human autoantigens thus far identified are thioacylated.

  5. Amide-I relaxation-induced hydrogen bond distortion: An intermediate in electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry of alpha-helical peptides?

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent; Tsybin, Yury O

    2008-09-07

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of peptides and proteins in the gas phase is a powerful tool in tandem mass spectrometry whose current description is not sufficient to explain many experimental observations. Here, we attempt to bridge the current understanding of the vibrational dynamics in alpha-helices with the recent experimental results on ECD of alpha-helical peptides through consideration of amide-I relaxation-induced hydrogen bond distortion. Based on a single spine of H-bonded peptide units, we assume that charge neutralization upon electron capture by a charged alpha-helix excites a nearby amide-I mode, which relaxes over a few picoseconds due to Fermi resonances with intramolecular normal modes. The amide-I population plays the role of an external force, which drives the displacements of each peptide unit. It induces a large immobile contraction of the H bonds surrounding the excited site whose lifetime is about the amide-I lifetime. In addition, it creates two lattice deformations describing H bond stretchings, which propagate from the excited region toward both termini of the alpha-helix, get reflected at the termini and yield H bond contractions which move back to the excited region. Consequently, we show that H bonds experience rather large contractions whose amplitude depends on general features such as the position of the amide-I mode, the peptide length and the H bond force constants. When an H bond contraction is sufficiently large, it may promote a hydrogen atom transfer between two neighboring peptide units leading to the formation of a radical at charge site remote carbonyl carbon which is known to be a precursor to the rupture of the corresponding N[Single Bond]C(alpha) bond. The introduced here way of excitation energy generation and transfer may significantly advance ECD understanding and complement existing ECD mechanisms.

  6. Structural Basis of Proline-Proline Peptide Bond Specificity of the Metalloprotease Zmp1 Implicated in Motility of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Schacherl, Magdalena; Pichlo, Christian; Neundorf, Ines; Baumann, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is a pathogenic bacterium causing gastrointestinal diseases from mild diarrhea to toxic megacolon. In common with other pathogenic bacteria, C. difficile secretes proteins involved in adhesion, colonization, and dissemination. The recently identified Zmp1 is an extracellular metalloprotease showing a unique specificity for Pro-Pro peptide bonds. The endogenous substrates of Zmp1 are two surface proteins implicated in adhesion of C. difficile to surface proteins of human cells. Thus, Zmp1 is believed to be involved in the regulation of the adhesion-motility balance of C. difficile. Here, we report crystal structures of Zmp1 from C. difficile in its unbound and peptide-bound forms. The structure analysis revealed a fold similar to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Crystal structures in the open and closed conformation of the S-loop shed light on the mode of binding of the substrate, and reveal important residues for substrate recognition and the strict specificity of Zmp1 for Pro-Pro peptide bonds.

  7. The Inherent Conformational Preferences of Glutamine-Containing Peptides: the Role for Side-Chain Backbone Hydrogen Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; McBurney, Carl; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    Glutamine is widely known to be found in critical regions of peptides which readily fold into amyloid fibrils, the structures commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease and glutamine repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Building on previous single-conformation data on Gln-containing peptides containing an aromatic cap on the N-terminus (Z-Gln-OH and Z-Gln-NHMe), we present here single-conformation UV and IR spectra of Ac-Gln-NHBn and Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn, with its C-terminal benzyl cap. These results point towards side-chain to backbone hydrogen bonds dominating the structures observed in the cold, isolated environment of a molecular beam. We have identified and assigned three main conformers for Ac-Gln-NHBn all involving primary side-chain to backbone interactions. Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn extends the peptide chain by one amino acid, but affords an improvement in the conformational flexibility. Despite this increase in the flexibility, only a single conformation is observed in the gas-phase: a structure which makes use of both side-chain-to-backbone and backbone-to-backbone hydrogen bonds.

  8. Couplings between peptide linkages across a 3(10)-helical hydrogen bond revealed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; De Poli, Matteo; Toniolo, Claudio; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2009-02-18

    Vibrational couplings between the amide modes are keenly dependent on peptide structure. Site-specific couplings can inform us of molecular conformation in detail. For example, when an amide-I mode couples to an amide-II mode that is three residues away because they are brought into proximity in the presence of an intramolecular C=O...H-N hydrogen bond, the coupling can provide direct evidence for single helical turn formation, a proposed key step in coil-helix transition. In this work, we measure 2D IR spectra of a 3(10)-helical hexapeptide, Z-Aib-l-Leu-(Aib)(2)-Gly-Aib-OtBu, and its (13)C=(18)O-Leu monolabeled and (13)C=(18)O-Leu/(15)N-Gly bis-labeled isotopomers in CDCl(3). The isotope-dependent amide-I/II cross-peaks clearly reveal the existence of vibrational coupling between the second and fourth peptide linkages that are connected through a 3(10)-helical hydrogen bond. Our results demonstrate that the combination of 2D IR and (13)C=(18)O/(15)N labeling is a useful structural method for probing local peptide conformation with residue-level specificity.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Serena; Ferrari, Giovanna; Maresca, Paola

    2017-08-01

    The extent of enzymatic proteolysis mainly depends on accessibility of the peptide bonds, which stabilize the protein structure. The high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process is able to induce, at certain operating conditions, protein displacement, thus suggesting that this technology can be used to modify protein resistance to the enzymatic attack. This work aims at investigating the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by HHP performed under different processing conditions (pressure level, treatment time). Bovine serum albumin was selected for the experiments, solubilized in sodium phosphate buffer (25 mg mL(-1) , pH 7.5) with α-chymotrypsin or trypsin (E/S ratio = 1/10) and HPP treatment (100-500 MPa, 15-25 min). HHP treatment enhanced the extent of the hydrolysis reaction of globular proteins, being more effective than conventional hydrolysis. At HHP treatment conditions maximizing the protein unfolding, the hydrolysis degree of proteins was increased as a consequence of the increased exposure of peptide bonds to the attack of proteolytic enzymes. The maximum hydrolysis degree (10% and 7% respectively for the samples hydrolyzed with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin) was observed for the samples processed at 400 MPa for 25 min. At pressure levels higher than 400 MPa the formation of aggregates was likely to occur; thus the degree of hydrolysis decreased. Protein unfolding represents the key factor controlling the efficiency of HHP-assisted hydrolysis treatments. The peptide produced under high pressure showed lower dimensions and a different structure with respect to those of the hydrolysates obtained when the hydrolysis was carried out at atmospheric pressure, thus opening new frontiers of application in food science and nutrition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Mechanistic examination of Cβ-Cγ bond cleavages of tryptophan residues during dissociations of molecular peptide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Ma, Ching-Yung; Chu, Ivan K; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia

    2013-02-14

    In this study, we used collision-induced dissociation (CID) to examine the gas-phase fragmentations of [G(n)W](•+) (n = 2-4) and [GXW](•+) (X = C, S, L, F, Y, Q) species. The C(β)-C(γ) bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ([M - CO(2)](•+)) can generate [M - CO(2) - 116](+), [M - CO(2) - 117](•+), and [1H-indole](•+) (m/z 117) species as possible product ions. Competition between the formation of [M - CO(2) - 116](+) and [1H-indole](•+) systems implies the existence of a proton-bound dimer formed between the indole ring and peptide backbone. Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan γ-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations also suggested the initially formed ion 2, the decarboxylated species that is active against C(β)-C(γ) bond cleavage, can efficiently isomerize to form a more stable π-radical isomer (ion 9) as supported by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling. The C(β)-C(γ) bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue. CID of [WG(n)R](•+) (n = 1-3) radical cations consistently resulted in predominant formation of [M - 116](+) product ions. It appears that the basic arginine residue tightly sequesters the proton and allows the charge-remote C(β)-C(γ) bond cleavage to prevail over the charge-directed one. DFT calculations predicted that the barrier for the former is 6.2 kcal mol(-1) lower than that of the latter. Furthermore, the pathway involving a salt-bridge intermediate also was accessible during such a bond cleavage event.

  11. Mechanistic Examination of Cβ–Cγ Bond Cleavages of Tryptophan Residues during Dissociations of Molecular Peptide Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Tao; Ma, Ching-Yung; Chu, Ivan K.; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia

    2013-02-14

    In this study, we used collision-induced dissociation (CID) to examine the gas-phase fragmentations of [GnW]•+ (n = 2-4) and [GXW]•+ (X = C, S, L, F, Y, Q) species. The Cβ–Cγ bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ([M - CO2]•+) can generate [M - CO2 - 116]+, [M - CO2 - 117]•+, and [1H-indole]•+ (m/z 117) species as possible product ions. Competition between the formation of [M - CO2 - 116]+ and [1H-indole]•+ systems implies the existence of a proton-bound dimer formed between the indole ring and peptide backbone. Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan γ-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations also suggested the initially formed ion 2--the decarboxylated species that is active against Cβ–Cγ bond cleavage -can efficiently isomerize to form a more-stable -radical isomer (ion 9) as supported by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling. The Cβ–Cγ bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue. CID of [WGnR]•+ (n = 1-3) radical cations consistently resulted in predominant formation of [M-116]+ product ions. It appears that the basic arginine residue tightly sequesters the proton and allows the charge-remote Cβ–Cγ bond cleavage to prevail over the charge-directed one. DFT calculations predicted the barrier for the former is 6.2 kcal mol -1 lower than that of the latter. Furthermore, the pathway involving a salt-bridge intermediate also was accessible during such a bond cleavage event.

  12. Laser enhanced hydrolysis of selected polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzts, Mary Paige

    This project serves as a preliminary examination of selectively enhancing bond cleavage during chemical reactions in biological molecules by using continuous wave infrared lasers. To analyze protein content, polypeptides are broken into their constituent amino acids through hydrolysis. The cleaving of the peptide bond has traditionally been accomplished under harsh conditions, 110°C in 6 N hydrochloric acid for 24 hours. In this project hydrolysis was strongly enhanced by irradiating the dipeptides, threonyl-aspartate and alanyl-alanine, for 30 minutes with coherent infrared radiation from a tunable carbon dioxide laser. The dipeptide tyrosyl-tyrosine, the chemical N- methylacetimide, and the protein BSA were successfully hydrolyzed with the laser. The effect of reaction parameters such as laser power and HCl concentration were studied, as well as the effect of the primary parameter, the beam wavelength. The samples were analyzed using standard biological methods for determining the amino acid concentration, thin layer chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. These methods gave consistent results for the irradiated samples as well as for standard amino acids and polypeptide samples. The results from these methods were used to create the hydrolysis spectra. The catalytic action of the laser was strongly wavelength dependent. The hydrolysis spectra of the molecules were compared to the absorption spectra of the samples. Laser enhanced hydrolysis occurred when the laser wavelength coincided with a line in the dipeptide spectra. This weak line in each of the dipeptide spectra is consistent both in position and strength with a line in NMA, which has been identified as a fundamental mode associated with the peptide bond. From the experimental results, the enhanced process appears to occur in the vapor phase. The initially liquid sample was progressively evaporated, and fully hydrolyzed material was carried to a collection trap by the vapor. It can, in principle

  13. Coupling of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis to peptide hormone receptors expressed from adrenal and pituitary mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, R.P.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    The expression of several neurotransmitter and drug receptors from injected exogenous mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes has been demonstrated by electrophysiological measurements of ion channel activation. The expression of specific receptors for peptide hormones in such a translation system would facilitate studies on the structure and regulation of cell-surface receptors as well as their coupling to membrane transduction mechanisms. The expression of receptors for calcium-mobilizing hormones in Xenopus oocytes was sought by analysis of phospholipid turnover in hormone-stimulated oocytes. For this purpose, Xenopus oocytes were injected with mRNA extracted from bovine adrenal and pituitary glands and incubated with myo-(/sup 3/H)inositol to label plasma-membrane phosphatidylinositol phosphates. The expression of functionally active receptors for angiotensin II (AII) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was demonstrated by the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphate production by AII and TRH in the mRNA-injected, (/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled oocytes. The ability of AII and TRH to act by way of newly synthesized receptors from mammalian endocrine tissues to stimulate phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate hydrolysis in Xenopus oocytes suggests a generalized and conserved mechanism of receptor coupling to the transduction mechanism responsible for activation of phospholipase C in the plasma membrane.

  14. Phosphate Ester Bond Hydrolysis Promoted by Lanthanide-Substituted Keggin-type Polyoxometalates Studied by a Combined Experimental and Density Functional Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Luong, Thi Kim Nga; Mihaylov, Tzvetan T; Absillis, Gregory; Shestakova, Pavletta; Pierloot, Kristine; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2016-10-03

    Hydrolytic cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (NPP), a commonly used DNA model substrate, was examined in the presence of series of lanthanide-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) [Me2NH2]11[Ce(III)(PW11O39)2], [Me2NH2]10[Ce(IV)(PW11O39)2] (abbreviated as (Ce(IV)(PW11)2), and K4[EuPW11O39] by means of NMR and luminescence spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Among the examined complexes, the Ce(IV)-substituted Keggin POM (Ce(IV)(PW11)2) showed the highest reactivity, and its aqueous speciation was fully determined under different conditions of pD, temperature, concentration, and ionic strength by means of (31)P and (31)P diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy. The cleavage of the phosphoester bond of NPP in the presence of (Ce(IV)(PW11)2) proceeded with an observed rate constant kobs = (5.31 ± 0.06) × 10(-6) s(-1) at pD 6.4 and 50 °C. The pD dependence of NPP hydrolysis exhibits a bell-shaped profile, with the fastest rate observed at pD 6.4. The formation constant (Kf = 127 M(-1)) and catalytic rate constant (kc = 19.41 × 10(-5) s(-1)) for the NPP-Ce(IV)-Keggin POM complex were calculated, and binding between Ce(IV)(PW11)2 and the phosphate group of NPP was also evidenced by the change of the chemical shift of the (31)P nucleus in NPP upon addition of the POM complex. DFT calculations revealed that binding of NPP to the parent catalyst Ce(IV)(PW11)2 is thermodynamically unlikely. On the contrary, formation of complexes with the monomeric 1:1 species, Ce(IV)PW11, is considered to be more favorable, and the most stable complex, [Ce(IV)PW11(H2O)2(NPP-κO)2](7-), was found to involve two NPP ligands coordinated to the Ce(IV)center of Ce(IV)PW11 in the monodentate fashion. The formation of such species is considered to be responsible for the hydrolytic activity of Ce(IV)(PW11)2 toward phosphomonoesters. On the basis of these findings a principle mechanism for the hydrolysis of NPP by the POM is proposed.

  15. Synthesis of Reusable Silica Nanosphere-Supported Pt(IV) Complex for Formation of Disulfide Bonds in Peptides.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaonan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yamei; Han, Aiying; Huo, Shuying; Shen, Shigang

    2017-02-22

    Some peptide-based drugs, including oxytocin, vasopressin, ziconotide, pramlintide, nesiritide, and octreotide, contain one intramolecular disulfide bond. A novel and reusable monodispersed silica nanosphere-supported Pt(IV) complex (SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV)); TPEA: N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine) was synthesized via a four-step procedure and was used for the formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds in peptides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and chemical mapping results for the Pt(II) intermediates and for SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV) show that the silica nanospheres possess a monodisperse spherical structure and contain uniformly-distributed Si, O, C, N, Cl, and Pt. The valence state of Pt on the silica nanospheres was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Pt(IV) loaded on SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV) was 0.15 mmol/g, as determined by UV-VIS spectrometry. The formation of intramolecular disulfides in six dithiol-containing peptides of variable lengths by the use of SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV) was investigated, and the relative oxidation yields were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, peptide 1 (Ac-CPFC-NH₂) was utilized to study the reusability of SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV). No significant decrease in the relative oxidation yield was observed after ten reaction cycles. Moreover, the structure of SiO₂@TPEA@Pt(IV) after being used for ten cycles was determined to be similar to its initial one, demonstrating the cycling stability of the complex.

  16. Methyl group dynamics in paracetamol and acetanilide: probing the static properties of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed by peptide groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Neumann, M. A.; Kearley, G. J.; Wilson, C. C.

    1999-06-01

    Measurements of tunnelling and librational excitations for the methyl group in paracetamol and tunnelling excitations for the methyl group in acetanilide are reported. In both cases, results are compared with molecular mechanics calculations, based on the measured low temperature crystal structures, which follow an established recipe. Agreement between calculated and measured methyl group observables is not as good as expected and this is attributed to the presence of comprehensive hydrogen bond networks formed by the peptide groups. Good agreement is obtained with a periodic quantum chemistry calculation which uses density functional methods, these calculations confirming the validity of the one-dimensional rotational model used and the crystal structures. A correction to the Coulomb contribution to the rotational potential in the established recipe using semi-emipircal quantum chemistry methods, which accommodates the modified charge distribution due to the hydrogen bonds, is investigated.

  17. Pulling out a peptide chain from -sheet crystallite: Propagation of instability of H-bonds under shear force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changjian; Li, Dechang; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yongwei; Ji, Baohua

    2015-06-01

    Anti-parallel -sheet crystallite as the main component of silk fibroin has attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical properties. In this study, we examine the processes of pulling a peptide chain from -sheet crystallite using steered molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the rupture behavior of the crystallite. We show that the failure of -sheet crystallite was accompanied by a propagation of instability of hydrogen-bonds (H-bonds) in the crystallite. In addition, we find that there is an optimum size of the crystallite at which the H-bonds can work cooperatively to achieve the highest shear strength. In addition, we find that the stiffness of loading device and the loading rates have significant effects on the rupture behavior of -sheet crystallite. The stiff loading device facilitates the rebinding of the H-bond network in the stick-slip motion between the chains, while the soft one suppresses it. Moreover, the rupture force of -sheet crystallites decreases with loading rate. Particularly, when the loading rate decreases to a critical value, the rupture force of the -sheet crystallite becomes independent of the loading rates. This study provides atomistic details of rupture behaviors of -sheet crystallite, and, therefore, sheds valuable light on the underlying mechanism of the superior mechanical properties of silk fibroin.

  18. Air oxidation method employed for the disulfide bond formation of natural and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Calce, Enrica; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Amodeo, Pietro; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Among the available protocols, chemically driven approaches to oxidize cysteine may not be required for molecules that, under the native-like conditions, naturally fold in conformations ensuring an effective pairing of the right disulfide bridge pattern. In this contest, we successfully prepared the distinctin, a natural heterodimeric peptide, and some synthetic cyclic peptides that are inhibitors of the CXCR4 receptor. In the first case, the air oxidation reaction allowed to connect two peptide chains via disulfide bridge, while in the second case allowed the cyclization of rationally designed peptides by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Computational approaches helped to either drive de-novo design or suggest structural modifications and optimal oxidization protocols for disulfide-containing molecules. They are able to both predict and to rationalize the propensity of molecules to spontaneously fold in suitable conformations to achieve the right disulfide bridges.

  19. Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten: further cystine peptides from high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits of glutenin and from gamma-gliadins.

    PubMed

    Köhler, P; Belitz, H D; Wieser, H

    1993-03-01

    Glutenin was prepared from gluten of the wheat variety Rektor by extraction of gliadin with aqueous ethanol. It was cleaved successively into soluble peptides by the enzymes trypsin and thermolysin. Separation of the peptide mixtures was performed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) on Sephadex G25 and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on ODS-Hypersil. Cystine peptides were detected by differential chromatography of the samples prior to and after reduction. After isolation by multi-step RP-HPLC, the cystine peptides were reduced. The resulting cysteine peptides were alkylated with 4-vinylpyridine, separated by RP-HPLC and sequenced by means of the Edman degradation. The isolated cystine peptides represented a considerable portion of the total cysteine in glutenin: four out of seven cysteine residues of HMW subunits, and eight out of nine cysteine residues of LMW subunits are documented by at least one cystine peptide. Most of the peptides corresponded to known sequences of gluten protein components. From the structures of some tryptic peptides, inter- and intramolecular disulphide bonds for HMW subunits of glutenin have been proven. Cystine peptides from the thermolytic digest have been assigned to LMW subunits of glutenin and to gamma-gliadins. Other peptides have been closely related to partial sequences of these protein components. The results have allowed several conclusions about the arrangement of intra- and intermolecular disulphide bridges in gluten proteins.

  20. Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene for prokaryotic factor EF-P involved in peptide bond synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, H; Adams, S L; Chung, D G; Yaguchi, M; Chuang, S E; Ganoza, M C

    1991-01-01

    A soluble protein EF-P (elongation factor P) from Escherichia coli has been purified and shown to stimulate efficient translation and peptide-bond synthesis on native or reconstituted 70S ribosomes in vitro. Based on the partial amino acid sequence of EF-P, 18- and 24-nucleotide DNA probes were synthesized and used to screen lambda phage clones from the Kohara Gene Bank. The entire EF-P gene was detected on lambda clone #650 which contains sequences from the 94 minute region of the E.coli genome. Two DNA fragments, 3.0 and 0.78 kilobases in length encompassing the gene, were isolated and cloned into pUC18 and pUC19. Partially purified extracts from cells transformed with these plasmids overrepresented a protein which co-migrates with EF-P upon SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and also exhibited increased EF-P mediated peptide-bond synthetic activity. Based on DNA sequence analysis of this gene, the EF-P protein consists of 187 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 20,447. The sequence and chromosomal location of EF-P establishes it as a unique gene product. Images PMID:1956781

  1. Formation of the First Peptide Bond: The Structure of EF-P Bound to the 70S Ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, Gregor; Stanley, Robin E.; Steitz, Thomas A.; Yale

    2009-10-21

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is an essential protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond in protein synthesis. Here we report the crystal structure of EF-P bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome along with the initiator transfer RNA N-formyl-methionyl-tRNAi (fMet-tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet}) and a short piece of messenger RNA (mRNA) at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. EF-P binds to a site located between the binding site for the peptidyl tRNA (P site) and the exiting tRNA (E site). It spans both ribosomal subunits with its amino-terminal domain positioned adjacent to the aminoacyl acceptor stem and its carboxyl-terminal domain positioned next to the anticodon stem-loop of the P site-bound initiator tRNA. Domain II of EF-P interacts with the ribosomal protein L1, which results in the largest movement of the L1 stalk that has been observed in the absence of ratcheting of the ribosomal subunits. EF-P facilitates the proper positioning of the fMet-tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet} for the formation of the first peptide bond during translation initiation.

  2. Formation of the First Peptid Bond: the Structure of EF-P Bound to the 70S Ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, G.; Stanley, R; Steitz, T

    2009-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is an essential protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond in protein synthesis. Here we report the crystal structure of EF-P bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome along with the initiator transfer RNA N-formyl-methionyl-tRNAi (fMet-tRNAifMet) and a short piece of messenger RNA (mRNA) at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. EF-P binds to a site located between the binding site for the peptidyl tRNA (P site) and the exiting tRNA (E site). It spans both ribosomal subunits with its amino-terminal domain positioned adjacent to the aminoacyl acceptor stem and its carboxyl-terminal domain positioned next to the anticodon stem-loop of the P site-bound initiator tRNA. Domain II of EF-P interacts with the ribosomal protein L1, which results in the largest movement of the L1 stalk that has been observed in the absence of ratcheting of the ribosomal subunits. EF-P facilitates the proper positioning of the fMet-tRNAifMet for the formation of the first peptide bond during translation initiation.

  3. An alternative mechanism for the catalysis of peptide bond formation by L/F transferase: substrate binding and orientation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela W; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Abeysundara, Heshani; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Fahlman, Richard P

    2011-06-17

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase (L/F transferase) catalyzes the transfer of a leucine or a phenylalanine from an aminoacyl-tRNA to the N-terminus of a protein substrate. This N-terminal addition of an amino acid is analogous to that of peptide synthesis by ribosomes. A previously proposed catalytic mechanism for Escherichia coli L/F transferase identified the conserved aspartate 186 (D186) and glutamine 188 (Q188) as key catalytic residues. We have reassessed the role of D186 and Q188 by investigating the enzymatic reactions and kinetics of enzymes possessing mutations to these active-site residues. Additionally three other amino acids proposed to be involved in aminoacyl-tRNA substrate binding are investigated for comparison. By quantitatively measuring product formation using a quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based assay, our results clearly demonstrate that, despite significant reduction in enzymatic activity as a result of different point mutations introduced into the active site of L/F transferase, the formation of product is still observed upon extended incubations. Our kinetic data and existing X-ray crystal structures result in a proposal that the critical roles of D186 and Q188, like the other amino acids in the active site, are for substrate binding and orientation and do not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Overall, we propose that L/F transferase does not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation but catalyzes the reaction by binding and orientating the substrates for reaction in an analogous mechanism that has been described for ribosomes.

  4. Disulfide Linkage Characterization of Disulfide Bond-Containing Proteins and Peptides by Reducing Electrochemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Christian N; Haselmann, Kim F; Olsen, Jesper V; Nielsen, Peter Kresten

    2016-02-02

    Unravelling of disulfide linkage patterns is a crucial part of protein characterization, whether it is for a previously uncharacterized protein in basic research or a recombinant pharmaceutical protein. In the biopharmaceutical industry, elucidation of the cysteine connectivities is a necessity to avoid disulfide scrambled and incorrectly folded forms in the final product. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly utilized analytical tool for this due to fast and accurate characterization. However, disulfide bonds being an additional covalent bond in the protein structure represent a challenge in protein sequencing by tandem MS (MS/MS). Electrochemical (EC) reduction of disulfide bonds has recently been demonstrated to provide efficient reduction efficiencies, significantly enhancing sequence coverages in online coupling with MS characterization. In this study, the potential use of EC disulfide reduction in combination with MS characterization for disulfide mapping was assessed. We employed two approaches based on (1) the high flexibility and instant information about the degree of reduction in infusion EC-MS to generate partially reduced species on the intact protein level and (2) the preserved link between parent disulfide-linked fragments and free reduced peptides in an LC-EC-MS platform of nonreduced proteolytic protein digestions. Here we report the successful use of EC as a partial reduction approach in mapping of disulfide bonds of intact human insulin (HI) and lysozyme. In addition, we established a LC-EC-MS platform advantageous in disulfide characterization of complex and highly disulfide-bonded proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) by online EC reduction of nonreduced proteolytic digestions.

  5. Interrelationships among biological activity, disulfide bonds, secondary structure, and metal ion binding for a chemically synthesized 34-amino-acid peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    MacColl, R; Eisele, L E; Stack, R F; Hauer, C; Vakharia, D D; Benno, A; Kelly, W C; Mizejewski, G J

    2001-10-03

    A 34-amino-acid peptide has been chemically synthesized based on a sequence from human alpha-fetoprotein. The purified peptide is active in anti-growth assays when freshly prepared in pH 7.4 buffer at 0.20 g/l, but this peptide slowly becomes inactive. This functional change is proven by mass spectrometry to be triggered by the formation of an intrapeptide disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues on the peptide. Interpeptide cross-linking does not occur. The active and inactive forms of the peptide have almost identical secondary structures as shown by circular dichroism (CD). Zinc ions bind to the active peptide and completely prevents formation of the inactive form. Cobalt(II) ions also bind to the peptide, and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the cobalt-peptide complex shows that: (1) a near-UV sulfur-to-metal-ion charge-transfer band had a molar extinction coefficient consistent with two thiolate bonds to Co(II); (2) the lowest-energy visible d-d transition maximum at 659 nm, also, demonstrated that the two cysteine residues are ligands for the metal ion; (3) the d-d molar extinction coefficient showed that the metal ion-ligand complex was in a distorted tetrahedral symmetry. The peptide has two cysteines, and it is speculated that the other two metal ion ligands might be the two histidines. The Zn(II)- and Co(II)-peptide complexes had similar peptide conformations as indicated by their ultraviolet CD spectra, which differed very slightly from that of the free peptide. Surprisingly, the cobalt ions acted in the reverse of the zinc ions in that, instead of stabilizing anti-growth form of the peptide, they catalyzed its loss. Metal ion control of peptide function is a saliently interesting concept. Calcium ions, in the conditions studied, apparently do not bind to the peptide. Trifluoroethanol and temperature (60 degrees C) affected the secondary structure of the peptide, and the peptide was found capable of assuming various conformations in solution

  6. Immunological and structural characterization of sarafotoxin/endothelin family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, G; Bousso-Mittler, D; Bdolah, A; Kloog, Y; Sokolovsky, M

    1989-08-15

    A highly specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the potent vasoconstrictor peptides, sarafotoxin-b and human endothelin. The antigenic determinants of the antibodies employed in studies with these assays were found to be localized within the amino acid sequence at positions 4-7. This was confirmed by CNBr cleavage of the methionyl residue at position 6 in the sarafotoxin and at position 7 in the endothelin. The chemically characterized modified peptides showed very low cross reactivity in the RIAs. On the other hand, the binding properties as well as the ability to induce phosphoinositide hydrolysis were very similar in the modified and native peptides, indicating that despite cleavage of the peptide bond the biologically active conformation responsible for either binding or phosphoinositide hydrolysis is retained, probably because of the disulfide bonds. Thus, structural alteration might be a valuable means of curtailing some of the various activities induced by the sarafotoxin/endothelin family of peptides.

  7. Transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and sensitivity to hydrolysis of two anxiolytic peptides from αs1-casein, α-casozepine, and αs1-casein-f91-97: effect of bile salts.

    PubMed

    Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Miclo, Laurent; Balandras, Frédérique; Dary, Annie; Soligot, Claire; Le Roux, Yves

    2011-11-23

    α-Casozepine and f91-97, peptides from α(s1)-casein, display anxiolytic activity in rats and may have to cross the intestinal epithelium to exert this central effect. We evaluated their resistance to hydrolysis by the peptidases of Caco-2 cells and their ability to cross the cell monolayer. To mimic physiological conditions, two preparations of bile salts were used in noncytotoxic concentrations: porcine bile extract and an equimolar mixture of taurocholate, cholate, and deoxycholate. The presence and composition of bile salts appeared to modulate the peptidase activities of the Caco-2 cells involved (i) in the hydrolysis of α-casozepine, leading to much higher formation of fragments f91-99, f91-98, and f91-97, and (ii) in the hydrolysis of f91-97, leading to lower degradation of this peptide. Transport of α-casozepine across Caco-2 monolayer increased significantly, in the presence of bile extract, and of fragment f91-97, in the presence of bile salts.

  8. Phosphate Triester Hydrolysis Promoted by an N2S (thiolate) Zinc Complex: Mechanistic Implications for the Metal-Dependent Reactivity of Peptide Deformylase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The zinc(II) complex (PATH)ZnOH, where PATH is an N2S(thiolate) ligand, has been investigated for its ability to promote the hydrolysis of the phosphate triester tris(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (TNP). The hydrolysis of TNP was examined as a function of PATH-zinc(II) complex concentration, substrate co...

  9. A mechanistic study supports a two-step mechanism for peptide bond formation on the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Byun, Byung Jin; Kang, Young Kee

    2013-09-28

    We report the feasible pathways of the quaternary model system for the ribosome-catalyzed PT reaction obtained by density functional calculations. Our results indicate that the step from the reactant complex to the first six-membered TS involving a proton shuttle via the 2'-OH of the P-site A76 in the stepwise pathway is the most favored rate-limiting step in solution. It is found that the C-O3' bond-breaking of A76 is not significant but the C-N bond formation with a tetrahedral intermediate occurs in the rate-limiting step and that the fast breakdown of the C-O3' bond is followed in the second transition state. These are consistent with recent kinetic experiments.

  10. Rational derivation of CETP self-binding helical peptides by π-π stacking and halogen bonding: Therapeutic implication for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Lu, Meijuan; Zhu, Lixia

    2016-10-01

    The human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfers cholesteryl ester from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to other lipoproteins and has been established as an attractive target for reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Here, an amphipathic α-helix peptide, namely SBH-peptide ((465)EHLLVDFLQSLS(476)), was derived from the C-terminal tail of CETP. The peptide exhibits self-binding capability towards the CETP. Crystal structure analysis, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and ab initio electron correlation characterizations of CETP-SBH-peptide complex system revealed that the Phe471 residue plays a key role in SBH-peptide binding, which can form a π-π stacking with the Phe197 residue of CETP. In addition, substitution of the hydrogen atom H4 of Phe471 with halogen atoms, in particular the bromine atom Br4, can constitute a geometrically satisfactory halogen bonding with the oxygen atom O of CETP Ile193 residue. Fluorescence polarization assays substantiated that (i) mutation of the aromatic Phe471 to small Ala residue would impair the SBH-peptide affinity with Kd change from 10.5 to 26.4μM, indicating that the π-π stacking should exist in Phe471⋯Phe197 adduct, and (ii) substitution with Br4 can considerably improve SBH-peptide affinity by ∼3-fold, but the SBH-peptide binding does not change essentially upon substitution with Br3 (a negative control that is theoretically unable to form the halogen bonding), indicating that the rationally designed halogen bonding should form between the Phe471(Br4) residue of SBH-peptide and the Ile193 residue of CETP protein.

  11. Synthesis, conformational analysis, and biological activities of cyclic enkephalins and model cyclic peptides containing thioamides as amide bond replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the first applications of the thioamide surrogate ({psi}(CSNH)) in model cyclic peptides and cyclic enkephalins. The solution phase synthesis and conformational analysis of two model cyclic endothiopentapeptides, cyclo(D-Phe-Pro{psi} (CSNH)Gly-Pro-Gly) (I) and cyclo(D-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro{psi}(CSNH)Gly) (II), are reported. The conformations of I and II were analyzed using several 1 and 2D NMR techniques, such as INDOR, temperature and concentration dependence, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C COSY, ROESY, and magnetization transfer. Compound I displayed the same general conformation as its parent in CDCl{sub 3}, but the {gamma}-turn hydrogen bond appeared to be weaker, while the {beta}-turn hydrogen bond appeared to be stronger. In DMSO-d{sub 6}, this molecule existed in two conformations in a ratio of 2:1. The major conformer appeared to be the same as that in CDCl{sub 3}, while the second contained at least one cis X-Pro bond, most likely at the Gly{sup 1}-Pro{sup 2} position. Compound II displayed the same conformation as its parent in both solvents. The {gamma}-turn hydrogen bond again appeared to be weaker in CDCl{sub 3}, but comparable with the parent in DMSO-d{sub 6}. Molecular modeling studies of I and II indicated the Pro {psi} angle increased by {approx}6{degree} when a thiocarbonyl was present, thereby reducing steric interactions with the Pro {beta} methylene.

  12. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K M Bhaskara; Kumari, Y Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness.

  13. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. M. Bhaskara; Kumari, Y. Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

  14. Orthogonal halogen and hydrogen bonds involving a peptide bond model† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental part, DSC, IR spectroscopic and crystallographic data. CCDC 899779–899785. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4ce01514b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyeva, Vera; Nayak, Susanta K.; Cavallo, Gabriella; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The peptide bond model N-methylacetamide self-assembles with a range of dihalotetrafluorobenzenes forming co-crystals that all show the occurrence of orthogonal hydrogen and halogen bonds. PMID:25663816

  15. Hydroxamate-based colorimetric assay to assess amide bond formation by adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryotaro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrated the usefulness of a hydroxamate-based colorimetric assay for predicting amide bond formation (through an aminoacyl-AMP intermediate) by the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. By using a typical adenylation domain of tyrocidine synthetase (involved in tyrocidine biosynthesis), we confirmed the correlation between the absorbance at 490 nm of the l-Trp-hydroxamate-Fe(3+) complex and the formation of l-Trp-l-Pro, where l-Pro was used instead of hydroxylamine. Furthermore, this assay was adapted to the adenylation domains of surfactin synthetase (involved in surfactin biosynthesis) and bacitracin synthetase (involved in bacitracin biosynthesis). Consequently, the formation of various aminoacyl l-Pro formations was observed.

  16. Peptide bond-forming reagents HOAt and HATU are not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test.

    PubMed

    Nicolette, John; Neft, Robin E; Vanosdol, Jessica; Murray, Joel

    2016-04-01

    The peptide bond-forming reagents 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt, CAS 39968-33-7) and O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU, CAS 148893-10-1) either have structural alerts, unclassified features or are considered out of domain when evaluated for potential mutagenicity with in silico programs DEREK and CaseUltra. Since they are commonly used reagents in pharmaceutical drug syntheses, they may become drug substance or drug product impurities and would need to be either controlled to appropriately safe levels or tested for mutagenicity. Both reagents were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test at Covance, under GLP conditions, following the OECD test guideline and ICH S2(R1) recommendations and found to be negative. Our data show that HOAt and HATU-common pharmaceutical synthesis reagents-are not mutagenic, and can be treated as ordinary drug impurities.

  17. The Disulfide Bond of the Peptide Thanatin Is Dispensible for Its Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bo; Niu, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru

    2016-01-01

    Thanatin (THA) displays potent antibiotic activity, especially against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo, with minimal hemolytic toxicity and satisfactory stability in plasma. However, the high cost of thanatin significantly limits its development and clinical application. To reduce the cost of peptide synthesis, a formulation of cyclic thanatin (C-thanatin) called linear thanatin (L-thanatin) was synthesized and its activity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin MICs did not differ against eight Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Furthermore, the survival rates of ESBL-producing-E. coli-infected mice were consistent after C-thanatin or L-thanatin treatment at 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight. Neither C-thanatin nor L-thanatin showed toxicity for human red blood cells (hRBCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at a concentration as high as 256 μg/ml. Results of circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of L-thanatin is extremely similar to that of C-thanatin. Membrane permeabilization and depolarization assays showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin have similar abilities to permeabilize the outer and inner membranes and to induce membrane depolarization in ESBL-producing E. coli. However, neither of them caused significant HUVEC membrane permeability. These findings indicate that the two peptides have similar effects on bacterial cell membranes and that the disulfide bond in thanatin is not essential for its antimicrobial activities in vivo and in vitro. L-thanatin is thus a promising low-cost peptide candidate for treating ESBL-producing E. coli infections. PMID:27161645

  18. The Disulfide Bond of the Peptide Thanatin Is Dispensible for Its Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Niu, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru; Luo, Xiaoxing; Hou, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Thanatin (THA) displays potent antibiotic activity, especially against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo, with minimal hemolytic toxicity and satisfactory stability in plasma. However, the high cost of thanatin significantly limits its development and clinical application. To reduce the cost of peptide synthesis, a formulation of cyclic thanatin (C-thanatin) called linear thanatin (L-thanatin) was synthesized and its activity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro Results showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin MICs did not differ against eight Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Furthermore, the survival rates of ESBL-producing-E. coli-infected mice were consistent after C-thanatin or L-thanatin treatment at 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight. Neither C-thanatin nor L-thanatin showed toxicity for human red blood cells (hRBCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at a concentration as high as 256 μg/ml. Results of circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of L-thanatin is extremely similar to that of C-thanatin. Membrane permeabilization and depolarization assays showed that C-thanatin and L-thanatin have similar abilities to permeabilize the outer and inner membranes and to induce membrane depolarization in ESBL-producing E. coli However, neither of them caused significant HUVEC membrane permeability. These findings indicate that the two peptides have similar effects on bacterial cell membranes and that the disulfide bond in thanatin is not essential for its antimicrobial activities in vivo and in vitro L-thanatin is thus a promising low-cost peptide candidate for treating ESBL-producing E. coli infections.

  19. Effect of ester chemical structure and peptide bond conformation in fragmentation pathways of differently metal cationized cyclodepsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Raja; Sudarslal, S; Ranganayaki, R S; Raghothama, S

    2011-09-21

    Fragmentation behavior of two classes of cyclodepsipeptides, isariins and isaridins, obtained from the fungus Isaria, was investigated in the presence of different metal ions using multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) with collision induced dissociation (CID) and validated by NMR spectroscopy. During MS(n) process, both protonated and metal-cationized isariins generated product ions belonging to the identical 'b-ion' series, exhibiting initial backbone cleavage explicitly at the β-ester bond. Fragmentation behavior for the protonated and metal-cationized acyclic methyl ester derivative of isariins was very similar. On the contrary, isaridins during fragmentation produced ions belonging to the 'b' or/and the 'y' ion series depending on the nature of interacting metal ions, due to initial backbone cleavages at the α-ester linkage or/and at a specific amide linkage. Interestingly, independent of the nature of the interacting metal ions, the product ions formed from the acyclic methyl ester derivative of isaridins belonged only to the 'y-type'. Complementary NMR data showed that, while all metal ions were located around the β-ester group of isariins, the metal ion interacting sites varied across the backbone for isaridins. Combined MS and NMR data suggest that the different behavior in sequence specific charge-driven fragmentation of isariins and isaridins is predetermined because of the constituent β-hydroxy acid residue in isariins and the cis peptide bond in isaridins.

  20. Use of a temporary "solubilizing" peptide tag for the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of human insulin glargine via use of regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Belgi, Alessia; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Suode; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Chan, Linda; Belyea, Chris; Truong, Hue-Trung; Blair, Amy R; Andrikopoulos, Sof; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Wade, John D

    2009-07-01

    Solid-phase peptide synthesis has been refined to a stage where efficient preparation of long and complex peptides is now achievable. However, the postsynthesis handling of poorly soluble peptides often remains a significant hindrance to their purification and further use. Several synthetic schemes have been developed for the preparation of such peptides containing modifications to aid their solubility. However, these require the use of complex chemistry or yield non-native sequences. We describe a simple approach based on the use of penta-lysine "tags" that are linked to the C-terminus of the peptide of interest via a base-labile linker. After ready purification of the now freely solubilized peptide, the "tag" is removed by simple, brief base treatment giving the native sequence in much higher overall yield. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the novel preparation of insulin glargine via solid-phase synthesis of each of the two chains--including the notoriously poorly soluble A-chain--followed by their combination in solution via regioselective disulfide bond formation. At the conclusion of the chain combination, the solubilizing peptide tag was removed from the A-chain to provide synthetic human glargine in nearly 10% overall yield. This approach should facilitate the development of new insulin analogues as well as be widely applicable to the improved purification and acquisition of otherwise poorly soluble synthetic peptides.

  1. Alteration of a Single Hydrogen Bond between Class II Molecules and Peptide Results in Rapid Degradation of Class II Molecules after Invariant Chain Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ceman, Stephanie; Wu, Shenhong; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Sant, Andrea J.

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the importance of a highly conserved region of the class II β chain, we introduced an amino acid substitution that is predicted to eliminate a hydrogen bond formed between the class II molecule and peptide. We expressed the mutated β chain with a wild-type α chain in a murine L cell by gene transfection. The mutant class II molecule (81βH−) assembles normally in the endoplasmic reticulum and transits the Golgi complex. When invariant chain (Ii) is coexpressed with 81βH−, the class II–Ii complex is degraded in the endosomes. Expression of 81βH− in the absence of Ii results in a cell surface expressed molecule that is susceptible to proteolysis, a condition reversed by incubation with a peptide known to associate with 81βH−. We propose that 81βH− is protease sensitive because it is unable to productively associate with most peptides, including classII–associated invariant chain peptides. This model is supported by our data demonstrating protease sensitivity of peptide-free wild-type I-Ad molecules. Collectively, our results suggest both that the hydrogen bonds formed between the class II molecule and peptide are important for the integrity and stability of the complex, and that empty class II molecules are protease sensitive and degraded in endosomes. One function of DM may be to insure continuous groove occupancy of the class II molecule. PMID:9841927

  2. Substrate stereoselectivity of poly(Asp) hydrolase-1 capable of cleaving β-amide bonds as revealed by investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of stereoisomeric β-tri(Asp)s.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro; Abe, Hideki; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that poly(Asp) hydrolase-1 (PahZ1KP-2) from Pedobacter sp. KP-2 selectively, but not completely, cleaved the amide bonds between β-Asp units in thermally synthesized poly(Asp) (tPAA). In the present study, the enzymatic hydrolysis of stereoisomeric β-tri(Asp)s by PahZ1KP-2 was investigated to clarify the substrate stereoselectivity of PahZ1KP-2 in the hydrolysis of tPAA. The results suggest the following structural features of PahZ1KP-2 at its substrate binding site: (1) the active site contains four subsites (2, 1, -1, and -2), three of which need to be occupied by Asp units for cleavage to occur; (2) for the hydrolysis to proceed, subsite 1 should be occupied by an L-Asp unit, whereas the other three subsites may accept both L- and D-Asp units; (3) for the two central subsites between which cleavage occurs, the (L-Asp)-(D-Asp) sequence is the most favorable for cleavage.

  3. Collision-activated cleavage of a peptide/antibiotic disulfide linkage: possible evidence for intramolecular disulfide bond rearrangement upon collisional activation.

    PubMed

    Fagerquist, Clifton K

    2004-01-01

    Ceftiofur is an important veterinary beta-lactam antibiotic whose bioactive metabolite, desfuroylceftiofur, has a free thiol group. Desfuroylceftiofur (DFC) was reacted with two peptides, [Arg8]-vasopressin and reduced glutathione, both of which have cysteine residues to form disulfide-linked peptide/antibiotic complexes. The products of the reaction, [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+, [(vasopressin+H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ and [(glutathione-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+, were analyzed using collision-activated dissociation (CAD) with a quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. MS/MS of [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ resulted in facile dissociative loss of one and two covalently bound DFC moieties. Loss of one DFC resulted from either homolytic or heterolytic dissociation of the peptide/antibiotic disulfide bond with equal or unequal partitioning of the two sulfur atoms between the fragment ion and neutral loss. Hydrogen migration preceded heterolytic dissociation. Loss of two DFC moieties from [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ appears to result from collision-activated intramolecular disulfide bond rearrangement (IDBR) to produce cyclic [vasopressin + H]+ (at m/z 1084) as well as other cyclic fragment ions at m/z 1084 +/- 32 and +64. The cyclic structure of these ions could only be inferred as MS/MS may result in rearrangement to non-cyclic structures prior to dissociative loss. IDBR was also detected from MS(3) experiments of [vasopressin + (DFC-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ fragment ions. MS/MS of [(glutathione-H) + (DFC-H) + H]+ resulted in cleavage of the peptide backbone with retention of the DFC moiety as well as heterolytic cleavage of the peptide/antibiotic disulfide bond to produce the fragment ion: [(DFC-2H) + H]+. These results demonstrate the facile dissociative loss by CAD of DFC moieties covalently attached to peptides through disulfide bonds. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Streptothricin biosynthesis is catalyzed by enzymes related to nonribosomal peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, M A; Vallín, C; Malpartida, F

    1997-01-01

    In a search for strains producing biocides with a wide spectrum of activity, a new strain was isolated. This strain was taxonomically characterized as Streptomyces rochei F20, and the chemical structure of the bioactive product extracted from its fermentation broth was determined to be a mixture of streptothricins. From a genomic library of the producer strain prepared in the heterologous host Streptomyces lividans, a 7.2-kb DNA fragment which conferred resistance to the antibiotic was isolated. DNA sequencing of 5.2 kb from the cloned fragment revealed five open reading frames (ORFs) such that ORF1, -2, -3, and -4 were transcribed in the same direction while ORF5 was convergently arranged. The deduced product of ORF1 strongly resembled those of genes involved in peptide formation by a nonribosomal mechanism; the ORF2 product strongly resembled that of mphA and mphB isolated from Escherichia coli, which determines resistance to several macrolides by a macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase activity; the ORF3 product had similarities with several hydrolases; and the ORF5 product strongly resembled streptothricin acetyltransferases from different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ORF5 was shown to be responsible for acetyl coenzyme A-dependent streptothricin acetylation. No similarities in the databases for the ORF4 product were found. Unlike other peptide synthases, that for streptothricin biosynthesis was arranged as a multienzymatic system rather than a multifunctional protein. Insertional inactivation of ORF1 and ORF2 (and to a lesser degree, of ORF3) abolishes antibiotic biosynthesis, suggesting their involvement in the streptothricin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9371436

  5. Pressure response of amide one-bond J-couplings in model peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Joerg; Beck Erlach, Markus; Crusca, Edson; Kremer, Werner; Munte, Claudia E; Meier, Alexander; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2014-09-01

    The pressure dependence of the one-bond indirect spin-spin coupling constants (1)J(N-H) was studied in the protected tetrapeptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2 (with Xxx being one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids). The response of the (1)J(N-H) coupling constants is amino acid type specific, with an average increase of its magnitude by 0.6 Hz at 200 MPa. The variance of the pressure response is rather large, the largest pressure effect is observed for asparagine where the coupling constant becomes more negative by -2.9 Hz at 200 MPa. The size of the J-coupling constant at high pressure is positively correlated with its low pressure value and the β-propensity, and negatively correlated with the amide proton shift and the first order nitrogen pressure coefficient and the electrostatic solvation free energy.

  6. A comparative study of the catalysis of peptide bond formation by oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jean-François; Jaber, Maguy; Georgelin, Thomas; Stievano, Lorenzo

    2013-08-28

    It is well-known that amino acids deposited on some inorganic oxides undergo peptidic condensation. It is seldom realised however that a large diversity of behaviours can be observed in such systems. Here we use the apparently simple case of glycine-non-porous silica as a reference system, in which glycine (Gly) dimerisation to diketopiperazine (DKP) is easy to evidence, especially when using TG in combination with NMR. We then proceed to compare it with other AA deposited on the same support on the one hand, with Gly deposited on other mineral surfaces on the other hand. In a final section, we provide more detailed mechanistic information on the glycine condensation process on silica, including kinetic data and a (13)C solid-state NMR follow up of the species at various stages of thermal condensation. The best mechanism to rationalise these data involves a crucial step of isomerisation from zwitterion to neutral glycine, and the participation of several distinct types of surface sites probably consisting of silanol ensembles.

  7. New La(III) complex immobilized on 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica as an efficient and reusable catalyst for hydrolysis of phosphate ester bonds.

    PubMed

    Muxel, Alfredo A; Neves, Ademir; Camargo, Maryene A; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Szpoganicz, Bruno; Castellano, Eduardo E; Castilho, Nathalia; Bortolotto, Tiago; Terenzi, Hernán

    2014-03-17

    Described herein is the synthesis, structure, and monoesterase and diesterase activities of a new mononuclear [La(III)(L(1))(NO3)2] (1) complex (H2L(1) = 2-bis[{(2-pyridylmethyl)-aminomethyl}-6-[N-(2-pyridylmethyl) aminomethyl)])-4-methyl-6-formylphenol) in the hydrolysis of 2,4-bis(dinitrophenyl)phosphate (2,4-BDNPP). When covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica, 1 undergoes disproportionation to form a dinuclear species (APS-1), whose catalytic efficiency is increased when compared to the homogeneous reaction due to second coordination sphere effects which increase the substrate to complex association constant. The anchored catalyst APS-1 can be recovered and reused for subsequent hydrolysis reactions (five times) with only a slight loss in activity. In the presence of DNA, we suggest that 1 is also converted into the dinuclear active species as observed with APS-1, and both were shown to be efficient in DNA cleavage.

  8. Redefining an epitope of a malaria vaccine candidate, with antibodies against the N-terminal MSA-2 antigen of Plasmodium harboring non-natural peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Lozano, José Manuel; Guerrero, Yuly Andrea; Alba, Martha Patricia; Lesmes, Liliana Patricia; Escobar, José Oswaldo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2013-10-01

    The aim of obtaining novel vaccine candidates against malaria and other transmissible diseases can be partly based on selecting non-polymorphic peptides from relevant antigens of pathogens, which have to be then precisely modified for inducing a protective immunity against the disease. Bearing in mind the high degree of the MSA-2(21-40) peptide primary structure's genetic conservation among malaria species, and its crucial role in the high RBC binding ability of Plasmodium falciparum (the main agent causing malaria), structurally defined probes based on non-natural peptide-bond isosteres were thus designed. Thus, two peptide mimetics were obtained (so-called reduced amide pseudopeptides), in which naturally made amide bonds of the (30)FIN(32)-binding motif of MSA-2 were replaced with ψ-[CH2-NH] methylene amide isostere bonds, one between the F-I and the second between I-N amino acid pairs, respectively, coded as ψ-128 ψ-130. These peptide mimetics were used to produce poly- and monoclonal antibodies in Aotus monkeys and BALB/c mice. Parent reactive mice-derived IgM isotype cell clones were induced to Ig isotype switching to IgG sub-classes by controlled in vitro immunization experiments. These mature isotype immunoglobulins revealed a novel epitope in the MSA-2(25-32) antigen and two polypeptides of rodent malaria species. Also, these antibodies' functional activity against malaria was tested by in vitro assays, demonstrating high efficacy in controlling infection and evidencing neutralizing capacity for the rodent in vivo malaria infection. The neutralizing effect of antibodies induced by site-directed designed peptide mimetics on Plasmodium's biological development make these pseudopeptides a valuable tool for future development of immunoprophylactic strategies for controlling malarial infection.

  9. Helix formation in preorganized beta/gamma-peptide foldamers: hydrogen-bond analogy to the alpha-helix without alpha-amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Almeida, Aaron M; Zhang, Weicheng; Reidenbach, Andrew G; Choi, Soo Hyuk; Guzei, Ilia A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-06-16

    We report the first high-resolution structural data for the beta/gamma-peptide 13-helix (i,i+3 C=O...H-N H-bonds), a secondary structure that is formed by oligomers with a 1:1 alternation of beta- and gamma-amino acid residues. Our characterization includes both crystallographic and 2D NMR data. Previous studies suggested that beta/gamma-peptides constructed from conformationally flexible residues adopt a different helical secondary structure in solution. Our design features preorganized beta- and gamma-residues, which strongly promote 13-helical folding by the 1:1 beta/gamma backbone.

  10. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health.

  11. Differential mobility spectrometry combined with multiple ion monitoring for bioanalysis of disulfide-bonded peptides with inefficient collision-induced dissociation fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuan-Qing; Ciccimaro, Eugene; Zheng, Naiyu; Zhu, Mingshe

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to develop a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for some disulfide-bonded peptides with inefficient collision-induced dissociation fragmentation. This study describes a new methodology using differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) combined with multiple ion monitoring (MIM) to enhance bioanalytical sensitivity for sunflower trypsin inhibitor. By combining DMS with MIM to monitor the intact precursor ion in Q1 and Q3 MS analyzers, a lower limit of quantitation at 0.125 ng/ml was achieved to quantify sunflower trypsin inhibitor in rat plasma, representing a 40-fold sensitivity improvement over MIM without DMS. DMS coupled with MIM method provides triple quadrupole MS users an effective means to overcome challenges in analyzing disulfide-bonded peptides or other analytes that do not have useful collision-induced dissociation fragment ions for MRM analysis.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations on pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) reveal the role of glycosylation and disulfide bonds in its enhanced structural stability and function.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sandeep; Mohanty, Debasisa; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2012-01-01

    Fucosylation of Thr 9 in pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) enhances its structural stability and functional ability as a serine protease inhibitor. In order to understand the role of disulfide bonds and glycosylation on the structure and function of PMP-C, we have carried out multiple explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on fucosylated and non-fucosylated forms of PMP-C, both in the presence and absence of the disulfide bonds. Our simulations revealed that there were no significant structural changes in the native disulfide bonded forms of PMP-C due to fucosylation. On the other hand, the non-fucosylated form of PMP-C without disulfide bonds showed larger deviations from the starting structure than the fucosylated form. However, the structural deviations were restricted to the terminal regions while core β-sheet retained its hydrogen bonded structure even in absence of disulfide bonds as well as fucosylation. Interestingly, fucosylation of disulfide bonded native PMP-C led to a decreased thermal flexibility in the residue stretch 29-32 which is known to interact with the active site of the target proteases. Our analysis revealed that disulfide bonds covalently connect the residue stretch 29-32 to the central β-sheet of PMP-C and using a novel network of side chain interactions and disulfide bonds fucosylation at Thr 9 is altering the flexibility of the stretch 29-32 located at a distal site. Thus, our simulations explain for the first time, how presence of disulfide bonds between conserved cysteines and fucosylation enhance the function of PMP-C as a protease inhibitor.

  13. Plane wave density functional theory studies of the structural and the electronic properties of amino acids attached to graphene oxide via peptide bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byeong June; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Lee, ChangWoo

    2015-08-01

    We studied via plane wave pseudopotential total-energy calculations within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) the electronic and the structural properties of amino acids (alanine, glycine, and histidine) attached to graphene oxide (GO) by peptide bonding. The HOMO-LUMO gap, the Hirshfeld charges, and the equilibrium geometrical structures exhibit distinctive variations that depend on the species of the attached amino acid. The GO-amino acid system appears to be a good candidate for a biosensor.

  14. Role of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond of insulin-like peptide 3 in binding and activation of its receptor, RXFP2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suode; Hughes, Richard A; Bathgate, Ross A D; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, M Akhter; Lin, Feng; van Lierop, Bianca; Robinson, Andrea J; Wade, John D

    2010-09-01

    INSL3 is a member of the insulin-IGF-relaxin superfamily and plays a key role in male fetal development and in adult germ cell maturation. It is the cognate ligand for RXFP2, a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein coupled receptor. To date, and in contrast to our current knowledge of the key structural features that are required for the binding of INSL3 to RXFP2, comparatively little is known about the key residues that are required to elicit receptor activation and downstream cell signaling. Early evidence suggests that these are contained principally within the A-chain. To further explore this hypothesis, we have undertaken an examination of the functional role of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis together with regioselective disulfide bond formation, two analogs of human INSL3 were prepared in which the intra-chain disulfide bond was replaced, one in which the corresponding Cys residues were substituted with the isosteric Ser and the other in which the Cys were removed altogether. Both of these peptides retained nearly full RXFP2 receptor binding but were devoid of cAMP activity (receptor activation), indicating that the intra-A-chain disulfide bond makes a significant contribution to the ability of INSL3 to act as an RXFP2 agonist. Replacement of the disulfide bond with a metabolically stable dicarba bond yielded two isomers of INSL3 that each exhibited bioactivity similar to native INSL3. This study highlights the critical structural role played by the intra-A-chain disulfide bond of INSL3 in mediating agonist actions through the RXFP2 receptor.

  15. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-09-01

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water.

  16. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water. PMID:26394759

  17. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-09-23

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water.

  18. Combined use of ion mobility and collision-induced dissociation to investigate the opening of disulfide bridges by electron-transfer dissociation in peptides bearing two disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, Philippe; Upert, Gregory; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Gilles, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are post-translational modifications (PTMs) often found in peptides and proteins. They increase their stability toward enzymatic degradations and provide the structure and (consequently) the activity of such folded proteins. The characterization of disulfide patterns, i.e., the cysteine connectivity, is crucial to achieve a global picture of the active conformation of the protein of interest. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) constitutes a valuable tool to cleave the disulfide bonds in the gas phase, avoiding chemical reduction/alkylation in solution. To characterize the cysteine pairing, the present work proposes (i) to reduce by ETD one of the two disulfide bridges of model peptides, resulting in the opening of the cyclic structures, (ii) to separate the generated species by ion mobility, and (iii) to characterize the species using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Results of this strategy applied to several peptides show different behaviors depending on the connectivity. The loss of SH· radical species, observed for all the peptides, confirms the cleavage of the disulfides during the ETD process.

  19. Synthesis of bicyclic organo-peptide hybrids via oxime/intein-mediated macrocyclization followed by disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jessica M; Hill, Nicholas C; Krasniak, Peter J; Fasan, Rudi

    2014-02-21

    A new strategy is described to generate bicyclic peptides that incorporate non-peptidic backbone elements starting from recombinant polypeptide precursors. These compounds are produced via a one-pot, two-step sequence, in which peptide macrocyclization by means of a bifunctional oxyamine/1,3-amino-thiol synthetic precursor is followed by intramolecular disulfide formation between the synthetic precursor-borne thiol and a cysteine embedded in the peptide sequence. This approach was found to be compatible with the cysteine residue occupying different positions within 8mer and 10mer target peptide sequences and across different synthetic precursor scaffolds, thereby enabling the formation of a variety of diverse bicyclic scaffolds.

  20. Identification of Endopeptidase Genes from the Genomic Sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and the Role of These Genes in Hydrolysis of Model Bitter Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Vidya R.; Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Steele, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding three putative endopeptidases were identified from a draft-quality genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and designated pepO3, pepF, and pepE2. The ability of cell extracts from Escherichia coli DH5α derivatives expressing CNRZ32 endopeptidases PepE, PepE2, PepF, PepO, PepO2, and PepO3 to hydrolyze the model bitter peptides, β-casein (β-CN) (f193-209) and αS1-casein (αS1-CN) (f1-9), under cheese-ripening conditions (pH 5.1, 4% NaCl, and 10°C) was examined. CNRZ32 PepO3 was determined to be a functional paralog of PepO2 and hydrolyzed both peptides, while PepE and PepF had unique specificities towards αS1-CN (f1-9) and β-CN (f193-209), respectively. CNRZ32 PepE2 and PepO did not hydrolyze either peptide under these conditions. To demonstrate the utility of these peptidases in cheese, PepE, PepO2, and PepO3 were expressed in Lactococcus lactis, a common cheese starter, using a high-copy vector pTRKH2 and under the control of the pepO3 promoter. Cell extracts of L. lactis derivatives expressing these peptidases were used to hydrolyze β-CN (f193-209) and αS1-CN (f1-9) under cheese-ripening conditions in single-peptide reactions, in a defined peptide mix, and in Cheddar cheese serum. Peptides αS1-CN (f1-9), αS1-CN (f1-13), and αS1-CN (f1-16) were identified from Cheddar cheese serum and included in the defined peptide mix. Our results demonstrate that in all systems examined, PepO2 and PepO3 had the highest activity with β-CN (f193-209) and αS1-CN (f1-9). Cheese-derived peptides were observed to affect the activity of some of the enzymes examined, underscoring the importance of incorporating such peptides in model systems. These data indicate that L. helveticus CNRZ32 endopeptidases PepO2 and PepO3 are likely to play a key role in this strain's ability to reduce bitterness in cheese. PMID:15932998

  1. Role of cysteine residues and disulfide bonds in the activity of a legume root nodule-specific, cysteine-rich peptide.

    PubMed

    Haag, Andreas F; Kerscher, Bernhard; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Sani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Baloban, Mikhail; Wilson, Heather M; Mergaert, Peter; Zanda, Matteo; Ferguson, Gail P

    2012-03-30

    The root nodules of certain legumes including Medicago truncatula produce >300 different nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. Medicago NCR antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate the differentiation of the bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid within the legume root nodules. In vitro, NCR AMPs such as NCR247 induced bacteroid features and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. meliloti. The bacterial BacA protein is critical to prevent S. meliloti from being hypersensitive toward NCR AMPs. NCR AMPs are cationic and have conserved cysteine residues, which form disulfide (S-S) bridges. However, the natural configuration of NCR AMP S-S bridges and the role of these in the activity of the peptide are unknown. In this study, we found that either cysteine replacements or S-S bond modifications influenced the activity of NCR247 against S. meliloti. Specifically, either substitution of cysteines for serines, changing the S-S bridges from cysteines 1-2, 3-4 to 1-3, 2-4 or oxidation of NCR247 lowered its activity against S. meliloti. We also determined that BacA specifically protected S. meliloti against oxidized NCR247. Due to the large number of different NCRs synthesized by legume root nodules and the importance of bacterial BacA proteins for prolonged host infections, these findings have important implications for analyzing the function of these novel peptides and the protective role of BacA in the bacterial response toward these peptides.

  2. The attack of the phytopathogens and the trumpet solo: Identification of a novel plant antifungal peptide with distinct fold and disulfide bond pattern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Porto, William F; Dey, Prabuddha; Maiti, Mrinal K; Ghosh, Ananta K; Franco, Octavio L

    2013-10-01

    Phytopathogens cause economic losses in agribusiness. Plant-derived compounds have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This paper reports the identification of Ps-AFP1, a novel AMP isolated from the Pisum sativum radicle. Ps-AFP1 was purified and evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi, showing clear effectiveness. In silico analyses were performed, suggesting an unusual fold and disulfide bond pattern. A novel fold and a novel AMP class were here proposed, the αβ-trumpet fold and αβ-trumpet peptides, respectively. The name αβ-trumpet was created due to the peptide's fold, which resembles the musical instrument. The Ps-AFP1 mechanism of action was also proposed. Microscopic analyses revealed that Ps-AFP1 could affect the fungus during the hyphal elongation from spore germination. Furthermore, confocal microscopy performed with Ps-AFP1 labeled with FITC shows that the peptide was localized at high concentration along the fungal cell surface. Due to low cellular disruption rates, it seems that the main target is the fungal cell wall. The binding thermogram and isothermal titration, molecular dynamics and docking analyses were also performed, showing that Ps-AFP1 could bind to chitin producing a stable complex. Data here reported provided novel structural-functional insights into the αβ-trumpet peptide fold.

  3. Disruption of Hydrogen Bonds between Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II and the Peptide N-Terminus Is Not Sufficient to Form a Human Leukocyte Antigen-DM Receptive State of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Monika-Sarah E. D.; Anders, Anne-Kathrin; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Call, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide presentation by MHC class II is of critical importance to the function of CD4+ T cells. HLA-DM resides in the endosomal pathway and edits the peptide repertoire of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules before they are exported to the cell surface. HLA-DM ensures MHC class II molecules bind high affinity peptides by targeting unstable MHC class II:peptide complexes for peptide exchange. Research over the past decade has implicated the peptide N-terminus in modulating the ability of HLA-DM to target a given MHC class II:peptide combination. In particular, attention has been focused on both the hydrogen bonds between MHC class II and peptide, and the occupancy of the P1 anchor pocket. We sought to solve the crystal structure of a HLA-DR1 molecule containing a truncated hemagglutinin peptide missing three N-terminal residues compared to the full-length sequence (residues 306–318) to determine the nature of the MHC class II:peptide species that binds HLA-DM. Here we present structural evidence that HLA-DR1 that is loaded with a peptide truncated to the P1 anchor residue such that it cannot make select hydrogen bonds with the peptide N-terminus, adopts the same conformation as molecules loaded with full-length peptide. HLA-DR1:peptide combinations that were unable to engage up to four key hydrogen bonds were also unable to bind HLA-DM, while those truncated to the P2 residue bound well. These results indicate that the conformational changes in MHC class II molecules that are recognized by HLA-DM occur after disengagement of the P1 anchor residue. PMID:23976922

  4. Kinetics of the competitive reactions of isomerization and peptide bond cleavage at l-α- and d-β-aspartyl residues in an αA-crystallin fragment.

    PubMed

    Aki, Kenzo; Okamura, Emiko

    2017-01-01

    d-β-aspartyl (Asp) residue has been found in a living body such as aged lens crystallin, although l-α-amino acids are constituents in natural proteins. Isomerization from l-α- to d-β-Asp probably modulates structures to affect biochemical reactions. At Asp residue, isomerization and peptide bond cleavage compete with each other. To gain insight into how fast each reaction proceeds, the analysis requires the consideration of both pathways simultaneously and independently. No information has been provided, however, about these competitive processes because each reaction has been studied separately. The contribution of Asp isomers to the respective pathways has still been veiled. In this work, the two competitive reactions, isomerization and spontaneous peptide bond cleavage at Asp residue, were simultaneously observed and compared in an αA-crystallin fragment, S(51) LFRTVLD(58) SG(60) containing l-α- and d-β-Asp58 isomers. The kinetics showed that the formation of l- and d-succinimide (Suc) intermediate, as a first step of isomerization, was comparable at l-α- and d-β-Asp. Although l-Suc was converted to l-β-Asp, d-Suc was liable to return to the original d-β-Asp, the reverse reaction marked enough to consider d-β-Asp as apparently stable. d-β-Asp was also resistant to the peptide bond cleavage. Such apparent less reactivity is probably the reason for gradual and abnormal accumulation of d-β-Asp in a living body under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Peptide formation mechanism on montmorillonite under thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Masuda, Harue; Shinoda, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    The oligomerization of amino acids is an essential process in the chemical evolution of proteins, which are precursors to life on Earth. Although some researchers have observed peptide formation on clay mineral surfaces, the mechanism of peptide bond formation on the clay mineral surface has not been clarified. In this study, the thermal behavior of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on montmorillonite was observed during heating experiments conducted at 150 °C for 336 h under dry, wet, and dry-wet conditions to clarify the mechanism. Approximately 13.9 % of the Gly monomers became peptides on montmorillonite under dry conditions, with diketopiperazine (cyclic dimer) being the main product. On the other hand, peptides were not synthesized in the absence of montmorillonite. Results of IR analysis showed that the Gly monomer was mainly adsorbed via hydrogen bonding between the positively charged amino groups and negatively charged surface sites (i.e., Lewis base sites) on the montmorillonite surface, indicating that the Lewis base site acts as a catalyst for peptide formation. In contrast, peptides were not detected on montmorillonite heated under wet conditions, since excess water shifted the equilibrium towards hydrolysis of the peptides. The presence of water is likely to control thermodynamic peptide production, and clay minerals, especially those with electrophilic defect sites, seem to act as a kinetic catalyst for the peptide formation reaction.

  6. Peptide Formation Mechanism on Montmorillonite Under Thermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Masuda, Harue; Shinoda, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    The oligomerization of amino acids is an essential process in the chemical evolution of proteins, which are precursors to life on Earth. Although some researchers have observed peptide formation on clay mineral surfaces, the mechanism of peptide bond formation on the clay mineral surface has not been clarified. In this study, the thermal behavior of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on montmorillonite was observed during heating experiments conducted at 150 °C for 336 h under dry, wet, and dry-wet conditions to clarify the mechanism. Approximately 13.9 % of the Gly monomers became peptides on montmorillonite under dry conditions, with diketopiperazine (cyclic dimer) being the main product. On the other hand, peptides were not synthesized in the absence of montmorillonite. Results of IR analysis showed that the Gly monomer was mainly adsorbed via hydrogen bonding between the positively charged amino groups and negatively charged surface sites (i.e., Lewis base sites) on the montmorillonite surface, indicating that the Lewis base site acts as a catalyst for peptide formation. In contrast, peptides were not detected on montmorillonite heated under wet conditions, since excess water shifted the equilibrium towards hydrolysis of the peptides. The presence of water is likely to control thermodynamic peptide production, and clay minerals, especially those with electrophilic defect sites, seem to act as a kinetic catalyst for the peptide formation reaction.

  7. Un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, and aspartic acid in gas phase: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Singh, Ajeet; Ojha, Animesh K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present report, un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and aspartic acid (Asp) has been investigated in gas phase via two steps reaction mechanism and concerted mechanism at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. The peptide bond is formed through a nucleophilic reaction via transition states, TS1 and TS2 in stepwise mechanism. The TS1 reveals formation of a new C-N bond while TS2 illustrate the formation of C=O bond. In case of concerted mechanism, C-N bond is formed by a single four-centre transition state (TS3). The energy barrier is used to explain the involvement of energy at each step of the reaction. The energy barrier (20-48 kcal/mol) is required for the transformation of reactant state R1 to TS1 state and intermediate state I1 to TS2 state. The large value of energy barrier is explained in terms of distortion and interaction energies for stepwise mechanism. The energy barrier of TS3 in concerted mechanism is very close to the energy barrier of the first transition state (TS1) of the stepwise mechanism for the formation of Gly-Gly and Ala-Ala di- peptide. However, in case of Ser-Ser, Thr-Thr and Asp-Asp di-peptide, the energy barrier of TS3 is relatively high than that of the energy barrier of TS1 calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. In both the mechanisms, the value of energy barrier calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is greater than that of the value calculated at M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory.

  8. Discovery and mechanistic studies of facile N-terminal Cα-C bond cleavages in the dissociation of tyrosine-containing peptide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Song, Tao; Xu, Minjie; Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia; Chu, Ivan K

    2014-04-24

    Fascinating N-terminal Cα-C bond cleavages in a series of nonbasic tyrosine-containing peptide radical cations have been observed under low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), leading to the generation of rarely observed x-type radical fragments, with significant abundances. CID experiments of the radical cations of the alanyltyrosylglycine tripeptide and its analogues suggested that the N-terminal Cα-C bond cleavage, yielding its [x2 + H](•+) radical cation, does not involve an N-terminal α-carbon-centered radical. Theoretical examination of a prototypical radical cation of the alanyltyrosine dipeptide, using density functional theory calculations, suggested that direct N-terminal Cα-C bond cleavage could produce an ion-molecule complex formed between the incipient a1(+) and x1(•) fragments. Subsequent proton transfer from the iminium nitrogen atom in a1(+) to the acyl carbon atom in x1(•) results in the observable [x1 + H](•+). The barriers against this novel Cα-C bond cleavage and the competitive N-Cα bond cleavage, forming the complementary [c1 + 2H](+)/[z1 - H](•+) ion pair, are similar (ca. 16 kcal mol(-1)). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus modeling revealed that [x1 + H](•+) and [c1 + 2H](+) species are formed with comparable rates, in agreement with energy-resolved CID experiments for [AY](•+).

  9. A single molecule study of cellulase hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-San; Luo, Yonghua; Baker, John O.; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E.; Smith, Steve; Ding, Shi-You

    2010-02-01

    Cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I), a processive exoglucanase secreted by Trichoderma reesei, is one of the key enzyme components in a commercial cellulase mixture currently used for processing biomass to biofuels. CBH I contains a family 7 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), and a highlyglycosylated linker peptide. It has been proposed that the CBH I cellulase initiates the hydrolysis from the reducing end of one cellulose chain and successively cleaves alternate β-1,4-glycosidic bonds to release cellobiose as its principal end product. The role each module of CBH I plays in the processive hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose has yet to be convincingly elucidated. In this report, we use a single-molecule approach that combines optical (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy, or TIRF-M) and non-optical (Atomic Force Microscopy, or AFM) imaging techniques to analyze the molecular motion of CBM tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP), and to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBM and CBH I. The preliminary results have revealed a confined nanometer-scale movement of the TrCBM1-GFP bound to cellulose, and decreases in cellulose crystal size as well as increases in surface roughness during CBH I hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  10. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  11. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca(2+) and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems.

  12. Options for rapid analysis of peptides and proteins, using wide-pore, superficially porous, high-performance liquid chromatography particles with unique bonded-phase ligands.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Robert D; Woodward, Clifford B; Forrer, Kurt; Permar, Bernard J; Chen, Wu

    2008-03-01

    The large size and complexity of many proteins constrains the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography packings that are useful for their separation. Wide-pore, superficially porous, silica-based packings with solid 4.5-microm cores and a 0.25-microm porous outer layer (Poroshell) demonstrate a variety of characteristics that are beneficial for the separation of proteins. A shorter diffusion distance allows separations of large molecules at high linear velocities. This benefit over totally porous particles is clearly shown using separations of a peptide-protein standard. The structure and reduced surface area (4.5 m2/g) of these superficially porous particles simplifies interactions with its surface, resulting in improved peak shapes and resolution. Specialized bonding chemistries for low- and high-pH operation may be used to change band-spacing and achieve atypical separations. These rapid analysis options are demonstrated using protein standards and very high molecular weight glycosylated proteins including intact monoclonal antibodies, IgM, alpha2-macroglobulin, and glycophorin. In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a myoglobin peptide digest, bidentate-C18-bonded superficially porous packings achieve complete runs in 4 min and demonstrate an elution pattern that is unique from that of material bonded with sterically protected C18 ligands.

  13. Force-dependent transition in the T-cell receptor β-subunit allosterically regulates peptide discrimination and pMHC bond lifetime.

    PubMed

    Das, Dibyendu Kumar; Feng, Yinnian; Mallis, Robert J; Li, Xiaolong; Keskin, Derin B; Hussey, Rebecca E; Brady, Sonia K; Wang, Jia-Huai; Wagner, Gerhard; Reinherz, Ellis L; Lang, Matthew J

    2015-02-03

    The αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) on each T lymphocyte mediates exquisite specificity for a particular foreign peptide bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule (pMHC) displayed on the surface of altered cells. This recognition stimulates protection in the mammalian host against intracellular pathogens, including viruses, and involves piconewton forces that accompany pMHC ligation. Physical forces are generated by T-lymphocyte movement during immune surveillance as well as by cytoskeletal rearrangements at the immunological synapse following cessation of cell migration. The mechanistic explanation for how TCRs distinguish between foreign and self-peptides bound to a given MHC molecule is unclear: peptide residues themselves comprise few of the TCR contacts on the pMHC, and pathogen-derived peptides are scant among myriad self-peptides bound to the same MHC class arrayed on infected cells. Using optical tweezers and DNA tether spacer technology that permit piconewton force application and nanometer scale precision, we have determined how bioforces relate to self versus nonself discrimination. Single-molecule analyses involving isolated αβ-heterodimers as well as complete TCR complexes on T lymphocytes reveal that the FG loop in the β-subunit constant domain allosterically controls both the variable domain module's catch bond lifetime and peptide discrimination via force-driven conformational transition. In contrast to integrins, the TCR interrogates its ligand via a strong force-loaded state with release through a weakened, extended state. Our work defines a key element of TCR mechanotransduction, explaining why the FG loop structure evolved for adaptive immunity in αβ but not γδTCRs or immunoglobulins.

  14. Force-dependent transition in the T-cell receptor β-subunit allosterically regulates peptide discrimination and pMHC bond lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dibyendu Kumar; Feng, Yinnian; Mallis, Robert J.; Li, Xiaolong; Keskin, Derin B.; Hussey, Rebecca E.; Brady, Sonia K.; Wang, Jia-Huai; Wagner, Gerhard; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) on each T lymphocyte mediates exquisite specificity for a particular foreign peptide bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule (pMHC) displayed on the surface of altered cells. This recognition stimulates protection in the mammalian host against intracellular pathogens, including viruses, and involves piconewton forces that accompany pMHC ligation. Physical forces are generated by T-lymphocyte movement during immune surveillance as well as by cytoskeletal rearrangements at the immunological synapse following cessation of cell migration. The mechanistic explanation for how TCRs distinguish between foreign and self-peptides bound to a given MHC molecule is unclear: peptide residues themselves comprise few of the TCR contacts on the pMHC, and pathogen-derived peptides are scant among myriad self-peptides bound to the same MHC class arrayed on infected cells. Using optical tweezers and DNA tether spacer technology that permit piconewton force application and nanometer scale precision, we have determined how bioforces relate to self versus nonself discrimination. Single-molecule analyses involving isolated αβ-heterodimers as well as complete TCR complexes on T lymphocytes reveal that the FG loop in the β-subunit constant domain allosterically controls both the variable domain module’s catch bond lifetime and peptide discrimination via force-driven conformational transition. In contrast to integrins, the TCR interrogates its ligand via a strong force-loaded state with release through a weakened, extended state. Our work defines a key element of TCR mechanotransduction, explaining why the FG loop structure evolved for adaptive immunity in αβ but not γδTCRs or immunoglobulins. PMID:25605925

  15. Identification and cleavage of breakable single bonds by selective oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Zevely, J.; Mayo, F.R.

    1981-11-12

    The objective of this project is to determine the structure of bituminous coal by determining the proportions of the various kinds of connecting bonds and how they can best be broken. Results obtained during the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) extractions and fractionations of coal products which covers pyridine extraction, fractionation of TIPS fractions, EDA extraction of Illinois No. 6 coal and swelling ratios of coal samples; (2) experiments on breakable single bonds which cover reactions of ethylenediamine and model ethers, reaction of pyridine-extracted coal with Me/sub 3/SiI, Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, reaction to diphenylmethane with 15% HNO/sub 3/, cleavage of TIPS with ZnI/sub 2/, and cleavage of black acids; and (3) oxygen oxidation No. 18. Some of the highlights of these studies are: (1) some model ethers are not cleaved by EDA under extraction conditions; (2) oxidation of diaryl ketones with m-chloroperbenzoic acid and saponification of the resulting esters in promising for identifying ketones, (3) treatment of a black acid with pyridine hydroiodide reduced the acid's molecular weight and increased its solubility in pyridine, but treatment with ZnI/sub 2/ was ineffective; (4) in comparison with 0.1 M K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/, 0.01 M persulfate is relatively ineffective in accelerating oxidation of BnNH/sub 2/-extracted coal in water suspension. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. tRNA-dependent peptide bond formation by the transferase PacB in biosynthesis of the pacidamycin group of pentapeptidyl nucleoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Ntai, Ioanna; Kelleher, Neil L; Walsh, Christopher T

    2011-07-26

    Pacidamycins are a family of uridyl tetra/pentapeptide antibiotics with antipseudomonal activities through inhibition of the translocase MraY in bacterial cell wall assembly. The biosynthetic gene cluster for pacidamycins has recently been identified through genome mining of the producer Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, and the highly dissociated nonribosomal peptide assembly line for the uridyl tetrapeptide scaffold of pacidamycin has been characterized. In this work a hypothetical protein PacB, conserved in known uridyl peptide antibiotics gene clusters, has been characterized by both genetic deletion and enzymatic analysis of the purified protein. PacB catalyzes the transfer of the alanyl residue from alanyl-tRNA to the N terminus of the tetrapeptide intermediate yielding a pentapeptide on the thio-templated nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly line protein PacH. PacB thus represents a new group of tRNA-dependent peptide bond-forming enzymes in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in addition to the recently identified cyclodipeptide synthases. The characterization of PacB completes the assembly line reconstitution of pacidamycin pentapeptide antibiotic scaffolds, bridging the primary and secondary metabolic pathways by hijacking an aminoacyl-tRNA to the antibiotic biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Ab initio computational study of reaction mechanism of peptide bond formation on HF/6-31G(d,p) level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, P.; Lalita, M. N. T.; Cahyono, B.; Laksitorini, M. D.; Hildayani, S. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Peptide plays an important role in modulation of various cell functions. Therefore, formation reaction of the peptide is important for chemical reactions. One way to probe the reaction of peptide synthesis is a computational method. The purpose of this research is to determine the reaction mechanism for peptide bond formation on Ac-PV-NH2 and Ac-VP-NH2 synthesis from amino acid proline and valine by ab initio computational approach. The calculations were carried out by theory and basis set HF/6-31G(d,p) for four mechanisms (path 1 to 4) that proposed in this research. The results show that the highest of the rate determining step between reactant and transition state (TS) for path 1, 2, 3, and 4 are 163.06 kJ.mol-1, 1868 kJ.mol-1, 5685 kJ.mol-1, and 1837 kJ.mol-1. The calculation shows that the most preferred reaction of Ac-PV-NH2 and Ac-VP-NH2 synthesis from amino acid proline and valine are on the path 1 (initiated with the termination of H+ in proline amino acid) that produce Ac-PV-NH2.

  18. The influenza fusion peptide promotes lipid polar head intrusion through hydrogen bonding with phosphates and N-terminal membrane insertion depth.

    PubMed

    Légaré, Sébastien; Lagüe, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Influenza infection requires fusion between the virus envelope and a host cell endosomal membrane. The influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP) is essential to viral membrane fusion. It was recently proposed that FPs would fuse membranes by increasing lipid tail protrusion, a membrane fusion transition state. The details of how FPs induce lipid tail protrusion, however, remain to be elucidated. To decipher the molecular mechanism by which FPs promote lipid tail protrusion, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type (WT) FP, fusogenic mutant F9A, and nonfusogenic mutant W14A in model bilayers. This article presents the peptide-lipid interaction responsible for lipid tail protrusion and a related lipid perturbation, polar head intrusion, where polar heads are sunk under the membrane surface. The backbone amides from the four N-terminal peptide residues, deeply inserted in the membrane, promoted both perturbations through H bonding with lipid phosphates. Polar head intrusion correlated with peptides N-terminal insertion depth and activity: the N-termini of WT and F9A were inserted deeper into the membrane than nonfusogenic W14A. Based on these results, we propose that FP-induced polar head intrusion would complement lipid tail protrusion in catalyzing membrane fusion by reducing repulsions between juxtaposed membranes headgroups. The presented model provides a framework for further research on membrane fusion and influenza antivirals.

  19. Processive degradation of unstructured protein by Escherichia coli Lon occurs via the slow, sequential delivery of multiple scissile sites followed by rapid and synchronized peptide bond cleavage events.

    PubMed

    Mikita, Natalie; Cheng, Iteen; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Huang, Jonathan; Lee, Irene

    2013-08-20

    Processive protein degradation is a common feature found in ATP-dependent proteases. This study utilized a physiological substrate of Escherichia coli Lon protease known as the lambda N protein (λN) to initiate the first kinetic analysis of the proteolytic mechanism of this enzyme. To this end, experiments were designed to determine the timing of three selected scissile sites in λN approaching the proteolytic site of ELon and their subsequent cleavages to gain insight into the mechanism by which ATP-dependent proteases attain processivity in protein degradation. The kinetic profile of peptide bond cleavage at different regions of λN was first detected by the iTRAQ/mass spectrometry technique. Fluorogenic λN constructs were then generated as reporter substrates for transient kinetic characterization of the ATP- versus AMPPNP-dependent peptide bond cleavage and the delivery of the scissile sites near the amino- versus carboxyl-terminal of the λN protein to the proteolytic site of ELon. Collectively, our results support a mechanism by which the cleavage of multiple peptide bonds awaits the "almost complete" delivery of all the scissile sites in λN to the proteolytic site in an ATP-dependent manner. Comparing the time courses of delivery to the active site of the selected scissile sites further implicates the existence of a preferred directionality in the final stage of substrate delivery, which begins at the carboxyl-terminal. The subsequent cleavage of the scissile sites in λN, however, appears to lack a specific directionality and occurs at a much faster rate than the substrate delivery step.

  20. Selective cleavage of an azaGly peptide bond by copper(II). Long-range effect of histidine residue.

    PubMed

    Mhidia, Reda; Melnyk, Oleg

    2010-03-01

    Several reports have highlighted the interest of replacing Gly, a frequent amino acid within bioactive peptides, by azaGly (Agly) to improve their stability, activity or for the design of prodrugs. Because metal catalysis is increasingly used for tailoring peptide molecules, we have studied the stability of Agly peptides in the presence of metal ions. In this study, we show that Cu(II), unlike other metal ions such as Fe(II), Fe(III), Pd(II), or Pt(II), induces the cleavage of Agly peptides at room temperature and pH 7.3. The cleavage occurred in the absence of an anchoring His residue within the peptide but it was accelerated when this amino acid was present in the sequence. The influence of His residue on the cleavage rate was minimal when His and Agly were adjacent, whereas large effects were observed for distant His residues. The reaction between Cu(II) and Agly peptides induced the formation of Cu(I) species, which could be detected using bicinchoninic acid as a probe. The nature of products formed in this reaction allowed suggesting a mechanism for the Cu(II)-induced cleavage of Agly peptides.

  1. The carbohydrate–polypeptide linkages, the amino acid sequences of the peptides adjacent to some of these bonds, and the composition and size of the carbohydrate units of α1-acid glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Satake, M.; Okuyama, T.; Ishihara, K.; Schmid, K.

    1965-01-01

    1. The glycopeptides derived from a proteolytic digest of sialic acid-free α1-acid glycoprotein were separated on a DEAE-cellulose column into five main fractions. 2. The average molecular weight of these glycopeptides was 2400, except for one fraction whose molecular weight was 3100. The average molecular weight of the sialic acid-free carbohydrate units was found to be 2200. From these data and the carbohydrate content of the native protein and the assumed molecular weight of 44000, it was concluded that α1-acid glycoprotein probably possesses five carbohydrate units. The sialic acid-containing carbohydrate units of this glycoprotein have an average molecular weight of 3000, except for one unit the molecular weight of which is significantly higher. 3. The N-, non-N- and C-terminal amino acids of the main glycopeptides were determined. Aspartic acid and threonine occur in most peptides. Alanine, glycine, proline, serine and lysine were present in varying amounts. Traces of other amino acids were also found. 4. The amino acid sequence of three main glycopeptides was established and indicated that these glycopeptides are located at different positions of the polypeptide chain of the glycoprotein. These sequences are: Asp(NH2)-Pro-Lys; Thr-Asp(NH2)-Ala; Asp(NH2)-Gly-Thr. 5. From the results of a series of chemical reactions (periodate oxidation, hydrazinolysis, dinitrophenylation, mild acid hydrolysis) it was shown that the hydroxyl group of the N-terminal threonine and the ∈-amino group of lysine are free and that the β-carboxyl group of aspartic acid is present as amide. It was concluded that this amide group is involved in the carbohydrate–polypeptide linkages of at least four carbohydrate units of α1-acid glycoprotein. 6. The carbohydrate composition of the sialic acid-free glycopeptides was determined in terms of moles of neutral hexoses, glucosamine and fucose/mole. 7. Fucose, at least to the larger part, is not linked to sialic acid, and its

  2. Determination of the optimal position of adjacent proton-donor centers for the activation or inhibition of peptide bond formation--a computational model study.

    PubMed

    Rangelov, Miroslav A; Petrova, Galina P; Yomtova, Vihra M; Vayssilov, Georgi N

    2011-09-01

    The study reports a computational analysis of the influence of proton donor group adjacent to the reaction center during ester ammonolysis of an acylated diol as a model reaction for peptide bond formation. This analysis was performed using catalytic maps constructed after a detailed scanning of the available space around the reaction centers in different transition states, a water molecule acting as a typical proton donor. The calculations suggest that an adjacent proton donor center can reduce the activation barrier of the rate determining transition states by up to 7.2 kcal/mol, while no inhibition of the reaction can be achieved by such a group.

  3. A conserved secondary structural motif in 23S rRNA defines the site of interaction of amicetin, a universal inhibitor of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Leviev, I G; Rodriguez-Fonseca, C; Phan, H; Garrett, R A; Heilek, G; Noller, H F; Mankin, A S

    1994-01-01

    The binding site and probable site of action have been determined for the universal antibiotic amicetin which inhibits peptide bond formation. Evidence from in vivo mutants, site-directed mutations and chemical footprinting all implicate a highly conserved motif in the secondary structure of the 23S-like rRNA close to the central circle of domain V. We infer that this motif lies at, or close to, the catalytic site in the peptidyl transfer centre. The binding site of amicetin is the first of a group of functionally related hexose-cytosine inhibitors to be localized on the ribosome. Images PMID:8157007

  4. Selective gas-phase cleavage at the peptide bond C-terminal to aspartic acid in fixed-charge derivatives of Asp-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Gu, C; Tsaprailis, G; Breci, L; Wysocki, V H

    2000-12-01

    This study focuses on the molecular level interpretation of the selective gas-phase cleavage at aspartic acid residues (Asp) in protonated peptides. A phi3P+CH2C(=O)group (phi = 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) is attached to the N-terminal nitrogen of the selected peptides LDIFSDF and LDIFSDFR, via solid-phase synthesis, to "mimic" the tightly held charge of a protonated arginine (Arg) residue. Collision-induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap instrument and surface-induced dissociation in a dual quadrupole instrument were performed for electrospray-generated ions of the fixed-charge peptide derivatives. Selective cleavages at Asp-Xxx are observed for those ions with charge provided only by the fixed charge or for those with a fixed charge and one Arg plus one added proton. This supports a previously proposed mechanism which suggests that the cleavages at Asp-Xxx, initiated by the acidic hydrogen of the Asp residue, become significant when ionizing protons are strongly bound by Arg in the protonated peptides. It is clear that the fixed charge is indeed serving as a "mimic" of protonated Arg and that a protonated Arg side chain is not required to interact with the Asp to induce cleavage at Asp-Xxx. When the number of protons exceeds the number of Arg in a peptide containing Arg and Asp, nonselective cleavages occur. The fragmentation efficiency of the peptides is consistent with the idea that these nonselective cleavages are promoted by a mobile proton. The peptide with a fixed charge and one added proton, [phi3P+CH2C(=O)-LDIFSDF + H]2+, fragments much more efficiently than the corresponding peptide with a fixed charge, an Arg and one added proton, [phi3P+CH2C(=O)-LDIFSDFR + H]2+; both of these fragment more efficiently than the peptide with a fixed charge and no added proton, phi3P+CH2C(=O)-LDIFSDF. MS/MS/MS (i.e., MS3) experimental results for bn ions formed at Asp-Xxx from phi3P+CH2C(=O)-LDIFSDF and its H/D exchange derivative, phi3P+CH2C(=O)-LDIFSDF-d11, are

  5. Identification and cleavage of breakable single bonds by selective oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Quarterly report No. 13, October 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Zevely, J.; Mayo, F.R.

    1982-02-26

    Bituminous coal is assumed to consist mostly of aggregates of condensed aromatic and aliphatic rings which are connected and made soluble by crosslinks containing single bonds. The objective of this project is to determine the structure of bituminous coal with emphasis on the crosslinks and breakable single bonds. During this past quarter the following studies were conducted on Illinois No. 6 coal: extraction with benzylamine (BnH/sub 2/), ethanolamine, ethylenediamine (EDA), pyridine; saponification of some toluene-insoluble, pyridine-soluble (TIPS) fraction; cleavages by amines; oxidation with aqueous NaOCl of butylated and methylated pyridine-extracted coal; decarboxylation on black acids. The investigations dealt with two kinds of connecting links in coal, which are designated as ester and ether groups. The ester groups are cleaved by strongly basic amines (to give amides) at 25/sup 0/C and by alcoholic KOH at 100/sup 0/C (to give salts and alcohols or phenols). Both esters and ethers are cleaved by HI or ZnCL/sub 2/ in pyridine at or below 50/sup 0/C. The ethers are also cleaved by BnNH/sub 2/, EDA, and EDA/DMSO to nearly the same extent on several days heating at 100/sup 0/C. Although a cleavage of model ethers by amines were not established, the parallel easy reactions of HI and ZnCl/sub 2/ and the slow 100/sup 0/C reactions of amines on coal lead the authors to designate the non-ester cleavages as ether cleavages. (ATT)

  6. Identification and cleavage of breakable single bonds by selective oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Quarterly report No. 12, June 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Zevely, J.; Mayo, F.R.

    1981-11-12

    We assume that bituminous coal consists mostly of an aggregate of condensed aromatic and aliphatic rings, connected and made insoluble (but swellable) by crosslinks containing single bonds. The objective of this project is to determine the proportions of the various kinds of connecting links and how they can best be broken - in other words, to determine the structure of bituminous coal, with emphasis on the crosslinks and breakable single bonds. The program began with an investigation of the structure of the TIPS fraction of Illinois No. 6 coal, that is, the two-thirds of the 16% extracted by pyridine that is toluene-insoluble, pyridine-soluble, mostly through changes in molecular weight during cleavage reactions in pyridine solution. The most promising of these cleavage reactions are now being applied to the 84% of coal that is insoluble in pyridine and presents the main problem in coal liquefaction, following the progress of the reactions by formation of soluble material and swelling of the insoluble portion. We found that benzylamine (BnNH/sub 2/) would extract an additional 14% (of the original weight of coal) of material from pyridine-extracted coal, and later that an ethylenediamine/dimethyl sulfoxide (EDA/DMSO) mixture would dissolve another 21% of the original coal. The BnNH/sub 2/ extract is soluble in pyridine. Our best present guess is that the BnNH/sub 2/ extract cleaves most of the ester groups in coal and that EDA/DMSO cleaves the remaining ester and most of the ether groups.

  7. A theoretical model investigation of peptide bond formation involving two water molecules in ribosome supports the two-step and eight membered ring mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2015-04-01

    The ribosome is the macromolecular machine that catalyzes protein synthesis. The kinetic isotope effect analysis reported by Strobel group supports the two-step mechanism. However, the destination of the proton originating from the nucleophilic amine is uncertain. A computational simulation of different mechanisms including water molecules is carried out using the same reaction model and theoretical level. Formation the tetrahedral intermediate with proton transfer from nucleophilic nitrogen, is the rate-limiting step when two water molecules participate in peptide bond formation. The first water molecule forming hydrogen bonds with O9‧ and H15‧ in the A site can decrease the reaction barriers. Combined with results of the solvent isotope effects analysis, we conclude that the three-proton transfer mechanism in which water molecule mediate the proton shuttle between amino and carbon oxygen in rate-limiting step is the favorable mechanism. Our results will shield light on a better understand the reaction mechanism of ribosome.

  8. Prediction of protein cleavage sites by the barley cysteine endoproteases EP-A and EP-B based on the kinetics of synthetic peptide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Davy, A; SŁrensen, M B; Svendsen, I; Cameron-Mills, V; Simpson, D J

    2000-01-01

    Hordeins, the natural substrates of barley (Hordeum vulgare) cysteine endoproteases (EPs), were isolated as protein bodies and degraded by purified EP-B from green barley malt. Cleavage specificity was determined by synthesizing internally quenched, fluorogenic tetrapeptide substrates of the general formula 2-aminobenzoyl-P(2)-P(1)-P(1)'-P(2)' 1-tyrosine(NO(2))-aspartate. The barley EPs preferred neutral amino acids with large aliphatic and nonpolar (leucine, valine, isoleucine, and methionine) or aromatic (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) side chains at P(2), and showed less specificity at P(1), although asparagine, aspartate, valine, and isoleucine were particularly unfavorable. Peptides with proline at P(1) or P(1)' were extremely poor substrates. Cleavage sites with EP-A and EP-B preferred substrate sequences are found in hordeins, their natural substrates. The substrate specificity of EP-B with synthetic peptides was used successfully to predict the cleavage sites in the C-terminal extension of barley beta-amylase. When all of the primary cleavage sites in C hordein, which occur mainly in the N- and C-terminal domains, were removed by site-directed mutagenesis, the resulting protein was degraded 112 times more slowly than wild-type C hordein. We suggest that removal of the C hordein terminal domains is necessary for unfolding of the beta-reverse turn helix of the central repeat domain, which then becomes more susceptible to proteolytic attack by EP-B.

  9. Centipede venom peptide SsmTX-I with two intramolecular disulfide bonds shows analgesic activities in animal models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Meifeng; Wu, Chunyun; Zou, Zhirong; Tang, Jing; Yang, Xinwang

    2017-05-01

    Pain is a major symptom of many diseases and results in enormous pressures on human body or society. Currently, clinically used analgesic drugs, including opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have adverse reactions, and thus, the development of new types of analgesic drug candidates is urgently needed. Animal venom peptides have proven to have potential as new types of analgesic medicine. In this research, we describe the isolation and characterization of an analgesic peptide from the crude venom of centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. The amino acid sequence of this peptide was identical with SsmTX-I that was previously reported as a specific Kv2.1 ion channel blocker. Our results revealed that SsmTX-I was produced by posttranslational processing of a 73-residue prepropeptide. The intramolecular disulfide bridge motifs of SsmTX-I was Cys1-Cys3 and Cys2-Cys4. Functional assay revealed that SsmTX-I showed potential analgesic activities in formalin-induced paw licking, thermal pain, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing mice models. Our research provides the first report of cDNA sequences, disulfide motif, successful synthesis, and analgesic potential of SsmTX-I for the development of pain-killing drugs. It indicates that centipede peptide toxins could be a treasure trove for the search of novel analgesic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Importance of tRNA interactions with 23S rRNA for peptide bond formation on the ribosome: studies with substrate analogs.

    PubMed

    Beringer, Malte; Rodnina, Marina V

    2007-07-01

    The major enzymatic activity of the ribosome is the catalysis of peptide bond formation. The active site -- the peptidyl transferase center -- is composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and interactions between rRNA and the reactants, peptidyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA, are crucial for the reaction to proceed rapidly and efficiently. Here, we describe the influence of rRNA interactions with cytidine residues in A-site substrate analogs (C-puromycin or CC-puromycin), mimicking C74 and C75 of tRNA on the reaction. Base-pairing of C75 with G2553 of 23S rRNA accelerates peptide bond formation, presumably by stabilizing the peptidyl transferase center in its productive conformation. When C74 is also present in the substrate analog, the reaction is slowed down considerably, indicating a slow step in substrate binding to the active site, which limits the reaction rate. The tRNA-rRNA interactions lead to a robust reaction that is insensitive to pH changes or base substitutions in 23S rRNA at the active site of the ribosome.

  11. Helices with additional H-bonds: crystallographic conformations of α,γ-hybrid peptides helices composed of β-hydroxy γ-amino acids (statines).

    PubMed

    Malik, Ankita; Kumar, Mothukuri Ganesh; Bandyopadhyay, Anupam; Gopi, Hosahudya N

    2017-01-01

    β-Hydroxy-γ-amino acids (Statines) are a class of naturally occurring non-ribosomal amino acids frequently found in many peptide natural products. Peptidomimetics constituted with statines have been used as inhibitors for various aspartic acid proteases. In contrast to the synthetic γ-amino acids, very little is known about the folding behavior of these naturally occurring β-hydroxy γ-amino acids. To understand the folding behavior of statines, three α,γ-hybrid peptides P1 (Ac-Aib-γPhe-Aib-(R, S)Phesta-Aib-γPhe-Aib-CONH2 ), P2 (Ac-Aib-γPhe-Aib-(S, S)Phesta-Aib-γPhe-Aib-CONH2 ), and P3 (Ac-Aib-γPhe-Aib-(S, S)Phesta-Aib-(S, S)Phesta-Aib-CONH2 ) were synthesized on solid phase and their helical conformations in single crystals were studied. Results suggest that both syn and anti diastereoisomers of statines can be accommodated into the helix without deviating overall helical conformation of α,γ-hybrid peptides. In comparison with syn diastereoisomer, the anti diastereoisomer was found to be directly involved in the intramolecular H-bonding with the backbone carbonyl groups (i to i + 3) similar to the backbone amide NHs in the helix.

  12. Integrating the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-coded α-amino acids modified at the peptide bond into the NCAD database

    PubMed Central

    Revilla-López, Guillem; Rodríguez-Ropero, Francisco; Curcó, David; Torras, Juan; Calaza, M. Isabel; Zanuy, David; Jiménez, Ana I.; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Alemán, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we reported a database (NCAD, Non-Coded Amino acids Database; http://recerca.upc.edu/imem/index.htm) that was built to compile information about the intrinsic conformational preferences of non-proteinogenic residues determined by quantum mechanical calculations, as well as bibliographic information about their synthesis, physical and spectroscopic characterization, the experimentally-established conformational propensities, and applications (J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 7413). The database initially contained the information available for α-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids. In this work, we extend NCAD to three families of compounds, which can be used to engineer peptides and proteins incorporating modifications at the –NHCO– peptide bond. Such families are: N-substituted α-amino acids, thio-α-amino acids, and diamines and diacids used to build retropeptides. The conformational preferences of these compounds have been analyzed and described based on the information captured in the database. In addition, we provide an example of the utility of the database and of the compounds it compiles in protein and peptide engineering. Specifically, the symmetry of a sequence engineered to stabilize the 310-helix with respect to the α-helix has been broken without perturbing significantly the secondary structure through targeted replacements using the information contained in the database. PMID:21491493

  13. Hydrogen bonds between short polar side chains and peptide backbone: prevalence in proteins and effects on helix-forming propensities.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, M; Qian, H; Zhou, H X

    1999-03-01

    A survey of 322 proteins showed that the short polar (SP) side chains of four residues, Thr, Ser, Asp, and Asn, have a very strong tendency to form hydrogen bonds with neighboring backbone amides. Specifically, 32% of Thr, 29% of Ser, 26% of Asp, and 19% of Asn engage in such hydrogen bonds. When an SP residue caps the N terminal of a helix, the contribution to helix stability by a hydrogen bond with the amide of the N3 or N2 residue is well established. When an SP residue is in the middle of a helix, the side chain is unlikely to form hydrogen bonds with neighboring backbone amides for steric and geometric reasons. In essence the SP side chain competes with the backbone carbonyl for the same hydrogen-bonding partner (i.e., the backbone amide) and thus SP residues tend to break backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonds. The proposition that this is the origin for the low propensities of SP residues in the middle of alpha helices (relative to those of nonpolar residues) was tested. The combined effects of restricting side-chain rotamer conformations (documented by Creamer and Rose, Proc Acad Sci USA, 1992;89:5937-5941; Proteins, 1994;19:85-97) and excluding side- chain to backbone hydrogen bonds by the helix were quantitatively analyzed. These were found to correlate strongly with four experimentally determined scales of helix-forming propensities. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, which are comparable to those found for nonpolar residues (for which only the loss of side-chain conformational entropy needs to be considered).

  14. Quantum chemical studies of a model for peptide bond formation. 3. Role of magnesium cation in formation of amide and water from ammonia and glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oie, T.; Loew, G. H.; Burt, S. K.; MacElroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The SN2 reaction between glycine and ammonia molecules with magnesium cation Mg2+ as a catalyst has been studied as a model reaction for Mg(2+)-catalyzed peptide bond formation using the ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital method. As in previous studies of the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed reactions between glycine and ammonia, two reaction mechanisms have been examined, i.e., a two-step and a concerted reaction. The stationary points of each reaction including intermediate and transition states have been identified and free energies calculated for all geometry-optimized reaction species to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of each reaction. Substantial decreases in free energies of activation were found for both reaction mechanisms in the Mg(2+)-catalyzed amide bond formation compared with those in the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed amide bond formation. The catalytic effect of the Mg2+ cation is to stabilize both the transition states and intermediate, and it is attributed to the neutralization of the developing negative charge on the electrophile and formation of a conformationally flexible nonplanar five-membered chelate ring structure.

  15. Turn-on fluorescence detection of cyanide in water: activation of latent fluorophores through remote hydrogen bonds that mimic peptide beta-turn motif.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyong; Lee, Dongwhan

    2009-11-11

    A molecular probe was prepared that selectively responds to cyanide in aqueous solutions by fluorescence enhancement. Using the peptide beta-turn as a structural template, we designed a series of diphenylacetylene derivatives in which the pi-conjugated backbone was functionalized with an aldehyde group to render the molecule nonfluorescent. The N-H...O hydrogen bond across the 2,2'-functionalized diphenylacetylene turn motif activates the carbonyl group toward nucleophilic attack, and chemical transformation of this internal quencher site by reaction with CN(-) elicits a rapid (k = 72 M(-1) s(-1)) enhancement in the emission at lambda(max) = 375 nm. Tethering of an ammonium group to the hydrogen bond donor fragment significantly increased both the response kinetics and the intensity of the fluorescence signal. In addition to providing electrostatic attraction toward the CN(-) ion, this positively charged R-NH(3)(+) fragment can engage in a secondary hydrogen bond to facilitate the formation of the cyanohydrin adduct responsible for the signaling event. The structurally optimized molecular probe 3 responds exclusively to microM-level cyanide in neutral aqueous solutions, with no interference from other common anions including F(-) and AcO(-).

  16. Quantum chemical studies of a model for peptide bond formation. 3. Role of magnesium cation in formation of amide and water from ammonia and glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oie, T.; Loew, G. H.; Burt, S. K.; MacElroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The SN2 reaction between glycine and ammonia molecules with magnesium cation Mg2+ as a catalyst has been studied as a model reaction for Mg(2+)-catalyzed peptide bond formation using the ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital method. As in previous studies of the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed reactions between glycine and ammonia, two reaction mechanisms have been examined, i.e., a two-step and a concerted reaction. The stationary points of each reaction including intermediate and transition states have been identified and free energies calculated for all geometry-optimized reaction species to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of each reaction. Substantial decreases in free energies of activation were found for both reaction mechanisms in the Mg(2+)-catalyzed amide bond formation compared with those in the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed amide bond formation. The catalytic effect of the Mg2+ cation is to stabilize both the transition states and intermediate, and it is attributed to the neutralization of the developing negative charge on the electrophile and formation of a conformationally flexible nonplanar five-membered chelate ring structure.

  17. Energy relaxation of the amide-I mode in hydrogen-bonded peptide units: a route to conformational change.

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2008-02-14

    A one-site Davydov model involving a C[Double Bond]O group engaged in a hydrogen bond is used to study the amide-I relaxation due to Fermi resonances with a bath of intramolecular normal modes. In the amide-I ground state, the hydrogen bond behaves as a harmonic oscillator whose eigenstates are phonon number states. By contrast, in the amide-I first excited state, the hydrogen bond experiences a linear distortion so that the eigenstates are superimpositions of number states. By assuming the hydrogen bond in thermal equilibrium at biological temperature, it is shown that the amide-I excitation favors the population of these excited states and the occurrence of coherences. Due to the interaction with the bath, the vibron decays according to an exponential or a biexponential law depending on whether the Fermi resonance is wide or narrow. Therefore, each excited state relaxes over a set of number states according to specific pathways. The consequence is twofold. First, the relaxation leads to a redistribution of the number state population which differs from the initial Boltzmann distribution. Then, it allows for coherence transfers so that, although the vibron has disappeared, the hydrogen keeps the memory of its initial distortion and it develops free oscillations.

  18. Inert and oxidative subcritical water hydrolysis of insoluble egg yolk granular protein, functional properties, and comparison to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-13

    The use of enzymes to recover soluble peptides with functional properties from insoluble proteins could prove to be very expensive, implying high reaction times and low yields. In this study, the insoluble granular protein, previously delipidated, was hydrolyzed using enzymes (trypsin) as a comparison to the proposed alternative method: subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) using both nitrogen and oxygen streams. The result of the hydrolysis was characterized in terms of the yield and peptide size distribution as well as different functional properties. The SWH of the delipidated granules resulted in a higher recovery yield than that obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in half of the time. The foaming capacity of the peptides obtained by SWH was higher than that obtained by trypsin hydrolysis, although the foam stability was lower. Slight differences were detected between these peptides in terms of their emulsifying properties.

  19. Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources. PMID:25774105

  20. Impact of the environmental conditions and substrate pre-treatment on whey protein hydrolysis: A review.

    PubMed

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-01-22

    Proteins in solution are subject to myriad forces stemming from interactions with each other as well as with the solvent media. The role of the environmental conditions, namely pH, temperature, ionic strength remains under-estimated yet it impacts protein conformations and consequently its interaction with, and susceptibility to, the enzyme. Enzymes, being proteins are also amenable to the environmental conditions because they are either activated or denatured depending on the choice of the conditions. Furthermore, enzyme specificity is restricted to a narrow regime of optimal conditions while opportunities outside the optimum conditions remain untapped. In addition, the composition of protein substrate (whether mixed or single purified) have been underestimated in previous studies. In addition, protein pre-treatment methods like heat denaturation prior to hydrolysis is a complex phenomenon whose progression is influenced by the environmental conditions including the presence or absence of sugars like lactose, ionic strength, purity of the protein, and the molecular structure of the mixed proteins particularly presence of free thiol groups. In this review, we revisit protein hydrolysis with a focus on the impact of the hydrolysis environment and show that preference of peptide bonds and/or one protein over another during hydrolysis is driven by the environmental conditions. Likewise, heat-denaturing is a process which is dependent on not only the environment but the presence or absence of other proteins.

  1. Hydrolysis of the amide bond in histidine- and methionine-containing dipeptides promoted by pyrazine and pyridazine palladium(II)-aqua dimers: Comparative study with platinum(II) analogues.

    PubMed

    Živković, Marija D; Rajković, Snežana; Glišić, Biljana Đ; Drašković, Nenad S; Djuran, Miloš I

    2017-06-01

    Two dinuclear palladium(II) complexes, [{Pd(en)Cl}2(μ-pz)](NO3)2 and [{Pd(en)Cl}2(μ-pydz)](NO3)2, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental microanalysis and spectroscopic ((1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and UV-vis) techniques (en is ethylenediamine; pz is pyrazine and pydz is pyridazine). The square planar geometry of palladium(II) metal centers in these complexes has been predicted by DFT calculations. The chlorido complexes were converted into the corresponding aqua complexes, [{Pd(en)(H2O)}2(μ-pz)](4+) and [{Pd(en)(H2O)}2(μ-pydz)](4+), and their reactions with N-acetylated l-histidylglycine (Ac-l-His-Gly) and l-methionylglycine (Ac-l-Met-Gly) were studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The palladium(II)-aqua complexes and dipeptides were reacted in 1:1 M ratio, and all reactions performed in the pH range 2.0hydrolysis of the amide bonds involving the carboxylic group of both histidine and methionine amino acids occurs. The catalytic activities of the palladium(II)-aqua complexes were compared with those previously reported in the literature for the analogues platinum(II)-aqua complexes, [{Pt(en)(H2O)}2(μ-pz)](4+) and [{Pt(en)(H2O)}2(μ-pydz)](4+). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel immunodominant peptide presentation strategy: a featured HLA-A*2402-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope stabilized by intrachain hydrogen bonds from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Peng; Gao, Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Xie, Jing; Vavricka, Christopher J; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Gao, George F

    2010-11-01

    Antigenic peptides recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC; or human leukocyte antigen [HLA] in humans) molecules, and the peptide selection and presentation strategy of the host has been studied to guide our understanding of cellular immunity and vaccine development. Here, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein-derived CTL epitope, N1 (QFKDNVILL), restricted by HLA-A*2402 was identified by a series of in vitro studies, including a computer-assisted algorithm for prediction, stabilization of the peptide by co-refolding with HLA-A*2402 heavy chain and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)m), and T2-A24 cell binding. Consequently, the antigenicity of the peptide was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), proliferation assays, and HLA-peptide complex tetramer staining using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors who had recovered from SARS donors. Furthermore, the crystal structure of HLA-A*2402 complexed with peptide N1 was determined, and the featured peptide was characterized with two unexpected intrachain hydrogen bonds which augment the central residues to bulge out of the binding groove. This may contribute to the T-cell receptor (TCR) interaction, showing a host immunodominant peptide presentation strategy. Meanwhile, a rapid and efficient strategy is presented for the determination of naturally presented CTL epitopes in the context of given HLA alleles of interest from long immunogenic overlapping peptides.

  3. Ab initio QM/MM free energy simulations of peptide bond formation in the ribosome support an eight-membered ring reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, John Z H; Xiang, Yun

    2012-10-03

    Ab initio QM/MM free-energy simulations were carried out to study the peptide bond formation reaction in the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. The QM part of the reaction was treated by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, while the MM part including the solvent and RNA environment was described by molecular force field. The calculated free-energy surfaces for the two popular reaction mechanisms, the six- and eight-membered ring reactions, exhibited large energetic differences which favor the eight-membered reaction mechanism. The simulated quasi-transition state structures clearly indicated a "late" feature consistent with previous theoretical studies. Also the important functional role played by water molecules in the active site of the ribosome and its implication in ribozymic catalysis was discussed in detail.

  4. The templation effect as a driving force for the self-assembly of hydrogen-bonded peptidic capsules in competitive media.

    PubMed

    Grajda, M; Lewińska, M J; Szumna, A

    2017-09-01

    Peptide-based cavitands (resorcin[4]arenes substituted with histidine and glutamine hydrazides) exist as monomeric species in polar solvents (DMSO and methanol). Upon complexation of fullerenes, the cavitands wrap around the hydrophobic guests forming dimeric capsular shells (as evidenced by DOSY). The self-assembly of the cavitands is based on the formation of beta-sheet-like binding motifs around the hydrophobic core. In a polar environment, these hydrogen bonded structures are kinetically stable and highly ordered as manifested by a 100-fold increase of intensity of circular dichroism bands, as well as a separate set of signals and substantial differences in chemical shifts in NMR spectra. This behavior resembles a protein folding process at the molten globule stage with non-specific hydrophobic interactions creating a protective and favourable local environment for the formation of secondary structures of proteins.

  5. Characterization of tRNA-dependent peptide bond formation by MurM in the synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adrian J; Gilbey, Andrea M; Blewett, Anne M; De Pascale, Gianfranco; El Zoeiby, Ahmed; Levesque, Roger C; Catherwood, Anita C; Tomasz, Alexander; Bugg, Timothy D H; Roper, David I; Dowson, Christopher G

    2008-03-07

    MurM is an aminoacyl ligase that adds l-serine or l-alanine as the first amino acid of a dipeptide branch to the stem peptide lysine of the pneumococcal peptidoglycan. MurM activity is essential for clinical pneumococcal penicillin resistance. Analysis of peptidoglycan from the highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strain 159 revealed that in vivo and in vitro, in the presence of the appropriate acyl-tRNA, MurM(159) alanylated the peptidoglycan epsilon-amino group of the stem peptide lysine in preference to its serylation. However, in contrast, identical analyses of the penicillin-susceptible strain Pn16 revealed that MurM(Pn16) activity supported serylation more than alanylation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, both MurM(Pn16) acylation activities were far lower than the alanylation activity of MurM(159). The resulting differing stem peptide structures of 159 and Pn16 were caused by the profoundly greater catalytic efficiency of MurM(159) compared with MurM(Pn16) bought about by sequence variation between these enzymes and, to a lesser extent, differences in the in vivo tRNA(Ala):tRNA(Ser) ratio in 159 and Pn16. Kinetic analysis revealed that MurM(159) acted during the lipid-linked stages of peptidoglycan synthesis, that the d-alanyl-d-alanine of the stem peptide and the lipid II N-acetylglucosaminyl group were not essential for substrate recognition, that epsilon-carboxylation of the lysine of the stem peptide was not tolerated, and that lipid II-alanine was a substrate, suggesting an evolutionary link to staphylococcal homologues of MurM such as FemA. Kinetic analysis also revealed that MurM recognized the acceptor stem and/or the TPsiC loop stem of the tRNA(Ala). It is anticipated that definition of the minimal structural features of MurM substrates will allow development of novel resistance inhibitors that will restore the efficacy of beta-lactams for treatment of pneumococcal infection.

  6. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future. PMID:26491292

  7. Cholesterol accelerates the binding of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide to ganglioside GM1 through a universal hydrogen-bond-dependent sterol tuning of glycolipid conformation

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara; Garmy, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Age-related alterations of membrane lipids in brain cell membranes together with high blood cholesterol are considered as major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Yet the molecular mechanisms by which these factors increase Alzheimer's risk are mostly unknown. In lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane, neurotoxic Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides interact with both cholesterol and ganglioside GM1. Recent data also suggested that cholesterol could stimulate the binding of Abeta to GM1 through conformational modulation of the ganglioside headgroup. Here we used a combination of physicochemical and molecular modeling approaches to decipher the mechanisms of cholesterol-assisted binding of Abeta to GM1. With the aim of decoupling the effect of cholesterol on GM1 from direct Abeta-cholesterol interactions, we designed a minimal peptide (Abeta5-16) containing the GM1-binding domain but lacking the amino acid residues involved in cholesterol recognition. Using the Langmuir technique, we showed that cholesterol (but not phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin) significantly accelerates the interaction of Abeta5-16 with GM1. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that Abeta5-16 interacts with a cholesterol-stabilized dimer of GM1. The main structural effect of cholesterol is to establish a hydrogen-bond between its own OH group and the glycosidic-bond linking ceramide to the glycone part of GM1, thereby inducing a tilt in the glycolipid headgroup. This fine conformational tuning stabilizes the active conformation of the GM1 dimer whose headgroups, oriented in two opposite directions, form a chalice-shaped receptacle for Abeta. These data give new mechanistic insights into the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on Abeta/GM1 interactions. They also support the emerging concept that cholesterol is a universal modulator of protein-glycolipid interactions in the broader context of membrane recognition processes. PMID:23772214

  8. Cholesterol accelerates the binding of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide to ganglioside GM1 through a universal hydrogen-bond-dependent sterol tuning of glycolipid conformation.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara; Garmy, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Age-related alterations of membrane lipids in brain cell membranes together with high blood cholesterol are considered as major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Yet the molecular mechanisms by which these factors increase Alzheimer's risk are mostly unknown. In lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane, neurotoxic Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides interact with both cholesterol and ganglioside GM1. Recent data also suggested that cholesterol could stimulate the binding of Abeta to GM1 through conformational modulation of the ganglioside headgroup. Here we used a combination of physicochemical and molecular modeling approaches to decipher the mechanisms of cholesterol-assisted binding of Abeta to GM1. With the aim of decoupling the effect of cholesterol on GM1 from direct Abeta-cholesterol interactions, we designed a minimal peptide (Abeta5-16) containing the GM1-binding domain but lacking the amino acid residues involved in cholesterol recognition. Using the Langmuir technique, we showed that cholesterol (but not phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin) significantly accelerates the interaction of Abeta5-16 with GM1. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that Abeta5-16 interacts with a cholesterol-stabilized dimer of GM1. The main structural effect of cholesterol is to establish a hydrogen-bond between its own OH group and the glycosidic-bond linking ceramide to the glycone part of GM1, thereby inducing a tilt in the glycolipid headgroup. This fine conformational tuning stabilizes the active conformation of the GM1 dimer whose headgroups, oriented in two opposite directions, form a chalice-shaped receptacle for Abeta. These data give new mechanistic insights into the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on Abeta/GM1 interactions. They also support the emerging concept that cholesterol is a universal modulator of protein-glycolipid interactions in the broader context of membrane recognition processes.

  9. Amide-I lifetime-limited vibrational energy flow in a one-dimensional lattice of hydrogen-bonded peptide units.

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    A time-convolutionless master equation is established for describing the amide-I vibrational energy flow in a lattice of H-bonded peptide units. The dynamics is addressed within the small polaron formalism to account for the strong coupling between the amide-I vibron and the phonons describing the H-bond vibrations. Therefore, special attention is paid to characterize the influence of the amide-I relaxation on the polaron transport properties. This relaxation is modeled by assuming that each amide-I mode interacts with a bath of intramolecular normal modes whose displacements are strongly localized on the C=O groups. It has been shown that the energy relaxation occurs over a very short time scale which prevents any significant delocalization of the polaron. At biological temperature, the polaron explores a finite region around the excited site whose size is about one or two lattice parameters. However, two regimes occur depending on whether the vibron-phonon coupling is weak or strong. For a weak coupling, the energy propagates coherently along the lattice until the polaron disappears. By contrast, for a strong coupling, a diffusive regime occurs so that the polaron explores a finite size region incoherently. In both cases, the finite polaron lifetime favors the localization of the vibron density whose amplitude decreases exponentially.

  10. Effect of combined ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment on enzymatic preparation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from native collagenous materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhao; Ma, Liang; Cai, Luyun; Liu, Yi; Li, Jianrong

    2017-05-01

    The combined effect of ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment for the hydrolysis of native collagenous materials and release of ACE inhibitory peptides was investigated. The ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment of pig skin could accelerate the release of the ACE inhibitory peptides from the triple helix of collagen in early stages of hydrolysis. Furthermore, the pretreatment could also accelerate collapse of the triple helix and release more ACE inhibitory peptides during hydrolysis than collagen samples left untreated. Compared to untreated and alkali pretreated samples, the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could decrease the thermostability of pig skin significantly (P<0.05) because the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could weaken hydrogen bonds and break parts of covalent bonds in collagen, leading to damage of the triple helical structure in collagen. Therefore, the ultrasonic and alkali pretreatment could damage the triple helical structure of collagen in native collagenous materials and expose more inner sites for subsequent hydrolysis, and it could be a potential way to prepare ACE inhibitory peptides effectively from collagen-rich raw material.

  11. Role of membrane potential and hydrogen bonding in the mechanism of translocation of guanidinium-rich peptides into cells.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, Jonathan B; Jessop, Theodore C; Lewis, Richard S; Murray, Bryce A; Wender, Paul A

    2004-08-11

    The results described herein support a mechanistic hypothesis for how guanidine-rich transporters attached to small cargos (MW ca. <3000) can migrate across the lipid membrane of a cell and directly enter the cytosol. Arginine oligomers are found to partition almost completely into the aqueous layer of a water-octanol bilayer. However, when the same partitioning experiment is conducted in the presence of sodium laurate, a representative negatively charged membrane constituent, the arginine oligomer partitions almost completely (>95%) into the octanol layer. In contrast, ornithine oligomers partition almost exclusively into the water layer with and without added sodium laurate. The different partitioning between guanidinium-rich and ammonium-rich oligomers in the presence of sodium laurate is consistent with the ability of the former to form a bidentate hydrogen bonded ion pair. Mono- and dimethylated arginine oligomers, which like ornithine can only efficiently form monodentate hydrogen bonds, were prepared and found to exhibit poor cellular uptake. Ion pair formation converts a once water-soluble agent to a lipid-soluble agent, thereby reducing the energetic penalty for passage of guanidine-rich transporters through the lipid bilayer. Uptake of guanidine-rich transporters is known to be an energy-dependent process, and this requirement for cellular ATP is now rationalized by the inhibition of guanidine-rich transporter uptake in the presence of agents that reduce the membrane potential. Specifically, incubation of cells in buffers with high potassium ion concentrations or pretreatment of cells with gramicidin A reduces the cellular uptake of Fl-aca-arg8-CONH2 by >90%. Furthermore, the reciprocal experiment of hyperpolarizing the cell with valinomycin increased uptake by >1.5 times. In summary, we propose that the water-soluble, positively charged guanidinium headgroups of the transporter form bidentate hydrogen bonds with H-bond acceptor functionality on the cell

  12. Assignment of the disulfide bonds in the sweet protein brazzein.

    PubMed

    Kohmura, M; Ota, M; Izawa, H; Ming, D; Hellekant, G; Ariyoshi, Y

    1996-04-01

    The thermostable sweet protein brazzein consists of 54 amino acid residues and has four intramolecular disulfide bonds, the location of which is unknown. We found that brazzein resists enzymatic hydrolysis at enzyme/substrate ratios (w/w) of 1:100-1:10 at 35-40 degrees C for 24-48 h. Brazzein was hydrolyzed using thermolysin at an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1:1 (w/w) in water, pH 5.5, for 6 h and at 50 degrees C. The disulfide bonds were determined, by a combination of mass spectrometric analysis and amino acid sequencing of cystine-containing peptides, to be between Cys4-Cys52, Cys16-Cys37, Cys22-Cys47, and Cys26-Cys49. These disulfide bonds contribute to its thermostability.

  13. Cell-Penetrating Cross-β Peptide Assemblies with Controlled Biodegradable Properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanghun; Lee, Mun-Kyung; Lim, Yong-Beom

    2017-01-09

    Although self-assembled peptide nanostructures (SPNs) have shown potential as promising biomaterials, there is a potential problem associated with the extremely slow hydrolysis rate of amide bonds. Here, we report the development of cell-penetrating cross-β SPNs with a controllable biodegradation rate. The designed self-assembling β-sheet peptide incorporating a hydrolyzable ester bond (self-assembling depsipeptide; SADP) can be assembled into bilayer β-sandwich one-dimensional (1D) fibers similarly to conventional β-sheet peptides. The rate of hydrolysis can be controlled by the pH, temperature, and structural characteristics of the ester unit. The 1D fiber of the SADP transforms into vesicle-like 3D structures when the hydrophilic cell-penetrating peptide segment is attached to the SADP segment. Efficient cell internalization of the 3D nanostructures was observed, and we verified the intracellular degradation and disassembly of the biodegradable nanostructures. This study illustrates the potential of biodegradable cross-β SPNs and provides a valuable toolkit that can be used with self-assembling peptides.

  14. Prolyl-specific peptidases for applications in food protein hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Various food proteins including, e.g. gluten, collagen and casein are rich in L-proline residues. Due to the cyclic structure of proline, these proteins are well protected from enzymatic degradation by typical digestive enzymes. Proline-specific peptidases (PsP) belong to different families of hydrolases acting on peptide bonds (EC 3.4.x.x). They occur in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and insects. Based on their biochemical characteristics, PsP type enzymes are further grouped into different subclasses of which prolyl aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.5, PAP), prolyl carboxypeptidases (EC 3.4.17.16, PCP) and prolyl oligopeptidases/prolyl endopeptidases (EC 3.4.21.26, POP/PEP) are of major interest for applications in food biotechnology. This mini review summarises the biochemical assays employed for these subclasses of PsP and their structural properties and the reaction mechanisms. A special focus was set on PsP derived from fungi and insects and important industrial applications in the field of food biotechnology. The degradation of gluten and collagen as well as the hydrolysis of bitter peptides are discussed.

  15. Nano-liposomal entrapment of bioactive peptidic fraction from fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin; Ramezanzade, Leila; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2017-05-25

    This study guided the potential of nanoliposomal vesicles for the encapsulation of an active peptidic fraction from the fish skin gelatin by enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase. The average particle size of peptide-loaded nanoliposomes was found to be in the range 134-621nm, with a ζ-potential of 0.06-8.65mV and a polydispersity index of 0.27-0.49, when the initial peptide content was 0-10mg/ml. The FTIR analysis showed that there was an effective hydrophobic interaction as well as hydrogen bonding between phosphatidylcholine and peptidic fraction. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) was remarkably influenced by peptide concentration and the maximum EE (84.5%) was achieved with 1mg/ml peptide concentration. A prolonged release of peptide from nanoliposomes was also observed as compared to free peptidic fraction. The results showed that the encapsulation of gelatin peptidic fraction using liposomal nanocarrier could represent a useful approach to overcome the issues associated with direct application of these antioxidant peptides in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleavage of the peptide bond of beta-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) induced by a Co(III)-amine complexes: reaction, structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manas K; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Bernal, Ivan

    2004-05-07

    Cleavage of the peptide bond occurs when beta]-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) reacts with [Co(tren)Cl2]+ (tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) to give [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 and [Co(tren)(beta-alanine)](2+) 2. [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 crystallizes in the enantiomorphic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and 2 crystallizes in the P2(1)/c space group. The mechanism of the cleavage reactions were studied in detail for the precursor [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and [Co(trien)Cl2]+, which convert into [Co(tren)(OH)2]+/[Co(tren)(OH)(OH2)]2+ and [Co(trien)(OH)2]+/[Co(trien)(OH)(OH2)]2+ in water at basic pH (trien = 1,4,7,10-tetraazadecane). At a slightly basic pH, the initial coordination of the substrate (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is by the carboxylate group for the reaction with [Co(tren)Cl2]+. This is followed by a rate-limiting nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. In a strongly basic reaction medium substrate, binding of the metal was through carboxylate and amine terminals. On the other hand, for the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine, the initial coordination of the substrate takes place via an imidazole ring nitrogen, independently, and followed by a nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. The circular dichroism spectrum for 1 suggests that a very small extent of racemization of the amino acid (L-histidine) takes place during the cleavage reaction between [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine. Reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine also causes cleavage of the peptide bond, producing a free beta-alanyl molecule and a cationic fragment [cis-alpha-Co(trien)(histidine)](2+) 3 that crystallizes in the optically active space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). Unlike the previous case an appreciable degree of racemization of the L-histidine takes place during the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta

  17. Synthesis and biological activities of pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal heptapeptide of cholecystokinin. On the importance of the peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Lignon, M F; Galas, M C; Fulcrand, P; Mendre, C; Aumelas, A; Laur, J; Martinez, J

    1987-08-01

    A series of pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal heptapeptide of cholecystokinin in which each peptide bond, one at a time, has been replaced by a CH2NH bond were synthesized: Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp psi-(CH2NH)Phe-NH2 (1), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle psi (CH2NH)Asp-Phe-NH2 (2), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp psi-(CH2NH)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2 (3), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly psi(CH2NH)Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2 (4), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle psi-(CH2NH)Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2 (5), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp psi (CH2NH)Phe-NH2 (6), Z-Tyr-(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp-Nle psi (CH2NH)Asp-Phe-NH2 (7), Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp psi (CH2NH)Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2 (8). These derivatives were studied for their ability to stimulate amylase release from rat pancreatic acini and to inhibit the binding of labeled CCK-9 to rat pancreatic acini and to guinea pig brain membrane CCK receptors. They were compared to the potent CCK-8 analogue Boc-Asp-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2. All of these pseudopeptides were able to stimulate amylase secretion with the same efficacy as CCK-8 but with varying potencies. These compounds were also potent in inhibiting the binding of labeled CCK-9 to CCK receptors from rat pancreatic acini and from guinea pig brain membranes.

  18. Multifunctional PEGylated 2C5-Immunoliposomes Containing pH-sensitive Bonds and TAT Peptide for Enhanced Tumor Cell Internalization and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Erez; Apte, Anjali; Jani, Ankur; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    pH-sensitive PEGylated (with PEG-PE) long-circulating liposomes (HSPC:cholesterol and Doxil®), modified with cell-penetrating TAT peptide (TATp) moieties and cancer-specific mAb 2C5 were prepared. A degradable pH-sensitive hydrazone bond between a long shielding PEG chains and PE (PEG2k-Hz-PE) was introduced. TATp was conjugated with a short PEG1k-PE spacer and mAb 2C5 was attached to a long PEG chain (2C5-PEG3.4k-PE). The “shielding” effect of TATp by long PEG chains was investigated using three liposomal models. At normal pH, surface TATp moieties are “hidden” by the long PEG chains. Upon the exposure to lowered pH, this multifunctional carrier exposes TATp moieties after the degradation of the hydrazone bond and removal of the long PEG chains. Enhanced cellular uptake of the TATp-containing immunoliposomes was observed in vitro after pre-treatment at lowered pH (using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques). The presence of mAb 2C5 on the liposome surface further enhanced the interaction between the carrier and tumor cells but not normal cells. Furthermore, multifunctional immuno-Doxil® preparation showed increased cellular cytotoxicity of B16-F10, HeLa and MCF-7 cells when pre-incubated at lower pH, indicating TATp exposure and activity. In conclusion, a multifunctional immunoliposomal nanocarrier containing a pH-sensitive PEG-PE component, TATp, and the cancer cell-specific mAb 2C5 promotes enhanced cytotoxicity and carrier internalization by cancer cells and demonstrates the potential for intracellular drug delivery after exposure to lowered pH environment, typical of solid tumors. PMID:22182771

  19. Production of porcine hemoglobin peptides at moderate temperature and medium pressure under a nitrogen stream. Functional and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2012-06-06

    A new hydrolysis method for producing peptides from porcine hemoglobin has been developed. Current processes are based on the use of expensive enzymes or high hydrostatic pressures. In the present study, a cheap and effective process has been assayed to produce peptides from purified porcine hemoglobin. A solution of purified hemoglobin is heated at different temperatures and pressurized at 4 MPa while a stream of nitrogen is injected into the reactor. A total of 82% of initial hemoglobin was transformed into peptides presenting an average size of 3.2 kDa. Some preferential hydrolyzed bonds have been detected. The peptide size distribution was evaluated at different times and temperatures. It has been demonstrated that this technique produces large amounts of peptides possessing good antioxidant properties. Furthermore, functional properties are conserved, and a desirable decrease in color (80%) is achieved.

  20. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  1. The hydrolysis of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, P. D.; Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of aspartic acid produces a polysuccinimide (I), a chain of aspartoyl residues. An investigation was made of the alkaline hydrolysis of the imide rings of (I) which converts the polyimide to a polypeptide. The alkaline hydrolysis of polyimides can be expected to be kinetically complex due to increasing negative charge generated by carboxylate groups. For this reason, a diimide, phthaloyl-DL-aspartoyl-beta-alanine (IIA) was synthesized for a progressive study of the hydrolysis of polyimides. In addition, this diimide (IIA) can be related to thalidomide and might be expected to exhibit similar reactivity during hydrolysis of the phthalimide ring.

  2. Vibron phonon in a lattice of H-bonded peptide units: A criterion to discriminate between the weak and the strong coupling limit.

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2010-01-21

    Based on dynamical considerations, a simple and intuitive criterion is established to measure the strength of the vibron-phonon coupling in a lattice of H-bonded peptide units. The main idea is to compare separately the influence of both the vibron-phonon coupling and the dipole-dipole interaction on a specific element of the vibron reduced density matrix. This element, which refers to the coherence between the ground state and a local excited amide-I mode, generalizes the concept of survival amplitude at finite temperature. On the one hand, when the dipole-dipole interaction is neglected, it is shown that dephasing-limited coherent dynamics is induced by the vibron-phonon coupling. On the other hand, when the vibron-phonon coupling is disregarded, decoherence occurs due to dipole-dipole interactions since the local excited state couples with neighboring local excited states. Therefore, our criterion simply states that the strongest interaction is responsible for the fastest decoherence. It yields a critical coupling chi( *) approximately 25 pN at biological temperature.

  3. Effect of the structural features of hydrochloric acid-deamidated wheat gluten on its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chun; Hu, Qingling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Haifeng; You, Lijun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-06-19

    The effect of the structural features of hydrochloric acid-deamidated wheat gluten with different degrees of deamidation (DDs) on the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by pancreatin was investigated. The wheat gluten deamidated by hydrochloric acid with a DD of 55% revealed the highest susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis as evaluated by the hydrolysis degree and nitrogen solubility index of the hydrolysates. An increase of peptides with MW below 3000 Da was observed as the DD increased. Raman spectra in the 1740-1800 cm⁻¹ and 521-530 cm⁻¹ range suggested that wheat gluten had taken off the deamidation with different DDs and that the disulfide bond had disrupted the sulfhydryl groups with different intensities, respectively. Results from the deconvolution of the amide I region of FTIR spectra in the 1600-1700 cm⁻¹ range showed that the content of the α-helix decreased and that the content of the β-turn and β-sheet increased with increasing DDs, which improved the molecular structure and flexibility of wheat gluten. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the image of HDG-55% presented the smoothest surface and the least uniform pore, enabling the sample to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The above information will enable us to better understand the effect of structure on the susceptibility of deamidated wheat gluten.

  4. Changes in the structural properties and rate of hydrolysis of cotton fibers during extended enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lushan; Zhang, Yuzhong; Gao, Peiji; Shi, Dongxia; Liu, Hongwen; Gao, Hongjun

    2006-02-20

    An extended enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton fibers by crude cellulase from Trichoderma pseudokoningii S-38 is described with characterization of both the enzyme changes of activities and cellulose structure. The hydrolysis rates declined drastically during the early stage and then slowly and steadily throughout the whole hydrolysis process the same trend could be seen during the following re-hydrolysis process. Morphological and structural changes to the fibers, such as swelling, frequent surface erosion, and variation in the packing and orientation of microfibrils, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Observation of X-ray diffraction and IR spectra suggests that the hydrolysis process results in a gradual increase in the relative intensity of the hydrogen bond network, and a gradual decrease in the apparent crystal size of cellulose. The I(alpha) crystal phase was hydrolyzed more easily than was the I(beta) crystal phase. Apart from the inactivation of CBHs activity, changes in the packing and arrangement of microfibrils and the structural heterogeneity of cellulose during hydrolysis could be responsible for the reduction in the rate of reaction, especially in its later stages. The results indicate that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose occurs on the outer layer of the fiber surface and that, following this, the process continues in a sub-layer manner.

  5. Adsorption behavior of the three species of the biprotic peptide Phe-Ala onto an end-capped C18-bonded organic/inorganic hybrid stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2009-12-15

    We recorded the overloaded elution band profiles of the dipeptide phenylalanine-alanine (Phe-Ala) on a column packed with C18-bonded organic (ethyl)/inorganic (silica) hybrid porous particles (BEH), eluted with a series of buffered methanol-water mobile phases (20/80, v/v). The (W)(S)pHs of the mobile phases were successively adjusted with addition of suitable buffers to values of 1.67, 2.44, 3.83, 4.94, 7.41, and 10.71 (where the notation (W)(S)pH means that the pH of the solution is directly measured in the solution (S) after the electrode was calibrated in pure water (W)). The ionic strength of the eluent was kept constant at 20 mM. The injected samples had different sizes and concentrations. The retention of the low-concentration samples was minimum at an intermediate (W)(S)pH (k' approximately 0.5) and maximum for the lowest (k' approximately 1.3) and highest (k' approximately 3.5) (W)(S)pHs showing that the zwitterion (+Phe-Ala-) is less strongly adsorbed than the positively (+Phe-Ala) and negatively (Phe-Ala-) charged species of the dipeptide onto BEH-C18. The elution profiles of the concentrated samples demonstrated that the adsorption isotherm of the zwitterionic species is an anti-Langmuirian Moreau isotherm due to significant adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, whereas the isotherms of the charged species are more conventional Langmuir isotherms. A simple ternary isotherm for the coadsorption of the three dipeptide species is proposed. It accounts well for the complex band profiles observed when large concentrated samples of the peptide are injected under controlled pH conditions. The slight departure between the calculated and the experimental band profiles obtained under uncontrolled pH conditions suggests the possible adsorption of the buffer components onto the packing material and the possible influence of microenvironment effects near the stationary phase surface, which would affect the local pH along the column. Preparative chromatography of

  6. A switchable stapled peptide.

    PubMed

    Kalistratova, Aleksandra; Legrand, Baptiste; Verdié, Pascal; Naydenova, Emilia; Amblard, Muriel; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The O-N acyl transfer reaction has gained significant popularity in peptide and medicinal chemistry. This reaction has been successfully applied to the synthesis of difficult sequence-containing peptides, cyclic peptides, epimerization-free fragment coupling and more recently, to switchable peptide polymers. Herein, we describe a related strategy to facilitate the synthesis and purification of a hydrophobic stapled peptide. The staple consists of a serine linked through an amide bond formed from its carboxylic acid function and the side chain amino group of diaminopropionic acid and through an ester bond formed from its amino group and the side chain carboxylic acid function of aspartic acid. The α-amino group of serine was protonated during purification. Interestingly, when the peptide was placed at physiological pH, the free amino group initiated the O-N shift reducing the staple length by one atom, leading to a more hydrophobic stapled peptide.

  7. The interdomain disulfide bond of a homogeneous rabbit pneumococcal antibody light chain.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, A D; Margolies, M N; Haber, E

    1975-11-01

    Rabbit light chain 3315, prepared from a homogeneous antipneumococcal antibody, was subjected to hydrolysis by pepsin without prior reduction and alkylation of the intrachain disulfide bonds. Gel filtration of the hydrolysate on Sephadex G-10, G-15, and G-25 and ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex yielded several disulfide bridge peptides. These were fully reduced and alkulated and sequenced by Edman degradation. The peptides were located in the light chain sequence determined in independent studies from our laboratory. The half-cystine residues in this KB rabbit chain are located at positions 23, 80, 88, 134, 171, 194, and 214. The extra disulfide bridge extends between residues 80 and 171, thus joining the variable and constant domains. This is consistent with x-ray diffraction crystallographic studies showing that the corresponding residues in human light chains are separated by a distance compatible with disulfide bond formation.

  8. Elucidation of insulin degrading enzyme catalyzed site specific hydrolytic cleavage of amyloid beta peptide: a comparative density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Bora, Ram Prasad; Ozbil, Mehmet; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2010-05-01

    In this B3LYP study, the catalytic mechanisms for the hydrolysis of the three different peptide bonds (Lys28-Gly29, Phe19-Phe20, and His14-Gln15) of Alzheimer amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) have been elucidated. For all these peptides, the nature of the substrate was found to influence the structure of the active enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic mechanism is proposed to proceed through the following three steps: (1) activation of the metal-bound water molecule, (2) formation of the gem-diol intermediate, and (3) cleavage of the peptide bond. With the computed barrier of 14.3, 18.8, and 22.3 kcal/mol for the Lys28-Gly29, Phe19-Phe20, and His14-Gln15 substrates, respectively, the process of water activation was found to be the rate-determining step for all three substrates. The computed energetics show that IDE is the most efficient in hydrolyzing the Lys28-Gly29 (basic polar-neutral nonpolar) peptide bond followed by the Phe19-Phe20 (neutral nonpolar-neutral nonpolar) and His14-Gln15 (basic polar-neutral polar) bonds of the Abeta substrate.

  9. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  10. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  11. Xylan hydrolysis in Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides and model substrates during hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Heather L; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Tomkins, Bruce A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Hahn, Michael G; Van Berkel, Gary J; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies defined easy and difficult to hydrolyze fractions of hemicellulose that may result from bonds among cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. To understand how such bonds affect hydrolysis, Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides, holocellulose isolated from P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and birchwood xylan were subjected to hydrothermal flow-through pretreatment. Samples were characterized by glycome profiling, HPLC, and UPLC-MS. Glycome profiling revealed steady fragmentation and removal of glycans from solids during hydrolysis. The extent of polysaccharide fragmentation, hydrolysis rate, and total xylose yield were lowest for P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and greatest for birchwood xylan. Comparison of results from P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and holocellulose suggested that lignin-carbohydrate complexes reduce hydrolysis rates and limit release of large xylooligomers. Smaller differences between results with holocellulose and birchwood xylan suggest xylan-cellulose hydrogen bonds limited hydrolysis, but to a lesser extent. These findings imply cell wall structure strongly influences hydrolysis.

  12. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) in aqueous buffered solutions of various pH's was studied at 75 and 37 C, using spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques. The hydrolysis was found to be very slow even at low pH. At 75 C and pH at or below l.0, two kinetic processes were observed: the more rapid one was attributed to the hydrolysis of the phosphoimidazolide P-N bond; the second, much slower one, was attributed to the cleavage of the glycosidic bond. It is noted that the P-N hydrolysis in phosphoimidazolides is very slow compared to other phosphoramidates, and that this might be one of the reasons why the phosphoimidazolides showed an extraordinary ability to form long oligomers under template-directed conditions.

  13. A Survey of the Peptide Profile in Prato Cheese as Measured by MALDI-MS and Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Débora Parra; Araújo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Gigante, Mirna Lúcia

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we describe the characterization of the peptide profile in commercial Prato cheese by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Ten commercial Prato cheese brands were characterized via their physicochemical composition and subjected to fractionation according to solubility at pH 4.6. The pH 4.6 insoluble fraction was evaluated by CE, whereas MALDI-MS was applied to the fraction soluble at pH 4.6 and in 70% ethanol. CE revealed a characteristic pattern of hydrolysis, with formation of para-κ-casein, hydrolysis of αs1 -casein at the Phe23 - Phe24 bond, and hydrolysis of β-casein. For the MALDI-MS data, a complex peptide profile was observed, with the identification of 44 peptides previously reported (24 peptides from αs1 -casein, 14 from β-casein, 3 from κ-casein, and 3 from αs2 -casein). It was also observed that cheeses with salt-in-moisture content greater than 5% showed an accumulation of a bitter-tasting peptide (m/z 1536, αs1 -CN f1-13), suggesting a relationship between the higher salt concentration and the abundance of this peptide. In conclusion, the results showed that even commercial cheeses produced with different raw material and processing conditions showed very similar peptide profiles when assessed at the molecular level, and only 9 peptides were responsible for discrimination of cheeses. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Probing the role of the C-H...O hydrogen bond stabilized polypeptide chain reversal at the C-terminus of designed peptide helices. Structural characterization of three decapeptides.

    PubMed

    Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2003-12-10

    The structural characterization in crystals of three designed decapeptides containing a double d-segment at the C-terminus is described. The crystal structures of the peptides Boc-Leu-Aib-Val-Xxx-Leu-Aib-Val-(D)Ala-(D)Leu-Aib-OMe, (Xxx = Gly 2, (D)Ala 3, Aib 4) have been determined and compared with those reported earlier for peptide 1 (Xxx = Ala) and the all l analogue Boc-Leu-Aib-Val-Ala-Leu-Aib-Val-Ala-Leu-Aib-OMe, which yielded a perfect right-handed alpha-helical structure. Peptides 1 and 2 reveal a right-handed helical segment spanning residues 1 to 7, ending in a Schellman motif with (D)Ala(8) functioning as the terminating residue. Polypeptide chain reversal occurs at residue 9, a novel feature that appears to be the consequence of a C-H.O hydrogen bond between residue 4 C(alpha)H and residue 9 CO groups. The structures of peptides 3 and 4, which lack the pro R hydrogen at the C(alpha) atom of residue 4, are dramatically different. Peptide 3 adopts a right-handed helical conformation over the 1 to 7 segment. Residues 8 and 9 adopt alpha(L) conformations forming a C-terminus type I' beta-turn, corresponding to an incipient left-handed twist of the polypeptide chain. In peptide 4, helix termination occurs at Aib(6), with residues 6 to 9 forming a left-handed helix, resulting in a structure that accommodates direct fusion of two helical segments of opposite twist. Peptides 3 and 4 provide examples of chiral residues occurring in the less favored sense of helical twist; (D)Ala(4) in peptide 3 adopts an alpha(R) conformation, while (L)Val(7) in 4 adopts an alpha(L) conformation. The structural comparison of the decapeptides reported here provides evidence for the role of specific C-H.O hydrogen bonds in stabilizing chain reversals at helix termini, which may be relevant in aligning contiguous helical and strand segments in polypeptide structures.

  15. Discovery of novel cyclic peptide inhibitors of dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease with antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Youhei; Matsui, Kouhei; Nobori, Haruaki; Maeda, Haruka; Sato, Akihiko; Kurosu, Takeshi; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Hattori, Kazunari; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    NS2B-NS3 protease is an essential enzyme for the replication of dengue virus (DENV), which continues to be a serious threat to worldwide public health. We designed and synthesized a series of cyclic peptides mimicking the substrates of this enzyme, and assayed their activity against the DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease. The introduction of aromatic residues at the appropriate positions and conformational restriction generated the most promising cyclic peptide with an IC50 of 0.95μM against NS2B-NS3 protease. Cyclic peptides with proper positioning of additional arginines and aromatic residues exhibited antiviral activity against DENV. Furthermore, replacing the C-terminal amide bond of the polybasic amino acid sequence with an amino methylene moiety stabilized the cyclic peptides against hydrolysis by NS2B-NS3 protease, while maintaining their enzyme inhibitory activity and antiviral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of lipases on the protective effect of SEDDS for incorporated peptide drugs towards intestinal peptidases.

    PubMed

    Leonaviciute, Gintare; Zupančič, Ožbej; Prüfert, Felix; Rohrer, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    The aim of this study is the development of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) differing in amounts of ester substructures and to evaluate their stability in presence of pancreatic lipase and protective effect against luminal enzymatic metabolism using leuprorelin as model peptide drug. Hydrophobic leuprolide oleate was incorporated into three different SEDDS formulations and their stability towards pancreatic lipases was investigated utilizing a dynamic in vitro digestion model. Protective effect of SEDDS in respect to peptide drug stability against proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, was determined via HPLC. Results of in vitro digestion demonstrated that 80% of SEDDS containing the highest amount of ester linkages was degraded within 60min. In comparison to that, SEDDS without ester bonds showed no degradation. With increasing oil droplets hydrolysis the remaining amount of peptide encapsulated into formulation decreased. Furthermore, after 180min incubation with trypsin up to 33.5% and with α-chymotrypsin up to 60.5% of leuprolide oleate was intact while leuprorelin acetate aqueous solution was completely metabolized by trypsin within 120min and by α-chymotrypsin within 5min. Protective effect in environment containing lipases was lower due to oil phase degradation, however, the amount of peptide in ester-free SEDDS was remarkably higher compared to SEDDS susceptible to lipases. The present study revealed that SEDDS stable towards hydrolysis is able to exhibit a protective effect for oral peptide delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerated hydrolysis of substituted cellulose for potential biofuel production: kinetic study and modeling.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bingnan; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this work, kinetics of substitution accelerated cellulose hydrolysis with multiple reaction stages was investigated to lay foundation for mechanism study and molecular design of substituting compounds. High-efficiency hydrolysis of cellulose is critical for cellulose-based bioethanol production. It is known that, substitution could substantially decrease activation energy and increase reaction rate of acidic hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose. However, reaction kinetics and mechanism of the accelerated hydrolysis were not fully revealed. In this research, it was proved that substitution therefore accelerated hydrolysis only occurred in amorphous regions of cellulose fibers, and was a process with multiple reaction stages. With molar ratio of substitution less than 1%, the overall hydrolysis rate could be increased for around 10 times. We also quantified the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of individual reaction stage and its major influences, including molar ratio of substitution, activation energy of acidic hydrolysis, pH and temperature.

  18. Membrane adsorption and binding, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone: effects of hydrogen bonding and α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaona; Yang, Mingjun; Kasimova, Marina R; Malmsten, Martin; Franzyk, Henrik; Jorgensen, Lene; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2012-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) provide a promising approach for enhancing intracellular delivery of therapeutic biomacromolecules by increasing transport through membrane barriers. Here, proteolytically stable cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone were studied to evaluate the effect of α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues and the presence of guanidinium groups in the α-amino acid residues on membrane interaction. The molecular properties of the peptidomimetics in solution (surface and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, aqueous diffusion rate and molecular size) were studied along with their adsorption to lipid bilayers, cellular uptake, and toxicity. The surface hydrogen bonding ability of the peptidomimetics reflected their adsorbed amounts onto lipid bilayers as well as with their cellular uptake, indicating the importance of hydrogen bonding for their membrane interaction and cellular uptake. Ellipsometry studies further demonstrated that the presence of chiral centers in the β-peptoid residues promotes a higher adsorption to anionic lipid bilayers, whereas circular dichroism results showed that α-chirality influences their overall mean residue ellipticity. The presence of guanidinium groups and α-chiral β-peptoid residues was also found to have a significant positive effect on uptake in living cells. Together, the findings provide an improved understanding on the behavior of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics in the presence of lipid bilayers and live cells.

  19. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet-Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Jay G; Yu, Sheng-Sheng; Mamajanov, Irena; Grover, Martha A; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Hud, Nicholas V

    2015-08-17

    Although it is generally accepted that amino acids were present on the prebiotic Earth, the mechanism by which α-amino acids were condensed into polypeptides before the emergence of enzymes remains unsolved. Here, we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth. Together, α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids form depsipeptides-oligomers with a combination of ester and amide linkages-in model prebiotic reactions that are driven by wet-cool/dry-hot cycles. Through a combination of ester-amide bond exchange and ester bond hydrolysis, depsipeptides are enriched with amino acids over time. These results support a long-standing hypothesis that peptides might have arisen from ester-based precursors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet–Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth**

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Jay G; Yu, Sheng-Sheng; Mamajanov, Irena; Grover, Martha A; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Hud, Nicholas V

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that amino acids were present on the prebiotic Earth, the mechanism by which α-amino acids were condensed into polypeptides before the emergence of enzymes remains unsolved. Here, we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth. Together, α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids form depsipeptides—oligomers with a combination of ester and amide linkages—in model prebiotic reactions that are driven by wet–cool/dry–hot cycles. Through a combination of ester–amide bond exchange and ester bond hydrolysis, depsipeptides are enriched with amino acids over time. These results support a long-standing hypothesis that peptides might have arisen from ester-based precursors. PMID:26201989

  1. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  2. Polymer-pendant ligand chemistry. 1. Reactions of organoarsonic acids and arsenic acid with catechol ligands bonded to polystryene-divinylbenzene and regeneration of the ligand site by a simple hydrolysis procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.H.; Tannous, R.S.

    1985-12-18

    A novel method is reported for reactions of organoarsonic acids and arsenic acid, known to be present in oil shale and its pyrolysis products, with catechol ligands bonded to either 2% or 20% cross-linked methylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins. A previous study with catechol-bonded ligands on PS-DVB resins dealt with their reactions with metal ions in aqueous solution and showed a selectivity toward Hg/sup 2 +/ ions. As far as we have been able to determine, reactions of this polymer-supported ligand with organometallic compounds or inorganic anions have not been reported. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase that catalyzes the peptide bond formation between the substrate protein's omega-site and the GPI lipid anchor's phosphoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Stephan; Kwang, Toh Yew; Grüber, Gerhard; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is predicted to be the enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI) lipid anchor to the carbonyl intermediate of the substrate protein at the ω-site. Its ~300-amino acid residue lumenal domain is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase with an α/β hydrolase fold, including a central 8-strand β-sheet and a single metal (most likely zinc) ion coordinated by 3 conserved polar residues. Phosphoethanolamine is used as an adaptor to make the non-peptide GPI lipid anchor look chemically similar to the N terminus of a peptide.

  4. Transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase that catalyzes the peptide bond formation between the substrate protein’s omega-site and the GPI lipid anchor’s phosphoethanolamine

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Stephan; Kwang, Toh Yew; Grüber, Gerhard; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The transamidase subunit GAA1/GPAA1 is predicted to be the enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI) lipid anchor to the carbonyl intermediate of the substrate protein at the ω-site. Its ~300-amino acid residue lumenal domain is a M28 family metallo-peptide-synthetase with an α/β hydrolase fold, including a central 8-strand β-sheet and a single metal (most likely zinc) ion coordinated by 3 conserved polar residues. Phosphoethanolamine is used as an adaptor to make the non-peptide GPI lipid anchor look chemically similar to the N terminus of a peptide. PMID:24743167

  5. Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galley, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

  6. Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galley, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions regarding the nature of ATP hydrolysis and bond breaking are discussed. The students' knowledge in this area is quantitatively measured by a survey of over 600 biochemistry and physiology students.

  7. Inhibitory activity of thermal copolymers of amino acids for the metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of an RNA dinucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagahama, Minoru; Yao, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the hydrolysis of RNA is substantially catalyzed by several metal ions. Although this fact poses a problem for the RNA world hypothesis, there may have been unknown pathways for the protection of RNA molecules against the hydrolytic degradation under the primitive earth conditions. Thus, we have investigated whether or not thermal copolymers of amino acids (TCAA) inhibit the catalytic activity of metal ions for the RNA hydrolyses; TCAA is a suitable model material for prebiotic protein-like molecules since TCAA involving peptide bonding is readily prepared by heating amino acid mixtures under prebiotic conditions. The activities of metal ions that Fe(III) and Co(II) enhance somewhat the 3',5'-cytidylylguanosine (CpG) hydrolysis and Ce(III) and Eu(III) accelerate greatly the CpG hydrolysis were notably reduced by TCAA. This fact indicates that protein-like molecules would have played important roles for the accumulation of RNA under the primitive earth conditions.

  8. Influence of the extent of hemoglobin hydrolysis on the digestive absorption of heme iron. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vaghefi, Nikta; Nedjaoum, Fouzia; Guillochon, Didier; Bureau, François; Arhan, Pierre; Bouglé, Dominique

    2002-08-14

    This study was designed to assess the interactions of heme with peptides produced by enzyme hydrolysis of hemoglobin, and their relationship with heme iron absorption. Bovine hemoglobin was hydrolyzed by pepsin or by subtilisin, which differ in their hydrolysis processes. The hydrolysis rate ranged from 0 (native hemoglobin) to 15%. Heme solubility and heme-peptides interactions were compared to iron absorption by the Ussing chamber model, at intestinal pH (7.5). Increasing hemoglobin hydrolysis enhanced iron absorption; the highest value was reached between 8 and 11% hydrolysis, whatever the enzyme used. Comparing the products of hydrolysis of the two enzymes showed that heme iron absorption depends not only on its solubility, but relies mainly on the balance between the strength of heme-peptides and the polymerization rate of heme.

  9. Deamidation, acylation and proteolysis of a model peptide in PLGA films.

    PubMed

    Houchin, M L; Heppert, K; Topp, E M

    2006-05-01

    The relative rates of deamidation, acylation and proteolysis (i.e. amide bond cleavage) were determined for a model peptide (VYPNGA) in poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) films. Films were stored at 70 degrees C and either 95%, 75%, 60%, 45%, 28%, or approximately 0% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C and 95% relative humidity. Peptide degradation products were identified by ESI+MS/MS and quantitated by LC/MS/MS. Extensive overlap of degradation mechanisms occurred, producing a complex mixture of products. Acylation was the dominant peptide degradation reaction (10-20% of total peptide) at early stages of PLGA hydrolysis and at intermediate relative humidity (60-45% RH). Deamidation and proteolysis were dominant (25-50% and 20-40% of total peptide, respectively) at later stages and at high relative humidity (95-75% RH). Understanding the relative rates of each peptide degradation reaction will allow for improved design of PLGA formulations that preserve the stability of peptide and protein drugs.

  10. Local NH-π interactions involving aromatic residues of proteins: influence of backbone conformation and ππ* excitation on the π H-bond strength, as revealed from studies of isolated model peptides.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon Yong; Brenner, Valérie; Gloaguen, Eric; Mons, Michel

    2016-11-02

    Conformer-selective IR gas phase spectroscopy and high level quantum chemistry methods have been used to characterise the diversity of local NH-π interactions between the π ring of a phenylalanine aromatic residue and the nearby main chain amide groups. The study of model systems shows how the amide NH stretch vibrational features, in the 3410-3460 cm(-1) frequency range, can be used to monitor the strength of these local π H-bonds, which is found to depend on both the backbone conformation and the aromatic side chain orientation. This is rationalized in terms of partial electron transfer between the π cloud and the main chain NH bonds, with the help of analysis tools based on Natural Bonding Orbitals and Non-Covalent Interactions plots. The experimental study, extended to the NH-π interactions when the Phe residue is excited in its first ππ* electronic state, also demonstrates the principle of the ππ* labelling technique, i.e. a selective labelling of those NH bonds in a peptide molecule that are in close contact with an aromatic ring, as an elegant tool for IR spectroscopic assignments. The validation of theoretical predictions against experimental data (frequency change upon excitation) eventually qualifies the use of the CC2 method for the description of the ππ* excited states of systems having a phenyl ring, both in terms of structure, vibrational modes and nature of excited states.

  11. Separation of selected peptides by capillary electroendoosmotic chromatography using 3 microns reversed-phase bonded silica and mixed-mode phases.

    PubMed

    Walhagen, K; Unger, K K; Olsson, A M; Hearn, M T

    1999-08-20

    The retention behaviour and selectivity of selected basic, neutral and acidic peptides have been studied by capillary electroendoosmotic chromatography (CEC) with Hypersil C8, C18, Hypersil mixed-mode, and Spherisorb C18/SCX columns, 250 (335) mm x 100 microns, packed with 3 microns particles, and eluted with mobile phases composed of acetonitrile-triethylamine-phosphoric acid (TEAP) at pH 3.0 using a Hewlett-Packard Model HP3DCE capillary electrophoresis system. The selected peptides were desmopressin (D), two analogues (A and B) of desmopressin, oxytocin (O) and carbetocin (C). The peptides eluted either before or after the electroendoosmotic flow (EOF) marker, depending on the concentration of acetonitrile used and the buffer ionic strength. The retention and selectivity of these peptides under CEC conditions were compared to their behaviour in free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE), where the separation mode was based on the electrophoretic migration of the analytes due to their charge and Stokes radius properties. In addition, their retention behaviour in RP-HPLC was also examined. As a result, it can be concluded that the elution process of this group of synthetic peptides in CEC with a TEAP buffer at pH 3.0 is mediated by a combination of both electrophoretic migration processes and retention mechanisms involving hydrophobic as well as silanophilic interactions. This CEC method when operated with these 3 microns reversed-phase and mixed-mode sorbents with peptides is thus a hybrid of two well-known analytical methods, namely CZE and RP-HPLC. However, the retention behaviour and selectivity of the selected peptides differs significantly in the CEC mode compared to the RP-HPLC or CZE modes. Therefore this CEC method with these peptides represents an orthogonal analytical separation procedure that is complimentary to both of these alternative techniques.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the role of clay edges in prebiotic peptide bond formation. II - Structures and thermodynamics of the activated complex species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jack R.; Loew, Gilda H.; Luke, Brian T.; White, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular orbital calculations are used to study amino acid activation by anhydride formation in neutral phosphates and in tetrahedral silicate and aluminate sites on clay edges. The results agree with previous ab initio studies of Luke et al. (1984) on the reactant species. Relative heats of formation of the anhydrides indicate the extent of anhydride formation to be the greatest for Al and the least for phosphate, which is the same order as the stability of hydrolysis.

  13. Antioxidant properties of salmon (Salmo salar L.) protein fraction hydrolysates revealed following their ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Pliszka, Monika; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2016-06-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar L.) myofibryllar protein (MP) and sarcoplasmic protein (SP) were digested with human gastric and duodenal juices and hydrolysed in vitro with commercial pepsin and Corolase PP. The digestion after duodenal juice/Corolase PP caused almost complete breakdown of peptide bonds in MP and SP. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of proteins decreased during both ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis. The highest value of DPPH(•) scavenging activity was shown for the gastric digest of SP (8.88 ± 0.87%). The ABTS(+•) scavenging activity of MP and SP increased during digestion/hydrolysis. The duodenal digest of SP was characterised by the highest value of ABTS(+•) scavenging activity (72.7 ± 1.2%). In turn, the highest value of ferric-reducing power was determined for the gastric digest of SP (84.8 ± 0.2%). Salmon antioxidant peptides Phe-Ile-Lys-Lys, His-Leu, Ile-Tyr, Pro-His-Leu, Pro-Trp, Val-Pro-Trp were identified in both ex vivo digested and in vitro hydrolysed MP and SP. An antioxidant peptide, Val-Tyr, was additionally detected in the in vitro hydrolysate of SP. The results indicate the salmon myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions as potential sources of antioxidant peptides that could be released in the gastrointestinal tract but their amino acid sequence and quantification vary. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Characterization of disulfide bonds by planned digestion and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Seungjin; Paek, Eunok; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Duwoon; Lee, Seung Jae; Kwon, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The identification of disulfide bonds provides critical information regarding the structure and function of a protein and is a key aspect in understanding signaling cascades in biological systems. Recent proteomic approaches using digestion enzymes have facilitated the characterization of disulfide-bonds and/or oxidized products from cysteine residues, although these methods have limitations in the application of MS/MS. For example, protein digestion to obtain the native form of disulfide bonds results in short lengths of amino acids, which can cause ambiguous MS/MS analysis due to false positive identifications. In this study we propose a new approach, termed planned digestion, to obtain sufficient amino acid lengths after cleavage for proteomic approaches. Application of the DBond software to planned digestion of specific proteins accurately identified disulfide-linked peptides. RNase A was used as a model protein in this study because the disulfide bonds of this protein have been well characterized. Application of this approach to peptides digested with Asp-N/C (chemical digestion) and trypsin under acid hydrolysis conditions identified the four native disulfide bonds of RNase A. Missed cleavages introduced by trypsin treatment for only 3 hours generated sufficient lengths of amino acids for identification of the disulfide bonds. Analysis using MS/MS successfully showed additional fragmentation patterns that are cleavage products of S-S and C-S bonds of disulfide-linkage peptides. These fragmentation patterns generate thioaldehydes, persulfide, and dehydroalanine. This approach of planned digestion with missed cleavages using the DBond algorithm could be applied to other proteins to determine their disulfide linkage and the oxidation patterns of cysteine residues.

  15. Fluorine Scan of Inhibitors of the Cysteine Protease Human Cathepsin L: Dipolar and Quadrupolar Effects in the π-Stacking of Fluorinated Phenyl Rings on Peptide Amide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Maude; Harder, Michael; Kuhn, Bernd; Haap, Wolfgang; Trapp, Nils; Schweizer, W Bernd; Schirmeister, Tanja; Diederich, François

    2016-05-19

    The π-stacking of fluorinated benzene rings on protein backbone amide groups was investigated, using a dual approach comprising enzyme-ligand binding studies complemented by high-level quantum chemical calculations. In the experimental study, the phenyl substituent of triazine nitrile inhibitors of human cathepsin L (hCatL), which stacks onto the peptide amide bond Gly67-Gly68 at the entrance of the S3 pocket, was systematically fluorinated, and differences in inhibitory potency were measured in a fluorimetric assay. Binding affinity is influenced by lipophilicity (clog P), the dipole and quadrupole moments of the fluorinated rings, but also by additional interactions of the introduced fluorine atoms with the local environment of the pocket. Generally, the higher the degree of fluorination, the better the binding affinities. Gas phase calculations strongly support the contributions of the molecular quadrupole moments of the fluorinated phenyl rings to the π-stacking interaction with the peptide bond. These findings provide useful guidelines for enhancing π-stacking on protein amide fragments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Reactivity of consecutive basic amino acid residues in peptides.

    PubMed

    Bayle-Lacoste, M; De Tinguy-Moreaud, E; Geoffre, S; Neuzil, E

    1987-03-01

    Different tetrapeptides of general formula L-Ala-X-X-Gly, possessing a basic doublet in the second and third position (X = Arg or Lys), have been synthesized as free or N-acetylated molecules. The chemical reactivity of the arginine guanidino group and of the lysine epsilon-amino group were studied using respectively the Sakaguchi and the ortho-diacetylbenzene reactions, in the tetrapeptides as well as in related molecules. In both cases, the colour yield is markedly influenced by the length of the polypeptide chain and by the relative positions of the arginine and lysine residues, suggesting the occurrence of intramolecular bonds within the tetrapeptide molecule. Tryptic hydrolysis of the tetrapeptides was followed by evaluating the amino acids or peptides which appear to be specific for the different possible cleavages at the arginyl or at the lysyl bonds. The susceptibility to trypsin of the carboxylic group of the second basic amino acid decreases progressively in the order Lys-Arg greater than Arg-Arg much greater than Lys-Lys greater than Arg-Lys, which shows a fair correlation with the intra-cellular cleavage of the bonds observed during the processing of preproteins of of the precursors of several physiologically active peptides.

  17. Effect of degree of hydrolysis of whey protein on in vivo plasma amino acid appearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Storm, Adam C; Klitgaard, Søren; Jørgensen, Henry; Bibby, Bo M; Serena, Anja; Vissing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein is generally found to be faster digested and to promote faster and higher increases in plasma amino acid concentrations during the immediate ~60 min following protein ingestion compared to casein. The aim of the present study was to compare three different whey protein hydrolysates with varying degrees of hydrolysis (DH, % cleaved peptide bonds) to evaluate if the degree of whey protein hydrolysis influences the rate of amino acid plasma appearance in humans. A casein protein was included as reference. The three differentially hydrolysed whey proteins investigated were: High degree of hydrolysis (DH, DH = 48 %), Medium DH (DH = 27 %), and Low DH (DH = 23 %). The casein protein was intact. Additionally, since manufacturing of protein products may render some amino acids unavailable for utilisation in the body the digestibility and the biological value of all four protein fractions were evaluated in a rat study. A two-compartment model for the description of the postprandial plasma amino acid kinetics was applied to investigate the rate of postprandial total amino acid plasma appearance of the four protein products. The plasma amino acid appearance rates of the three whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) were all significantly higher than for the casein protein, however, the degree of hydrolysis of the WPH products did not influence plasma total amino acid appearance rate (estimates of DH and 95 % confidence intervals [CI] (mol L(-1) min(-1)): High DH 0.0585 [0.0454, 0.0754], Medium DH 0.0594 [0.0495, 0.0768], Low DH 0.0560 [0.0429, 0.0732], Casein 0.0194 [0.0129, 0.0291]). The four protein products were all highly digestible, while the biological value decreased with increasing degree of hydrolysis. In conclusion, the current study does not provide evidence that the degree of whey protein hydrolysis is a strong determinant for plasma amino acid appearance rate within the studied range of hydrolysis and protein dose.

  18. [A rate-limiting stage of enteropeptidase hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, A G; Likhareva, V V; Rumsh, L D

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown for the first time that deacylation is the rate-limiting stage in the enteropeptidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of highly efficient oligopeptide substrates containing four Asp residues in positions P2-P5. On the other hand, the rate-limiting stage in the hydrolysis of low-efficiency peptide substrates containing less than four Asp or Glu residues in positions P2-P5 is acylation, as has previously been suggested for all amide and peptide substrates of serine proteases on the basis of the classic studies by Bender et al. The method of introduction of an additional nucleophile or another effector that selectively affects the deacylation stage was used to determine the rate-limiting stage in the enteropeptidase hydrolysis of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester, the highly efficient amide substrate GlyAsp4-Lys beta-naphthyl amide, and the low-efficiency peptide substrate VLSAADK-GNVKAAWG (where a hyphen denotes the hydrolysis site). The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 34, no. 2; see also http://www.maik.ru.

  19. Early peptidic enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard

    Oligopeptides supposed to be essential to primitive living cells could not be obtained by a prebiotic organic chemistry working mainly at random. Selection pathways were required. Experimental evidence is given for selective condensation of amino-acids in water as well as for selective resistance to degradation. Polycationic polypeptides containing lysyl (or arginyl) and hydrophobic residues strongly accelerate the hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. A ionic complex is first formed and the polypeptides are particularly active when they adopt a stable conformation, β-sheet or α-helix, in the complex. Well-defined short peptides were synthesized in order to determine the critical chain-length required for chemical activity. In a contemporary cell, proteins represent about 40 % of the dry weight. They fulfil a structural role and they are particularly helpful as chemical catalysts (enzymes). They can be represented as long chains made of twenty different building blocks, the amino-acids NH2-CHR-COOH, which differ by the side-chain R. Proteins are remarkable in the sense that they use amino-acids having only one carbon atom between the -NH2 and -COOH functions. The central carbon atom has always the same spatial asymmetry (chirality) and always bears a hydrogen atom. When the side-chain R is a hydrocarbon, it is branched. When R contains a chemical function, the side functions do not participate to the peptide bond construction. The protein chain results from the condensation of amino-acids, i.e. water molecules are removed between molecules in a medium which is mainly aqueous (the cell contains 75 % of water). The protein chains adopt rigid asymmetric conformations (α-helices, β-sheet structures) which are essential for the protein functions. Proteins, even the smallest ones, are too sophisticated entities to be considered as the products of an organic chemistry working at random, without any chemical selection. The chemist has therefore to understand, with simple

  20. Site-Specific Hydrolysis Reaction C-Terminal of Methionine in Met-His during Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation of IgG-1.

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Arora, Jayant; Toth, Ronald T; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Zhou, Shuxia; Volkin, David B; Schöneich, Christian

    2016-04-04

    The metal-catalyzed oxidation by [Fe(II)(EDTA)](2-)/H2O2 of IgG-1 leads to the site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the Fc region. The major hydrolytic cleavage occurs between Met428 and His429, consistent with a mechanism reported for the site-specific hydrolysis of parathyroid hormone (1-34) between Met8 and His9 (Mozziconacci, O.; et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics 2013, 10 (2), 739-755). In IgG-1, to a lesser extent, we also observe hydrolysis reactions between Met252 and Ile253. After 2 h of oxidation (at pH 5.8, 37 °C) approximately 5% of the protein is cleaved between Met428 and His429. For comparison, after 2 h of oxidation, the amount of tryptic peptides containing a Met sulfoxide residue represents less than 0.1% of the protein. The effect of this site-specific hydrolysis on the conformational stability and aggregation propensity of the antibody was also examined. No noticeable differences in structural integrity and conformational stability were observed between control and oxidized IgG-1 samples as measured by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering (SLS). Small amounts of soluble and insoluble aggregates (3-6%) were, however, observed in the oxidized samples by UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Over the course of metal-catalyzed oxidation, increasing amounts of fragments were also observed by SEC. An increase in the concentration of subvisible particles was detected by microflow imaging (MFI).

  1. Slow step after bond-breaking by porcine pepsin identified using solvent deuterium isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rebholz, K.L.; Northrop, D.B. )

    1991-04-15

    The relatively fast artificial substrate Leu-Ser-rho-nitro-Phe-Nle-Ala-Leu-OMe generates a solvent isotope effect of 1.51 +/- 0.02 only on the maximal velocity of peptide hydrolysis catalyzed by porcine pepsin. The absence of an isotope effect on V/K places the isotopically-sensitive step after peptide bond cleavage and the release of the first product. Reprotonation of the active site aspartic carboxyls is proposed as the most likely interpretation of this observation. Structural and kinetic similarities between pepsin and other aspartic proteinases, including the therapeutically important targets HIV protease and renin, suggest a similar slow reprotonation step after catalysis. This mechanistic feature has important implications regarding inhibitor design; if most of the enzymes are present in a product-release form during steady-state turnover, then perhaps inhibitors should be designed as product analogs instead of substrate analogs.

  2. Synthesis, properties, and application in peptide chemistry of a magnetically separable and reusable biocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liria, Cleber W.; Ungaro, Vitor A.; Fernandes, Raphaella M.; Costa, Natália J. S.; Marana, Sandro R.; Rossi, Liane M.; Machini, M. Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed chemical processes are selective, very productive, and generate little waste. Nevertheless, they may be optimized using enzymes bound to solid supports, which are particularly important for protease-mediated reactions since proteases undergo fast autolysis in solution. Magnetic nanoparticles are suitable supports for this purpose owing to their high specific surface area and to be easily separated from reaction media. Here we describe the immobilization of bovine α-chymotrypsin (αCT) on silica-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@silica) and the characterization of the enzyme-nanoparticle hybrid (Fe3O4@silica-αCT) in terms of protein content, properties, recovery from reaction media, application, and reuse in enzyme-catalyzed peptide synthesis. The results revealed that (i) full acid hydrolysis of the immobilized protease followed by amino acid analysis of the hydrolyzate is a reliable method to determine immobilization yield; (ii) despite showing lower amidase activity and a lower K cat/ K m value for a specific substrate than free αCT, the immobilized enzyme is chemically and thermally more stable, magnetically recoverable from reaction media, and can be consecutively reused for ten cycles to catalyze the amide bond hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis of the protected dipeptide Z-Ala-Phe-OMe. Altogether, these properties indicate the potential of Fe3O4@silica-αCT to act as an efficient, suitably stable, and reusable catalyst in amino acid, peptide, and protein chemistry as well as in proteomic studies.

  3. Synthesis and [2 + 2] cycloaddition of bimethyleneketene acetals. Reaction with C[sub 60] and facile hydrolysis of the C-C bond connected to C[sub 60

    SciTech Connect

    Yamago, Shigeru; Takeichi, Atsuo; Nakamura, Eiichi )

    1994-02-09

    We report here that the O-alkylated enolates of cyclopropanecarboxylates (dimethyleneketene acetals 3) can be prepared from readily available precursors, and that they are extemely reactive, serving as useful surrogates of the elusive parent enolates. Their utility is illustrated by the [2 + 2] cycloaddition to electron-deficient olefins, which, after hydrolytic workup, gives rise to the Michael addition products: a type of reaction product previously unavailable. We also found that 3 reacts smoothly with C[sub 60] to give the [2 + 2] adduct 5 and, most remarkably, that the asterisked C[minus]C [sigma] bond in 5 directly connected to the fullerene core is hydrolytically unstable and can be quantitatively cleaved with aqueous acid. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Cleavage experiments with deoxythymidine 3',5'-bis-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) suggest that the homing endonuclease I-PpoI follows the same mechanism of phosphodiester bond hydrolysis as the non-specific Serratia nuclease.

    PubMed

    Friedhoff, P; Franke, I; Krause, K L; Pingoud, A

    1999-01-25

    We show here that two nucleases, Serratia nuclease and I-PpoI, with contrasting specificities, i.e. non-specific vs. highly sequence specific, share a structurally similar active site region with conservation of the catalytically relevant histidine and asparagine residues. On the basis of a comparison of the available structures and biochemical data for wild type and mutant variants of Serratia nuclease and I-PpoI we propose that both enzymes have a common catalytic mechanism, a proposition that is supported by our finding that both enzymes accept deoxythymidine 3',5'-bis-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) as a substrate and cleave it in an identical manner. According to this mechanism a histidine residue functions as a general base and Mg2+ bound to an asparagine residue as a Lewis acid in phosphodiester bond cleavage.

  5. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were <1000 Da). Hydrolysis at 300 °C for 40 min generated the highest total AA concentration, especially of lysine (8.894 mg/g WPI). Therefore, WPI was successfully hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products.

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of nitriles by an engineered nitrile hydratase (papain Gln19Glu) in aqueous-organic media.

    PubMed

    Versari, Andrea; Ménard, Robert; Lortie, Robert

    2002-07-05

    A mutant of the cysteine protease papain, displaying nitrile hydratase and amidase activities, was expressed in Pichia pastoris and used for the hydrolysis of peptide nitriles in aqueous-organic media. The rate of hydrolysis of these nitriles is lowered by increasing acetone concentration. This is caused by an increase of the Michaelis constant, and a variation of Vmax proportional to the amount of water in the mixture. The hydrolysis of the amide is less affected by the increase in co-solvent, which results in lower accumulation of this intermediate product. With the peptide nitrile tested, high nitrile concentrations could be used to promote the production of the amide and prevent its hydrolysis to the acid by diminishing the relative rate of amide hydrolysis. A number of non-peptidyl nitriles were also tested as potential substrates but activity was detected for only one compound with structural resemblance to peptide nitriles.

  7. NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ removal from flue gas by ferrous ion-peptide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, D.; Chang, S.G.

    1987-04-01

    Various cysteine derivatives were studied to determine if they would be superior to cysteine in removing NO from flue gas. These include glutathione (a tripeptide) and glyclcysteine (a dipeptide) which are the subject of this study. Glutathione (glutamylcysteinylglycine, abbreviated GSH) is a thiol compound that is abundant in living cells. It is composed of the amino acids glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine linked by peptide bonds. Cysteine is the central amino acid. In a manner similar to cysteine, GSH can be oxidized to the disulfide (noted as GSSG). Glyclcysteine is readily produced by the acid hydrolysis of GSH. It also forms a disulfide when oxidized.

  8. Discovery and Mechanistic Studies of Facile N-Terminal Cα–C Bond Cleavages in the Dissociation of Tyrosine-Containing Peptide Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Song, Tao; Xu, Minjie; Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Siu, Chi-Kit; Laskin, Julia; Chu, Ivan K.

    2014-03-28

    Gas phase fragmentations of protein and peptide (M) ions in a mass spectrometer—induced by, for example, electron-capture dissociation1-2 and electron-transfer dissociation3-422 —form the foundation for top-down amino acid sequencing approaches for the rapid identification of protein components in complex biological samples. During these processes, protonated protein and peptide radicals ([M + nH]•(n – 1)+)5–8 are generated; their fragmentations are governed largely by the properties of the unpaired electron. Because of their importance in modern bioanalytical chemistry, considerable attention has been drawn recently toward understanding the radical cation chemistry behind the fragmentations of these odd-electron biomolecular ions in the gas phase.

  9. The structure of salt bridges between Arg(+) and Glu(-) in peptides investigated with 2D-IR spectroscopy: Evidence for two distinct hydrogen-bond geometries.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Domingos, Sérgio R; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Rupenyan, Alisa; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-06-07

    Salt bridges play an important role in protein folding and in supramolecular chemistry, but they are difficult to detect and characterize in solution. Here, we investigate salt bridges between glutamate (Glu(-)) and arginine (Arg(+)) using two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The 2D-IR spectrum of a salt-bridged dimer shows cross peaks between the vibrational modes of Glu(-) and Arg(+), which provide a sensitive structural probe of Glu(-)⋯Arg(+) salt bridges. We use this probe to investigate a β-turn locked by a salt bridge, an α-helical peptide whose structure is stabilized by salt bridges, and a coiled coil that is stabilized by intra- and intermolecular salt bridges. We detect a bidentate salt bridge in the β-turn, a monodentate one in the α-helical peptide, and both salt-bridge geometries in the coiled coil. To our knowledge, this is the first time 2D-IR has been used to probe tertiary side chain interactions in peptides, and our results show that 2D-IR spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating salt bridges in solution.

  10. The structure of salt bridges between Arg+ and Glu- in peptides investigated with 2D-IR spectroscopy: Evidence for two distinct hydrogen-bond geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Domingos, Sérgio R.; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Rupenyan, Alisa; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-06-01

    Salt bridges play an important role in protein folding and in supramolecular chemistry, but they are difficult to detect and characterize in solution. Here, we investigate salt bridges between glutamate (Glu-) and arginine (Arg+) using two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The 2D-IR spectrum of a salt-bridged dimer shows cross peaks between the vibrational modes of Glu- and Arg+, which provide a sensitive structural probe of Glu-⋯Arg+ salt bridges. We use this probe to investigate a β-turn locked by a salt bridge, an α-helical peptide whose structure is stabilized by salt bridges, and a coiled coil that is stabilized by intra- and intermolecular salt bridges. We detect a bidentate salt bridge in the β-turn, a monodentate one in the α-helical peptide, and both salt-bridge geometries in the coiled coil. To our knowledge, this is the first time 2D-IR has been used to probe tertiary side chain interactions in peptides, and our results show that 2D-IR spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating salt bridges in solution.

  11. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  12. The mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction during enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Thybring, Emil E; Johansen, Katja S; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks.

  13. Experimental optical-spectroscopy study of: (a) The liquid-glass transition in glycerol. A mode coupling theory analysis. (b) Low-frequency light scattering from powders. Multiple scattering model. (c) Side chain intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions in helical peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Joel

    Depolarized light-scattering spectra of the intermediate glass-former glycerol were obtained in the frequency and temperature ranges of 0.4 to 6000 GHz and 173 to 413 K respectively. Analysis of the resulting susceptibility spectra using the asymptotic leading order equations of mode coupling theory (MCT) showed only partial agreement between theory and experiment. However, a recent analysis of our data using a full numerical solution of the MCT equations has been remarkably successful, widening the applicability of the theory to weak network glass-formers and motivating the need to conduct similar tests with strong network glass-formers. The accidental discovery of a low-frequency band in the light scattering spectrum from a powder of the protein lysozyme lead us to the development of a model for that kind of scattering. Such a model was found to be in very good agreement with our experimental data. A preliminary infrared absorption experiment on synthesized helical peptides, containing glutamic acid (Glu) amino acid residues spaced periodically along the polypeptide chain, showed evidence for the stabilization of the helical structure of the peptide, by intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the carboxylic acid groups in the side chains of the Glu residues.

  14. The copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination mode of HExxH and HxxEH motif in small peptides: the role of carboxylate location and hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Magrì, Antonio; Bellia, Francesco; Pietropaolo, Adriana; La Mendola, Diego; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with two hexapeptides encompassing HExxH and HxxEH motif were characterized by means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Parallel tempering and density functional theory (DFT) investigations show the presence of different hydrogen bonding networks between the copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with the two peptides, suggesting a significant contribution of these non-covalent interactions to the stability constant values. The glutamate carboxylate group has a direct role in metal ion binding. The location of this amino acid along the sequence of the investigated peptides is critical to determine thermodynamic and spectroscopic features of the copper(II) complex species, whereas is less relevant in the zinc(II) complexes formation. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) characterization of the zinc(II) complex species show that in the [ZnH-2L] two deprotonated amide nitrogen atoms are involved in the metal coordination environment, an uncommon behavior in zinc(II) complexes for multi-histidine ligands.

  15. Migration and transformation rule of heavy metals in sludge during hydrolysis for protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Xue, Fei; Li, Jiebing; Xu, Shi Hong; Li, Dengxin

    2016-03-01

    The content and speciation of heavy metals can fundamentally affect the hydrolysis of sludge. This research study investigates the migration and transformation rule of heavy metals during the hydrolysis process by measuring the content of exchangeables (F1), bound to carbonates (F2), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (F3), bound to organic matter (F4), and residuals (F5) under different periods of time undergoing hydrolysis. The results show that the hydrolysis process generally stabilized Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and As by transforming the unstable states into structurally stable states. Such transformations and stabilization were primarily caused by the changes in local metal ion environment and bonding structure, oxidation of sulfides, pyrolyzation of organic matter, and evaporation of resulting volatile materials. An X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the residuals conducted after hydrolysis indicated that hydrolysis did have a significant influence on the transportation and transformation of heavy metals.

  16. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable peptide-based polymers prepared by microwave-assisted click chemistry.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Maarten; Nollet, Maria L; Weijers, Pascal; Dechesne, Annemarie C; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Hennink, Wim E; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the microwave-assisted copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction was used to synthesize peptide triazole-based polymers from two novel peptide-based monomers: azido-phenylalanyl-alanyl-lysyl-propargyl amide (1) and azido-phenylalanyl-alanyl-glycolyl-lysyl-propargyl amide (2). The selected monomers have sites for enzymatic degradation as well as for chemical hydrolysis to render the resulting polymer biodegradable. Depending on the monomer concentration in DMF, the molecular mass of the polymers could be tailored between 4.5 and 13.9 kDa (corresponding with 33-100 amino acid residues per polymer chain). As anticipated, both polymers can be enzymatically degraded by trypsin and chymotrypsin, whereas the ester bond in the polymer of 2 undergoes chemical hydrolysis under physiological conditions, as was shown by a ninhydrin-based colorimetric assay and MALDI-TOF analysis. In conclusion, the microwave-assisted copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction is an effective tool for synthesizing biodegradable peptide polymers, and it opens up new approaches toward the synthesis of (novel) designed biomedical materials.

  18. Peptide bond formation in gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of amino acids: a novel proposal for the synthesis of prebiotic oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wincel, H; Fokkens, R H; Nibbering, N M

    2000-01-01

    There is a general fascination with regard to the origin of life on Earth. There is an intriguing possibility that prebiotic precursors of life occurred in the interstellar space and were then transported to the early Earth by comets, asteroids and meteorites. It is probable that some part of the prebiotic molecules may have been generated by gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. Here we show experimentally that gaseous ion/molecule reactions of the amino acids, Glu and Met, may promote the synthesis of protonated dipeptides such as (Glu-Glu)H(+) and (Glu-Met)H(+) and their chemical growth to larger protonated peptides. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L.; Klauser, Paul C.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases. PMID:26854515

  20. Comparing the catalytic strategy of ATP hydrolysis in biomolecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2016-07-27

    ATP-driven biomolecular motors utilize the chemical energy obtained from the ATP hydrolysis to perform vital tasks in living cells. Understanding the mechanism of enzyme-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis reaction has substantially progressed lately thanks to combined quantum/classical molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. Here, we present a comparative summary of the most recent QM/MM results for myosin, kinesin and F1-ATPase motors. These completely different motors achieve the acceleration of ATP hydrolysis through a very similar catalytic mechanism. ATP hydrolysis has high activation energy because it involves the breaking of two strong bonds, namely the Pγ-Oβγ bond of ATP and the H-O bond of lytic water. The key to the four-fold decrease in the activation barrier by the three enzymes is that the breaking of the Pγ-Oβγ bond precedes the deprotonation of the lytic water molecule, generating a metaphosphate hydrate complex. The resulting singly charged trigonal planar PγO3(-) metaphosphate is a better electrophilic target for attack by an OaH(-) hydroxyl group. The formation of this OaH(-) is promoted by a strong polarization of the lytic water: in all three proteins, this water is forming a hydrogen-bond with a backbone carbonyl group and interacts with the carboxylate group of glutamate (either directly or via an intercalated water molecule). This favors the shedding of one proton by the attacking water. The abstracted proton is transferred to the γ-phosphate via various proton wires, resulting in a H2PγO4(-)/ADP(3-) product state. This catalytic strategy is so effective that most other nucleotide hydrolyzing enzymes adopt a similar approach, as suggested by their very similar triphosphate binding sites.

  1. Melanins from opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Rosei, M A

    1996-12-01

    Opioid peptides and other Tyr-NH2-terminal peptides are substrates in vitro for mushroom and sepia tyrosine, giving rise to synthetic melanins retaining the peptide moiety (opiomelanins). The melanopeptides are characterized by a total solubility in hydrophylic solvents at neutral and basic pH. Opioid peptides (enkephalins, endorphins, and esorphins), if oxidized by tyrosinase in the presence of Dopa, are easily incorporated into Dopa-melanin, producing mixed-type pigments that can also be solubilized in hydrophylic solvents. Melanins derived from opioid peptides exhibit paramagnetism, as evidenced by an EPR spectrum identical to that of Dopa-melanin. However, the presence of the linked peptide chain is able to influence dramatically the electron transfer properties and the oxidizing behaviour of the melanopeptides, so that whereas Tyr-Gly-melanin appears to behave as Dopa-melanin, Enk-melanin does not exhibit any oxidizing activity. Opiomelanins are characterized by a peculiar UV-VIS spectrum; that is, by the presence of a distinct peak (330 nm) that disappears upon chemical treatment by acid hydrolysis. Opiomelanins are stable pigments at neutral and basic pH in the dark, whereas the addition of H2O2 leads to a 15% degradation. Under stimulated solar illumination, opiomelanins are more easily destroyed with respect to Dopa-melanin, with increasing degradation when exposed to increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations and more alkaline pH. Some speculations on the possible existence and role of opiomelanins have been outlined.

  2. Molecular mechanics calculations on Rous sarcoma virus protease with peptide substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, I. T.; Harrison, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular models of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) protease and 20 peptide substrates with single amino acid substitutions at positions from P4 to P3', where the scissile bond is between P1 and P1'. were built and compared with kinetic measurements. The unsubstituted peptide substrate. Pro-Ala-Val-Ser-Leu-Ala-Met-Thr, represents the NC-PR cleavage site of RSV protease. Models were built of two intermediates in the catalytic reaction, RSV protease with peptide substrate and with the tetrahedral intermediate. The energy minimization used an algorithm that increased the speed and eliminated a cutoff for nonbonded interactions. The calculated protease-substrate interaction energies showed correlation with the relative catalytic efficiency of peptide hydrolysis. The calculated interaction energies for the 8 RSV protease-substrate models with changes in P1 to P1' next to the scissile bond gave the highest correlation coefficient of 0.79 with the kinetic measurements, whereas all 20 substrates showed the lower, but still significant correlation of 0.46. Models of the tetrahedral reaction intermediates gave a correlation of 0.72 for the 8 substrates with changes next to the scissile bond, whereas a correlation coefficient of only 0.34 was observed for all 20 substrates. The differences between the energies calculated for the tetrahedral intermediate and the bound peptide gave the most significant correlation coefficients of 0.90 for models with changes in P1 and P1', and 0.56 for all substrates. These results are compared to those from similar calculations on HIV-1 protease and discussed in relation to the rate-limiting steps in the catalytic mechanism and the entropic contributions. PMID:9385639

  3. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  4. Base hydrolysis and supercritical water oxidation of PBX-9404

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  5. The structure of endothiapepsin complexed with a Phe-Tyr reduced-bond inhibitor at 1.35 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J.; Cooper, J. B.; Wood, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Endothiapepsin is a typical member of the aspartic proteinase family. The catalytic mechanism of this family is attributed to two conserved catalytic aspartate residues, which coordinate the hydrolysis of a peptide bond. An oligopeptide inhibitor (IC50 = 0.62 µM) based on a reduced-bond transition-state inhibitor of mucorpepsin was co-crystallized with endothiapepsin and the crystal structure of the enzyme–inhibitor complex was determined at 1.35 Å resolution. A total of 12 hydrogen bonds between the inhibitor and the active-site residues were identified. The resulting structure demonstrates a number of novel subsite interactions in the active-site cleft. PMID:24419612

  6. Cyclization in opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Piekielna, Justyna; Perlikowska, Renata; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides have been studied extensively as potential therapeutics for the treatment of pain. The major problems of using natural opioid peptides as drug candidates are their poor receptor specificity, metabolic instability and inability to reach the brain after systemic administration. A lot of synthetic efforts have been made to opioid analogs with improved pharmacological properties. One important structural modification leading to such analogs is cyclization of linear sequences. Intramolecular cyclization has been shown to improve biological properties of various bioactive peptides. Cyclization reduces conformational freedom responsible for the simultaneous activation of two or more receptors, increases metabolic stability and lipophilicity which may result in a longer half-life and easier penetration across biological membranes. This review deals with various strategies that have been employed to synthesize cyclic analogs of opioid peptides. Discussed are such bridging bonds as amide and amine linkages, sulfur-containing bonds, including monosulfide, disulfide and dithioether bridges, bismethylene bonds, monosulfide bridges of lanthionine and, finally, carbonyl and guanidine linkages. Opioid affinities and activities of cyclic analogs are given and compared with linear opioid peptides. Analgesic activities of analogs evaluated in the in vivo pain tests are also discussed.

  7. [The content of individual fatty acids and numbers of double bonds, insulin, C-peptide and unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma in testing tolerance to glucose].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Evteeva, N M; Tkhagalizhokova, É M; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-10-01

    The glucose tolerance test demonstrates that content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma decreases up to three times and the content of oleic and linoleic acids is more decreased in the pool of fatty acids lipids. Out of resistance to insulin, hormone secretion increases up to three times. The decreasing of level of individual fatty acids occurs in a larger extent. Under resistance to insulin secretion of insulin is increasing up to eight times. The decreasing of level of each fatty acid is less expressed. The effect of insulin reflects decreasing of content of double bonds in blood plasma. The number of double bonds characterizes the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in lipids of blood plasma. The higher number of double bonds is in the pool of unesterified fatty acids the more active is the effect of insulin. The hyper-secretion of insulin is directly proportional to content of palmitic fatty acid in lipids of blood plasma on fasting. According the phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the effect of insulin on metabolism of glucose is mediated by fatty acids. The insulin is blocking lipolysis in insulin-depended subcutaneous adipocytes and decreases content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma. The insulin is depriving all cells of possibility to absorb unesterified fatty acids and "forces" them to absorb glucose increasing hereby number of GLUT4 on cell membrane. The resistance to insulin is manifested in high concentration of unesterfied fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, hyperalbuminemia and increasing of concentration of C-reactive protein-monomer. The resistance to insulin is groundlessly referred to as a symptom of diabetes mellitus type II. The resistance to insulin is only a functional disorder lasting for years. It can be successfully arrested. The diabetes mellitus is developed against the background of resistance to insulin only after long-term hyper-secretion of insulin and under emaciation and death of β-cells. The diabetes

  8. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  9. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  10. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  11. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  12. A Novel β-Peptidyl Aminopeptidase (BapA) from Strain 3-2W4 Cleaves Peptide Bonds of Synthetic β-Tri- and β-Dipeptides

    PubMed Central

    Geueke, Birgit; Namoto, Kenji; Seebach, Dieter; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain that was capable of growing on the β-tripeptide H-βhVal-βhAla-βhLeu-OH as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated from an enrichment culture. On the basis of physiological characterization, partial 16S rRNA sequencing, and fatty acid analysis, strain 3-2W4 was identified as a member of the family Sphingomonadaceae. Growth on the β-tripeptide and the β-dipeptide H-βhAla-βhLeu-OH was observed, and emerging metabolites were characterized. Small amounts of a persisting metabolite, the N-acetylated β-dipeptide, were identified in both media. According to dissolved organic carbon measurements, 74 to 80% of the available carbon was dissimilated. The β-peptide-degrading enzyme was purified from the crude cell extract of cells from strain 3-2W4 grown on complex medium. The enzyme was composed of two subunits, and the N-terminal sequences of both were determined. With this information, it was possible to identify the complete nucleotide sequence and to deduce the primary structure of the gene bapA. The gene encoded a β-peptidyl aminopeptidase (BapA) of 402 amino acids that was synthesized as preprotein with a signal sequence of 29 amino acids. The enzyme was cleaved into two subunits (residues 30 to 278 and 279 to 402). It belonged to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily. PMID:16109932

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Golankiewicz, B; Zielonacka-Lis, E; Folkman, W

    1985-01-01

    The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, analogously to simple nucleosides. Unlike majority of other monophosphates studied so far, wyosine 5'-monophosphate is not more stable than respective nucleoside. PMID:4000960

  14. Selective hydrolysis of oxidized insulin chain B by a Zr(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Sap, Annelies; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2015-01-28

    We report for the first time on the selective hydrolysis of a polypeptide system by a metal-substituted polyoxometalate (POM). Oxidized insulin chain B, a 30 amino acid polypeptide, was selectively cleaved by the Zr(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson POM, K15H[Zr(α2-P2W17O61)2]·25H2O, under physiological pH and temperature conditions in aqueous solution. HPLC-ESI-MS, LC-MS/MS, MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF MS/MS data indicate hydrolysis at the Phe1-Val2, Gln4-His5, Leu6-Cys(SO3H)7, and Gly8-Ser9 peptide bonds. The rate of oxidized insulin chain B hydrolysis (0.45 h(-1) at pH 7.0 and 60 °C) was calculated by fitting the integration values of its HPLC-UV signal to a first-order exponential decay function. (1)H NMR measurements show significant line broadening and shifting of the polypeptide resonances upon addition of the Zr(IV)-POM, indicating that interaction between the Zr(IV)-POM and the polypeptide takes place in solution. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements clearly prove that the flexible unfolded nature of the polypeptide was retained in the presence of the Zr(IV)-POM. The thermal stability of the Zr(IV)-POM in the presence of the polypeptide chain during the hydrolytic reaction was confirmed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Despite the highly negative charge of the Zr(IV)-POM, the mechanism of interaction appears to be dominated by a strong metal-directed binding between the positively charged Zr(IV) center and negatively charged amino acid side chains.

  15. Thermostable enzymes in lignocellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Liisa; Alapuranen, Marika; Puranen, Terhi; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Thermostable enzymes offer potential benefits in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates; higher specific activity decreasing the amount of enzymes, enhanced stability allowing improved hydrolysis performance and increased flexibility with respect to process configurations, all leading to improvement of the overall economy of the process. New thermostable cellulase mixtures were composed of cloned fungal enzymes for hydrolysis experiments. Three thermostable cellulases, identified as the most promising enzymes in their categories (cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase), were cloned and produced in Trichoderma reesei and mixed to compose a novel mixture of thermostable cellulases. Thermostable xylanase was added to enzyme preparations used on substrates containing residual hemicellulose. The new optimised thermostable enzyme mixtures were evaluated in high temperature hydrolysis experiments on technical steam pretreated raw materials: spruce and corn stover. The hydrolysis temperature could be increased by about 10-15 degrees C, as compared with present commercial Trichoderma enzymes. The same degree of hydrolysis, about 90% of theoretical, measured as individual sugars, could be obtained with the thermostable enzymes at 60 degrees C as with the commercial enzymes at 45 degrees C. Clearly more efficient hydrolysis per assayed FPU unit or per amount of cellobiohydrolase I protein used was obtained. The maximum FPU activity of the novel enzyme mixture was about 25% higher at the optimum temperature at 65 degrees C, as compared with the highest activity of the commercial reference enzyme at 60 degrees C. The results provide a promising basis to produce and formulate improved enzyme products. These products can have high temperature stability in process conditions in the range of 55-60 degrees C (with present industrial products at 45-50 degrees C) and clearly improved specific activity, essentially decreasing the protein dosage required for an

  16. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  17. Functional coupling of Cys-226 and Cys-296 in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor indicates a disulfide bond that is close to the activation pocket.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rosalind J; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; de Maturana, Rakel López; Sinfield, John K; Donnelly, Dan

    2010-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane α-helical (7TM) integral membrane proteins that play a central role in both cell signaling and in the action of many pharmaceuticals. The crystal structures of several Family A GPCRs have shown the presence of a disulfide bond linking transmembrane helix 3 (TM3) to the second extracellular loop (ECL2), enabling ECL2 to stabilize and contribute to the ligand binding pocket. Family B GPCRs share no significant sequence identity with those in Family A but nevertheless share two conserved cysteines in topologically equivalent positions. Since there are no available crystal structures for the 7TM domain of any Family B GPCR, we used mutagenesis alongside pharmacological analysis to investigate the role of ECL2 and the conserved cysteine residues. We mutated Cys-226, at the extracellular end of TM3 of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, to alanine and observed a 38-fold reduction in GLP-1 potency. Interestingly, this potency loss was restored by the additional substitution of Cys-296 in ECL2 to alanine. Alongside the complete conservation of these cysteine residues in Family B GPCRs, this functional coupling suggested the presence of a disulfide bond. Further mutagenesis demonstrated that the low potency observed at the C226A mutant, compared with the C226A-C296A double mutant, was the result of the bulky nature of the released Cys-296 side chain. Since this suggested that ECL2 was in close proximity to the agonist activation pocket, an alanine scan of ECL2 was carried out which confirmed the important role of this loop in agonist-induced receptor activation.

  18. Recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, Maria Angeles Bermudez; Azadi, Parastoo; Garcia, Bruno Diez; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel

    2016-10-06

    To reduce the cost of the enzymes for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, two main strategies have been followed: one, the reduction of enzyme dosing by the use of more efficient and stable enzymatic cocktails; another, to include accessory enzymes in the cocktails to increase yields by reducing the recalcitrant carbohydrate fraction remaining at the end of the process. To guide this second strategy, we have explored the chemical bond composition of different fractions of recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis. As a result, two lignocellulosic feedstocks of relevance for the biofuels industry have been analyzed, corn stover and sugarcane straw. On comparing the composition of chemical bonds of the starting pretreated material with samples after standard and forced hydrolysis (with enzyme overdosing), we obtained similar sugar and chemical bond composition. In conclusion, this suggests that the current enzymatic cocktails bear the set of enzymes needed to hydrolyze these feedstocks. From our point of view, the results show the need for a parallel fine-tuning of the enzymatic cocktails with the pretreatment process to maximize sugar release yield.

  19. Recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Alcantara, Maria Angeles Bermudez; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Azadi, Parastoo; ...

    2016-10-06

    To reduce the cost of the enzymes for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, two main strategies have been followed: one, the reduction of enzyme dosing by the use of more efficient and stable enzymatic cocktails; another, to include accessory enzymes in the cocktails to increase yields by reducing the recalcitrant carbohydrate fraction remaining at the end of the process. To guide this second strategy, we have explored the chemical bond composition of different fractions of recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis. As a result, two lignocellulosic feedstocks of relevance for the biofuels industry have been analyzed, corn stover and sugarcane straw.more » On comparing the composition of chemical bonds of the starting pretreated material with samples after standard and forced hydrolysis (with enzyme overdosing), we obtained similar sugar and chemical bond composition. In conclusion, this suggests that the current enzymatic cocktails bear the set of enzymes needed to hydrolyze these feedstocks. From our point of view, the results show the need for a parallel fine-tuning of the enzymatic cocktails with the pretreatment process to maximize sugar release yield.« less

  20. Recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, María Ángeles Bermúdez; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Azadi, Parastoo; García, Bruno Díez; Molina-Heredia, Fernando P; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To reduce the cost of the enzymes for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, two main strategies have been followed: one, the reduction of enzyme dosing by the use of more efficient and stable enzymatic cocktails; another, to include accessory enzymes in the cocktails to increase yields by reducing the recalcitrant carbohydrate fraction remaining at the end of the process. To guide this second strategy, we have explored the chemical bond composition of different fractions of recalcitrant carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis. Two lignocellulosic feedstocks of relevance for the biofuels industry have been analyzed, corn stover and sugarcane straw. On comparing the composition of chemical bonds of the starting pretreated material with samples after standard and forced hydrolysis (with enzyme overdosing), we obtained similar sugar and chemical bond composition. This suggests that the current enzymatic cocktails bear the set of enzymes needed to hydrolyze these feedstocks. From our point of view, the results show the need for a parallel fine-tuning of the enzymatic cocktails with the pretreatment process to maximize sugar release yield.

  1. Probing the importance of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong-liang; Ye, Mao-qing; Zuo, Zhen-yu; Liu, Zhi-gang; Tai, Keng-chang; Zou, Guo-lin

    2006-05-01

    Hydrogen bonds occurring in the catalytic triad (Asp32, His64 and Ser221) and the oxyanion hole (Asn155) are very important to the catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis by serine proteases. For the subtilisin NK (nattokinase), a bacterial serine protease, construction and analysis of a three-dimensional structural model suggested that several hydrogen bonds formed by four residue