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Sample records for peptide derivative targeting

  1. Fetoprotein Derived Short Peptide Coated Nanostructured Amphiphilic Surfaces for Targeting Mouse Breast Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexandra M.; Miranda-Alarćon, Yoliem S.; Knoll, Grant A.; Santora, Anthony M.; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    In this work, self-assembled tumor targeting nanostructured surfaces were developed from a newly designed amphiphile by conjugating boc protected isoleucine with 2,2‧ ethylenedioxy bis ethylamine (IED). To target mouse mammary tumor cells, a short peptide sequence derived from the human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), LSEDKLLACGEG was attached to the self-assembled nanostructures. Tumor targeting and cell proliferation were examined in the presence of nanoscale assemblies. To further obliterate mouse breast tumor cells, the chemotherapeutic drug tamoxifen was then entrapped into the nanoassemblies. Our studies indicated that the targeting systems were able to efficiently encapsulate and release tamoxifen. Cell proliferation studies showed that IED-AFP peptide loaded with tamoxifen decreased the proliferation of breast cancer cells while in the presence of the IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies alone, the growth was relatively slower. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts however cell proliferation continued similar to controls. Furthermore, the nanoscale assemblies were found to induce apoptosis in mouse breast cancer cells. To examine live binding interactions, SPR analysis revealed that tamoxifen encapsulated IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies bound to the breast cancer cells more efficiently compared to unencapsulated assemblies. Thus, we have developed nanoscale assemblies that can specifically bind to and target tumor cells, with increased toxicity in the presence of a chemotherapeutic drug.

  2. Ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes using HER2 targeted peptide-lipid derivatives for targeted delivery in breast cancer cells: The effect of serine-glycine repeated peptides as a spacer.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadaharu; Fuchigami, Yuki; Hagimori, Masayori; Kawakami, Shigeru

    2017-02-22

    Ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes have been widely studied for targeted drug delivery systems. Because ligand peptides are commonly grafted using PEG as a spacer on the surface of PEGylated liposomes, the interaction between ligand peptides and their corresponding receptors can be interrupted by steric hindrance of the PEG layer. Therefore, we aimed to develop ligand peptide-lipid derivatives to enhance the targeting efficiency of ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes, and designed a new ligand peptide-lipid derivatives having serine-glycine repeats (SG)n as a spacer based on the peptide length calculated by PyMol (v0.99). We selected KCCYSL (KCC) as the ligand peptide for binding to human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). We synthesized new KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives (n=3, 5, 7) and evaluated their cellular association in breast cancer cells. KCC-(SG)n/PEGylated liposomes dramatically increased cellular association on HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The results suggest that KCC can be grafted on the surface of KCC-(SG)n/PEGylated liposomes prepared from KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives (n=3, 5, 7). In summary, we succeeded in developing KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives for the preparation of ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes.

  3. Hexokinase II–derived cell-penetrating peptide targets mitochondria and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Woldetsadik, Abiy D.; Vogel, Maria C.; Rabeh, Wael M.; Magzoub, Mazin

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of mitochondria-bound hexokinase II (HKII) in cancer cells plays an important role in their metabolic reprogramming and protects them against apoptosis, thereby facilitating their growth and proliferation. Here, we show that covalently coupling a peptide corresponding to the mitochondrial membrane–binding N-terminal 15 aa of HKII (pHK) to a short, penetration-accelerating sequence (PAS) enhances the cellular uptake, mitochondrial localization, and cytotoxicity of the peptide in HeLa cells. Further analysis revealed that pHK-PAS depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, and depleted intracellular ATP levels. The effects of pHK-PAS were correlated with dissociation of endogenous full-length HKII from mitochondria and release of cytochrome c. Of significance, pHK-PAS treatment of noncancerous HEK293 cells resulted in substantially lower cytotoxicity. Thus, pHK-PAS effectively disrupted the mitochondria-HKII association in cancer cells, which led to mitochondrial dysfunction and, finally, apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the potential of the pHK-PAS cell-penetrating peptide as a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer.—Woldetsadik, A. D., Vogel, M. C., Rabeh, W. M., Magzoub, M. Hexokinase II–derived cell-penetrating peptide targets mitochondria and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells.

  4. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity.

  5. HLA class I-restricted MYD88 L265P-derived peptides as specific targets for lymphoma immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelde, Annika; Walz, Juliane Sarah; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Schuster, Heiko; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Peper, Janet Kerstin; Cardona Gloria, Yamel; Langerak, Anton W.; Muggen, Alice F.; Claus, Rainer; Bonzheim, Irina; Fend, Falko; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Kanz, Lothar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan; Weber, Alexander N. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing has uncovered an array of recurring somatic mutations in different non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. If affecting protein-coding regions, such mutations may yield mutation-derived peptides that may be presented by HLA class I proteins and recognized by cytotoxic T cells. A recurring somatic and oncogenic driver mutation of the Toll-like receptor adaptor protein MYD88, Leu265Pro (L265P) was identified in up to 90% of different NHL subtype patients. We therefore screened the potential of MYD88L265P-derived peptides to elicit cytotoxic T cell responses as tumor-specific neoantigens. Based on in silico predictions, we identified potential MYD88L265P-containing HLA ligands for several HLA class I restrictions. A set of HLA class I MYD88L265P-derived ligands elicited specific cytotoxic T cell responses for HLA-B*07 and -B*15. These data highlight the potential of MYD88L265P mutation-specific peptide-based immunotherapy as a novel personalized treatment approach for patients with MYD88L265P+ NHLs that may complement pharmacological approaches targeting oncogenic MyD88 L265P signaling.

  6. Dual-function synthetic peptide derived from BMP4 for highly efficient tumor targeting and antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Suk Hyun; Lee, Jue Yeon; Suh, Jin Sook; Park, Yoon Shin; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth and metastasis of cancer, and growth factors released from cancer promote blood-vessel formation in the tumor microenvironment. The angiogenesis is accelerated via interactions of growth factors with the high-affinity receptors on cancer cells. In particular, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface of cancer cells have been shown to be important in many aspects of determining a tumor’s phenotype and development. Specifically, the regulation of the interactions between HSPGs and growth factors results in changes in tumor progression. A peptide with heparin-binding (HBP) activity has been developed and synthesized to inhibit tumor growth via the prevention of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that HBP could inhibit the interaction of growth factors and HSPGs on the surface of cancer cells, decrease paracrine signaling in endothelial cells (ECs), and finally decrease angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we found that HBP had antiangiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The conditioned media obtained from a breast cancer cell line treated with HBP were used to culture human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) to evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of HBP on ECs. HBP effectively inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, the expressions of angiogenesis-mediating factors, including ERK, FAK, and Akt, were considerably decreased. HBP also decreased the levels of invasive factors, including MMP2 and MMP9, secreted by the HUVECs. We demonstrated significant suppression of tumor growth in a breast cancer xenograft model and enhanced distribution of HBP at the site of tumors. Taken together, our results show that HBP has antiangiogenic effects on ECs, and suggest that it may serve as a potential antitumor agent through control of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27695323

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of poly(arginine)-derived cancer-targeting peptides in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Stesha C; Blackman, Brittany A; Kelly, Megan L; Phillips, Mariana; Beaury, Michael W; Martinez, Ivonne; Parronchi, Christopher J; Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Blake, Allan D; Sabatino, David

    2014-09-01

    The solid-phase synthesis, structural characterization, and biological evaluation of a small library of cancer-targeting peptides have been determined in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells. These peptides are based on the highly specific Pep42 motif, which has been shown to target the glucose-regulated protein 78 receptors overexpressed and exclusively localized on the cell surface of tumors. In this study, Pep42 was designed to contain varying lengths (3-12) of poly(arginine) sequences to assess their influence on peptide structure and biology. Peptides were effectively synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, in which the use of a poly(ethylene glycol) resin provided good yields (14-46%) and crude purities >95% as analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peptide structure and biophysical properties were investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Interestingly, peptides displayed secondary structures that were contingent on solvent and length of the poly(arginine) sequences. Peptides exhibited helical and turn conformations, while retaining significant thermal stability. Structure-activity relationship studies conducted by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed that the poly(arginine) derived Pep42 sequences maintained glucose-regulated protein 78 binding on HepG2 cells while exhibiting cell translocation activity that was contingent on the length of the poly(arginine) strand. In single dose (0.15 mM) and dose-response (0-1.5 mM) cell viability assays, peptides were found to be nontoxic in human HepG2 liver cancer cells, illustrating their potential as safe cancer-targeting delivery agents.

  8. Outer Surface Protein C Peptide Derived from Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto as a Target for Serodiagnosis of Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Seedarnee, Rudra; Sambir, Mariya; Callister, Steven M.; Imparato, Josephine A.

    2013-01-01

    Current serodiagnostic assays for Lyme disease are inadequate at detecting early infection due to poor sensitivity and nonspecificity that arise from the use of whole bacteria or bacterial proteins as assay targets; both targets contain epitopes that are cross-reactive with epitopes found in antigens of other bacterial species. Tests utilizing peptides that contain individual epitopes highly specific for Borrelia burgdorferi as diagnostic targets are an attractive alternative to current assays. Using an overlapping peptide library, we mapped linear epitopes in OspC, a critical virulence factor of B. burgdorferi required for mammalian infection, and confirmed the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified a highly conserved 20-amino-acid peptide epitope, OspC1. Via ELISA, OspC1 detected specific IgM and/or IgG in 60 of 98 serum samples (62.1%) obtained from patients with erythema migrans (early Lyme disease) at the time of their initial presentation. By comparison, the commercially available OspC peptide PepC10 detected antibody in only 48 of 98 serum samples (49.0%). In addition, OspC1 generated fewer false-positive results among negative healthy and diseased (rheumatoid arthritis and positive Rapid Plasma Reagin [RPR+] test result) control populations than did PepC10. Both highly specific and more sensitive than currently available OspC peptides, OspC1 could have value as a component of a multipeptide Lyme disease serological assay with significantly improved capabilities for the diagnosis of early infection. PMID:23365204

  9. Spadin, a sortilin-derived peptide, targeting rodent TREK-1 channels: a new concept in the antidepressant drug design.

    PubMed

    Mazella, Jean; Pétrault, Olivier; Lucas, Guillaume; Deval, Emmanuel; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Gandin, Carine; El-Yacoubi, Malika; Widmann, Catherine; Guyon, Alice; Chevet, Eric; Taouji, Said; Conductier, Grégory; Corinus, Alain; Coppola, Thierry; Gobbi, Gabriella; Nahon, Jean-Louis; Heurteaux, Catherine; Borsotto, Marc

    2010-04-13

    Current antidepressant treatments are inadequate for many individuals, and when they are effective, they require several weeks of administration before a therapeutic effect can be observed. Improving the treatment of depression is challenging. Recently, the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 has been identified as a new target in depression, and its antagonists might become effective antidepressants. In mice, deletion of the TREK-1 gene results in a depression-resistant phenotype that mimics antidepressant treatments. Here, we validate in mice the antidepressant effects of spadin, a secreted peptide derived from the propeptide generated by the maturation of the neurotensin receptor 3 (NTSR3/Sortilin) and acting through TREK-1 inhibition. NTSR3/Sortilin interacted with the TREK-1 channel, as shown by immunoprecipitation of TREK-1 and NTSR3/Sortilin from COS-7 cells and cortical neurons co-expressing both proteins. TREK-1 and NTSR3/Sortilin were colocalized in mouse cortical neurons. Spadin bound specifically to TREK-1 with an affinity of 10 nM. Electrophysiological studies showed that spadin efficiently blocked the TREK-1 activity in COS-7 cells, cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and CA3 hippocampal neurons in brain slices. Spadin also induced in vivo an increase of the 5-HT neuron firing rate in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus. In five behavioral tests predicting an antidepressant response, spadin-treated mice showed a resistance to depression as found in TREK-1 deficient mice. More importantly, an intravenous 4-d treatment with spadin not only induced a strong antidepressant effect but also enhanced hippocampal phosphorylation of CREB protein and neurogenesis, considered to be key markers of antidepressant action after chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This work also shows the development of a reliable method for dosing the propeptide in serum of mice by using AlphaScreen technology. These findings point out spadin as a putative

  10. Exploration of peptide T7 and its derivative as integrin αvβ3-targeted imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Hao, Yumei; Long, Wei; Song, Naling; Fan, Saijun; Meng, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop potential candidates of integrin αvβ3-targeted imaging agent, which can facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of malignant solid tumors. Methods Peptides derived from tumstatin, named T7 and T7-6H, were derivatized to contain histidine in the C-terminus of their sequence and were labeled with 99mTc via nitrido and carbonyl precursors. The radiochemical purity and stability of 99mTc-labeled T7 and T7-6H were characterized by thin-layer chromatography. The whole body biodistribution was studied in NCI-H157-bearing BALB/c nude mice. Results The 99mTc-labeled T7 and T7-6H showed adequate in vitro stability, with a high radiochemical purity of over 90%. The dissociation constant (Kd) value of the 99mTc-labeled T7 and T7-6H ranged from 68.5 nM to 140.8 nM in U251 and NCI-H157 cell lines. 99mTc-labeled T7 and T7-6H showed no significant difference of biodistribution in mice. Furthermore, both T7 and T7-6H exhibited a poor blood–brain barrier penetration and a transient accumulation in lung; the uptake in tumor tissues was significantly higher than in muscle tissue, with a ratio of 5.8. Conclusion 99mTc-labeled T7 and T7-6H can be regarded as promising single-photon emission computed tomography probes for imaging integrin αvβ3, and need to be further studied for noninvasive detection of tumors. PMID:26109872

  11. Bioactive peptides derived from food.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J; Moughan, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    As interest in the ability of functional foods to impact on human health has grown over the past decade, so has the volume of knowledge detailing the beneficial roles of food-derived bioactive peptides. Bioactive peptides from both plant and animal proteins have been discovered, with to date, by far the most being isolated from milk-based products. A wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial and antifungal properties, blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulatory effects, and localized effects on the gut. Although there is still considerable research to be performed in the area of food-derived bioactive peptides, it is clear that the generation of bioactive peptides from dietary proteins during the normal digestive process is of importance. Therefore, it will become necessary when determining dietary protein quality to consider the potential effects of latent bioactive peptides that are released during digestion of the protein.

  12. Specific interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein-derived peptides and target cells inhibits mycobacterial entry in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues being one of the diseases having the greatest mortality rates around the world, 8.7 million cases having been reported in 2011. An efficient vaccine against TB having a great impact on public health is an urgent need. Usually, selecting antigens for vaccines has been based on proteins having immunogenic properties for patients suffering TB and having had promising results in mice and non-human primates. Our approach has been based on a functional approach involving the pathogen-host interaction in the search for antigens to be included in designing an efficient, minimal, subunit-based anti-TB vaccine. This means that Mycobacterium tuberculosis has mainly been involved in studies and that lipoproteins represent an important kind of protein on the cell envelope which can also contribute towards this pathogen's virulence. This study has assessed the expression of four lipoproteins from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, that is, Rv1411c (LprG), Rv1911c (LppC), Rv2270 (LppN) and Rv3763 (LpqH), and the possible biological activity of peptides derived from these. Five peptides were found for these proteins which had high specific binding to both alveolar A549 epithelial cells and U937 monocyte-derived macrophages which were able to significantly inhibit mycobacterial entry to these cells in vitro.

  13. Combinatorial discovery of tumor targeting peptides using phage display.

    PubMed

    Landon, Linda A; Deutscher, Susan L

    2003-10-15

    Peptides possess appropriate pharmacokinetic properties to serve as cancer imaging or therapeutic targeting agents. Currently, only a small number of rationally-derived, labeled peptide analogues that target only a limited subset of antigens are available. Thus, finding new cancer targeting peptides is a central goal in the field of molecular targeting. Novel tumor-avid peptides can be efficiently identified via affinity selections using complex random peptide libraries containing millions of peptides that are displayed on bacteriophage. In vitro and in situ affinity selections may be used to identify peptides with high affinity for the target antigen in vitro. Unfortunately, it has been found that peptides selected in vitro or in situ may not effectively target tumors in vivo due to poor peptide stability and other problems. To improve in vivo targeting, methodological combinatorial chemistry innovations allow selections to be conducted in the environment of the whole animal. Thus, new targeting peptides with optimal in vivo properties can be selected in vivo in tumor-bearing animals. In vivo selections have been proven successful in identifying peptides that target the vasculature of specific organs. In addition, in vivo selections have identified peptides that bind specifically to the surface of or are internalized into tumor cells. In the future, direct selection of peptides for cancer imaging may be expedited using genetically engineered bacteriophage libraries that encode peptides with intrinsic radiometal-chelation or fluorescent sequences.

  14. A Novel HLA-A*0201 Restricted Peptide Derived From Cathepsin G Is An Effective Immunotherapeutic Target in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Enyenihi, Atim A.; St John, Lisa S.; Hunsucker, Sally A.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sergeeva, Anna; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Atrache, Zein Al; Ropp, Patricia A.; Jakher, Haroon; Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania; Lizee, Gregory; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Lu, Sijie; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Glish, Gary L.; Armistead, Paul M.; Alatrash, Gheath

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Immunotherapy targeting aberrantly expressed leukemia associated antigens (LAA) has shown promise in the management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, because of the heterogeneity and clonal evolution that is a feature of myeloid leukemia, targeting single peptide epitopes has had limited success, highlighting the need for novel antigen discovery. In this study, we characterize the role of the myeloid azurophil granule protease cathepsin G (CG) as a novel target for AML immunotherapy. Experimental Design We used Immune Epitope Database and in vitro binding assays to identify immunogenic epitopes derived from CG. Flow cytometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy were used to characterize the expression and processing of CG in AML patient samples, leukemia stem cells and normal neutrophils. Cytotoxicity assays determined the susceptibility of AML to CG-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Dextramer staining and cytokine flow cytometry were performed to characterize the immune response to CG in patients. Results CG was highly expressed and ubiquitinated in AML blasts, and was localized outside granules in compartments that facilitate antigen presentation. We identified five HLA-A*0201 binding nonameric peptides (CG1-CG5) derived from CG, and demonstrated immunogenicity of the highest HLA-A*0201 binding peptide, CG1. We showed killing of primary AML by CG1-CTL, but not normal bone marrow. Blocking HLA-A*0201 abrogated CG1-CTL mediated cytotoxicity, further confirming HLA-A*0201 dependent killing. Finally, we demonstrated functional CG1-CTLs in peripheral blood from AML patients following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Conclusion CG is aberrantly expressed and processed in AML and is a novel immunotherapeutic target that warrants further development. PMID:23147993

  15. Stabilization of exosome-targeting peptides via engineered glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-03-27

    Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles that mediate intercellular transfer of cellular contents and are attractive vehicles for therapeutic delivery of bimolecular cargo such as nucleic acids, proteins, and even drugs. Efficient exosome-mediated delivery in vivo requires targeting vesicles for uptake by specific recipient cells. Although exosomes have been successfully targeted to several cellular receptors by displaying peptides on the surface of the exosomes, identifying effective exosome-targeting peptides for other receptors has proven challenging. Furthermore, the biophysical rules governing targeting peptide success remain poorly understood. To evaluate one factor potentially limiting exosome delivery, we investigated whether peptides displayed on the exosome surface are degraded during exosome biogenesis, for example by endosomal proteases. Indeed, peptides fused to the N terminus of exosome-associated transmembrane protein Lamp2b were cleaved in samples derived from both cells and exosomes. To suppress peptide loss, we engineered targeting peptide-Lamp2b fusion proteins to include a glycosylation motif at various positions. Introduction of this glycosylation motif both protected the peptide from degradation and led to an increase in overall Lamp2b fusion protein expression in both cells and exosomes. Moreover, glycosylation-stabilized peptides enhanced targeted delivery of exosomes to neuroblastoma cells, demonstrating that such glycosylation does not ablate peptide-target interactions. Thus, we have identified a strategy for achieving robust display of targeting peptides on the surface of exosomes, which should facilitate the evaluation and development of new exosome-based therapeutics.

  16. A novel C5a-derived immunobiotic peptide reduces Streptococcus agalactiae colonization through targeted bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Courtney K; Patras, Kathryn A; Zlamal, Jaime E; Thoman, Marilyn L; Morgan, Edward L; Sanderson, Sam D; Doran, Kelly S

    2013-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the cervicovaginal tract in approximately 25% of healthy women. Although colonization is asymptomatic, GBS can be vertically transmitted to newborns peripartum, causing severe disease such as pneumonia and meningitis. Current prophylaxis, consisting of late gestation screening and intrapartum antibiotics, has failed to completely prevent transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in the United States. Lack of an effective vaccine and emerging antibiotic resistance necessitate exploring novel therapeutic strategies. We have employed a host-directed immunomodulatory therapy using a novel peptide, known as EP67, derived from the C-terminal region of human complement component C5a. Previously, we have demonstrated in vivo that EP67 engagement of the C5a receptor (CD88) effectively limits staphylococcal infection by promoting cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Here, using our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, we observed that EP67 treatment results in rapid clearance of GBS from the murine vagina. However, this was not dependent on functional neutrophil recruitment or CD88 signaling, as EP67 treatment reduced the vaginal bacterial load in mice lacking CD88 or the major neutrophil receptor CXCr2. Interestingly, we found that EP67 inhibits GBS growth in vitro and in vivo and that antibacterial activity was specific to Streptococcus species. Our work establishes that EP67-mediated clearance of GBS is likely due to direct bacterial killing rather than to enhanced immune stimulation. We conclude that EP67 may have potential as a therapeutic to control GBS vaginal colonization.

  17. Identification of tissue-specific targeting peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Daejin; Park, Kisoo; Choi, Kihang; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Using phage display technique, we identified tissue-targeting peptide sets that recognize specific tissues (bone-marrow dendritic cell, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and visceral adipose tissue). In order to rapidly evaluate tissue-specific targeting peptides, we performed machine learning studies for predicting the tissue-specific targeting activity of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information using four machine learning models and isolated the groups of peptides capable of mediating selective targeting to specific tissues. As a representative liver-specific targeting sequence, the peptide "DKNLQLH" was selected by the sequence similarity analysis. This peptide has a high degree of homology with protein ligands which can interact with corresponding membrane counterparts. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the prediction of tissue-specific targeting peptides which can recognize the endothelial markers of target tissues.

  18. Combination of the CCL5-Derived Peptide R4.0 with Different HIV-1 Blockers Reveals Wide Target Compatibility and Synergic Cobinding to CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Massimiliano; Vassena, Lia; Morin, Sébastien; Schols, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    R4.0, a synthetic CCL5/RANTES-derived peptide, exerts potent anti-HIV-1 activity via its nonactivating interaction with CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor. CCR5 chronic activation may promote undesirable inflammatory effects and enhance viral infection; thus, receptor antagonism is a necessary requisite. HIV-1 gp120, CCL5, and maraviroc dock on CCR5 by sharing two receptor sites: the N terminus and the second extracellular loop. In combination studies, R4.0, CCL5, and maraviroc exhibited concomitant interactions with CCR5 and promoted synergic inhibition of HIV-1 in acute-infection assays. Furthermore, various degrees of additive/synergic HIV-1 inhibition were observed when R4.0 was tested in combination with drugs and lead compounds directed toward different viral targets (gp120, gp41, reverse transcriptase, and protease). In combination with tenofovir, R4.0 provides cross-clade synergic inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates. Remarkably, an in vitro-generated maraviroc-resistant R5 HIV-1 strain was inhibited by R4.0 comparably to the wild-type strain, suggesting the presence of viral resistance barriers similar to those reported for CCL5. Overall, R4.0 appears to be a promising lead peptide with potential for combination in anti-HIV-1 therapy and in microbicide development to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25114130

  19. Combination of the CCL5-derived peptide R4.0 with different HIV-1 blockers reveals wide target compatibility and synergic cobinding to CCR5.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Massimiliano; Vassena, Lia; Morin, Sébastien; Schols, Dominique; Vangelista, Luca

    2014-10-01

    R4.0, a synthetic CCL5/RANTES-derived peptide, exerts potent anti-HIV-1 activity via its nonactivating interaction with CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor. CCR5 chronic activation may promote undesirable inflammatory effects and enhance viral infection; thus, receptor antagonism is a necessary requisite. HIV-1 gp120, CCL5, and maraviroc dock on CCR5 by sharing two receptor sites: the N terminus and the second extracellular loop. In combination studies, R4.0, CCL5, and maraviroc exhibited concomitant interactions with CCR5 and promoted synergic inhibition of HIV-1 in acute-infection assays. Furthermore, various degrees of additive/synergic HIV-1 inhibition were observed when R4.0 was tested in combination with drugs and lead compounds directed toward different viral targets (gp120, gp41, reverse transcriptase, and protease). In combination with tenofovir, R4.0 provides cross-clade synergic inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates. Remarkably, an in vitro-generated maraviroc-resistant R5 HIV-1 strain was inhibited by R4.0 comparably to the wild-type strain, suggesting the presence of viral resistance barriers similar to those reported for CCL5. Overall, R4.0 appears to be a promising lead peptide with potential for combination in anti-HIV-1 therapy and in microbicide development to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission.

  20. Strategies for Vaccine Design Using Phage Display-Derived Peptides.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Luiz R; Santos, Paula de S

    2016-01-01

    Development of peptide vaccines through the phage display technology is a powerful strategy that relies on short peptides expressed in the phage capsid surface to induce highly targeted immune responses. Phage display-derived immunogenic peptides can be used directly as a phage-fused peptide reagent or as a synthetic peptide with specific modifications, according to target molecule and disease pathogen/parasite. Peptides' selection (mimotopes) can be performed against monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to disclose determinant regions (epitopes) that can induce a neutralizing response. Validations of mimotopes are performed in vitro and in vivo, based on cell culture and animal models, to demonstrate its immunogenic potential for final vaccine formulations with an appropriate adjuvant. Here we present specific methods for the discovery of novel immunogenic peptides based on phage display.

  1. Membrane damage as first and DNA as the secondary target for anti-candidal activity of antimicrobial peptide P7 derived from cell-penetrating peptide ppTG20 against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Lirong; Song, Fengxia; Sun, Jin; Tian, Xu; Xia, Shufang; Le, Guowei

    2016-06-01

    P7, a peptide analogue derived from cell-penetrating peptide ppTG20, possesses antibacterial and antitumor activities without significant hemolytic activity. In this study, we investigated the antifungal effect of P7 and its anti-Candida acting mode in Candida albicans. P7 displayed antifungal activity against the reference C. albicans (MIC = 4 μM), Aspergilla niger (MIC = 32 μM), Aspergillus flavus (MIC = 8 μM), and Trichopyton rubrum (MIC = 16 μM). The effect of P7 on the C. albicans cell membrane was examined by investigating the calcein leakage from fungal membrane models made of egg yolk l-phosphatidylcholine/ergosterol (10 : 1, w/w) liposomes. P7 showed potent leakage effects against fungal liposomes similar to Melittin-treated cells. C. albicans protoplast regeneration assay demonstrated that P7 interacted with the C. albicans plasma membrane. Flow cytometry of the plasma membrane potential and integrity of C. albicans showed that P7 caused 60.9 ± 1.8% depolarization of the membrane potential of intact C. albicans cells and caused 58.1 ± 3.2% C. albicans cell membrane damage. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that part of FITC-P7 accumulated in the cytoplasm. DNA retardation analysis was also performed, which showed that P7 interacted with C. albicans genomic DNA after penetrating the cell membrane, completely inhibiting the migration of genomic DNA above the weight ratio (peptide : DNA) of 6. Our results indicated that the plasma membrane was the primary target, and DNA was the secondary intracellular target of the mode of action of P7 against C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Structure-based derivation of peptide inhibitors to target TGF-β1 receptor for the suppression of hypertrophic scarring fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huan; Yang, Songlin; Zheng, Jianghong; Mao, Guangyu

    2017-01-25

    The intermolecular recognition and interaction between human transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) and its cognate receptor TβRII have been implicated in the pathological condition of hypertrophic scarring (HS). Here, we attempted to rationally derive peptide inhibitors from the complex interface of TGF-β1 with TβRII to disrupt such interaction for the suppression of fibroblast activation involved in HS. A synthetic strategy that integrated computational design and fluorescence-based assay was described to examine the structural basis and energetic property of TGF-β1-TβRII crystal structure, from which a small peptide segment in the complex binding site was stripped artificially. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the linear peptide possesses a large intrinsic disorder that would incur considerable entropy penalty upon binding to TβRII; the peptide segment was then extended and cyclized by introducing a disulfide bond across its terminal residues that were premutated to cysteine. Normal mode analysis indicated that, as expected, the peptide flexibility was largely reduced upon the cyclization, and thus, the entropy penalty was minimized substantially, consequently promoting the spontaneous binding of peptide to TβRII. Fluorescence polarization assay confirmed that all linear peptides are typical non-binders of TβRII (Kd  = ND), while the designed cyclic peptides exhibit moderate or high affinity with Kd at micromolar level.

  3. A parasitic helminth-derived peptide that targets the macrophage lysosome is a novel therapeutic option for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Raquel; O'Brien, Bronwyn; Tanaka, Akane; Dalton, John P; Donnelly, Sheila

    2015-02-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) reside in their mammalian hosts for many years. This is attributable, in part, to their ability to skew the host's immune system away from pro-inflammatory responses and towards anti-inflammatory or regulatory responses. This immune modulatory ability ensures helminth longevity within the host, while simultaneously minimises tissue destruction for the host. The molecules that the parasite releases clearly exert potent immune-modulatory actions, which could be exploited clinically, for example in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of pro-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have identified a novel family of immune-modulatory proteins, termed helminth defence molecules (HDMs), which are secreted by several medically important helminth parasites. These HDMs share biochemical and structural characteristics with mammalian cathelicidin-like host defence peptides (HDPs), which are significant components of the innate immune system. Like their mammalian counterparts, parasite HDMs block the activation of macrophages via toll like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling, however HDMs are significantly less cytotoxic than HDPs. HDMs can traverse the cell membrane of macrophages and enter the endolysosomal system where they reduce the acidification of lysosomal compartments by inhibiting vacuolar (v)-ATPase activity. In doing this, HDMs can modulate critical cellular functions, such as cytokine secretion and antigen processing/presentation. Here, we review the role of macrophages, specifically their lysosomal mediated activities, in the initiation and perpetuation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. We also discuss the potential of helminth defence molecules (HDMs) as therapeutics to counteract the pro-inflammatory responses underlying autoimmune disease. Given the current lack of effective, non-cytotoxic treatment options to limit the progression of autoimmune pathologies, HDMs open novel treatment avenues.

  4. Identification of human leukocyte antigen-A24-restricted epitope peptides derived from gene products upregulated in lung and esophageal cancers as novel targets for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suda, Takako; Tsunoda, Takuya; Daigo, Yataro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tahara, Hideaki

    2007-11-01

    For the development of cancer vaccine therapies, we have searched for possible epitope peptides that can elicit cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to the TTK protein kinase (TTK), lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus K (LY6K) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP-3), which were previously identified to be transactivated in the majority of lung and esophageal cancers. We screened 31, 17 and 17 candidate human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402-binding peptides to parts of TTK, LY6K and IMP-3, respectively. As a result, we successfully established strong CTL clones stimulated by TTK-567 (SYRNEIAYL), LY6K-177 (RYCNLEGPPI) and IMP-3-508 (KTVNELQNL) that have specific cytotoxic activities against the HLA-A24-positive target cells pulsed with the candidate peptides. Subsequent analysis of the CTL clones also revealed their cytotoxic activities against lung and esophageal tumor cells that endogenously express TTK, LY6K or IMP-3. A cold target inhibition assay further confirmed that the CTL cell clones specifically recognized the MHC class I–peptide complex. Our results strongly imply that TTK, LY6K and IMP-3 are novel tumor-associated antigens recognized by CTL, and TTK-567 (SYRNEIAYL), LY6K-177 (RYCNLEGPPI) and IMP-3-508 (KTVNELQNL) are HLA-A24-restricted epitope peptides that can induce potent and specific immune responses against lung and esophageal cancer cells expressing TTK, LY6K and IMP-3.

  5. Peptide mediated cancer targeting of nanoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Raha, Sumita; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Targeted use of nanoparticles in vitro, in cells and in vivo requires nanoparticle surface functionalization. Moieties that can be used for such a purpose include small molecules as well as polymers made of different biological and organic materials. Short amino acid polymers--peptides can often rival target binding avidity of much larger molecules. At the same time, peptides are smaller than most nanoparticles and thus allow for multiple nanoparticle modifications and creation of pluripotent nanoparticles. Most nanoparticles provide multiple binding sites for different cargo and targeting peptides which can be used for development of novel approaches for cancer targeting, diagnostics and therapy. In this review, we will focus on peptides which have been used for preparation of different nanoparticles designed for cancer research. PMID:21046660

  6. Processing and targeting of proteins derived from polyprotein with 2A and LP4/2A as peptide linkers in a maize expression system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Huang, Dafang; Lang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    In the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. The 2A peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes the co-translational “cleavage” of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. LP4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of Impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and second amino acids in post-translational processing. LP4/2A is a hybrid linker peptide that contains the first nine amino acids of LP4 and 20 amino acids of 2A. The three linkers have been used as a suitable technique to link the expression of genes in some transgenic plants, but to date the cleavage efficiency of three linkers have not been comprehensively demonstrated in the same transformation system, especially in the staple crop. To verify the functions of 2A, LP4, and LP4/2A linker peptides in transgenic maize, six fusion protein vectors that each encoded a single open reading frame (ORF) incorporating two report genes, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS), separated by 2A (or modified 2A), LP4 or LP4/2A were assembled to compare the cleavage efficiency of the three linkers in a maize transient expression system. The results demonstrated the more protein production and higher cleavage splicing efficiency with the polyprotein construct linked by the LP4/2A peptide than those of the polyprotein constructs linked by 2A or LP4 alone. Seven other fusion proteins that each encoded a single ORF incorporating two different genes GFP and Red Fluorecent Protein (RFP) with different signal peptides were assembled to study the subcellular localization of genes linked by LP4/2A. The subcellular localization experiments suggested that both types of signal peptide, co-translational and post-translational, could lead their proteins to the target localization in

  7. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  8. Human Anti-Aβ IgGs Target Conformational Epitopes on Synthetic Dimer Assemblies and the AD Brain-Derived Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Schwarz, Hans P.; Walsh, Dominic M.; Solomon, Alan; O’Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ’s conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody’s nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody’s lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted. PMID:23209707

  9. A fusogenic dengue virus-derived peptide enhances antitumor efficacy of an antibody-ribonuclease fusion protein targeting the EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Kiesgen, Stefan; Liebers, Nora; Cremer, Martin; Arnold, Ulrich; Weber, Tobias; Keller, Armin; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Jäger, Dirk; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Due to its frequent overexpression in a variety of solid tumors the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-established target for therapeutic interventions in epithelial cancers. In order to target EGFR in head and neck cancer, we have generated a ribonuclease (RNase) fusion protein comprising a humanized anti-EGFR antibody single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) and Ranpirnase, an RNase from Rana pipiens. Fusion of Ranpirnase to the N-terminus of the scFv via a flexible glycine-serine linker (G4S)3 resulted in very poor cytotoxicity of the fusion protein. As endosomal accumulation and lysosomal degradation have been reported to diminish the antitumor efficacy of ribonuclease or toxin-based immunoagents, we explored a fusion peptide from dengue virus that has been reported to be involved in the endosomal escape of the virus. This peptide was introduced as a linker between Ranpirnase and the scFv moiety. The modified immunoRNase exhibited exceptionally high cytotoxicity toward EGFR-expressing head and neck cell lines without affecting specificity. These results indicate that endosomal entrapment needs to be considered for Ranpirnase-based immunoagents and might be overcome by the use of tailored transduction domains from viral proteins.

  10. Cullin3 - BTB Interface: A Novel Target for Stapled Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Maddalena; Balasco, Nicole; Esposito, Luciana; Russo, Luigi; Mazzà, Daniela; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Malgieri, Gaetano; Vitagliano, Luigi; Pedone, Emilia; Zaccaro, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Cullin3 (Cul3), a key factor of protein ubiquitination, is able to interact with dozens of different proteins containing a BTB (Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack and Broad Complex) domain. We here targeted the Cul3–BTB interface by using the intriguing approach of stabilizing the α-helical conformation of Cul3-based peptides through the “stapling” with a hydrocarbon cross-linker. In particular, by combining theoretical and experimental techniques, we designed and characterized stapled Cul3-based peptides embedding the helix 2 of the protein (residues 49–68). Intriguingly, CD and NMR experiments demonstrate that these stapled peptides were able to adopt the helical structure that the fragment assumes in the parent protein. We also show that some of these peptides were able to bind to the BTB of the tetrameric KCTD11, a substrate adaptor involved in HDAC1 degradation, with high affinity (~ 300–600 nM). Cul3-derived staple peptides are also able to bind the BTB of the pentameric KCTD5. Interestingly, the affinity of these peptides is of the same order of magnitude of that reported for the interaction of full-length Cul3 with some BTB containing proteins. Moreover, present data indicate that stapling endows these peptides with an increased serum stability. Altogether, these findings indicate that the designed stapled peptides can efficiently mimic protein-protein interactions and are potentially able to modulate fundamental biological processes involving Cul3. PMID:25848797

  11. Cullin3-BTB interface: a novel target for stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    de Paola, Ivan; Pirone, Luciano; Palmieri, Maddalena; Balasco, Nicole; Esposito, Luciana; Russo, Luigi; Mazzà, Daniela; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Malgieri, Gaetano; Vitagliano, Luigi; Pedone, Emilia; Zaccaro, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Cullin3 (Cul3), a key factor of protein ubiquitination, is able to interact with dozens of different proteins containing a BTB (Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack and Broad Complex) domain. We here targeted the Cul3-BTB interface by using the intriguing approach of stabilizing the α-helical conformation of Cul3-based peptides through the "stapling" with a hydrocarbon cross-linker. In particular, by combining theoretical and experimental techniques, we designed and characterized stapled Cul3-based peptides embedding the helix 2 of the protein (residues 49-68). Intriguingly, CD and NMR experiments demonstrate that these stapled peptides were able to adopt the helical structure that the fragment assumes in the parent protein. We also show that some of these peptides were able to bind to the BTB of the tetrameric KCTD11, a substrate adaptor involved in HDAC1 degradation, with high affinity (~ 300-600 nM). Cul3-derived staple peptides are also able to bind the BTB of the pentameric KCTD5. Interestingly, the affinity of these peptides is of the same order of magnitude of that reported for the interaction of full-length Cul3 with some BTB containing proteins. Moreover, present data indicate that stapling endows these peptides with an increased serum stability. Altogether, these findings indicate that the designed stapled peptides can efficiently mimic protein-protein interactions and are potentially able to modulate fundamental biological processes involving Cul3.

  12. A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits anti-tumor activity by targeting GRP78 in gastric cancer multidrug resistance cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianqin; Zhao, Guohong; Lin, Tao; Tang, Shanhong; Xu, Guanghui; Hu, Sijun; Bi, Qian; Guo, Changcun; Sun, Li; Han, Shuang; Xu, Qian; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Biaoluo; Liang, Shuhui; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2013-10-10

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant challenge to the clinical treatment of gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, using a phage display approach combined with MTT assays, we screened a specific peptide GMBP1 (Gastric cancer MDR cell-specific binding peptide), ETAPLSTMLSPY, which could bind to the surface of GC MDR cells specifically and reverse their MDR phenotypes. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the potential receptor of GMBP1 was located at the membrane and cytoplasm of MDR cells. In vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity assays, FACS analysis and Western blotting confirmed that GMBP1 was able to re-sensitize MDR cells to chemical drugs. Western blotting and proteomic approaches were used to screen the receptor of GMBP1, and GRP78, a MDR-related protein, was identified as a receptor of GMBP1. This result was further supported by immunofluoresence microscopy and Western blot. Additionally, Western blotting demonstrated that pre-incubation of GMBP1 in MDR cells greatly diminished MDR1, Bcl-2 and GRP78 expression but increased the expression of Bax, whereas downregulation of GRP78, function as a receptor and directly target for GMBP1, only inhibited MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that GMBP1 could re-sensitize GC MDR cells to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents and this role might be mediated partly through down-regulating GRP78 expression and then inhibiting MDR1 expression. These findings indicate that peptide GMBP1 likely recognizes a novel GRP78 receptor and mediates cellular activities associated with the MDR phenotype, which provides new insight into research on the management of MDR in gastric cancer cells.

  13. Stapled peptides for intracellular drug targets.

    PubMed

    Verdine, Gregory L; Hilinski, Gerard J

    2012-01-01

    Proteins that engage in intracellular interactions with other proteins are widely considered among the most biologically appealing yet chemically intractable targets for drug discovery. The critical interaction surfaces of these proteins typically lack the deep hydrophobic involutions that enable potent, selective targeting by small organic molecules, and their localization within the cell puts them beyond the reach of protein therapeutics. Considerable interest has therefore arisen in next-generation targeting molecules that combine the broad target recognition capabilities of protein therapeutics with the robust cell-penetrating ability of small molecules. One type that has shown promise in early-stage studies is hydrocarbon-stapled α-helical peptides, a novel class of synthetic miniproteins locked into their bioactive α-helical fold through the site-specific introduction of a chemical brace, an all-hydrocarbon staple. Stapling can greatly improve the pharmacologic performance of peptides, increasing their target affinity, proteolytic resistance, and serum half-life while conferring on them high levels of cell penetration through endocytic vesicle trafficking. Here, we discuss considerations crucial to the successful design and evaluation of potent stapled peptide interactions, our intention being to facilitate the broad application of this technology to intractable targets of both basic biologic interest and potential therapeutic value.

  14. Novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides use different antimicrobial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Kathryn E; Spinella, Sara A; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The increase in multidrug resistant bacteria has sparked an interest in the development of novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides that operate by crossing the cell membrane may also have the potential to deliver drugs to intracellular targets. Buforin 2 (BF2) is an antimicrobial peptide that shares sequence identity with a fragment of histone subunit H2A and whose bactericidal mechanism depends on membrane translocation and DNA binding. Previously, novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAPs) were designed based on properties of BF2, and DesHDAP1 and DesHDAP3 showed significant antibacterial activity. In this study, their DNA binding, permeabilization, and translocation abilities were assessed independently and compared to antibacterial activity to determine whether they share a mechanism with BF2. To investigate the importance of proline in determining the peptides' mechanisms of action, proline to alanine mutants of the novel peptides were generated. DesHDAP1, which shows significant similarities to BF2 in terms of secondary structure, translocates effectively across lipid vesicle and bacterial membranes, while the DesHDAP1 proline mutant shows reduced translocation abilities and antimicrobial potency. In contrast, both DesHDAP3 and its proline mutant translocate poorly, though the DesHDAP3 proline mutant is more potent. Our findings suggest that a proline hinge can promote membrane translocation in some peptides, but that the extent of its effect on permeabilization depends on the peptide's amphipathic properties. Our results also highlight the different antimicrobial mechanisms exhibited by histone-derived peptides and suggest that histones may serve as a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with varied properties.

  15. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides.

    PubMed

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2012-08-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondira often rely on disruption of protein--protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion.

  16. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondria often rely on disruption of protein–protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion. PMID:22946430

  17. Peptide therapeutics: targeting the undruggable space.

    PubMed

    Tsomaia, Natia

    2015-04-13

    Rapid advancements in genomics have brought a better understanding of molecular mechanisms for various pathologies and identified a number of highly attractive target classes. Some of these targets include intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which control many essential biological pathways. Their surfaces are part of a diverse and unexplored biological space, where traditional small molecule scaffolds are not always successful. While large biologics can effectively modulate PPIs in the extracellular region, their limitation in crossing the cellular membrane leaves intracellular protein targets outside of their reach. There is a growing need in the pharmaceutical field to push the boundaries of traditional drug design and discover innovative molecules that are able to modulate key biological pathways by inhibiting intracellular PPIs. Peptides are one of the most promising classes of molecules that could deliver such therapeutics in the near future. In this review, we describe technological advancements and emerging chemical approaches for stabilizing active peptide conformations, including stapling, hydrogen bond surrogates, beta-hairpin mimetics, grafting on stable scaffolds, and macrocyclization. These design strategies carry the promise of opening the doors for peptide therapeutics to reach the currently "undruggable" space.

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan. While interaction of AMPs with peptidoglycan might rather facilitate penetration, interaction with anionic teichoic acids may act as either a trap for AMPs or a ladder for a route to the cytoplasmic membrane. Interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane frequently leads to lipid segregation affecting membrane domain organization, which affects membrane permeability, inhibits cell division processes or leads to delocalization of essential peripheral membrane proteins. Further, precursors of cell wall components, especially the highly conserved lipid II, are directly targeted by AMPs. Thereby, the peptides do not inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis via binding to proteins like common antibiotics, but form a complex with the precursor molecule, which in addition can promote pore formation and membrane disruption. Thus, the multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target. PMID:27657092

  19. Mitochondrial targeted peptides for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Farsinejad, Sadaf; Gheisary, Zohre; Ebrahimi Samani, Sanaz; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are a key pharmacological target in all cancer cells, since the structure and function of this organelle is different between healthy and malignant cells. Oxidative damage, disruption of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, calcium dyshomeostasis, mtDNA damage, and induction of the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) lead to the mitochondrial dysfunctionality and increase the probability of the programmed cell death or apoptosis. A variety of the signaling pathways have been developed to promote cell death including overexpression of pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family, overloaded calcium, and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the promoting mitochondrial cytochrome c release through MOMP and eventually leads to cell death. There are a wide range of the therapeutic-based peptide drugs, known mitochondrial targeted peptides (MTPs), which specifically target mitochondrial pathways into death. They have prominent advantages such as low toxicity, high specificity, and easy to synthesis. Some of these therapeutic peptides have shown to increased the clinical activity alone or in combination with other agents. In this review, we will outline the biological properties of MTPs for cancer therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling cell death by MTPs can be critical for the development of the therapeutic strategies for cancer patients that would be valuable for researchers in both fields of molecular and clinical oncology.

  20. Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Jae Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jinhyang; Park, Jaesook; Park, Seok Soon; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Park, Hye Ji; Ko, Eun Jung; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, InKi; Hwang, Jung Jin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics.

  1. Vaccination with agonist peptide PSA: 154-163 (155L) derived from prostate specific antigen induced CD8 T-cell response to the native peptide PSA: 154-163 but failed to induce the reactivity against tumor targets expressing PSA: a phase 2 study in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kouiavskaia, Diana V; Berard, Carla A; Datena, Ellen; Hussain, Arif; Dawson, Nancy; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Alexander, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of peptide prostate specific antigen (PSA): 154-163 (155L) vaccination in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 patients with detectable and rising serum PSA after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00109811). The trial was a single dose-level, phase 2 pilot trial of 1 mg of PSA: 154-163 (155L) emulsified with adjuvant (Montanide ISA-51). The primary endpoint was the determination of immunogenicity of the vaccine; secondary outcomes were determination of toxicity and effect on serum PSA. The vaccine was given subcutaneously 7 times on weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 18. Peptide-specific CD8 T-cell responses in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients were measured by interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. CD8 T-cell cultures were also established by in vitro stimulation with the peptide presented by autologous dendritic cells. Five patients were enrolled and completed all vaccinations. No IFN-gamma response to PSA: 154-163 (155L) was detected in unfractioned PBMC in any patient either before or after vaccination. Three of 5 patients demonstrated strong IFN-gamma responses to PSA: 154-163 (155L) and native PSA: 154-163 peptides in CD8 T-cell cultures derived from postvaccination PBMC. However, peptide-specific T cells failed to recognize HLA-A2 positive targets expressing endogenous PSA. There were no significant changes in serum PSA level in any subject. No serious adverse events were observed. PSA: 154-163 (155L) is not an effective immunogen when given with Montanide ISA-51. The PSA: 154-163 peptide is poorly processed from endogenous PSA and therefore represents a cryptic epitope of PSA in HLA-A2 antigen-presenting cells.

  2. Targeting B16 tumors in vivo with peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Wilson; Zhang, Xuan; Bekah, Devesh; Teodoro, Jose G.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and peptide conjugation on the biodistribution of ultrasmall (2.7 nm) gold nanoparticles in mice bearing B16 melanoma allografts. Nanoparticles were delivered intravenously, and biodistribution was measured at specific timepoints by organ digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All major organs were examined. Two peptides were tested: the cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD, which targets integrins); and a recently described peptide derived from the myxoma virus. We found the greatest specific tumor delivery using the myxoma peptide, with or without PEGylation. Un-PEGylated cRGD performed poorly, but PEGylated RGD showed a significant transient collection in the tumor. Liver and kidney were the primary targets of all constructs. None of the particles were able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Although it was able to deliver Au to B16 cells, the myxoma peptide did not show any cytotoxic activity against these cells, in contrast to previous reports. These results indicate that the effect of passive targeting by PEGylation and active targeting by peptides can be independent or combined, and that they should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis when designing new nanosystems for targeted therapies. Both myxoma peptide and cRGD should be considered for specific targeting to melanoma, but a thorough investigation of the cytotoxicity of the myxoma peptide to different cell lines remains to be performed.

  3. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  4. Peptide drugs to target G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2010-09-01

    Major indications for use of peptide-based therapeutics include endocrine functions (especially diabetes mellitus and obesity), infectious diseases, and cancer. Whereas some peptide pharmaceuticals are drugs, acting as agonists or antagonists to directly treat cancer, others (including peptide diagnostics and tumour-targeting pharmaceuticals) use peptides to 'shuttle' a chemotherapeutic agent or a tracer to the tumour and allow sensitive imaging or targeted therapy. Significant progress has been made in the last few years to overcome disadvantages in peptide design such as short half-life, fast proteolytic cleavage, and low oral bioavailability. These advances include peptide PEGylation, lipidisation or multimerisation; the introduction of peptidomimetic elements into the sequences; and innovative uptake strategies such as liposomal, capsule or subcutaneous formulations. This review focuses on peptides targeting G protein-coupled receptors that are promising drug candidates or that have recently entered the pharmaceutical market.

  5. Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing, and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive peptides (BAPs), derived through enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, have demonstrated potential for application as health-promoting agents against numerous human health and disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. The feasibility of pharmacological application of these peptides depends on absorption and bioavailability in intact forms in target tissues, which in turn depends on structure of the peptides. Therefore, production and processing of peptides based on important structure-function parameters can lead to the production of potent peptides. This article reviews the literature on BAPs with emphasis on strategic production and processing methods as well as antihypertensive, anticancer, anticalmodulin, hypocholesterolemic, and multifunctional properties of the food protein-derived peptides. It is recommended that future research efforts on BAP should be directed toward elucidation of their in vivo molecular mechanisms of action, safety at various doses, and pharmacological activity in maintaining homeostasis during aberrant health conditions in human subjects.

  6. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes.

  7. Targeting DNA Vaccines to Myeloid Cells Using a Small Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chunting; Choi, Jang Gi; Abraham, Sojan; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting DNA vaccines to dendritic cells (DCs) greatly enhances immunity. Although several approaches have been used to target protein antigens to DCs, currently there is no method that targets DNA vaccines directly to DCs. Here, we show that a small peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein, fused to protamine residues (RVG-P) can target DNA to myeloid cells, including DCs, that results in enhanced humoral and T-cell responses. DCs targeted with a DNA vaccine encoding the immunodominant vaccinia B8R gene via RVG-P were able to restimulate vaccinia-specific memory T cells in vitro. Importantly, a single i.v. injection of B8R gene bound to RVG-P was able prime a vaccinia-specific T-cell response that was able to rapidly clear a subsequent vaccinia challenge in mice. Moreover, delivery of DNA in DCs was enough to induce DC maturation and efficient antigen presentation without the need for adjuvants. Finally, immunization of mice with a DNA-vaccine encoding West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins via RVG-P elicited high titers of WN neutralizing antibodies that protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. Thus, RVG-P provides a reagent to target DNA vaccines to myeloid cells and elicit robust T-cell and humoral immune responses. PMID:25270431

  8. Targeting DNA vaccines to myeloid cells using a small peptide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chunting; Choi, Jang Gi; Abraham, Sojan; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N

    2015-01-01

    Targeting DNA vaccines to dendritic cells (DCs) greatly enhances immunity. Although several approaches have been used to target protein Ags to DCs, currently there is no method that targets DNA vaccines directly to DCs. Here, we show that a small peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein fused to protamine residues (RVG-P) can target DNA to myeloid cells, including DCs, which results in enhanced humoral and T-cell responses. DCs targeted with a DNA vaccine encoding the immunodominant vaccinia B8R gene via RVG-P were able to restimulate vaccinia-specific memory T cells in vitro. Importantly, a single i.v. injection of B8R gene bound to RVG-P was able to prime a vaccinia-specific T-cell response that was able to rapidly clear a subsequent vaccinia challenge in mice. Moreover, delivery of DNA in DCs was enough to induce DC maturation and efficient Ag presentation without the need for adjuvants. Finally, immunization of mice with a DNA-vaccine encoding West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins via RVG-P elicited high titers of WNV-neutralizing Abs that protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. Thus, RVG-P provides a reagent to target DNA vaccines to myeloid cells and elicit robust T-cell and humoral immune responses.

  9. IP3R2 levels dictate the apoptotic sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to an IP3R-derived peptide targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Akl, H; Monaco, G; La Rovere, R; Welkenhuyzen, K; Kiviluoto, S; Vervliet, T; Molgó, J; Distelhorst, C W; Missiaen, L; Mikoshiba, K; Parys, J B; De Smedt, H; Bultynck, G

    2013-05-16

    Disrupting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) complexes using a cell-permeable peptide (stabilized TAT-fused IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDP(S))) that selectively targets the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 but not that of B-cell lymphoma 2-extra large (Bcl-Xl) potentiated pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. However, the molecular mechanisms rendering cancer cells but not normal cells particularly sensitive to disrupting IP3R/Bcl-2 complexes are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of TAT-IDP(S) in a more heterogeneous Bcl-2-dependent cancer model using a set of 'primed to death' diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DL-BCL) cell lines containing elevated Bcl-2 levels. We discovered a large heterogeneity in the apoptotic responses of these cells to TAT-IDP(S) with SU-DHL-4 being most sensitive and OCI-LY-1 being most resistant. This sensitivity strongly correlated with the ability of TAT-IDP(S) to promote IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. Although total IP3R-expression levels were very similar among SU-DHL-4 and OCI-LY-1, we discovered that the IP3R2-protein level was the highest for SU-DHL-4 and the lowest for OCI-LY-1. Strikingly, TAT-IDP(S)-induced Ca(2+) rise and apoptosis in the different DL-BCL cell lines strongly correlated with their IP3R2-protein level, but not with IP3R1-, IP3R3- or total IP3R-expression levels. Inhibiting or knocking down IP3R2 activity in SU-DHL-4-reduced TAT-IDP(S)-induced apoptosis, which is compatible with its ability to dissociate Bcl-2 from IP3R2 and to promote IP3-induced pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling. Thus, certain chronically activated B-cell lymphoma cells are addicted to high Bcl-2 levels for their survival not only to neutralize pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members but also to suppress IP3R hyperactivity. In particular, cancer cells expressing high levels of IP3R2 are addicted to IP3R/Bcl-2 complex formation and disruption of these complexes using peptide tools

  10. Role of signal peptides in targeting of proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Mackle, M M; Zilinskas, B A

    1994-01-01

    Proteins of cyanobacteria may be transported across one of two membrane systems: the typical eubacterial cell envelope (consisting of an inner membrane, periplasmic space, and an outer membrane) and the photosynthetic thylakoids. To investigate the role of signal peptides in targeting in cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was transformed with vectors carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to coding sequences for one of four different signal peptides. These included signal peptides of two proteins of periplasmic space origin (one from Escherichia coli and the other from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942) and two other signal peptides of proteins located in the thylakoid lumen (one from a cyanobacterium and the other from a higher plant). The location of the gene fusion products expressed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was determined by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of subcellular fractions. The distribution pattern for gene fusions with periplasmic signal peptides was different from that of gene fusions with thylakoid lumen signal peptides. Primary sequence analysis revealed conserved features in the thylakoid lumen signal peptides that were absent from the periplasmic signal peptides. These results suggest the importance of the signal peptide in protein targeting in cyanobacteria and point to the presence of signal peptide features conserved between chloroplasts and cyanobacteria for targeting of proteins to the thylakoid lumen. Images PMID:8144451

  11. Peptide phage display as a tool for drug discovery: targeting membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Molek, Peter; Strukelj, Borut; Bratkovic, Tomaz

    2011-01-21

    Ligands selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries tend to be directed to biologically relevant sites on the surface of the target protein. Consequently, peptides derived from library screenings often modulate the target protein's activity in vitro and in vivo and can be used as lead compounds in drug design and as alternatives to antibodies for target validation in both genomics and drug discovery. This review discusses the use of phage display to identify membrane receptor modulators with agonistic or antagonistic activities. Because isolating or producing recombinant membrane proteins for use as target molecules in library screening is often impossible, innovative selection strategies such as panning against whole cells or tissues, recombinant receptor ectodomains, or neutralizing antibodies to endogenous binding partners were devised. Prominent examples from a two-decade history of peptide phage display will be presented, focusing on the design of affinity selection experiments, methods for improving the initial hits, and applications of the identified peptides.

  12. Targeting and therapeutic peptides in nanomedicine for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Peptides in atherosclerosis nanomedicine provide structural, targeting, and therapeutic functionality and can assist in overcoming delivery barriers of traditional pharmaceuticals. Moreover, their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability make them especially attractive as materials intended for use in vivo. In this review, an overview of nanoparticle-associated targeting and therapeutic peptides for atherosclerosis is provided, including peptides designed for cellular targets such as endothelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages as well as for plaque components such as collagen and fibrin. An emphasis is placed on recent advances in multimodal strategies and a discussion on current challenges and barriers for clinical applicability is presented. PMID:27022138

  13. T cell responses to HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from human alpha fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, L H; Meng, W S; Koh, A; Vollmer, C M; Ribas, A; Dissette, V B; Faull, K; Glaspy, J A; McBride, W H; Economou, J S

    2001-04-15

    alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptide epitopes can be recognized by human T cells in the context of MHC class I. We determined the identity of AFP-derived peptides, presented in the context of HLA-A*0201, that could be recognized by the human (h) T cell repertoire. We screened 74 peptides and identified 3 new AFP epitopes, hAFP(137-145), hAFP(158-166), and hAFP(325-334), in addition to the previously reported hAFP(542-550.) Each possesses two anchor residues and stabilized HLA-A*0201 on T2 cells in a concentration-dependent class I binding assay. The peptides were stable for 2-4 h in an off-kinetics assay. Each peptide induced peptide-specific T cells in vitro from several normal HLA-A*0201 donors. Importantly, these hAFP peptide-specific T cells also were capable of recognizing HLA-A*0201(+)/AFP(+) tumor cells in both cytotoxicity assays and IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays. The immunogenicity of each peptide was tested in vivo with HLA-A*0201/K(b)-transgenic mice. After immunization with each peptide emulsified in CFA, draining lymph node cells produced IFN-gamma on recognition of cells stably transfected with hAFP. Furthermore, AFP peptide-specific T cells could be identified in the spleens of mice immunized with dendritic cells transduced with an AFP-expressing adenovirus (AdVhAFP). Three of four AFP peptides could be identified by mass spectrometric analysis of surface peptides from an HLA-A*0201 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. Thus, compelling immunological and physiochemical evidence is presented that at least four hAFP-derived epitopes are naturally processed and presented in the context of class I, are immunogenic, and represent potential targets for hepatocellular carcinoma immunotherapy.

  14. Determination of the sequences of protein-derived peptides and peptide mixtures by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Howard R.; Williams, Dudley H.; Ambler, Richard P.

    1971-01-01

    Micro-quantities of protein-derived peptides have been converted into N-acetylated permethyl derivatives, and their sequences determined by low-resolution mass spectrometry without prior knowledge of their amino acid compositions or lengths. A new strategy is suggested for the mass spectrometric sequencing of oligopeptides or proteins, involving gel filtration of protein hydrolysates and subsequent sequence analysis of peptide mixtures. Finally, results are given that demonstrate for the first time the use of mass spectrometry for the analysis of a protein-derived peptide mixture, again without prior knowledge of the protein or components within the mixture. PMID:5158904

  15. Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota

    2014-04-01

    Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes.

  16. Drug target validation: Lethal infection blocked by inducible peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jianshi; Wendler, Philip; Connelly, Gene; Lim, Audrey; Zhang, Jiansu; King, Megan; Li, Tongchuan; Silverman, Jared A.; Schimmel, Paul R.; Tally, Francis P.

    2000-01-01

    Genome projects are generating large numbers of potential new targets for drug discovery. One challenge is target validation, proving the usefulness of a specific target in an animal model. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to validation and assay development. We selected in vitro specific peptide binders to a potential pathogen target. By inducing the expression of a selected peptide in pathogen cells causing a lethal infection in mice, the animals were rescued. Thus, by combining in vitro selection methods for peptide binders with inducible expression in animals, the target's validity was rigorously tested and demonstrated. This approach to validation can be generalized and has the potential to become a valuable tool in the drug discovery process.

  17. Targeted Proapoptotic Peptides Depleting Adipose Stromal Cells Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Florez, Fernando; Dadbin, Ali; Zhang, Tao; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-01-01

    Progression of many cancers is associated with tumor infiltration by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Adipose stromal cells (ASC) are MSC that serve as adipocyte progenitors and endothelium-supporting cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Clinical and animal model studies indicate that ASC mobilized from WAT are recruited by tumors. Direct evidence for ASC function in tumor microenvironment has been lacking due to unavailability of approaches to specifically inactivate these cells. Here, we investigate the effects of a proteolysis-resistant targeted hunter-killer peptide D-WAT composed of a cyclic domain CSWKYWFGEC homing to ASC and of a proapoptotic domain KLAKLAK2. Using mouse bone marrow transplantation models, we show that D-WAT treatment specifically depletes tumor stromal and perivascular cells without directly killing malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. In several mouse carcinoma models, targeted ASC cytoablation reduced tumor vascularity and cell proliferation resulting in hemorrhaging, necrosis, and suppressed tumor growth. We also validated a D-WAT derivative with a proapoptotic domain KFAKFAK2 that was found to have an improved cytoablative activity. Our results for the first time demonstrate that ASC, recruited as a component of tumor microenvironment, support cancer progression. We propose that drugs targeting ASC can be developed as a combination therapy complementing conventional cancer treatments. PMID:26316391

  18. Peptide targeting of adenoviral vectors to augment tumor gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Ballard, E N; Trinh, V T; Hogg, R T; Gerard, R D

    2012-07-01

    Adenovirus serotype 5 remains one of the most promising vectors for delivering genetic material to cancer cells for imaging or therapy, but optimization of these agents to selectively promote tumor cell infection is needed to further their clinical development. Peptide sequences that bind to specific cell surface receptors have been inserted into adenoviral capsid proteins to improve tumor targeting, often in the background of mutations designed to ablate normal ligand:receptor interactions and thereby reduce off target effects and toxicities in non-target tissues. Different tumor types also express highly variable complements of cell surface receptors, so a customized targeting strategy using a particular peptide in the context of specific adenoviral mutations may be needed to achieve optimal efficacy. To further investigate peptide targeting strategies in adenoviral vectors, we used a set of peptide motifs originally isolated using phage display technology that evince tumor specificity in vivo. To demonstrate their abilities as targeting motifs, we genetically incorporated these peptides into a surface loop of the fiber capsid protein to construct targeted adenovirus vectors. We then systematically evaluated the ability of these peptide targeted vectors to infect several tumor cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, in a variety of mutational backgrounds designed to reduce CAR and/or HSG-mediated binding. Results from this study support previous observations that peptide insertions in the HI loop of the fiber knob domain are generally ineffective when used in combination with HSG detargeting mutations. The evidence also suggests that this strategy can attenuate other fiber knob interactions, such as CAR-mediated binding, and reduce overall viral infectivity. The insertion of peptides into fiber proved more effective for targeting tumor cell types expressing low levels of CAR receptor, as this strategy can partially compensate for the very low infectivity of wild

  19. Virtual screening using combinatorial cyclic peptide libraries reveals protein interfaces readily targetable by cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C

    2015-03-23

    Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.

  20. Autocrine-Based Selection of Drugs That Target Ion Channels from Combinatorial Venom Peptide Libraries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkai; Du, Mingjuan; Xie, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Wei; Xin, Xiu; Possani, Lourival D; Yea, Kyungmoo; Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Animal venoms represent a rich source of pharmacologically active peptides that interact with ion channels. However, a challenge to discovering drugs remains because of the slow pace at which venom peptides are discovered and refined. An efficient autocrine-based high-throughput selection system was developed to discover and refine venom peptides that target ion channels. The utility of this system was demonstrated by the discovery of novel Kv1.3 channel blockers from a natural venom peptide library that was formatted for autocrine-based selection. We also engineered a Kv1.3 blocker peptide (ShK) derived from sea anemone to generate a subtype-selective Kv1.3 blocker with a long half-life in vivo.

  1. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hanold, Laura E; Fulton, Melody D; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2017-02-07

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications.

  2. Taenia saginata derived synthetic peptides with potential for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E; Benitez, L; Foster-Cuevas, M; Bryce, D; Wamae, L W; Onyango-Abuje, J A; Garate, T; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E

    2003-01-20

    Immunity in Taeniids is predominantly antibody mediated and thus many serological immuno-determinants will have potential in both protection and diagnosis. The antigenicity of six peptides derived from four potentially protective molecules cloned from a Taenia saginata oncospheres cDNA library have been evaluated as targets for the specific diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. The six peptides consist of: two peptides (HP6-2 and HP6-3) derived from the sequence of the 18 kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion antigen identified by McAb-HP6, two peptides (Ts45W-1 and Ts45W-5) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of the T. ovis 45W protective gene family, one peptide (TS45S-10) derived from a T. saginata sequence with significant similarity to the T. ovis 45S protective antigen, and one peptide (TEG-1) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of Echinococcus spp. main surface protein. Longitudinal studies indicate that T. saginata infected cattle respond to all six peptides by 3-4 weeks post-infection and that the antibody levels remain high for at least 12 weeks post-infection. As protection against Taeniid parasites is predominantly antibody mediated, some of these six peptides may be of value as immuno-prophylactic tools and hence also in assays to determine resistance to infection with the parasite. For diagnosis, on the other hand, only three peptides (HP6-2, TEG-1 and Ts45S-10) performed with the necessary sensitivity and specificity to determine exposure to infection with T. saginata, and now merit an exhaustive evaluation prior to employment as routine diagnostic tools.

  3. The problem with peptide presumption and the downfall of target-decoy false discovery rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In proteomics, peptide-tandem mass spectrum match scores and target-decoy database derived false discovery rates (FDR) are confidence indicators describing the quality of individual and sets of tandem mass spectrum matches. A user can impose a standard by prescribing a limit to these values, equival...

  4. Tumor-targeted liposomal drug delivery mediated by a diseleno bond-stabilized cyclic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chong; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Deng, Li; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Zhangbao

    2013-01-01

    Peptide ligands have played an important role in tumor-targeted drug delivery as targeting moieties. The in vivo fate of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and the following antitumor effects may greatly depend on the stability of the peptide ligand. In the current study, a tumor-targeting cyclic peptide screened by phage display, Lyp-1 (a peptide that specifically binds to tumor and endothelial cells of tumor lymphatics in certain tumors), was structurally modified by replacement of the original intramolecular disulfide bond with a diseleno bond. The produced analog Syp-1 (seleno derivative of Lyp-1) maintained specific binding ability to the target protein p32 (Kd = 18.54 nM), which is similar to that of Lyp-1 (Kd = 10.59 nM), indicated by surface plasmon resonance assay. Compared with Lyp-1, Syp-1 showed significantly improved stability against serum. After the peptide attached onto the surface of fluorophore-encapsulating liposomes, the more efficient tumor uptake of liposomal fluorophore mediated by Syp-1 was observed. Furthermore, Syp-1 modified liposomal doxorubicin presented the most potent tumor growth inhibitory ability among all the therapeutic groups, with a low half maximal inhibitory concentration of 588 nM against MDA-MB-435 cells in vitro and a high tumor inhibition rate of 73.5% in vivo. These findings clearly indicated that Syp-1 was a stable and effective tumor targeting ligand and suggest that the sulfur-to-selenium replacement strategy may help stabilize the phage-displayed cyclic peptide containing disulfide-bond under physiological conditions and strongly support the validity of peptide-mediated drug targeting. PMID:23515368

  5. Novel alpha-MSH peptide analogs for melanoma targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flook, Adam Michael

    Skin cancer is the one of the most diagnosed cancers in the United States with increasing incidence over the past two decades. There are three major forms of skin cancer but melanoma is the deadliest. It is estimated that 76,690 new diagnoses of melanoma and 9,480 deaths will occur in 2013. Melanoma accounts for approximately 1.6% of all cancer related deaths and is the 5 th leading diagnosed cancer in the United States. The mean survival rate of patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma is six months, with five year survival rates of less than 5%. In this project, we describe the design and characterization of novel melanoma-targeting peptide analogs for use in diagnostic imaging of both primary and metastatic melanoma lesions. Novel alpha-MSH peptide conjugates were designed to target the melanocortin-1 receptor present and over-expressed on melanoma cells. These peptides were synthesized and their in-vitro melanocortin-1 receptor binding affinities were established in murine melanoma cells. Once binding affinities were determined, the peptides were radiolabeled with 99mTc utilizing a novel direct radiolabeling technique developed in our laboratory. The peptides were purified via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and in-vivo melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing female C57BL/6 mice. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed with the promising 99m Tc-labeled peptide conjugates. All alpha-MSH peptide conjugates tested showed low nanomolar binding affinity for the melanocortin-1 receptor. All peptides were readily radiolabeld with 99mTc with greater than 95% radiochemical purity. All 99mTc-labeled peptides displayed high specific in-vivo melanoma tumor uptake while maintaining low normal organ accumulation, and were excreted through the urinary system in a timely fashion. In addition, all tested 99mTc-labeld alpha-MSH peptides demonstrated clear visualization of in

  6. Marine-Derived Bioactive Peptides for Biomedical Sectors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine-based resources such as algae and other marine by-products have been recognized as rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive peptides. Evidently, their structural characteristics including unique amino acid residues are responsible for their biological activity. Several of the above-mentioned marine-origin species show multi-functional bioactivities that are useful for a new discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active ingredients, nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals. Therefore, in recent years, marine-derived bioactive peptides have gained a considerable attention with high-value biomedical and/or pharmaceutical potentials. Furthermore, a wider spectrum of bioactive peptides can be produced through proteolytic-assisted hydrolysis of various marine resources under controlled physicochemical (pH and temperature of the reaction media) environment. Owing to their numerous health-related beneficial effects and therapeutic potential in the treatment and/or prevention of many diseases, such marine-derived bioactive peptides exhibit a wider spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancerous, anti-proliferative, anti-coagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-tumor activities among many others. Based on emerging evidence of marine-derived peptide mining, the above-mentioned marine resources contain noteworthy levels of high-value protein. The present review article mainly summarizes the marine-derived bioactive peptides and emphasizing their potential applications in biomedical and/or pharmaceutical sectors of the modern world. In conclusion, recent literature has provided evidence that marine-derived bioactive peptides play a critical role in human health along with many possibilities of designing new functional nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals to clarify potent mechanisms of action for a wider spectrum of diseases.

  7. A p7 Ion Channel-derived Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Tian; Zeng, Zhengyang; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection is an early stage of its life cycle and represents a promising target for antiviral drug development. Here we designed and characterized three peptide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the structural features of the membrane-associated p7 polypeptide of HCV. The three peptides exhibited low toxicity and high stability while potently inhibiting initial HCV infection and suppressed established HCV infection at non-cytotoxic concentrations in vitro. The most efficient peptide (designated H2-3), which is derived from the H2 helical region of HCV p7 ion channel, inhibited HCV infection by inactivating both intracellular and extracellular viral particles. The H2-3 peptide inactivated free HCV with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 82.11 nm, which is >1000-fold lower than the CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) of Huh7.5.1 cells. H2-3 peptide also bound to cell membrane and protected host cells from viral infection. The peptide H2-3 did not alter the normal electrophysiological profile of the p7 ion channel or block viral release from Huh7.5.1 cells. Our work highlights a new anti-viral peptide design strategy based on ion channel, giving the possibility that ion channels are potential resources to generate antiviral peptides. PMID:26251517

  8. Milk derived bioactive peptides and their impact on human health - A review.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, D P; Mohapatra, S; Misra, S; Sahu, P S

    2016-09-01

    Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exert multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immune modulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents. Majority of those regulate immunological, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neurological responses, thereby playing a vital role in the prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension and other disorders as discussed in this review. For the commercial production of such novel bioactive peptides large scale technologies based on membrane separation and ion exchange chromatography methods have been developed. Separation and identification of those peptides and their pharmacodynamic parameters are necessary to transfer their potent functional properties into food applications. The present review summarizes the preliminary classes of bioactive milk-derived peptides along with their physiological functions, general characteristics and potential applications in health-care.

  9. Synthesis of peptide sequences derived from fibril-forming proteins.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Denis B; Karas, John A

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), is associated with protein aggregation and the formation of amyloid, fibrillar deposits. Peptide fragments of amyloid-forming proteins have been found to form fibrils in their own right and have become important tools for unlocking the mechanism of amyloid fibril formation and the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases. The synthesis and purification of peptide sequences derived from amyloid fibril-forming proteins can be extremely challenging. The synthesis may not proceed well, generating a very low quality crude product which can be difficult to purify. Even clean crude peptides can be difficult to purify, as they are often insoluble or form fibrils rapidly in solution. This chapter presents methods to recognise and to overcome the difficulties associated with the synthesis, and purification of fibril-forming peptides, illustrating the points with three synthetic examples.

  10. Peptiderive server: derive peptide inhibitors from protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sedan, Yuval; Marcu, Orly; Lyskov, Sergey; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2016-01-01

    The Rosetta Peptiderive protocol identifies, in a given structure of a protein–protein interaction, the linear polypeptide segment suggested to contribute most to binding energy. Interactions that feature a ‘hot segment’, a linear peptide with significant binding energy compared to that of the complex, may be amenable for inhibition and the peptide sequence and structure derived from the interaction provide a starting point for rational drug design. Here we present a web server for Peptiderive, which is incorporated within the ROSIE web interface for Rosetta protocols. A new feature of the protocol also evaluates whether derived peptides are good candidates for cyclization. Fast computation times and clear visualization allow users to quickly assess the interaction of interest. The Peptiderive server is available for free use at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org/peptiderive. PMID:27141963

  11. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of bombesin derivatives on the basis of pan-bombesin peptides labeled with indium-111, lutetium-177, and yttrium-90 for targeting bombesin receptor-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwen; Chen, Jianhua; Waldherr, Christian; Hinni, Karin; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude; Maecke, Helmut R

    2004-09-15

    Bombesin receptors are overexpressed on a variety of human tumors like prostate, breast, and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop radiolabeled (Indium-111, Lutetium-177, and Yttrium-90) bombesin analogues with affinity to the three bombesin receptor subtypes for targeted radiotherapy. The following structures were synthesized: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH1) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"' -tetraacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH2). [111In]-BZH1 and in particular [90Y]-BZH2 were shown to have high affinity to all three human bombesin receptor subtypes with binding affinities in the nanomolar range. In human serum metabolic cleavage was found between beta-Ala11 and His12 with an approximate half-life of 2 hours. The metabolic breakdown was inhibited by EDTA and beta-Ala11-His12 (carnosine) indicating that carnosinase is the active enzyme. Both 111In-labeled peptides were shown to internalize into gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive AR4-2J and PC-3 cells with similar high rates, which were independent of the radiometal. The biodistribution studies of [111In]-BZH1 and [111In]-BZH2 ([177Lu]-BZH2) in AR4-2J tumor-bearing rats showed specific and high uptake in gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive organs and in the AR4-2J tumor. A fast clearance from blood and all of the nontarget organs except the kidneys was found. These radiopeptides were composed of the first pan-bombesin radioligands, which show great promise for the early diagnosis of tumors bearing not only gastrin-releasing peptide-receptors but also the other two bombesin receptor subtypes and may be of use in targeted radiotherapy of these tumors.

  13. Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2015-03-01

    Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the α-helical domain and β-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides.

  14. Self-Assembling Peptide Amphiphiles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Tyson

    The systemic delivery of therapeutics is currently limited by off-target side effects and poor drug uptake into the cells that need to be treated. One way to circumvent these issues is to target the delivery and release of therapeutics to the desired location while limiting systemic toxicity. Using self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (PAs), this work has investigated supramolecular nanostructures for the development of targeted therapies. Specifically, the research has focused on the interrelationships between presentation of targeting moeities and the control of nanostructure morphology in the context of systemic delivery for targeting cancer and vascular injuries. The self-assembly region of the PA was systematically altered to achieve control of nanostructure widths, from 100 nm to 10 nm, by the addition of valine-glutamic acid dimers into the chemical structure, subsequently increasing the degree of nanostructure twist. For the targeting of tumors, a homing PA was synthesized to include a dimeric, cyclic peptide sequence known to target the cancer-specific, death receptor 5 (DR5) and initiate apoptosis through the oligomerization of DR5. This PA presented a multivalent display of DR5-binding peptides, resulting in improved binding affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance. The DR5-targeting PA also showed enhanced efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models relative to non-targeted controls. Alternative modifications to the PA-based antitumor therapies included the use of a cytotoxic, membrane-lytic PA coassembled with a pegylated PA, which showed enhanced biodistribution and in vivo activity after coassembly. The functionalization of the hydrophobic core was also accomplished through the encapsulation of the chemotherapy camptothecin, which was shown to be an effective treatment in vivo. Additionally, a targeted PA nanostructure was designed to bind to the site of vascular intervention by targeting collagen IV. Following balloon angioplasty

  15. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  16. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  17. A chirality change in XPC- and Sfi1-derived peptides affects their affinity for centrin.

    PubMed

    Grecu, Dora; Irudayaraj, Victor Paul Raj; Martinez-Sanz, Juan; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Assairi, Liliane

    2016-04-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein centrin binds to a hydrophobic motif (W(1)xxL(4)xxxL(8)) included in the sequence of several cellular targets: XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein), Sfi1 (suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein1), and Sac3 [the central component of the transcription and mRNA export (TREX-2) complex]. However, centrin binding occurs in a reversed orientation (L(8)xxxL(4)xxW(1)) for Sfi1 and Sac3 compared with XPC. Because D-peptides have been investigated for future therapeutic use, we analyzed their centrin-binding properties. Their affinity for centrin was measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The chirality change in the target-derived peptides affected their ability to bind centrin in a specific manner depending on the sequence orientation of the centrin-binding motif. In contrast to L-XPC-P10, D-XPC-P10 bound C-HsCen1 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and to a lesser extent. D-XPC-P10 exhibited a reduced affinity for C-HsCen1 (Ka=0.064 × 10(6) M(-1)) by a factor of 2000 compared with L-XPC-P10 (Ka=132 × 10(6) M(-1)). D-peptides have a lower affinity than L-peptides for centrin, and the strength of this affinity depends on the sequence orientation of the target-derived peptides. The residual affinity observed for D-XPC suggests that the use of d-peptides represents a promising strategy for inhibiting centrin binding to its targets.

  18. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

  19. Food derived bioactive peptides and intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-12-09

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  20. A stabilized peptide ligand for multifunctional glioma targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ying, Man; Shen, Qing; Zhan, Changyou; Wei, Xiaoli; Gao, Jie; Xie, Cao; Yao, Bingxin; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-12-10

    Peptide ligands consisting of l-amino acids are subject to proteolysis in vivo. When modified on the surface of nanocarriers, those peptide ligands would readily degrade and the targeting efficacy is significantly attenuated. It has received increasing scrutiny to design stable peptide ligands for targeted drug delivery. Here, we present the design of a stable peptide ligand by the formation of a head-to-tail amide bond as an example. Even though the linear l-peptide A7R (termed (L)A7R) can bind specifically to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) that are overexpressed on glioma cells, neovasculature and glioma vasculogenic mimicry (VM), the tumor-homing capacity of (L)A7R is greatly impaired in vivo due to proteolysis (e.g. in the serum). A cyclic A7R (cA7R) peptide was identified by computer-aided peptide design and synthesized with high yield by combining solid phase peptide synthesis and native chemical ligation. The binding of cA7R to both receptors was theoretically and experimentally assessed. In our simulated model hydrophobic and ionic interactions dominated the binding of (L)A7R to receptors. It is very interesting that cA7R adopting a different structure from (L)A7R retained high binding affinities to receptors without affecting the hydrophobic and ionic interactions. After head-to-tail cyclization by the formation of an amide bond, cA7R exhibited exceptional stability in mouse serum. Either cA7R or (L)A7R was conjugated on the surface of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded liposomes (cA7R-LS/DOX or (L)A7R-LS/DOX). The results of in vitro cellular assays indicated that cA7R-LS/DOX not only displayed stronger anti-proliferative effect against glioma cells, but also demonstrated to be more efficient in destruction of VM and HUVEC tubes in comparison to (L)A7R-LS/DOX and plain liposomes (LS/DOX, without peptide conjugation). cA7R conjugation could achieve significantly higher accumulation of liposomes in glioma than did (L

  1. Retention of Conformational Entropy upon Calmodulin Binding to Target Peptides is Driven by Transient Salt Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Straatsma, TP; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-10-03

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly flexible calcium-binding protein that mediates signal transduction through an ability to differentially bind to highly variable binding sequences in target proteins. To identify how binding affects CaM motions, and its relationship to conformational entropy and target peptide sequence, we have employed fully atomistic, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of unbound CaM and CaM bound to five different target peptides. The calculated CaM conformational binding entropies correlate with experimentally derived conformational entropies with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.95. Selected side-chain interactions with target peptides restrain interhelical loop motions, acting to tune the conformational entropy of the bound complex via widely distributed CaM motions. In the complex with the most conformational entropy retention (CaM in complex with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase binding sequence), Lys-148 at the C-terminus of CaM forms transient salt bridges alternating between Glu side chains in the N-domain, the central linker, and the binding target. Additional analyses of CaM structures, fluctuations, and CaM-target interactions illuminate the interplay between electrostatic, side chain, and backbone properties in the ability of CaM to recognize and discriminate against targets by tuning its conformational entropy, and suggest a need to consider conformational dynamics in optimizing binding affinities.

  2. Ligand-Based Peptide Design and Combinatorial Peptide Libraries to Target G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Christian W.; Muttenthaler, Markus; Freissmuth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are considered to represent the most promising drug targets; it has been repeatedly said that a large fraction of the currently marketed drugs elicit their actions by binding to GPCRs (with cited numbers varying from 30–50%). Closer scrutiny, however, shows that only a modest fraction of (~60) GPCRs are, in fact, exploited as drug targets, only ~20 of which are peptide-binding receptors. The vast majority of receptors in the humane genome have not yet been explored as sites of action for drugs. Given the drugability of this receptor class, it appears that opportunities for drug discovery abound. In addition, GPCRs provide for binding sites other than the ligand binding sites (referred to as the “orthosteric site”). These additional sites include (i) binding sites for ligands (referred to as “allosteric ligands”) that modulate the affinity and efficacy of orthosteric ligands, (ii) the interaction surface that recruits G proteins and arrestins, (iii) the interaction sites of additional proteins (GIPs, GPCR interacting proteins that regulate G protein signaling or give rise to G protein-independent signals). These sites can also be targeted by peptides. Combinatorial and natural peptide libraries are therefore likely to play a major role in identifying new GPCR ligands at each of these sites. In particular the diverse natural peptide libraries such as the venom peptides from marine cone-snails and plant cyclotides have been established as a rich source of drug leads. High-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches allow for progressing from these starting points to potential drug candidates. This will be illustrated by focusing on the ligand-based drug design of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) receptor ligands using natural peptide leads as starting points. PMID:20687879

  3. NMR-derived model for a peptide-antibody complex

    SciTech Connect

    Zilber, B.; Scherf, T.; Anglister, J. ); Levitt, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The TE34 monoclonal antibody against cholera toxin peptide 3 (CTP3; VEVPGSQHIDSQKKA) was sequenced and investigated by two-dimensional transferred NOE difference spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The V{sub H} sequence of TE34, which does not bind cholera toxin, shares remarkable homology to that of TE32 and TE33, which are both anti-CTP3 antibodies that bind the toxin. However, due to a shortened heavy chain CDR3, TE34 assumes a radically different combining site structure. The assignment of the combining site interactions to specific peptide residues was completed by use of AcIDSQRKA, a truncated peptide analogue in which lysine-13 was substituted by arginine, specific deuteration of individual polypeptide chains of the antibody, and a computer model for the Fv fragment of TE34. NMR-derived distance restraints were then applied to the calculated model of the Fv to generate a three-dimensional structure of the TE34/CTP3 complex. The combining site was found to be a very hydrophobic cavity composed of seven aromatic residues. Charged residues are found in the periphery of the combining site. The peptide residues HIDSQKKA form a {beta}-turn inside the combining site. The contact area between the peptide and the TE34 antibody is 388 {Angstrom}{sup 2}, about half of the contact area observed in protein-antibody complexes.

  4. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2016-12-22

    Biologically active natural products are spontaneous medicinal entrants, which encourage synthetic access for enhancing and supporting drug discovery and development. Marine bioactive peptides are considered as a rich source of natural products that may provide long-term health, in addition to many prophylactic and curative medicinal drug treatments. The large literature concerning marine peptides has been collected, which shows high potential of nutraceutical and therapeutic efficacy encompassing wide spectra of bioactivities against a number of infection-causing agents. Their antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitumor, antiviral, and cardioprotective actions have achieved the attention of the pharmaceutical industry toward new design of drug formulations, for treatment and prevention of several infections. However, the mechanism of action of many peptide molecules has been still untapped. So in this regard, this paper reviews several peptide compounds by which they interfere with human pathogenesis. This knowledge is one of the key tools to be understood especially for the biotransformation of biomolecules into targeted medicines. The fact that different diseases have the capability to fight at different sites inside the body can lead to a new wave of increasing the chances to produce targeted medicines.

  5. Targeting pre-miRNA by Peptide Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Concetta; Saviano, Michele; D'Andrea, Luca; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Fabbri, Enrica; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    PNAs conjugated to carrier peptides have been employed for the targeting of miRNA precursor, with the aim to develop molecules able to interfere in the pre-miRNA processing. The capability of the molecules to bind pre-miRNA has been tested in vitro by fluorescence assayes on Thiazole Orange labeled molecules and in vivo, in K562 cells, evaluating the amount of miRNA produced after treatment of cells with two amounts of PNAs. PMID:22699795

  6. [Functional activity of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides)].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, A A; Petrov, R V

    2009-12-01

    The review describes structure and functions of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides). The final biological effects of these endogenous bioregulators (antitumor, antiviral, anti-infectious, antileukemia etc.) are due to their immunocorrecting and differentiating activity. Myelopeptides are the integral parts of the immune homeostasis maintenance system. Nowadays, medical preparations with no side effects and natural mechanisms of action are being developed on the basis of synthesized myelopeptides.

  7. [Food-derived opioid peptides and their neurological impact].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, E A; Sarycheva, N Y; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2015-01-01

    In this review the up-to-date literature data about exorphins are analysed. Exorphins are short opioid-like food-derived peptides. Different reports about their physiological impact in animals and humans are reviewed with focus on neurotropic effects. Clinical data (case reports and clinical trials' results), on the one hand, and the results of experiments with animals of different taxons, on the other hand, are summarized. The influence of exorphins on infants' development is emphasized.

  8. Data-independent-acquisition mass spectrometry for identification of targeted-peptide site-specific modifications.

    PubMed

    Porter, Caleb J; Bereman, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel strategy based on data-independent acquisition coupled to targeted data extraction for the detection and identification of site-specific modifications of targeted peptides in a completely unbiased manner. This method requires prior knowledge of the site of the modification along the peptide backbone from the protein of interest, but not the mass of the modification. The procedure, named multiplex adduct peptide profiling (MAPP), consists of three steps: 1) A fragment-ion tag is extracted from the data, consisting of the b-type and y-type ion series from the N and C-terminus, respectively, up to the amino-acid position that is believed to be modified; 2) MS1 features are matched to the fragment-ion tag in retention-time space, using the isolation window as a pre-filter to enable calculation of the mass of the modification; and 3) modified fragment ions are overlaid with the unmodified fragment ions to verify the mass calculated in step 2. We discuss the development, applications, and limitations of this new method for detection of unknown peptide modifications. We present an application of the method in profiling adducted peptides derived from abundant proteins in biological fluids with the ultimate objective of detecting biomarkers of exposure to reactive species.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  10. Peptide-based carbon nanotubes for mitochondrial targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battigelli, Alessia; Russier, Julie; Venturelli, Enrica; Fabbro, Chiara; Petronilli, Valeria; Bernardi, Paolo; da Ros, Tatiana; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we report the design and synthesis of peptide-based-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to target mitochondria. Targeting these intracellular organelles might open the way to develop alternative systems to address diseases related to genetic mutations in mitochondrial (mt)-DNA, by delivering therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first step towards mitochondrial delivery of this type of nucleic acid was to target MWCNTs to mitochondria by covalent functionalization with a well-known endogenous mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). The subcellular localization of the conjugates, which were fluorescently labeled, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and human HeLa cells was then studied using different microscopy techniques, such as wide-field epifluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The localization of the MTS-MWCNT conjugates into mitochondria was further confirmed by analyzing the isolated organelles using TEM.In the present study, we report the design and synthesis of peptide-based-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to target mitochondria. Targeting these intracellular organelles might open the way to develop alternative systems to address diseases related to genetic mutations in mitochondrial (mt)-DNA, by delivering therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first step towards mitochondrial delivery of this type of nucleic acid was to target MWCNTs to mitochondria by covalent functionalization with a well-known endogenous mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). The subcellular localization of the conjugates, which were fluorescently labeled, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and human HeLa cells was then studied using different microscopy techniques, such as wide-field epifluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The localization of the MTS-MWCNT conjugates into mitochondria was further confirmed by analyzing the

  11. Molecular Targets of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding the Mechanisms of Action Based on the Pathophysiology of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Kaustav; Wu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some of these peptides have exhibited potent in vivo antihypertensive activity in both animal models and human clinical trials. This review provides an overview about the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and demonstrates the potential roles of food derived bioactive peptides as viable interventions targeting specific pathways involved in this disease process. This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides. PMID:25547491

  12. Collagen IV and CXC chemokine derived anti-angiogenic peptides suppress glioma xenograft growth

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Elena V.; Lal, Bachchu; Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Popel, Aleksander S.; Laterra, John

    2012-01-01

    Peptides are receiving increased attention as therapeutic agents, due to their high binding specificity and versatility to be modified as targeting or carrier molecules. Particularly, peptides with anti-angiogenic activity are of high interest due to their applicability to a wide range of cancers. In this study we investigate the biological activity of two novel antiangiogenic peptides in pre-clinical glioma models. One peptide SP2000 is derived from collagen IV and the other peptide SP3019 belongs to the CXC family. We previously characterized the capacity of SP2000 and SP3019 to inhibit multiple biological endpoints linked to angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in several assays. Here we report additional studies using endothelial cells and focus on the activity of these peptides against human glioma cell growth, migration and adhesion in vitro and growth as tumor xenografts in vivo. We found that SP2000 completely inhibits migration of the glioma cells at 50 μM and SP3019 produced 50% inhibition at 100 μM. Their relative anti-adhesion activities were similar with SP2000 and SP3019 generating 50% adhesion inhibition at 4.9 ± 0.82 μM and 21.3 ± 5.92 μM respectively. In vivo glioma growth inhibition was 63 % for SP2000 and 76% for SP3019 after 2 weeks of administration at daily doses of 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The direct activity of these peptides against glioma cells in conjunction with their anti-angiogenic activities warrants their further development as either stand-alone agents or in combination with standard cytotoxic or emerging targeted therapies in malignant brain tumors. PMID:22495619

  13. A Review of Potential Marine-derived Hypotensive and Anti-obesity Peptides.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, V; Vasiljevic, T; Donkor, O N; Mathai, M L

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are food derived components, usually consisting of 3-20 amino acids, which are inactive when incorporated within their parent protein. Once liberated by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis, during food processing and gastrointestinal transit, they can potentially provide an array of health benefits to the human body. Owing to an unprecedented increase in the worldwide incidence of obesity and hypertension, medical researchers are focusing on the hypotensive and anti-obesity properties of nutritionally derived bioactive peptides. The role of the renin-angiotensin system has long been established in the aetiology of metabolic diseases and hypertension. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by inhibiting the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and preventing the formation of angiotensin II can be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and obesity. Fish-derived proteins and peptides can potentially be excellent sources of bioactive components, mainly as a source of ACE inhibitors. However, increased use of marine sources, poses an unsustainable burden on particular fish stocks, so, the underutilized fish species and by-products can be exploited for this purpose. This paper provides an overview of the techniques involved in the production, isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive peptides from marine sources, as well as the evaluation of the ACE inhibitory (ACE-I) activity and bioavailability.

  14. Lumican Peptides: Rational Design Targeting ALK5/TGFBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Jianhua; Nader, Helena B.; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP), is a component of extracellular matrix which also functions as a matrikine regulating multiple cell activities. In the cornea, lumican maintains corneal transparency by regulating collagen fibrillogenesis, promoting corneal epithelial wound healing, regulating gene expression and maintaining corneal homeostasis. We have recently shown that a peptide designed from the 13 C-terminal amino acids of lumican (LumC13) binds to ALK5/TGFBR1 (type1 receptor of TGFβ) to promote wound healing. Herein we evaluate the mechanism by which this synthetic C-terminal amphiphilic peptide (LumC13), binds to ALK5. These studies clearly reveal that LumC13-ALK5 form a stable complex. In order to determine the minimal amino acids required for the formation of a stable lumican/ALK5 complex derivatives of LumC13 were designed and their binding to ALK5 investigated in silico. These LumC13 derivatives were tested both in vitro and in vivo to evaluate their ability to promote corneal epithelial cell migration and corneal wound healing, respectively. These validations add to the therapeutic value of LumC13 (Lumikine) and aid its clinical relevance of promoting the healing of corneal epithelium debridement. Moreover, our data validates the efficacy of our computational approach to design active peptides based on interactions of receptor and chemokine/ligand.

  15. Lumican Peptides: Rational Design Targeting ALK5/TGFBRI

    PubMed Central

    Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Jianhua; Nader, Helena B.; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP), is a component of extracellular matrix which also functions as a matrikine regulating multiple cell activities. In the cornea, lumican maintains corneal transparency by regulating collagen fibrillogenesis, promoting corneal epithelial wound healing, regulating gene expression and maintaining corneal homeostasis. We have recently shown that a peptide designed from the 13 C-terminal amino acids of lumican (LumC13) binds to ALK5/TGFBR1 (type1 receptor of TGFβ) to promote wound healing. Herein we evaluate the mechanism by which this synthetic C-terminal amphiphilic peptide (LumC13), binds to ALK5. These studies clearly reveal that LumC13-ALK5 form a stable complex. In order to determine the minimal amino acids required for the formation of a stable lumican/ALK5 complex derivatives of LumC13 were designed and their binding to ALK5 investigated in silico. These LumC13 derivatives were tested both in vitro and in vivo to evaluate their ability to promote corneal epithelial cell migration and corneal wound healing, respectively. These validations add to the therapeutic value of LumC13 (Lumikine) and aid its clinical relevance of promoting the healing of corneal epithelium debridement. Moreover, our data validates the efficacy of our computational approach to design active peptides based on interactions of receptor and chemokine/ligand. PMID:28181591

  16. Organellar oligopeptidase (OOP) provides a complementary pathway for targeting peptide degradation in mitochondria and chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F.; Berntsson, Ronnie P.-A.; Murcha, Monika W.; Branca, Rui M. M.; Radomiljac, Jordan D.; Regberg, Jakob; Svensson, Linda M.; Bakali, Amin; Langel, Ülo; Lehtiö, Janne; Whelan, James; Stenmark, Pål; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain distinct proteolytic systems for precursor protein processing catalyzed by the mitochondrial and stromal processing peptidases and for the degradation of targeting peptides catalyzed by presequence protease. Here, we have identified and characterized a component of the organellar proteolytic systems in Arabidopsis thaliana, the organellar oligopeptidase, OOP (At5g65620). OOP belongs to the M3A family of peptide-degrading metalloproteases. Using two independent in vivo methods, we show that the protease is dually localized to mitochondria and chloroplasts. Furthermore, we localized the OPP homolog At5g10540 to the cytosol. Analysis of peptide degradation by OOP revealed substrate size restriction from 8 to 23 aa residues. Short mitochondrial targeting peptides (presequence of the ribosomal protein L29 and presequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase 1) and N- and C-terminal fragments derived from the presequence of the ATPase beta subunit ranging in size from 11 to 20 aa could be degraded. MS analysis showed that OOP does not exhibit a strict cleavage pattern but shows a weak preference for hydrophobic residues (F/L) at the P1 position. The crystal structures of OOP, at 1.8–1.9 Å, exhibit an ellipsoidal shape consisting of two major domains enclosing the catalytic cavity of 3,000 Å3. The structural and biochemical data suggest that the protein undergoes conformational changes to allow peptide binding and proteolysis. Our results demonstrate the complementary role of OOP in targeting-peptide degradation in mitochondria and chloroplasts. PMID:24043784

  17. Importance of Tryptophan in Transforming an Amphipathic Peptide into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Targeted Antimicrobial Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xin; Ma, Zhi; Wang, Jiajun; Chou, Shuli; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Here, we found that simple substitution of amino acids in the middle position of the hydrophobic face of an amphipathic peptide RI16 with tryptophan (T9W) considerably transformed into an antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) results demonstrated that T9W had a strong and specifically antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, including antibiotic-resistant strains, but was not active against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphyfococcus epidermidis. Fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that T9W interacted with the membrane of P. aeruginosa, depolarizing the outer and the inner membrane of bacterial cells. Salt susceptibility assay showed that T9W still maintained its strong anti-pseudomonas activity in the presence of salts at physiological concentrations, and in hemolytic and MTT assays T9W also showed no toxicity against human blood cells and macrophages. In vivo assay demonstrated that T9W also displayed no toxicity to Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mice. Furthermore, the strong antibiofilm activity was also observed with the peptide T9W, which decreased the percentage of biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these findings indicated that design of single-pathogen antimicrobial agents can be achieved by simple amino acid mutation in naturally occurring peptide sequences and this study suggested a model of optimization/design of anti-pseudomonas drugs in which the tryptophan residue was a conserved element. PMID:25494332

  18. Importance of Tryptophan in Transforming an Amphipathic Peptide into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Targeted Antimicrobial Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin; Ma, Zhi; Wang, Jiajun; Chou, Shuli; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Here, we found that simple substitution of amino acids in the middle position of the hydrophobic face of an amphipathic peptide RI16 with tryptophan (T9W) considerably transformed into an antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) results demonstrated that T9W had a strong and specifically antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, including antibiotic-resistant strains, but was not active against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphyfococcus epidermidis. Fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that T9W interacted with the membrane of P. aeruginosa, depolarizing the outer and the inner membrane of bacterial cells. Salt susceptibility assay showed that T9W still maintained its strong anti-pseudomonas activity in the presence of salts at physiological concentrations, and in hemolytic and MTT assays T9W also showed no toxicity against human blood cells and macrophages. In vivo assay demonstrated that T9W also displayed no toxicity to Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mice. Furthermore, the strong antibiofilm activity was also observed with the peptide T9W, which decreased the percentage of biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these findings indicated that design of single-pathogen antimicrobial agents can be achieved by simple amino acid mutation in naturally occurring peptide sequences and this study suggested a model of optimization/design of anti-pseudomonas drugs in which the tryptophan residue was a conserved element.

  19. Design and development of receptor-avid peptide conjugates for in-vivo targeting of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkert, Wynn A.; Hoffman, Timothy J.

    1999-07-01

    Radiometallated peptides that exhibit high specificity for cognate receptors over expressed on cancer cells offer important potential as site-directed diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. The formation of effective radioactive drugs for specific in vivo targeting of cancerous tumors is being facilitated by the integration of novel chelation strategies and receptor-avid derivatives. Significant efforts are being made to design Technetium-99m labeled for diagnostic imaging of cancerous tumors for use in conjunction with Single Photon Emission Tomography instrumentation in nuclear medicine. Receptor avid radiopharmaceutical are also being developed that utilize other radionuclides for imaging and therapeutic applications. Despite the technological challenges that must be overcome, radiolabeled receptor avid peptide conjugates are providing promising site-directed targeting agents for the assessment and treatment of cancerous tumors in humans.

  20. Target Promiscuity and Heterogeneous Effects of Tarantula Venom Peptides Affecting Na+ and K+ Ion Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Elisa; Cassulini, Rita Restano; Silva, Deyanira Fuentes; Clement, Herlinda; Schiavon, Emanuele; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Odell, George; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Alagón, Alejandro; de la Vega, Ricardo C. Rodríguez; Possani, Lourival D.; Wanke, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Venom-derived peptide modulators of ion channel gating are regarded as essential tools for understanding the molecular motions that occur during the opening and closing of ion channels. In this study, we present the characterization of five spider toxins on 12 human voltage-gated ion channels, following observations about the target promiscuity of some spider toxins and the ongoing revision of their “canonical” gating-modifying mode of action. The peptides were purified de novo from the venom of Grammostola rosea tarantulas, and their sequences were confirmed by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis. Their effects on seven tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, the three human ether-à-go-go (hERG)-related K+ channels, and two human Shaker-related K+ channels were extensively characterized by electrophysiological techniques. All the peptides inhibited ion conduction through all the Na+ channels tested, although with distinctive patterns. The peptides also affected the three pharmaceutically relevant hERG isoforms differently. At higher concentrations, all peptides also modified the gating of the Na+ channels by shifting the activation to more positive potentials, whereas more complex effects were recorded on hERG channels. No effects were evident on the two Shaker-related K+ channels at concentrations well above the IC50 value for the affected channels. Given the sequence diversity of the tested peptides, we propose that tarantula toxins should be considered both as multimode and target-promiscuous ion channel modulators; both features should not be ignored when extracting mechanistic interpretations about ion channel gating. Our observations could also aid in future structure-function studies and might help the development of novel ion channel-specific drugs. PMID:19955179

  1. A Peptide Derived from Endostatin Ameliorates Organ Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yukie; Takihara, Takahisa; Chambers, Roger A.; Veraldi, Kristen L.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroproliferative disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis have no effective therapies and result in significant morbidity and mortality due to progressive organ fibrosis. We examined the effect of peptides derived from endostatin on existing fibrosis and fibrosis triggered by two potent mediators, transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) and bleomycin, in human and mouse tissues in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We identified one peptide, E4, with potent antifibrotic activity. E4 prevented TGF-β–induced dermal fibrosis in vivo in a mouse model, ex vivo in human skin, and in bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, demonstrating that E4 exerts potent antifibrotic effects. In addition, E4 significantly reduced existing fibrosis in these preclinical models. E4 amelioration of fibrosis was accompanied by reduced cell apoptosis and lower levels of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and Egr-1 (early growth response gene–1), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of several fibrotic triggers. Our findings identify E4 as a peptide with potent antifibrotic activity and a possible therapeutic agent for organ fibrosis. PMID:22649092

  2. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    PubMed

    Memczak, Henry; Lauster, Daniel; Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F; Stöcklein, Walter F M

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  3. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F.; Stöcklein, Walter F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing. PMID:27415624

  4. RGD based peptide amphiphiles as drug carriers for cancer targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Poonam S.

    Specific interactions of ligands with receptors is one of the approaches for active targeting of anticancer drugs to cancer cells. Over expression of integrin receptors is a physiological manifestation in several cancers and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis, which makes it an attractive target for cancer chemotherapy. The peptide sequence for this integrin recognition is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Self-assembly offers a unique way of presenting ligands to target receptors for recognition and binding. This study focuses on development of integrin specific peptide amphiphile self-assemblies as carriers for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to αvbeta 3 integrin overexpressing cancers. Amphiphiles composed of conjugates of different analogs of RGD (linear, cyclic or glycosylated) and aliphatic fatty acid with or without 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (ADA) as linker were synthesized and characterized. The amphiphiles exhibited Critical Micellar Concentration in the range of 7-30 μM. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical micelles in the size range of 10-40 nm. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer studies revealed entrapment of hydrophobic dyes within a tight micellar core and provided information regarding the cargo exchange within micelles. The RGD micelles exhibited competitive binding with 55% displacement of a bound fluorescent probe by the cyclic RGD micelles. The internalization of fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) loaded RGD micelles was significantly higher in A2058 melanoma cells compared to free FITC within 20 minutes of incubation at 37°C. The same micelles showed significantly lower internalization at 4°C and on pretreatment with 0.45M sucrose confirming endocytotic uptake of the RGD micellar carriers. The IC50 of paclitaxel in A2058 melanoma cells was lower when treated within RGD micelles as compared to treatment of free drug. On the other hand, IC50 values increased by 2 to 9 fold for micellar treatment

  5. Lipid-targeting peptide probes for extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Aaron D.; Yin, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles released from cells are under intense investigation for their roles in cell-cell communication and cancer progression. However, individual vesicles have been difficult to probe as their small size renders them invisible by conventional light microscopy. However, as a consequence of their small size these vesicles possess highly curved lipid membranes that offer an unconventional target for curvature-sensing probes. In this article, we present a strategy for using peptide-based biosensors to detect highly curved membranes and the negatively charged membrane lipid phosphatidylserine, we delineate several assays used to validate curvature- and lipid-targeting mechanisms, and we explore potential applications in probing extracellular vesicles released from sources such as apoptotic cells, cancer cells, or activated platelets. PMID:26909741

  6. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  7. FKBPL and Peptide Derivatives: Novel Biological Agents That Inhibit Angiogenesis by a CD44-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Andrea; O’Rourke, Martin; Yakkundi, Anita; Worthington, Jenny; Hookham, Michelle; Bicknell, Roy; McCarthy, Helen O.; McClelland, Keeva; McCallum, Lynn; Dyer, Hayder; McKeen, Hayley; Waugh, David; Roberts, Jennifer; McGregor, Joanne; Cotton, Graham; James, Iain; Harrison, Timothy; Hirst, David G.; Robson, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Anti-angiogenic therapies can be an important adjunct to the management of many malignancies. Here we investigated a novel protein, FKBPL, and peptide derivative for their anti-angiogenic activity and mechanism of action. Experimental Design Recombinant FKBPL (rFKBPL) and its peptide derivative were assessed in a range of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) assays in vitro. Their ability to inhibit proliferation, migration and Matrigel dependent tubule formation was determined. They were further evaluated in an ex-vivo rat model of neo-vascularisation and in two in vivo mouse models of angiogenesis; the sponge implantation and the intra-vital microscopy models. Anti-tumor efficacy was determined in two human tumor xenograft models grown in SCID mice. Finally, the dependence of peptide on CD44 was determined using a CD44 targeted siRNA approach or in cell lines of differing CD44 status. Results rFKBPL inhibited endothelial cell migration, tubule formation and microvessel formation in vitro and in vivo. The region responsible for FKBPL’s anti-angiogenic activity was identified and a 24 amino acid peptide (AD-01) spanning this sequence was synthesised. It was potently anti-angiogenic and inhibited growth in two human tumor xenograft models (DU145 and MDA-231) when administered systemically, either on its own, or in combination with docetaxel. The anti-angiogenic activity of FKBPL and AD-01 was dependent on the cell surface receptor CD44 and signalling downstream of this receptor promoted an anti-migratory phenotype. Conclusion FKBPL and its peptide derivative AD-01 have potent anti-angiogenic activity. Thus, these agents offer the potential of an attractive new approach to anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:21364036

  8. Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in moa collagens

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Schroeter, Elena R.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified biologically derived PTMs (i.e. methylation, di-methylation, alkylation, hydroxylation, fucosylation) on amino acids at locations consistent with extant proteins. In addition to these in vivo modifications, we detected novel modifications that are probably diagenetically derived. These include loss of hydroxylation/glutamic semialdehyde, carboxymethyllysine and peptide backbone cleavage, as well as previously noted deamidation. Moa collagen sequences and modifications provide a baseline by which to evaluate proteomic studies of other fossils, and a framework for defining the molecular relationship of moa to other closely related taxa. PMID:25972464

  9. Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in moa collagens.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-06-07

    The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified biologically derived PTMs (i.e. methylation, di-methylation, alkylation, hydroxylation, fucosylation) on amino acids at locations consistent with extant proteins. In addition to these in vivo modifications, we detected novel modifications that are probably diagenetically derived. These include loss of hydroxylation/glutamic semialdehyde, carboxymethyllysine and peptide backbone cleavage, as well as previously noted deamidation. Moa collagen sequences and modifications provide a baseline by which to evaluate proteomic studies of other fossils, and a framework for defining the molecular relationship of moa to other closely related taxa.

  10. Dual-targeting anti-angiogenic cyclic peptides as potential drug leads for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide analogues derived from bioactive hormones such as somatostatin or certain growth factors have great potential as angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer applications. In an attempt to combat emerging drug resistance many FDA-approved anti-angiogenesis therapies are co-administered with cytotoxic drugs as a combination therapy to target multiple signaling pathways of cancers. However, cancer therapies often encounter limiting factors such as high toxicities and side effects. Here, we combined two anti-angiogenic epitopes that act on different pathways of angiogenesis into a single non-toxic cyclic peptide framework, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II), and subsequently assessed the anti-angiogenic activity of the novel compound. We hypothesized that the combination of these two epitopes would elicit a synergistic effect by targeting different angiogenesis pathways and result in improved potency, compared to that of a single epitope. This novel approach has resulted in the development of a potent, non-toxic, stable and cyclic analogue with nanomolar potency inhibition in in vitro endothelial cell migration and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis assays. This is the first report to use the MCoTI-II framework to develop a 2-in-1 anti-angiogenic peptide, which has the potential to be used as a form of combination therapy for targeting a wide range of cancers. PMID:27734947

  11. Cell-permeable stapled peptides based on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors derived from HIV-1 gene products.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Aikawa, Haruo; Ohashi, Nami; Urano, Emiko; Métifiot, Mathieu; Fujino, Masayuki; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Ozaki, Taro; Nozue, Ami; Narumi, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Chie; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Pommier, Yves; Yamamoto, Naoki; Komano, Jun A; Murakami, Tsutomu; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2013-10-18

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an enzyme which is indispensable for the stable infection of host cells because it catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the genome and thus is an attractive target for the development of anti-HIV agents. Earlier, we found Vpr-derived peptides with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN. These Vpr-derived peptides are originally located in an α-helical region of the parent Vpr protein. Addition of an octa-arginyl group to the inhibitory peptides caused significant inhibition against HIV replication associated with an increase in cell permeability but also relatively high cytotoxicity. In the current study, stapled peptides, a new class of stabilized α-helical peptidomimetics were adopted to enhance the cell permeability of the above lead peptides. A series of stapled peptides, which have a hydrocarbon link formed by a ruthenium-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis reaction between successive turns of α-helix, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for biological activity. In cell-based assays some of the stapled peptides showed potent anti-HIV activity comparable with that of the original octa-arginine-containing peptide (2) but with lower cytotoxicity. Fluorescent imaging experiments revealed that these stapled peptides are significantly cell permeable, and CD analysis showed they form α-helical structures, whereas the unstapled congeners form β-sheet structures. The application of this stapling strategy to Vpr-derived IN inhibitory peptides led to a remarkable increase in their potency in cells and a significant reduction of their cytotoxicity.

  12. Milk-derived bioactive peptides and their health promoting effects: a potential role in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Simone; Belton, Orina; Fitzgerald, Desmond J

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are food components that, in addition to their nutritional value, retain many biological properties and have therapeutic effects in several health disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Amongst these, atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes. It is a progressive dyslipidaemic and inflammatory disease where accumulation of oxidized lipids and inflammatory cells leads to the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall. Milk-derived bioactive peptides can be released during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by enzymatic and bacterial fermentation and are considered to promote diverse beneficial effects such as lipid lowering, antihypertensive, immnomodulating, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. In this review, an overview of the diverse biological effects of these compounds is given, particularly focusing on their beneficial properties on cardiovascular disease and proposing novel mechanisms of action responsible for their bioactivity. Attempts to prevent cardiovascular diseases target modifications of several risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, high blood concentrations of lipids or insulin resistance. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are a source of health-enhancing components and the potential health benefit of these compounds has a growing commercial potential. Consequently, they have been incorporated as ingredients in functional foods, as dietary supplements and as pharmaceuticals to promote health and reduce risk of chronic diseases.

  13. Development of a peptide-based vaccine targeting TMPRSS2:ERG fusion positive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Sanda, Martin George; Dunn, Laura Kathleen; Arredouani, Mohamed Simo

    2013-01-01

    Identification of novel vaccine targets is critical for the design and advancement of prostate cancer (PCa) immunotherapy. Ideal targets are proteins that are abundant in prostate tumors while absent in extra-prostatic tissues. The fusion of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene with the ETS transcription factor ERG occurs in approximately 50% of prostate cancer cases and results in aberrant ERG expression. Because expression of ERG is very low in peripheral tissue, we evaluated the suitability of this protein as an antigen target in PCa vaccines. ERG-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted immunogenic epitopes were identified through a 3-step strategy that included in silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation. Algorithms were used to predict potential HLA-A*0201-binding epitopes. High scoring epitopes were tested for binding to HLA-A*0201 using the T2-based stabilization assay in vitro. Five peptides were found to bind HLA-A*0201 and were subsequently tested for immunogenicity in humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The in vivo screening identified three immunogenic peptides. One of these peptides, ERG295, overcame peripheral tolerance in HLA-A*0201 mice that expressed prostate restricted ERG. Also, this peptide induced an antigen specific response against ERG-expressing human prostate tumor cells. Finally, tetramer assay showed detectable and responsive ERG295-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201+ prostate cancer patients. Detection of ERG-specific CTLs in both mice and the blood of prostate cancer patients indicates that ERG-specific tolerance can be overcome. Additionally, these data suggest that ERG is a suitable target antigen for PCa immunotherapy. PMID:24149465

  14. Development of a peptide-based vaccine targeting TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kissick, Haydn Thomas; Sanda, Martin George; Dunn, Laura Kathleen; Arredouani, Mohamed Simo

    2013-12-01

    Identification of novel vaccine targets is critical for the design and advancement of prostate cancer (PCa) immunotherapy. Ideal targets are proteins that are abundant in prostate tumors while absent in extra-prostatic tissues. The fusion of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene with the ETS transcription factor ERG occurs in approximately 50 % of prostate cancer cases and results in aberrant ERG expression. Because expression of ERG is very low in peripheral tissue, we evaluated the suitability of this protein as an antigen target in PCa vaccines. ERG-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted immunogenic epitopes were identified through a 3-step strategy that included in silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation. Algorithms were used to predict potential HLA-A*0201-binding epitopes. High-scoring epitopes were tested for binding to HLA-A*0201 using the T2-based stabilization assay in vitro. Five peptides were found to bind HLA-A*0201 and were subsequently tested for immunogenicity in humanized, HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The in vivo screening identified three immunogenic peptides. One of these peptides, ERG295, overcame peripheral tolerance in HLA-A*0201 mice that expressed prostate-restricted ERG. Also, this peptide induced an antigen-specific response against ERG-expressing human prostate tumor cells. Finally, tetramer assay showed detectable and responsive ERG295-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201(+) prostate cancer patients. Detection of ERG-specific CTLs in both mice and the blood of prostate cancer patients indicates that ERG-specific tolerance can be overcome. Additionally, these data suggest that ERG is a suitable target antigen for PCa immunotherapy.

  15. Flexible or fixed: a comparative review of linear and cyclic cancer-targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Roxin, Áron; Zheng, Gang

    2012-08-01

    Peptides can serve as versatile cancer-targeting ligands and have been used for clinically relevant applications such as cancer imaging and therapy. A current and long-standing focus within peptide research is the creation of structurally constrained peptides generated through cyclization. Cyclization is envisioned to enhance the selective binding, uptake, potency and stability of linear precursors. This review compares closely related linear and cyclic peptides in these respects. Peptide cyclization generally improves the selective binding and stability of linear precursors; however, not all cyclization strategies and constrained geometries enhance these properties to the same extent. In some instances, linear analogues actually have better cancer-targeting properties compared with their cyclic counterparts. Although cyclization does not necessarily improve the cancer-targeting properties of linear analogues, cyclic peptides may obtain properties that allow them to be used for additional applications. This review aims to convey the advantages and limitations of cyclic cancer-targeting peptides.

  16. Peptidic targeting of phosphatidylserine for the MRI detection of apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Lancelot, Eric; Ballet, Sébastien; Murariu, Oltea; Rousseaux, Olivier; Port, Marc; Vander Elst, Luce; Corot, Claire; Muller, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    Molecular and cellular imaging of atherosclerosis has garnered more interest at the beginning of the 21st century, with aims to image in vivo biological properties of plaque lesions. Apoptosis seems an attractive target for the diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques prone to a thrombotic event. The aim of the present work was to screen for apoptosis peptide binders by phage display with the final purpose to detect apoptotic cells in atherosclerotic plaques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A phosphatidylserine-specific peptide identified by phage display was thus used to design an MRI contrast agent (CA), which was evaluated as a potential in vivo reporter of apoptotic cells. A library of linear 6-mer random peptides was screened in vitro against immobilized phosphatidylserine. Phage DNA was isolated and sequenced, and the affinity of peptides for phosphatidylserine was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphatidylserine-specific peptide and its scrambled homologue were attached to a linker and conjugated to DTPA-isothiocyanate. The products were purified by dialysis and by column chromatography and complexed with gadolinium chloride. After their evaluation using apoptotic cells and a mouse model of liver apoptosis, the phosphatidylserine-targeted CA was used to image atherosclerotic lesions on ApoE(-/-) transgenic mice. Apoptotic cells were detected on liver and aorta specimens by the immunostaining of phosphatidylserine and of active caspase-3. Sequencing of the phage genome highlighted nine different peptides. Their alignment with amino acid sequences of relevant proteins revealed a frequent homology with Ca2+ channels, reminiscent of the function of annexins. Alignment with molecules involved in apoptosis provides a direct correlation between peptide selection and utility. The in vivo MRI studies performed at 4.7 T provide proof of concept that apoptosis-related pathologies could be diagnosed by MRI with a low molecular weight

  17. Peptide redesign for inhibition of the complement system: Targeting age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rohith R.; Cabrera, Andrea P.; Harrison, Reed E. S.; Gorham, Ronald D.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Ghosh, Kaustabh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To redesign a complement-inhibiting peptide with the potential to become a therapeutic for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We present a new potent peptide (Peptide 2) of the compstatin family. The peptide is developed by rational design, based on a mechanistic binding hypothesis, and structural and physicochemical properties derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The inhibitory activity, efficacy, and solubility of Peptide 2 are evaluated using a hemolytic assay, a human RPE cell–based assay, and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties, respectively, and compared to the respective properties of its parent peptide (Peptide 1). Results The sequence of Peptide 2 contains an arginine-serine N-terminal extension (a characteristic of parent Peptide 1) and a novel 8-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block C-terminal extension. Peptide 2 has significantly improved aqueous solubility compared to Peptide 1 and comparable complement inhibitory activity. In addition, Peptide 2 is more efficacious in inhibiting complement activation in a cell-based model that mimics the pathobiology of dry AMD. Conclusions We have designed a new peptide analog of compstatin that combines N-terminal polar amino acid extensions and C-terminal PEGylation extensions. This peptide demonstrates significantly improved aqueous solubility and complement inhibitory efficacy, compared to the parent peptide. The new peptide overcomes the aggregation limitation for clinical translation of previous compstatin analogs and is a candidate to become a therapeutic for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27829783

  18. Quinacrine reactivity with prion proteins and prion-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zbigniew; Šafařík, Martin; Dvořáková, Eva; Janoušková, Olga; Březinová, Anna; Stibor, Ivan; Holada, Karel; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Sebestík, Jaroslav

    2013-05-01

    Quinacrine is a drug that is known to heal neuronal cell culture infected with prions, which are the causative agents of neurodegenerative diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the drug fails when it is applied in vivo. In this work, we analyzed the reason for this failure. The drug was suggested to "covalently" modify the prion protein via an acridinyl exchange reaction. To investigate this hypothesis more closely, the acridine moiety of quinacrine was covalently attached to the thiol groups of cysteines belonging to prion-derived peptides and to the full-length prion protein. The labeled compounds were conveniently monitored by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. The acridine moiety demonstrated characteristic UV-vis spectrum, depending on the substituent at the C-9 position of the acridine ring. These results confirm that quinacrine almost exclusively reacts with the thiol groups present in proteins and peptides. The chemical reaction alters the prion properties and increases the concentration of the acridine moiety in the prion protein.

  19. Melanoma Therapy via Peptide-Targeted a-Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Hylarides, Mark; Fisher, Darrell R.; Shelton, Tiffani; Moore, Herbert A.; Wester, Dennis W.; Fritzberg, Alan R.; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Current chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy regimens are ineffective agents against melanoma, as shown by a 10-year survival rate for patients with disseminated disease of approximately 5% (reference?). In this study, the unique combination of a melanoma targeting peptide and an in vivo generated a-particle emitting radioisotope was investigated for its melanoma therapy potential. Alpha-radiation is densely ionizing and energy is locally absorbed, resulting in high concentrations of destructive free radicals and irreparable DNA double strand breaks. This high linear-energy-transfer overcomes radiation resistant tumor cells and oxygen-enhancement effects. The melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH was radiolabeled with 212Pb, the parent of 212Bi, which decays via alpha and beta decay. Biodistribution and therapy studies were performed in the B16/F1 melanoma bearing C57 mouse flank tumor model. 212Pb[DOTA]-R e(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited rapid tumor uptake and extended retention coupled with rapid whole body disappearance. Radiation dose delivered to the tumor was estimated to be 61 cGy/uCi 212Pb administered. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with 50, 100 and 200 uCi of 212Pb[DOTA]-Re(Arg11)CCMSH extended mean survival of mice to 22, 28, and 49.8 days, respectively, compared to the 14.6 day mean survival of the placebo control group. Forty-five percent of the mice receiving 200 uCi survived the study disease-free.

  20. A High Affinity hRpn2-Derived Peptide That Displaces Human Rpn13 from Proteasome in 293T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Fen; Durham, Sarah E; Tarasov, Sergey G; Walters, Kylie J

    2015-01-01

    Rpn13 is a proteasome ubiquitin receptor that has emerged as a therapeutic target for human cancers. Its ubiquitin-binding activity is confined to an N-terminal Pru (pleckstrin-like receptor for ubiquitin) domain that also docks it into the proteasome, while its C-terminal DEUBAD (DEUBiquitinase ADaptor) domain recruits deubiquitinating enzyme Uch37 to the proteasome. Bis-benzylidine piperidone derivatives that were found to bind covalently to Rpn13 C88 caused the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins as well as ER stress-related apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, including bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma lines. We find that a 38-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminus of proteasome PC repeat protein hRpn2/PSMD1 binds to hRpn13 Pru domain with 12 nM affinity. By using NMR, we identify the hRpn13-interacting amino acids in this hRpn2 fragment, some of which are conserved among eukaryotes. Importantly, we find the hRpn2-derived peptide to immunoprecipitate endogenous Rpn13 from 293T cells, and to displace it from the proteasome. These findings indicate that this region of hRpn2 is the primary binding site for hRpn13 in the proteasome. Moreover, the hRpn2-derived peptide was no longer able to interact with endogenous hRpn13 when a strictly conserved phenylalanine (F948 in humans) was replaced with arginine or a stop codon, or when Y950 and I951 were substituted with aspartic acid. Finally, over-expression of the hRpn2-derived peptide leads to an increased presence of ubiquitinated proteins in 293T cells. We propose that this hRpn2-derived peptide could be used to develop peptide-based strategies that specifically target hRpn13 function in the proteasome.

  1. Cre Fused with RVG Peptide Mediates Targeted Genome Editing in Mouse Brain Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiyuan; Sun, Zhaolin; Li, Pan; Feng, Tao; Wu, Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can pass through cell membranes. CPPs can facilitate the cellular entry of proteins, macromolecules, nanoparticles and drugs. RVG peptide (RVG hereinafter) is a 29-amino-acid CPP derived from a rabies virus glycoprotein that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter brain cells. However, whether RVG can be used for genome editing in the brain has not been reported. In this work, we combined RVG with Cre recombinase for bacterial expression. The purified RVG-Cre protein cut plasmids in vitro and traversed cell membranes in cultured Neuro2a cells. By tail vein-injecting RVG-Cre into Cre reporter mouse lines mTmG and Rosa26lacZ, we demonstrated that RVG-Cre could target brain cells and achieve targeted somatic genome editing in adult mice. This direct delivery of the gene-editing enzyme protein into mouse brains with RVG is much safer than plasmid- or viral-based methods, holding promise for further applications in the treatment of various brain diseases. PMID:27983648

  2. Multimerized HIV-gp41-derived peptides as fusion inhibitors and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Mizuguchi, Takaaki; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2016-11-04

    To date, several antigens based on the amino-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat (NHR) region of an HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 and fusion inhibitors based on the carboxy-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat (CHR) region of gp41 have been reported. We have developed a synthetic antigen targeting the membrane-fusion mechanism of HIV-1. This uses a template designed with C3-symmetric linkers and mimics the trimeric form of the NHR-derived peptide N36. The antiserum obtained by immunization of the N36 trimeric antigen binds preferentially to the N36 trimer and blocks HIV-1 infection effectively, compared with the antiserum obtained by immunization of the N36 monomer. Using another template designed with different C3-symmetric linkers, we have also developed a synthetic peptide mimicking the trimeric form of the CHR-derived peptide C34, with ∼100 times the inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 fusion mechanism than that of the monomer C34 peptide. A dimeric derivative of C34 has potent inhibitory activity at almost the same levels as this C34 trimer mimic, suggesting that presence of a dimeric form of C34 is structurally critical for fusion inhibitors. As examples of rising mid-size drugs, this review describes an effective strategy for the design of HIV vaccines and fusion inhibitors based on a relationship with the native structure of proteins involved in HIV fusion mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 622-628, 2016.

  3. HER2 Targeting Peptides Screening and Applications in Tumor Imaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lingling; Wang, Zihua; Jia, Xiangqian; Han, Qiuju; Xiang, Zhichu; Li, Dan; Yang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Di; Bu, Xiangli; Wang, Weizhi; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Herein, computational-aided one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) peptide library design combined with in situ single-bead sequencing microarray methods were successfully applied in screening peptides targeting at human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), a biomarker of human breast cancer. As a result, 72 novel peptides clustered into three sequence motifs which are PYL***NP, YYL***NP and PPL***NP were acquired. Particularly one of the peptides, P51, has nanomolar affinity and high specificity for HER2 in ex vivo and in vivo tests. Moreover, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded liposome nanoparticles were modified with peptide P51 or P25 and demonstrated to improve the targeted delivery against HER2 positive cells. Our study provides an efficient peptide screening method with a combination of techniques and the novel screened peptides with a clear binding site on HER2 can be used as probes for tumor imaging and targeted drug delivery. PMID:27279916

  4. Phage display biopanning and isolation of target-unrelated peptides: in search of nonspecific binders hidden in a combinatorial library.

    PubMed

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Zade, Hesam Motaleb; Shekarabi, Hosna Sadat Zahed; Neman, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Phage display is known as a powerful methodology for the identification of targeting ligands that specifically bind to a variety of targets. The high-throughput screening of phage display combinatorial peptide libraries is performed through the affinity selection method of biopanning. Although phage display selection has proven very successful in the discovery of numerous high-affinity target-binding peptides with potential application in drug discovery and delivery, the enrichment of false-positive target-unrelated peptides (TUPs) without any actual affinity towards the target remains a major problem of library screening. Selection-related TUPs may emerge because of binding to the components of the screening system rather than the target. Propagation-related TUPs may arise as a result of faster growth rate of some phage clones enabling them to outcompete slow-propagating clones. Amplification of the library between rounds of biopanning makes a significant contribution to the selection of phage clones with propagation advantage. Distinguishing nonspecific TUPs from true target binders is of particular importance for the translation of biopanning findings from basic research to clinical applications. Different experimental and in silico approaches are applied to assess the specificity of phage display-derived peptides towards the target. Bioinformatic tools are playing a rapidly growing role in the analysis of biopanning data and identification of target-irrelevant TUPs. Recent progress in the introduction of efficient strategies for TUP detection holds enormous promise for the discovery of clinically relevant cell- and tissue-homing peptides and paves the way for the development of novel targeted diagnostic and therapeutic platforms in pharmaceutical areas.

  5. Free tyrosine and tyrosine-rich peptide-dependent superoxide generation catalyzed by a copper-binding, threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide derived from prion protein.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Goto, Kaishi; Kawano, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    Previously, generation of superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) catalyzed by Cu-binding peptides derived from human prion protein (model sequence for helical Cu-binding motif VNITKQHTVTTTT was most active) in the presence of catecholamines and related aromatic monoamines such as phenylethylamine and tyramine, has been reported [Kawano, T., Int J Biol Sci 2007; 3: 57-63]. The peptide sequence (corresponding to helix 2) tested here is known as threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. In the present article, the redox behaviors of aromatic monoamines, 20 amino acids and prion-derived tyrosine-rich peptide sequences were compared as putative targets of the oxidative reactions mediated with the threonine-rich prion-peptide. For detection of O(2)(*-), an O(2)(*-)-specific chemiluminescence probe, Cypridina luciferin analog was used. We found that an aromatic amino acid, tyrosine (structurally similar to tyramine) behaves as one of the best substrates for the O(2)(*-) generating reaction (conversion from hydrogen peroxide) catalyzed by Cu-bound prion helical peptide. Data suggested that phenolic moiety is required to be an active substrate while the presence of neither carboxyl group nor amino group was necessarily required. In addition to the action of free tyrosine, effect of two tyrosine-rich peptide sequences YYR and DYEDRYYRENMHR found in human prion corresponding to the tyrosine-rich region was tested as putative substrates for the threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. YYR motif (found twice in the Y-rich region) showed 2- to 3-fold higher activity compared to free tyrosine. Comparison of Y-rich sequence consisted of 13 amino acids and its Y-to-F substitution mutant sequence revealed that the tyrosine-residues on Y-rich peptide derived from prion may contribute to the higher production of O(2)(*-). These data suggest that the tyrosine residues on prion molecules could be additional targets of the prion-mediated reactions through intra- or inter-molecular interactions. Lastly, possible

  6. Milk-derived proteins and peptides in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2013-08-06

    Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer's disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD®) found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.

  7. Identification of food-derived bioactive peptides in blood and other biological samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji; Iwai, Koji; Aito-Inoue, Misako

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of food-derived peptides in human blood after ingestion of enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins, while most peptides in food are degraded into amino acids during digestion and absorption. To capture and clarify the food-derived peptides in blood, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mini-spin column packed with a strong cation exchanger was developed. This technique allows the use of a nonvolatile acid such as trichloroacetic acid, a strong protein denaturant, for the deproteinizing procedure. To improve resolution of hydrophilic peptide and increase specificity and sensitivity in the detection of peptide by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) after subfractionation by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), peptides are derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate. The resultant phenyl thiocarbamyl (PTC)-peptides can be resolved with high resolution and sensitivity by RP-HPLC. By comparing chromatograms of PTC derivatives from blood before and after ingestion of a peptide sample, food-derived peptide can be detected. The isolated PTC-peptide can be applied to a peptide sequencer based on the Edman degradation reaction.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and interactions of cationic peptides derived from Galleria mellonella cecropin D-like peptide with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Oñate-Garzón, José; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Trier, Steven; Leidy, Chad; Torres, Rodrigo; Patiño, Edwin

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system against invading pathogens. The cationic charge in their structures has a strong correlation with antimicrobial activity, being responsible for the initial electrostatic interaction between peptides and the anionic microbial surface. This paper contains evidence that charge modification in the neutral peptide Gm cecropin D-like (WT) improved the antimicrobial activity of the modified peptides. Two cationic peptides derived from WT sequence named as ΔM1 and ΔM2, with net charge of +5 and +9, respectively, showed at least an eightfold increase in their antimicrobial activity in comparison to WT. The mechanism of action of these peptides was investigated using small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) as model membranes. To study permeabilization effects of the peptides on cell membranes, entrapped calcein liposomes were used and the results showed that all peptides induced calcein release from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) SUVs, whereas in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), POPC/POPG and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE)/POPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 induced a notable permeabilization. In addition, interactions of these peptides with phospholipids at the level of the glycerol backbone and hydrophobic domain were studied through observed changes in generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy using probes such as Laurdan and DPH, respectively. The results suggest that peptides slightly ordered the bilayer structure at the level of glycerol backbone and on the hydrophobic core in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) SUVs, whereas in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/DMPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 peptides increased the order of bilayers. Thus, peptides would be inducing clustering of phospholipids creating phospholipid domains with a higher phase transition temperature.

  9. Attaching the phage display-selected GLA peptide to liposomes: factors influencing target binding.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Inge; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2012-02-14

    In our previous study, phage display selections were performed by in situ perfusion of a random peptide library through a mouse brain. This yielded two peptides (GLA and GYR) that showed significant binding to human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) when displayed on phage particles, but not to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, these peptides were produced synthetically and coupled to liposomes to investigate the capacity of the peptides to act as ligands for targeting to hCMEC/D3 cells. Flow cytometry studies showed that these peptides when coupled to liposomes showed weak binding to the target brain endothelial cells. We hypothesized that the weak endothelial cell binding of the selected peptides when coupled to liposomes as compared to the binding of the peptides displayed on phage particles may be ascribed to: change of vehicle shape, change of peptide density, or change of peptide conformation. Peptide density on the liposomes influenced binding of the liposomes to the cells, however, this effect was minor. To study the influence of the peptide conformation, the GLA peptide was recombinantly produced fused to the N1-N2 domains of the phage p3 minor coat protein (p3-GLA) to mimic its conformation when displayed on phage particles. Binding of liposomes modified with either the GLA peptide or the p3-GLA protein to hCMEC/D3 cells was studied, and the p3-GLA-liposomes showed a higher binding to the cells compared to the GLA-liposomes. The experiments demonstrate that bringing the GLA peptide into the original phage protein environment restores and improves the peptide binding capacity and suggest that the GLA peptide, with some modifications, may be used as a brain-targeting ligand in the future.

  10. Diabetic wound regeneration using peptide-modified hydrogels to target re-epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun; Reis, Lewis A.; Feric, Nicole; Knee, Erica J.; Gu, Junhao; Cao, Shuwen; Laschinger, Carol; Londono, Camila; Antolovich, Julia; McGuigan, Alison P.; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic wounds in diabetic patients. Lack of epithelial cell migration is a hallmark of nonhealing wounds, and diabetes often involves endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, targeting re-epithelialization, which mainly involves keratinocytes, may improve therapeutic outcomes of current treatments. In this study, we present an integrin-binding prosurvival peptide derived from angiopoietin-1, QHREDGS (glutamine-histidine-arginine-glutamic acid-aspartic acid-glycine-serine), as a therapeutic candidate for diabetic wound treatments by demonstrating its efficacy in promoting the attachment, survival, and collective migration of human primary keratinocytes and the activation of protein kinase B Akt and MAPKp42/44. The QHREDGS peptide, both as a soluble supplement and when immobilized in a substrate, protected keratinocytes against hydrogen peroxide stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collective migration of both normal and diabetic human keratinocytes was promoted on chitosan–collagen films with the immobilized QHREDGS peptide. The clinical relevance was demonstrated further by assessing the chitosan–collagen hydrogel with immobilized QHREDGS in full-thickness excisional wounds in a db/db diabetic mouse model; QHREDGS showed significantly accelerated and enhanced wound closure compared with a clinically approved collagen wound dressing, peptide-free hydrogel, or blank wound controls. The accelerated wound closure resulted primarily from faster re-epithelialization and increased formation of granulation tissue. There were no observable differences in blood vessel density or size within the wound; however, the total number of blood vessels was greater in the peptide-hydrogel–treated wounds. Together, these findings indicate that QHREDGS is a promising candidate for wound-healing interventions that enhance re-epithelialization and the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:27647919

  11. Diabetic wound regeneration using peptide-modified hydrogels to target re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Reis, Lewis A; Feric, Nicole; Knee, Erica J; Gu, Junhao; Cao, Shuwen; Laschinger, Carol; Londono, Camila; Antolovich, Julia; McGuigan, Alison P; Radisic, Milica

    2016-10-04

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic wounds in diabetic patients. Lack of epithelial cell migration is a hallmark of nonhealing wounds, and diabetes often involves endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, targeting re-epithelialization, which mainly involves keratinocytes, may improve therapeutic outcomes of current treatments. In this study, we present an integrin-binding prosurvival peptide derived from angiopoietin-1, QHREDGS (glutamine-histidine-arginine-glutamic acid-aspartic acid-glycine-serine), as a therapeutic candidate for diabetic wound treatments by demonstrating its efficacy in promoting the attachment, survival, and collective migration of human primary keratinocytes and the activation of protein kinase B Akt and MAPKp42/44 The QHREDGS peptide, both as a soluble supplement and when immobilized in a substrate, protected keratinocytes against hydrogen peroxide stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collective migration of both normal and diabetic human keratinocytes was promoted on chitosan-collagen films with the immobilized QHREDGS peptide. The clinical relevance was demonstrated further by assessing the chitosan-collagen hydrogel with immobilized QHREDGS in full-thickness excisional wounds in a db/db diabetic mouse model; QHREDGS showed significantly accelerated and enhanced wound closure compared with a clinically approved collagen wound dressing, peptide-free hydrogel, or blank wound controls. The accelerated wound closure resulted primarily from faster re-epithelialization and increased formation of granulation tissue. There were no observable differences in blood vessel density or size within the wound; however, the total number of blood vessels was greater in the peptide-hydrogel-treated wounds. Together, these findings indicate that QHREDGS is a promising candidate for wound-healing interventions that enhance re-epithelialization and the formation of granulation tissue.

  12. Successful immunotherapy with matrix metalloproteinase-derived peptides in adjuvant arthritis depends on the timing of peptide administration

    PubMed Central

    van Bilsen, Jolanda HM; Wagenaar-Hilbers, Josée PA; van der Cammen, Maarten JF; van Dijk, Mariska EA; van Eden, Willem; Wauben, Marca HM

    2002-01-01

    We have recently found that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are targets for T-cell and B-cell reactivity in experimental arthritis. In the present article, we investigate whether modulation of MMP-specific T-cell responses could influence the course of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Lewis rats were treated nasally with MMP peptides prior to or after AA induction. Administration of the MMP-10 or the MMP-16 peptide prior to AA induction reduced the arthritic symptoms. In contrast, administration of the MMP-10 peptide after AA induction aggravated the arthritic symptoms. The present study shows the possible usefulness of MMP peptides for immunotherapy. However, a clear understanding of proper timing of peptide administration is crucial for the development of such therapies. PMID:12106501

  13. Production and characterization of a fusion peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Jiao; Zhao, Ping-Sen; Wu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Li-Li; Xue, Xiang-Hong; Gai, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yu-Wei; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Gene therapy targeting the brain holds great promise in curing nervous system degenerative diseases in clinical applications. With this in mind, in a previous study a 29 amino-acid peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29) with a nonamer stretch of arginine residues (RVG29-9R) at its carboxy-terminus was exploited as a ligand for brain-targeting gene delivery. Importantly, the report demonstrated that the RVG29-9R vector was able to cross the blood-brain barrier. RVG29-9R is currently synthesized by commercial companies with high associated costs. In this study, in order to reduce the costs of producing RVG29-9R, we have expressed and purified 6mg of a recombinant peptide (RVG29-9R-6His) from 0.4g of cultured Escherichia coli. We assessed the physiochemical properties of RVG29-9R-6His, its cytotoxicity, and the in vitro transfection efficiency in Neuro 2a cells (which express the acetylcholine receptor). Our results reveal that the RVG29-9R-6His peptide recognized Neuro 2a cells in a dose-dependent manner and it was also able to bind plasmid DNA and deliver it into the Neuro 2a cells effectively. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that the recombinant RVG29-9R-6His peptide retains the functions of RVG29-9R and so may provide an economically viable and alternative production method for the manufacture of RVG29-9R.

  14. Antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophage chemotaxis via formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Ha Young; Jung, Young Su; Park, Joon Seong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report that one of the antimicrobial peptides scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates actin polymerization and the subsequent chemotactic migration of macrophages through the activation of ERK and protein kinase B (Akt) activity. The scolopendrasin VII-induced chemotactic migration of macrophages is inhibited by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antagonist cyclosporine H. We also found that scolopendrasin VII stimulate the chemotactic migration of FPR1-transfected RBL-2H3 cells, but not that of vector-transfected cells; moreover, scolopendrasin VII directly binds to FPR1. Our findings therefore suggest that the antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration via FPR1 signaling, and the peptide can be useful in the study of FPR1-related biological responses.

  15. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Castro, Thiago Luiz de Paula; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Misra, Amarendra Narayan; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  16. Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Thiago Jucá Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

  17. Targeting prostate cancer cells with genetically engineered polypeptide-based micelles displaying gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Garg, Sanjay; Eldi, Preethi; Zhou, Fiona Huan-Huan; Johnson, Ian R D; Brooks, Doug A; Lam, Frankie; Rychkov, Grigori; Hayball, John; Albrecht, Hugo

    2016-11-20

    In recent years G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as crucial tumorigenic factors that drive aberrant cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Consequently, a number of GPCRs are strongly expressed in cancer derived cell lines and tissue samples. Therefore a rational anti-cancer strategy is the design of nano-medicines that specifically target GPCRs to bind and internalise cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells. Herein, we report the genetic engineering of a self-assembling nanoparticle based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which has been fused with gastrin releasing peptide (GRP). These nanoparticles increased intracellular calcium concentrations when added to GRP receptor positive PC-3 prostate cancer cells, demonstrating specific receptor activation. Moreover, GRP-displaying fluorescent labelled nanoparticles showed specific cell-surface interaction with PC-3 prostate cancer cells and increased endocytic uptake. These nanoparticles therefore provide a targeted molecular carrier system for evaluating the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells.

  18. Overview of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Marine Resources: The Sources, Characteristic, Purification, and Evaluation Methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, RiBang; Wu, CuiLing; Liu, Dan; Yang, XingHao; Huang, JiaFeng; Zhang, Jiang; Liao, Binqiang; He, HaiLun; Li, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Marine organisms are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. In recent years, numerous bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of marine protein resources, such as antioxidant peptides. Many studies have approved that marine antioxidant peptides have a positive effect on human health and the food industry. Antioxidant activity of peptides can be attributed to free radicals scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and metal ion chelating. Moreover, it has also been verified that peptide structure and its amino acid sequence can mainly affect its antioxidant properties. The aim of this review is to summarize kinds of antioxidant peptides from various marine resources. Additionally, the relationship between structure and antioxidant activities of peptides is discussed in this paper. Finally, current technologies used in the preparation, purification, and evaluation of marine-derived antioxidant peptides are also reviewed.

  19. α/β-Peptide Foldamers Targeting Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions with Activity in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Checco, James W; Lee, Erinna F; Evangelista, Marco; Sleebs, Nerida J; Rogers, Kelly; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Kershaw, Nadia J; Eddinger, Geoffrey A; Belair, David G; Wilson, Julia L; Eller, Chelcie H; Raines, Ronald T; Murphy, William L; Smith, Brian J; Gellman, Samuel H; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2015-09-09

    Peptides can be developed as effective antagonists of protein-protein interactions, but conventional peptides (i.e., oligomers of l-α-amino acids) suffer from significant limitations in vivo. Short half-lives due to rapid proteolytic degradation and an inability to cross cell membranes often preclude biological applications of peptides. Oligomers that contain both α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") manifest decreased susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and when properly designed these unnatural oligomers can mimic the protein-recognition properties of analogous "α-peptides". This report documents an extension of the α/β-peptide approach to target intracellular protein-protein interactions. Specifically, we have generated α/β-peptides based on a "stapled" Bim BH3 α-peptide, which contains a hydrocarbon cross-link to enhance α-helix stability. We show that a stapled α/β-peptide can structurally and functionally mimic the parent stapled α-peptide in its ability to enter certain types of cells and block protein-protein interactions associated with apoptotic signaling. However, the α/β-peptide is nearly 100-fold more resistant to proteolysis than is the parent stapled α-peptide. These results show that backbone modification, a strategy that has received relatively little attention in terms of peptide engineering for biomedical applications, can be combined with more commonly deployed peripheral modifications such as side chain cross-linking to produce synergistic benefits.

  20. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery. PMID:26064887

  1. Peptide Receptor Targeting in Cancer: The Somatostatin Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Federica; Bajetto, Adriana; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Gatti, Monica; Würth, Roberto; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Villa, Valentina; Nizzari, Mario; Florio, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptors involved in pathophysiological processes represent promising therapeutic targets. Neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) is produced by specialized cells in a large number of human organs and tissues. SST primarily acts as inhibitor of endocrine and exocrine secretion via the activation of five G-protein-coupled receptors, named sst1–5, while in central nervous system, SST acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, regulating locomotory and cognitive functions. Critical points of SST/SST receptor biology, such as signaling pathways of individual receptor subtypes, homo- and heterodimerization, trafficking, and cross-talk with growth factor receptors, have been extensively studied, although functions associated with several pathological conditions, including cancer, are still not completely unraveled. Importantly, SST exerts antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects on cancer cells in vitro, and on experimental tumors in vivo. Moreover, SST agonists are clinically effective as antitumor agents for pituitary adenomas and gastro-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, SST receptors being expressed by tumor cells of various tumor histotypes, their pharmacological use is potentially extendible to other cancer types, although to date no significant results have been obtained. In this paper the most recent findings on the expression and functional roles of SST and SST receptors in tumor cells are discussed. PMID:23476673

  2. Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-09-24

    Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production.

  3. Integrin Targeting and Toxicological Assessment of Peptide-Conjugated Liposome Delivery Systems to Activated Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Villadsen, Klaus; Østrem, Ragnhild G; Jensen, Knud J; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Utilization of functionalized liposomes as the means of targeted delivery of therapeutics may enhance specific transport of biologically active drugs to target tissues, while avoiding or reducing undesired side effects. In the present investigation, peptide-conjugated cationic liposomes were constructed with the aim of targeting integrins (i.e. vitronectin and/or fibronectin receptors) on activated endothelial cells. The peptide-conjugated liposomes induced only cytotoxicity at the highest concentration in non-activated or activated endothelial cells, as well as in co-culture of endothelial cells and macrophages. There was unaltered secretion of cytokines after exposure of peptide-conjugated liposomes to endothelial cells, indicating that the materials were not inflammogenic. Liposomes with a peptide targeting the fibronectin receptor (integrin α5β1) were more effective in targeting of activated endothelial cells, as compared to a liposome with a peptide that targeted both the fibronectin and vitronectin receptors, as well as liposomes with a control peptide. The liposome targeted to the fibronectin receptor also displayed uptake in endothelial cells in co-culture with activated macrophages. Therefore, this study demonstrates the feasibility of constructing a peptide-conjugated cationic liposome, which displays targeting to activated endothelial cells at concentrations that are not cytotoxic or inflammogenic to the cells.

  4. Effects of histatin 5 and derived peptides on Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Ruissen, A L; Groenink, J; Helmerhorst, E J; Walgreen-Weterings, E; Van't Hof, W; Veerman, E C; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2001-01-01

    Three anti-microbial peptides were compared with respect to their killing activity against Candida albicans and their ability to disturb its cellular and internal membranes. Histatin 5 is an anti-fungal peptide occurring naturally in human saliva, while dhvar4 and dhvar5 are variants of its active domain, with increased anti-microbial activity. dhvar4 has increased amphipathicity compared with histatin 5, whereas dhvar5 has amphipathicity comparable with that of histatin 5. All three peptides caused depolarization of the cytoplasmic and/or mitochondrial membrane, indicating membranolytic activity. For the variant peptides both depolarization and killing occurred at a faster rate. With FITC-labelled peptides, no association with the cytoplasmic membrane was observed, contradicting the formation of permanent transmembrane multimeric peptide pores. Instead, the peptides were internalized and act on internal membranes, as demonstrated with mitochondrion- and vacuole-specific markers. In comparison with histatin 5, the variant peptides showed a more destructive effect on mitochondria. Entry of the peptides and subsequent killing were dependent on the metabolic state of the cells. Blocking of the mitochondrial activity led to complete protection against histatin 5 activity, whereas that of dhvar4 was hardly affected and that of dhvar5 was affected only intermediately. PMID:11368762

  5. Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lister, Josh; Fletcher, Paul J; Nobrega, José N; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Dohan proposed that an overload of dietary peptides, such as those derived from wheat gluten and milk casein, could be a factor relevant to the development or maintenance of schizophrenia (SZ) symptoms in at least a subset of vulnerable individuals. Rodent behavioral models may offer insight into the plausibility of Dohan's exorphin hypothesis by providing a means to directly study the effects of such peptides. Accordingly, a review of the literature on the behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents was undertaken. Studies using a variety of behavioral tests to examine the effects of several classes of food-derived opioid-like peptides were identified and reviewed. Peptides derived from casein (β-casomorphins; BCMs, n=19), spinach (rubiscolins; RCs, n=4), and soy (soymorphins; SMs, n=1) were behaviorally active in various paradigms assessing nociception, spontaneous behavior, and memory. Surprisingly, only a single study evaluating a gluten-derived peptide (gliadorphin-7; GD-7, n=1) was identified and included in this review. In conclusion, food-derived peptides can affect rodent behavior, but more studies of GDs using diverse behavioral batteries are warranted. Assuming they occur in sufficient quantities during protein digestion and can access central opioid receptors (which entails crossing both the gastrointestinal and blood-brain barriers intact), these peptides may affect human behavior. Although BCMs and GDs may not be directly pathogenic in SZ, documented associations of casein and gluten sensitivity with SZ justify increased patient screening and dietary intervention where necessary.

  6. Peptide-conjugated micelles as a targeting nanocarrier for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen Jen; Chien, Wei Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated micelles possessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting ability for gene delivery. A sequence-modified dodecylpeptide, GE11(2R), with enhancing EGF receptor binding affinity, was applied in this study as a targeting ligand. The active targeting micelles were composed of poly( d,l-lactide- co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) copolymer conjugated with GE11(2R)-peptide. The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated micelles were 277.0 ± 5.1 and 308.7 ± 14.5 nm, respectively. The peptide-conjugated micelles demonstrated the cellular uptake significantly higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells due to GE11(2R)-peptide specificity. Furthermore, the peptide-conjugated micelles were able to encapsulate plasmid DNA and expressed cellular transfection higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed cells. The EGFR-targeting delivery micelles enhanced DNA internalized into cells and achieved higher cellular transfection in EGFR high-expressed cells.

  7. Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Human Cancers: From Small Molecules to Peptide Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Peyressatre, Marion; Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK/Cyclins) form a family of heterodimeric kinases that play central roles in regulation of cell cycle progression, transcription and other major biological processes including neuronal differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, overexpression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. The structural features of several of these kinases have been elucidated and their molecular mechanisms of regulation characterized in depth, providing clues for development of drugs and inhibitors to disrupt their function. However, like most other kinases, they constitute a challenging class of therapeutic targets due to their highly conserved structural features and ATP-binding pocket. Notwithstanding, several classes of inhibitors have been discovered from natural sources, and small molecule derivatives have been synthesized through rational, structure-guided approaches or identified in high throughput screens. The larger part of these inhibitors target ATP pockets, but a growing number of peptides targeting protein/protein interfaces are being proposed, and a small number of compounds targeting allosteric sites have been reported. PMID:25625291

  8. Catalytic Metallodrugs Based on the LaR2C Peptide Target HCV SLIV IRES RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Martin James; Bradford, Seth S.; Cowan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the potential effectiveness of a new class of metallopeptides as catalytic metallodrugs that target HCV IRES SLIIb RNA (Cu-GGHYrFK, 1). Herein new catalytic metallodrugs (GGHKYKETDLLILFKDDYFAKKNEERK, 2; and GGHKYKETDL, 3) are described based on the LaR2C peptide that has been shown to bind to the SLIV HCV IRES domain. In vitro fluorescence assays yielded KD values ~10 μM for both peptides and reaction of the copper derivatives with SLIV RNA demonstrated initial rates comparable across different assays as well as displaying pseudo-Michaelis-Menten behavior. The sites of reaction and cleavage mechanisms were determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The primary site of copper-promoted SLIV cleavage is shown to occur in the vicinity of the 5’-G17C18A19C20-3’ sequence that corresponds to a known binding site of the RM2 motif of the human La protein and has previously been reported to be important for viral translation. This domain also flanks the internal start codon (AUG). Both copper complexes also showed efficacy in an HCV replicon assay (IC50 = 0.75 μM for 2-Cu, and 2.17 μM for 3-Cu) and show potential for treatment of hepatitis C, complementing other marketed drugs by acting on a distinct therapeutic target by a novel mechanism of action. PMID:26583601

  9. Antimicrobial activity of antihypertensive food-derived peptides and selected alanine analogues.

    PubMed

    McClean, Stephen; Beggs, Louise B; Welch, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated four food-derived peptides with known antihypertensive activities for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms, and assessed structure-function relationships using alanine analogues. The peptides (EVSLNSGYY, barley; PGTAVFK, soybean; TTMPLW, α-casein; VHLPP, α-zein) and the six alanine substitution peptides of PGTAVFK were synthesised, characterised and evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus and the yeast, Candida albicans. The peptides TTMPLW and PGTAVFK inhibited growth of all four microorganisms tested, with activities of a similar order of magnitude to ampicillin and ethanol controls. EVSLNSGYY inhibited the growth of the bacteria, but VHLPP showed no antimicrobial activity. The alanine analogue, PGAAVFK showed the highest overall antimicrobial activity and PGTAVFA showed no activity; overall, the activities of the analogues were consistent with their structures. Some peptides with antihypertensive activity also show antimicrobial activity, suggesting that food-derived peptides may exert beneficial effects via a number of mechanisms.

  10. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their health beneficial potentials: an update.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Behare, Pradip; Rana, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Manoj; Arora, Sanu; Morotta, Fransesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2011-01-01

    It has been well recognized that dietary proteins provide a rich source of biologically active peptides. Today, milk proteins are considered the most important source of bioactive peptides and an increasing number of bioactive peptides have been identified in milk protein hydrolysates and fermented dairy products. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins offer a promising approach for the promotion of health by means of a tailored diet and provide interesting opportunities to the dairy industry for expansion of its field of operation. The potential health benefits of milk protein-derived peptides have been a subject of growing commercial interest in the context of health-promoting functional foods. Hence, these peptides are being incorporated in the form of ingredients in functional and novel foods, dietary supplements and even pharmaceuticals with the purpose of delivering specific health benefits.

  11. Optimization of a Novel Peptide Ligand Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Shoaib; Nissen, Felix; Marr, Annabell; Markert, Annette; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Debus, Juergen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Askoxylakis, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein over-expressed in various types of human cancer. Recently, a new peptide with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CaIX-P1) was identified using the phage display technology. Aim of the present study is to characterize the binding site in the sequence of CaIX-P1, in order to optimize the binding and metabolic properties and use it for targeting purposes. Methodology/Principal Findings Various fragments of CaIX-P1 were synthesized on solid support using Fmoc chemistry. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the amino acids crucial for target binding. Derivatives with increased binding affinity were radiolabeled and in vitro studies were carried out on the CA IX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52 and the CA IX negative human pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3. Metabolic stability was investigated in cell culture medium and human serum. Organ distribution and planar scintigraphy studies were performed in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted SKRC 52 tumors. The results of our studies clearly identified amino acids that are important for target binding. Among various fragments and derivatives the ligand CaIX-P1-4-10 (NHVPLSPy) was found to possess increased binding potential in SKRC 52 cells, whereas no binding capacity for BxPC3 cells was observed. Binding of radiolabeled CaIX-P1-4-10 on CA IX positive cells could be inhibited by both the unlabeled and the native CaIX-P1 peptide but not by control peptides. Stability experiments indicated the degradation site in the sequence of CaIX-P1-4-10. Biodistribution studies showed a higher in vivo accumulation in the tumor than in most healthy tissues. Conclusions Our data reveal modifications in the sequence of the CA IX affine ligand CaIX-P1 that might be favorable for improvement of target affinity and metabolic stability, which are necessary prior to the use of the ligand in

  12. Using Data Independent Acquisition (DIA) to Model High-responding Peptides for Targeted Proteomics Experiments.

    PubMed

    Searle, Brian C; Egertson, Jarrett D; Bollinger, James G; Stergachis, Andrew B; MacCoss, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry is an essential tool for detecting quantitative changes in low abundant proteins throughout the proteome. Although selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is the preferred method for quantifying peptides in complex samples, the process of designing SRM assays is laborious. Peptides have widely varying signal responses dictated by sequence-specific physiochemical properties; one major challenge is in selecting representative peptides to target as a proxy for protein abundance. Here we present PREGO, a software tool that predicts high-responding peptides for SRM experiments. PREGO predicts peptide responses with an artificial neural network trained using 11 minimally redundant, maximally relevant properties. Crucial to its success, PREGO is trained using fragment ion intensities of equimolar synthetic peptides extracted from data independent acquisition experiments. Because of similarities in instrumentation and the nature of data collection, relative peptide responses from data independent acquisition experiments are a suitable substitute for SRM experiments because they both make quantitative measurements from integrated fragment ion chromatograms. Using an SRM experiment containing 12,973 peptides from 724 synthetic proteins, PREGO exhibits a 40-85% improvement over previously published approaches at selecting high-responding peptides. These results also represent a dramatic improvement over the rules-based peptide selection approaches commonly used in the literature.

  13. Liposomes derivatized with multimeric copies of KCCYSL peptide as targeting agents for HER-2-overexpressing tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ringhieri, Paola; Mannucci, Silvia; Conti, Giamaica; Nicolato, Elena; Fracasso, Giulio; Marzola, Pasquina; Morelli, Giancarlo; Accardo, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Mixed liposomes, obtained by coaggregation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and of the synthetic monomer containing a gadolinium complex ([C18]2DTPA[Gd]) have been prepared. Liposomes externally decorated with KCCYSL (P6.1 peptide) sequence in its monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric forms are studied as target-selective delivery systems toward cancer cells overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) receptors. Derivatization of liposomal surface with targeting peptides is achieved using the postmodification method: the alkyne-peptide derivative Pra-KCCYSL reacts, through click chemistry procedures, with a synthetic surfactant modified with 1, 2, or 4 azido moieties previously inserted in liposome formulation. Preliminary in vitro data on MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells indicated that liposomes functionalized with P6.1 peptide in its tetrameric form had better binding to and uptake into BT-474 cells compared to liposomes decorated with monomeric or dimeric versions of the P6.1 peptide. BT-474 cells treated with liposomes functionalized with the tetrameric form of P6.1 showed high degree of liposome uptake, which was comparable with the uptake of anti-HER-2 antibodies such as Herceptin. Moreover, magnetic MRI experiments have demonstrated the potential of liposomes to act as MRI contrast agents. PMID:28144135

  14. Assessing potential peptide targeting ligands by quantification of cellular adhesion of model nanoparticles under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Broda, Ellen; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Lächelt, Ulrich; Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-09-10

    Sophisticated drug delivery systems are coated with targeting ligands to improve the specific adhesion to surface receptors on diseased cells. In our study, we developed a method with which we assessed the potential of peptide ligands to specifically bind to receptor overexpressing target cells. Therefore, a microfluidic setup was used where the cellular adhesion of nanoparticles with ligand and of control nanoparticles was observed in parallel under the same experimental conditions. The effect of the ligand on cellular binding was quantified by counting the number of adhered nanoparticles with ligand and differently labeled control nanoparticles on single cells after incubation under flow conditions. To provide easy-to-synthesize, stable and reproducible nanoparticles which mimic the surface characteristics of drug delivery systems and meet the requirements for quantitative analysis, latex beads based on amine-modified polystyrene were used as model nanoparticles. Two short peptides were tested to serve as targeting ligand on the beads by increasing the specific binding to HuH7 cells. The c-Met binding peptide cMBP2 was used for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) targeting and the peptide B6 for transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting. The impact of the targeting peptide on binding was investigated by comparing the beads with ligand to different internal control beads: 1) without ligand and tailored surface charge (electrostatic control) and 2) with scrambled peptide and similar surface charge, but a different amino acid sequence (specificity control). Our results demonstrate that the method is very useful to select suitable targeting ligands for specific nanoparticle binding to receptor overexpressing tumor cells. We show that the cMBP2 ligand specifically enhances nanoparticle adhesion to target cells, whereas the B6 peptide mediates binding to tumor cells mainly by nonspecific interactions. All together, we suggest that cMBP2 is a suitable choice for

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Synthetic Peptides Derived from Indolicidin and Ranalexin against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Hassan Mahmood; Le, Cheng Foh; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Velayuthan, Rukumani Devi; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Isa, Diyana Mohd; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to defeat multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, thirteen antimicrobial peptides were designed based on two natural peptides indolicidin and ranalexin. Our results revealed that four hybrid peptides RN7-IN10, RN7-IN9, RN7-IN8, and RN7-IN6 possess potent antibacterial activity against 30 pneumococcal clinical isolates (MIC 7.81-15.62µg/ml). These four hybrid peptides also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity (7.81µg/ml) against S. aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and E. coli. Furthermore, the time killing assay results showed that the hybrid peptides were able to eliminate S. pneumoniae within less than one hour which is faster than the standard drugs erythromycin and ceftriaxone. The cytotoxic effects of peptides were tested against human erythrocytes, WRL-68 normal liver cell line, and NL-20 normal lung cell line. The results revealed that none of the thirteen peptides have cytotoxic or hemolytic effects at their MIC values. The in silico molecular docking study was carried out to investigate the binding properties of peptides with three pneumococcal virulent targets by Autodock Vina. RN7IN6 showed a strong affinity to target proteins; autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) based on rigid docking studies. Our results suggest that the hybrid peptides could be suitable candidates for antibacterial drug development. PMID:26046345

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Synthetic Peptides Derived from Indolicidin and Ranalexin against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Hassan Mahmood; Le, Cheng Foh; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Velayuthan, Rukumani Devi; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Isa, Diyana Mohd; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to defeat multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, thirteen antimicrobial peptides were designed based on two natural peptides indolicidin and ranalexin. Our results revealed that four hybrid peptides RN7-IN10, RN7-IN9, RN7-IN8, and RN7-IN6 possess potent antibacterial activity against 30 pneumococcal clinical isolates (MIC 7.81-15.62µg/ml). These four hybrid peptides also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity (7.81µg/ml) against S. aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and E. coli. Furthermore, the time killing assay results showed that the hybrid peptides were able to eliminate S. pneumoniae within less than one hour which is faster than the standard drugs erythromycin and ceftriaxone. The cytotoxic effects of peptides were tested against human erythrocytes, WRL-68 normal liver cell line, and NL-20 normal lung cell line. The results revealed that none of the thirteen peptides have cytotoxic or hemolytic effects at their MIC values. The in silico molecular docking study was carried out to investigate the binding properties of peptides with three pneumococcal virulent targets by Autodock Vina. RN7IN6 showed a strong affinity to target proteins; autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) based on rigid docking studies. Our results suggest that the hybrid peptides could be suitable candidates for antibacterial drug development.

  17. Disruption of disulfide bond formation alters the trafficking of prothyrotropin releasing hormone (proTRH)-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Barker, Alison J; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2006-01-15

    Rat prothyrotropin releasing hormone (proTRH) is processed in the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) of neuroendocrine cells yielding five TRH peptides and several non-TRH peptides. It is not understood how these peptides are targeted to the RSP. We show here that a disulfide bond in the carboxy-terminus of proTRH plays an important role in the trafficking of this prohormone. Recombinant proTRH was observed to migrate faster on a native gel when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) suggesting the presence of a disulfide bond. In vitro disulfide bond formation was prevented either by DTT treatment or by mutating cysteines 213 and 219 to glycines. In both cases the peptides derived from these mutants exhibited increased constitutive release and processing defects when expressed in AtT20 cells, a neuroendocrine cell line used in our prior studies on proTRH processing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that wild-type proTRH and mutant proTRH localized in a punctate pattern typical of proteins sorted to the regulated secretory pathway. These data suggest that the proposed disulfide bond of proTRH is involved in sorting of proTRH-derived peptides and in their retention within maturing secretory granules. This is the first evidence of structural motifs being important for the sorting of proTRH.

  18. Bacterium-Derived Cell-Penetrating Peptides Deliver Gentamicin To Kill Intracellular Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomarasca, Marta; F C Martins, Thaynan; Greune, Lilo; Hardwidge, Philip R; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Commonly used antimicrobials show poor cellular uptake and often have limited access to intracellular targets, resulting in low antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. An efficient delivery system to transport these drugs to the intracellular site of action is needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) mediate the internalization of biologically active molecules into the cytoplasm. Here, we characterized two CPPs, α1H and α2H, derived from the Yersinia enterocolitica YopM effector protein. These CPPs, as well as Tat (trans-activator of transcription) from HIV-1, were used to deliver the antibiotic gentamicin to target intracellular bacteria. The YopM-derived CPPs penetrated different endothelial and epithelial cells to the same extent as Tat. CPPs were covalently conjugated to gentamicin, and CPP-gentamicin conjugates were used to target infected cells to kill multiple intracellular Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri Taken together, CPPs show great potential as delivery vehicles for antimicrobial agents and may contribute to the generation of new therapeutic tools to treat infectious diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.

  19. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  20. AVPdb: a database of experimentally validated antiviral peptides targeting medically important viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral peptides (AVPs) have exhibited huge potential in inhibiting viruses by targeting various stages of their life cycle. Therefore, we have developed AVPdb, available online at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/avpdb, to provide a dedicated resource of experimentally verified AVPs targeting over 60 medically important viruses including Influenza, HCV, HSV, RSV, HBV, DENV, SARS, etc. However, we have separately provided HIV inhibiting peptides in ‘HIPdb’. AVPdb contains detailed information of 2683 peptides, including 624 modified peptides experimentally tested for antiviral activity. In modified peptides a chemical moiety is attached for increasing their efficacy and stability. Detailed information include: peptide sequence, length, source, virus targeted, virus family, cell line used, efficacy (qualitative/quantitative), target step/protein, assay used in determining the efficacy and PubMed reference. The database also furnishes physicochemical properties and predicted structure for each peptide. We have provided user-friendly browsing and search facility along with other analysis tools to help the users. Entering of many synthetic peptide-based drugs in various stages of clinical trials reiterate the importance for the AVP resources. AVPdb is anticipated to cater to the needs of scientific community working for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24285301

  1. Lactoferricin B-derived peptides with inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; López-Díez, José Javier; Torregrosa, Germán; Vallés, Salvador; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma; Salom, Juan B

    2010-10-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors.

  2. Antifungal Activities of Peptides Derived from Domain 5 of High-Molecular-Weight Kininogen

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, Andreas; Nordahl, Emma Andersson; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-01-01

    In both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, Candida and Malassezia are causing or triggering clinical manifestations such as cutaneous infections and atopic eczema. The innate immune system provides rapid responses to microbial invaders, without requiring prior stimulation, through a sophisticated system of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). High molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and components of the contact system have previously been reported to bind to Candida and other pathogens, leading to activation of the contact system. A cutaneous Candida infection is characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils, leading to an inflammatory response and release of enzymatically active substances. In the present study we demonstrate that antifungal peptide fragments are generated through proteolytic degradation of HMWK. The recombinant domain 5 (rD5) of HMWK, D5-derived peptides, as well as hydrophobically modified D5-derived peptides efficiently killed Candida and Malassezia. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of modified peptides was studied at physiological conditions. Binding of a D5-derived peptide, HKH20 (His479-His498), to the fungal cell membrane was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Our data disclose a novel antifungal activity of D5-derived peptides and also show that proteolytic cleavage of HMWK results in fragments exerting antifungal activity. Of therapeutic interest is that structurally modified peptides show an enhanced antifungal activity. PMID:21941573

  3. Small Peptides Derived from Penetratin as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Oscar; Somlai, Csaba; Andujar, Sebastián A; Garro, Adriana D; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Tóth, Gabor; Cascales, Javier López; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of several small-size peptides acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated, the peptides Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Trp-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH2 , Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Arg-NH2 , and Arg-Gln-Ile-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-Gln-Arg-NH2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity. These were found to be very active antibacterial compounds, considering their small molecular size. In order to better understand the antibacterial activity obtained for these peptides, an exhaustive conformational analysis was performed, using both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water) were employed. The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated by experimental circular dichroism measurements. A brief discussion on the possible mechanism of action of these peptides at molecular level is also presented. Some of the peptides reported here constitute very interesting structures to be used as starting compounds for the design of new small-size peptides possessing antibacterial activity.

  4. Screening and identification of a peptide specifically targeted to NCI-H1299 from a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Zang, Linquan; Shi, Lei; Guo, Jiao; Pan, Qin; Wu, Wei; Pan, Xuediao; Wang, Junye

    2009-08-18

    In this study, a NCI-H1299 (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, NSCLC) and a normal lung cell line (Small Airway Epithelial Cells, SAEC) were used for the subtractive screening in vitro with a phage display-12 peptide library. After three rounds of panning, there was an obvious enrichment for the phages specifically binding to the NCI-H1299 cells, and the output/input ratio of phages increased about 875-fold (from 0.4x10(4) to 3.5x10(6)). A group of peptides being capable of binding specifically to the NCI-H1299 cells were obtained, and the affinity of these peptides to bind to the targeted cells and tissues was studied. Through a cell-based ELISA, immunocytochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence, a M13 phage isolated and identified from the above screenings, and a synthetic peptide ZS-1 (sequence EHMALTYPFRPP) corresponded to the sequence of the surface protein of the M13 phage were demonstrated to be capable of binding to the tumor cell surfaces of NCI-H1299 and A549 cell lines and biopsy specimens, but not to normal lungs tissue samples, other different cancer cells, or nontumor surrounding lung tissues. In conclusion, the peptide ZS-1 may be a potential candidate of biomarker ligands used for targeted drug delivery in therapy of lung cancer.

  5. Serum Stability and Affinity Optimization of an M2 Macrophage-Targeting Peptide (M2pep)

    PubMed Central

    Ngambenjawong, Chayanon; Gustafson, Heather H.; Pineda, Julio M.; Kacherovsky, Nataly A.; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Pun, Suzie H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major stromal component of the tumor microenvironment in several cancers. TAMs are a potential target for adjuvant cancer therapies due to their established roles in promoting proliferation of cancer cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We previously discovered an M2 macrophage-targeting peptide (M2pep) which was successfully used to target and deliver a pro-apoptotic KLA peptide to M2-like TAMs in a CT-26 colon carcinoma model. However, the effectiveness of in vivo TAM-targeting using M2pep is limited by its poor serum stability and low binding affinity. In this study, we synthesized M2pep derivatives with the goals of increasing serum stability and binding affinity. Serum stability evaluation of M2pepBiotin confirmed its rapid degradation attributed to exolytic cleavage from the N-terminus and endolytic cleavages at the W10/W11 and S16/K17 sites. N-terminal acetylation of M2pepBiotin protected the peptide against the exolytic degradation while W10w and K(17,18,19)k substitutions were able to effectively protect endolytic degradation at their respective cleavage sites. However, no tested amino acid changes at the W10 position resulted in both protease resistance at that site and retention of binding activity. Therefore, cyclization of M2pep was investigated. Cyclized M2pep better resisted serum degradation without compromising binding activity to M2 macrophages. During the serum stability optimization process, we also discovered that K9R and W10Y substitutions significantly enhanced binding affinity of M2pep. In an in vitro binding study of different M2pep analogs pre-incubated in mouse serum, cyclic M2pep with K9R and W10Y modifications (cyclic M2pep(RY)) retained the highest binding activity to M2 macrophages over time due to its improved serum stability. Finally, we evaluated the in vivo accumulation of sulfo-Cy5-labeled M2pep and cyclic M2pep(RY) in both the CT-26 and 4T1 breast carcinoma models. Cyclic M2pep

  6. [The synthesis of RGD peptide derivatives containing glutaric and adipic residues].

    PubMed

    Vigorov, A Iu; Demin, A M; Nizova, I A; Krasnov, V P

    2014-01-01

    A method of the synthesis of RGD peptide derivatives containing glutaric or adipic residues linked with α-amino group of L-arginine and allowing carrying out their coupling with other biomolecules and nanoparticles.

  7. Antibacterial activity and dual mechanisms of peptide analog derived from cell-penetrating peptide against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lirong; Shi, Yonghui; Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Su, Guanfang; Le, Guowei

    2013-02-01

    A number of research have proven that antimicrobial peptides are of greatest potential as a new class of antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides and cell-penetrating peptides share some similar structure characteristics. In our study, a new peptide analog, APP (GLARALTRLLRQLTRQLTRA) from the cell-penetrating peptide ppTG20 (GLFRALLRLLRSLWRLLLRA), was identified simultaneously with the antibacterial mechanism of APP against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes. APP displayed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration was in the range of 2 to 4 μM. APP displayed higher cell selectivity (about 42-fold increase) as compared to the parent peptide for it decreased hemolytic activity and increased antimicrobial activity. The calcein leakage from egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC)/egg yolk L-α-phosphatidyl-DL-glycerol and EYPC/cholesterol vesicles demonstrated that APP exhibited high selectivity. The antibacterial mechanism analysis indicated that APP induced membrane permeabilization in a kinetic manner for membrane lesions allowing O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside uptake into cells and potassium release from APP-treated cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that APP induced bacterial live cell membrane damage. Circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra, and gel retardation analysis confirmed that APP interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs after penetrating the cell membrane. Cell cycle assay showed that APP affected DNA synthesis in the cell. Our results suggested that peptides derived from the cell-penetrating peptide have the potential for antimicrobial agent development, and APP exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging bacterial cell membranes and binding to bacterial DNA to inhibit cellular functions, ultimately leading to cell death.

  8. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  9. Dual-targeting peptide probe for sequence- and structure-sensitive sensing of serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Zhao, Rui

    2017-04-02

    Peptide-protein interactions mediate numerous biologic processes and provide great opportunity for developing peptide probes and analytical approaches for detecting and interfering with recognition events. Molecular interactions usually take place on the heterogeneous surface of proteins, and the spatial distribution and arrangement of probes are therefore crucial for achieving high specificity and sensitivity in the bioassays. In this study, small linear peptides, homogenous peptide dimers and hetero bivalent peptides were designed for site-specific recognition of human serum albumin (HSA). Three hydrophilic regions located at different subdomains of HSA were chosen as targets for the molecular design. The binding affinity, selectivity and kinetics of the candidates were screened with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and fluoroimmuno assays. Benefiting from the synergistic effect from the surface-targeted peptide binders and the flexible spacer, a heterogenetic dimer peptide (heter-7) with fast binding and slow dissociation behavior was identified as the optimized probe. Heter-7 specifically recognizes the target protein HSA, and effectively blocks the binding of antibody to HSA. Its inhibitory activity was estimated as 83nM. It is noteworthy that heter-7 can distinguish serum albumins from different species despite high similarities in sequence and structure of these proteins. This hetero bivalent peptide shows promise for use in serum proteomics, disease detection and drug transport, and provides an effective approach for promoting the affinity and selectivity of ligands to achieve desirable chemical and biological outcomes.

  10. Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived from the Envelope Glycoprotein Gene Sequence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-27

    AD________ AD-A230 976 ARMY PROJECT NO: 89PP9961 TITLE: ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ENHANCING EPITOPES USING PEPTIDE ANTIGENS DERIVED FROM THE ENVELOPE...INO. INO r CCESSION NO I1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived From the...necessary and identify by block number) Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) ot dengue (DEN) virus infection in human mononuclear cells in vitro has been

  11. Peptides as targeting probes against tumor vasculature for diagnosis and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tumor vasculature expresses a distinct set of molecule signatures on the endothelial cell surface different from the resting blood vessels of other organs and tissues in the body. This makes them an attractive target for cancer therapy and molecular imaging. The current technology using the in vivo phage display biopanning allows us to quickly isolate and identify peptides potentially homing to various tumor blood vessels. Tumor-homing peptides in conjugation with chemotherapeutic drugs or imaging contrast have been extensively tested in various preclinical and clinical studies. These tumor-homing peptides have valuable potential as targeting probes for tumor molecular imaging and drug delivery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances about the applications of tumor-homing peptides selected by in vivo phage display library screening against tumor vasculature. We also introduce the characteristics of the latest discovered tumor-penetrating peptides in their potential clinical applications. PMID:23046982

  12. Peptides as targeting probes against tumor vasculature for diagnosis and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2012-09-19

    Tumor vasculature expresses a distinct set of molecule signatures on the endothelial cell surface different from the resting blood vessels of other organs and tissues in the body. This makes them an attractive target for cancer therapy and molecular imaging. The current technology using the in vivo phage display biopanning allows us to quickly isolate and identify peptides potentially homing to various tumor blood vessels. Tumor-homing peptides in conjugation with chemotherapeutic drugs or imaging contrast have been extensively tested in various preclinical and clinical studies. These tumor-homing peptides have valuable potential as targeting probes for tumor molecular imaging and drug delivery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances about the applications of tumor-homing peptides selected by in vivo phage display library screening against tumor vasculature. We also introduce the characteristics of the latest discovered tumor-penetrating peptides in their potential clinical applications.

  13. Mapping the HLA ligandome landscape of acute myeloid leukemia: a targeted approach toward peptide-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berlin, C; Kowalewski, D J; Schuster, H; Mirza, N; Walz, S; Handel, M; Schmid-Horch, B; Salih, H R; Kanz, L; Rammensee, H-G; Stevanović, S; Stickel, J S

    2015-03-01

    Identification of physiologically relevant peptide vaccine targets calls for the direct analysis of the entirety of naturally presented human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands, termed the HLA ligandome. In this study, we implemented this direct approach using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated peptide vaccine targets. Mapping the HLA class I ligandomes of 15 AML patients and 35 healthy controls, more than 25 000 different naturally presented HLA ligands were identified. Target prioritization based on AML exclusivity and high presentation frequency in the AML cohort identified a panel of 132 LiTAAs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated antigens), and 341 corresponding HLA ligands (LiTAPs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated peptides)) represented subset independently in >20% of AML patients. Functional characterization of LiTAPs by interferon-γ ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot) and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed AML-specific CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Of note, our platform identified HLA ligands representing several established AML-associated antigens (e.g. NPM1, MAGED1, PRTN3, MPO, WT1), but found 80% of them to be also represented in healthy control samples. Mapping of HLA class II ligandomes provided additional CD4(+) T-cell epitopes and potentially synergistic embedded HLA ligands, allowing for complementation of a multipeptide vaccine for the immunotherapy of AML.

  14. Therapeutic potential of a peptide targeting BCL-2 cell guardians in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to cancer therapy is to elicit apoptosis with "BH3 mimetic" drugs, which target proteins of the BCL-2 family. As of yet, however, such drugs can target only certain BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, in this issue of the JCI, LaBelle et al. assess instead the therapeutic potential of a "stapled" BH3 peptide from the BIM protein, which inactivates all its prosurvival relatives. The peptide killed cultured hematologic tumor cells and abated growth of a leukemia xenograft, without perturbing the hematopoietic compartment. Hence, such peptides might eventually provide a new way to treat refractory leukemias.

  15. The use of therapeutic peptides to target and to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boohaker, R J; Lee, M W; Vishnubhotla, P; Perez, J M; Khaled, A R

    2012-01-01

    Peptide therapeutics is a promising field for emerging anti-cancer agents. Benefits include the ease and rapid synthesis of peptides and capacity for modifications. An existing and vast knowledge base of protein structure and function can be exploited for novel peptide design. Current research focuses on developing peptides that can (1) serve as tumor targeting moieties and (2) permeabilize membranes with cytotoxic consequences. A survey of recent findings reveals significant trends. Amphiphilic peptides with clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues are features of anti-microbial peptides that confer the ability to eradicate microbes and show considerable anti-cancer toxicity. Peptides that assemble and form pores can disrupt cell or organelle membranes and cause apoptotic or necrotic death. Cell permeable and tumor-homing peptides can carry biologically active cargo to tumors or tumor vasculature. The challenge lies in developing the clinical application of therapeutic peptides. Improving delivery to tumors, minimizing non-specific toxic effects and discerning pharmacokinetic properties are high among the needs to produce a powerful therapeutic peptide for cancer treatment.

  16. The Use of Therapeutic Peptides to Target and to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boohaker, R.J.; Lee, M.W.; Vishnubhotla, P.; Perez, J.M.; Khaled, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide therapeutics is a promising field for emerging anti-cancer agents. Benefits include the ease and rapid synthesis of peptides and capacity for modifications. An existing and vast knowledge base of protein structure and function can be exploited for novel peptide design. Current research focuses on developing peptides that can (1) serve as tumor targeting moieties and (2) permeabilize membranes with cytotoxic consequences. A survey of recent findings reveals significant trends. Amphiphilic peptides with clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues are features of anti-microbial peptides that confer the ability to eradicate microbes and show considerable anti-cancer toxicity. Peptides that assemble and form pores can disrupt cell or organelle membranes and cause apoptotic or necrotic death. Cell permeable and tumor-homing peptides can carry biologically active cargo to tumors or tumor vasculature. The challenge lies in developing the clinical application of therapeutic peptides. Improving delivery to tumors, minimizing non-specific toxic effects and discerning pharmacokinetic properties are high among the needs to produce a powerful therapeutic peptide for cancer treatment. PMID:22725698

  17. Computational Studies of Venom Peptides Targeting Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Small peptides isolated from the venom of animals are potential scaffolds for ion channel drug discovery. This review article mainly focuses on the computational studies that have advanced our understanding of how various toxins interfere with the function of K+ channels. We introduce the computational tools available for the study of toxin-channel interactions. We then discuss how these computational tools have been fruitfully applied to elucidate the mechanisms of action of a wide range of venom peptides from scorpions, spiders, and sea anemone. PMID:26633507

  18. Therapeutic Effect on Targeted Hyaluronan Binding Peptide on Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Furthermore, it confers stability to the peptide at low pH and high temperature, which makes it easy to manipulate and gives it a long shelf - life . Due to...were incubated with peptides for 24 hours and the cells were washed and harvested in lysis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA, 5...30 min followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated anti-goat IgG (1:200) at 4 ºC for 30 min. The cells were finally stained with propidium iodide and

  19. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing.

  20. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are ancient organelles that are thought to have emerged from once free-living α-proto-bacteria. As such, they still possess several bacterial-like qualities, including a semi-autonomous genetic system, complete with an independent genome and a unique genetic code. The bacterial-like circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described to encode 37 genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 mRNAs. Two additional peptides reported to originate from the mtDNA, namely humanin (Hashimoto et al., 2001; Ikone et al., 2003; Guo et al., 2003) [1–3] and MOTS-c (mitochondrial ORF of the twelve S c) (Lee et al., 2015) [4], indicate a larger mitochondrial genetic repertoire (Shokolenko and Alexeyev, 2015) [5]. These mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) have profound and distinct biological activities and provide a paradigm-shifting concept of active mitochondrial-encoded signals that act at the cellular and organismal level (i.e. mitochondrial hormone) (da Cunha et al., 2015; Quiros et al., 2016) [6,7]. Considering that mitochondria are the single most important metabolic organelle, it is not surprising that these MDPs have metabolic actions. MOTS-c has been shown to target the skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism. As such, MOTS-c has implications in the regulation of obesity, diabetes, exercise, and longevity, representing an entirely novel mitochondrial signaling mechanism to regulate metabolism within and between cells. PMID:27216708

  1. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de La Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-02-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  2. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria are ancient organelles that are thought to have emerged from once free-living α-proto-bacteria. As such, they still possess several bacterial-like qualities, including a semi-autonomous genetic system, complete with an independent genome and a unique genetic code. The bacterial-like circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described to encode 37 genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 mRNAs. Two additional peptides reported to originate from the mtDNA, namely humanin (Hashimoto et al., 2001; Ikone et al., 2003; Guo et al., 2003) [1-3] and MOTS-c (mitochondrial ORF of the twelve S c) (Lee et al., 2015) [4], indicate a larger mitochondrial genetic repertoire (Shokolenko and Alexeyev, 2015) [5]. These mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) have profound and distinct biological activities and provide a paradigm-shifting concept of active mitochondrial-encoded signals that act at the cellular and organismal level (i.e. mitochondrial hormone) (da Cunha et al., 2015; Quiros et al., 2016) [6,7]. Considering that mitochondria are the single most important metabolic organelle, it is not surprising that these MDPs have metabolic actions. MOTS-c has been shown to target the skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism. As such, MOTS-c has implications in the regulation of obesity, diabetes, exercise, and longevity, representing an entirely novel mitochondrial signaling mechanism to regulate metabolism within and between cells.

  3. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26916401

  4. AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Nanostructured, Self-Assembling S5 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Seok; Son, Young-Jin; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Soochan; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Peptide-based therapeutics have received increasing attention in medical research. However, the local delivery of such therapeutics poses unique challenges. Self-assembling peptides that use decorated nanofibers are one approach by which these therapeutics may be delivered. We previously found that the self-assembling K5 peptide affects the anti-inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate another self-assembling peptide, S5. Unlike the K5 peptide which has a positive charge, the S5 peptide has a free hydroxyl (-OH) group. We first examined whether the S5 peptide regulates the inflammatory response in primary cells and found that the S5 peptide reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated bone marrow-derived macrophages. Moreover, the S5 peptide significantly downregulated cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, TNF-α, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β expression by blocking the nuclear translocation of c-Jun. Consistent with this finding, the S5 peptide diminished the activation of inflammatory signaling enzymes related to p38. The S5 peptide also inhibited the formation of the p38/c-Jun signaling complex in RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, p38 and MKK3/6 were inhibited by the S5 peptide in LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the S5 peptide could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the c-Jun/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:26074678

  5. "Blind" targeting in action: From phage display to breast cancer cell targeting with peptide-gold nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Elisabetta; Gambini, Luca; Civitarese, Viola; Bellini, Michela; Ambrosini, Dario; Allevi, Raffaele; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Romeo, Sergio; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Tumor homing peptides (THPs) specific for a representative breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were carefully selected basing on a phage-displayed peptide library freely available on the web, namely the "TumorHoPe: A Database of Tumor Homing Peptides". The selected THPs were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their affinity toward MCF-7 cells. Out of 5 tested THPs, 3 best-performing peptide sequences and 1 scrambled sequence were separately conjugated to spherical gold nanoparticles yielding stable nanoconjugates. THP nanoconjugates were examined for their ability to actively target MCF-7 cells in comparison to noncancerous 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. These THP-gold nanoconjugates exhibited good selectivity and binding affinity by flow cytometry, and low cytotoxicity as assayed by cell death experiments. The uptake of targeted nanoconjugates by the breast cancer cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. This work demonstrates that it is possible to exploit the conjugation of short peptides selected from phage-displayed libraries to develop nanomaterials reliably endowed with tumor targeting potential irrespective of a specific knowledge of the target cell biology.

  6. Deglycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and derived peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.C.; Krueger, R.C.; Schwartz, N.B. )

    1990-01-30

    In order to define the domain structure of proteoglycans as well as identify primary amino acid sequences specific for attachment of the various carbohydrate substituents, reliable techniques for deglycosylating proteoglycans are required. In this study, deglycosylation of cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) with minimal core protein cleavage was accomplished by digestion with chondroitinase ABC and keratanase, followed by treatment with anhydrous HF in pyridine. Nearly complete deglycosylation of secreted proteoglycan was verified within 45 min of HF treatment by loss of incorporated ({sup 3}H)glucosamine label from the proteoglycan as a function of time of treatment, as well as by direct analysis of carbohydrate content and xylosyltransferase acceptor activity of unlabeled core protein preparations. The deglycosylated CSPG preparations were homogeneous and of high molecular weight. Comparison of the intact deglycosylated core protein preparations with newly synthesized unprocessed precursors suggested that extensive proteolytic cleavage of the core protein did not occur during normal intracellular processing. Furthermore, peptide patterns generated after clostripain digestion of core protein precursor and of deglycosylated secreted proteoglycan were comparable. With the use of the clostripain digestion procedure, peptides were produced from unlabeled proteoglycan, and two predominant peptides from the most highly glycosylated regions were isolated, characterized, and deglycosylated. These peptides were found to follow similar kinetics of deglycosylation and to acquire xylose activity comparable to the intact core protein.

  7. Screening and identification of a peptide specifically targeted to NCI-H1299 cells from a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiangan; Zang, Linquan; Lan, Daiyan; Liang, Weican

    2009-01-01

    Ligands that are capable of binding to tumor cell surface biomarkers specifically used in the early diagnosis of cancer and targeted drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy have been extensively investigated. Phage display technology has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool in this field. In this study, the non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H1299 and the normal lung small airway epithelial cell lines were used for subtractive screening in vitro with a phage display 12-peptide library. After three rounds of panning, there was an obvious enrichment in the phages specifically binding to the NCI-H1299 cells, and the output/input ratio of phages increased approximately 875-fold (from 0.4x104 to 3.5x106). A group of peptides capable of binding specifically to the NCI-H1299 cells was obtained, and the affinity of these peptides to bind to the targeted cells and tissues was studied. Through cell-based ELISA, immunocytochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence, an M13 phage was isolated and identified from the above screenings, and a synthetic peptide, ZT-1 (sequence QQMHLMSYAPGP), corresponding to the sequence of the surface protein of the M13 phage, was demonstrated to be capable of binding to the tumor cell surfaces of NCI-H1299 and A549 cells and biopsy specimens, but not to normal lung tissue samples, other cancer cells, or non-tumor adjacent lung tissues. In conclusion, the peptide ZT-1 may be a potential candidate biomarker ligand that can be used for targeted drug delivery in lung cancer therapy.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of a novel antibacterial peptide from a native swine intestinal tract-derived bacterium.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiyun; Ji, Shengyue; Peng, Jiayin; Han, Peng; An, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2017-02-27

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly associated with antipathogenic activity, without generating drug resistance in targeted bacteria. In this study, the existence of AMPs in the Tibetan swine, a China-native, cold-resistant and seldom-sick breed of pig, was investigated. A peptide secreted by a Tibetan swine intestinal tract-derived Bacillus strain was isolated using reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ultrafiltration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was identified by mass spectrometry and was characterised for activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The 16-amino acid peptide (ASVVNKLTGGVAGLLK), named TP, had a molecular mass of 1568.919 Da and exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5-5 µM and 10-20 µM for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively] as well as human MKN-45 and NB4 tumour cell lines [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.686 µM and 11.479 µM, respectively]. TP also exhibited weak haemolytic activity. Furthermore, TP enhanced cell membrane permeability and K(+) outflow, bound with E. coli genomic DNA in vitro and inhibited E. coli growth. Thus, TP represents a strong candidate as an antibacterial peptide.

  9. CTHRSSVVC Peptide as a Possible Early Molecular Imaging Target for Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosemeire A; Giordano, Ricardo J; Gutierrez, Paulo S; Rocha, Viviane Z; Rudnicki, Martina; Kee, Patrick; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Caramelli, Bruno; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Meneghetti, José C; Marques, Fabio L N; Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kattesh V; Lugão, Ademar B; Kalil, Jorge

    2016-08-24

    The purpose of our work was to select phages displaying peptides capable of binding to vascular markers present in human atheroma, and validate their capacity to target the vascular markers in vitro and in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mouse model of atherosclerosis. By peptide fingerprinting on human atherosclerotic tissues, we selected and isolated four different peptides sequences, which bind to atherosclerotic lesions and share significant similarity to known human proteins with prominent roles in atherosclerosis. The CTHRSSVVC-phage peptide displayed the strongest reactivity with human carotid atherosclerotic lesions (p < 0.05), when compared to tissues from normal carotid arteries. This peptide sequence shares similarity to a sequence present in the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of CD163, which appeared to bind to CD163, and subsequently, was internalized by macrophages. Moreover, the CTHRSSVVC-phage targets atherosclerotic lesions of a low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mouse model of atherosclerosis in vivo to High-Fat diet group versus Control group. Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-CTHRSSVVC peptide (DOTA-CTHRSSVVC) was synthesized and labeled with (111)InCl₃ in >95% yield as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to validate the binding of the peptide in atherosclerotic plaque specimens. The results supported our hypothesis that CTHRSSVVC peptide has a remarkable sequence for the development of theranostics approaches in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases.

  10. CTHRSSVVC Peptide as a Possible Early Molecular Imaging Target for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rosemeire A.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Gutierrez, Paulo S.; Rocha, Viviane Z.; Rudnicki, Martina; Kee, Patrick; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S. P.; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Caramelli, Bruno; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Meneghetti, José C.; Marques, Fabio L. N.; Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kattesh V.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Kalil, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to select phages displaying peptides capable of binding to vascular markers present in human atheroma, and validate their capacity to target the vascular markers in vitro and in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) mouse model of atherosclerosis. By peptide fingerprinting on human atherosclerotic tissues, we selected and isolated four different peptides sequences, which bind to atherosclerotic lesions and share significant similarity to known human proteins with prominent roles in atherosclerosis. The CTHRSSVVC-phage peptide displayed the strongest reactivity with human carotid atherosclerotic lesions (p < 0.05), when compared to tissues from normal carotid arteries. This peptide sequence shares similarity to a sequence present in the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of CD163, which appeared to bind to CD163, and subsequently, was internalized by macrophages. Moreover, the CTHRSSVVC-phage targets atherosclerotic lesions of a low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) mouse model of atherosclerosis in vivo to High-Fat diet group versus Control group. Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-CTHRSSVVC peptide (DOTA-CTHRSSVVC) was synthesized and labeled with 111InCl3 in >95% yield as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to validate the binding of the peptide in atherosclerotic plaque specimens. The results supported our hypothesis that CTHRSSVVC peptide has a remarkable sequence for the development of theranostics approaches in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases. PMID:27563889

  11. Fiber formation of a synthetic spider peptide derived from Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yuji; Kontani, Ko-Ichi; Taniguchi, Rina; Saiki, Masatoshi; Yokoi, Sayoko; Yukuhiro, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Dragline silk is a high-performance biopolymer with exceptional mechanical properties. Artificial spider dragline silk is currently prepared by a recombinant technique or chemical synthesis. However, the recombinant process is costly and large-sized synthetic peptides are needed for fiber formation. In addition, the silk fibers that are produced are much weaker than a fiber derived from a native spider. In this study, a small peptide was chemically synthesized and examined for its ability to participate in fiber formation. A short synthetic peptide derived from Nephila clavata was prepared by a solid-phase peptide method, based on a prediction using the hydrophobic parameter of each individual amino acid residue. After purification of the spider peptide, fiber formation was examined under several conditions. Fiber formation proceeded in the acidic pH range, and larger fibers were produced when organic solvents such as trifluoroethanol and acetonitrile were used at an acidic pH. Circular dichroism measurements of the spider peptide indicate that the peptide has a beta-sheet structure and that the formation of a beta-sheet structure is required for the spider peptide to undergo fiber formation.

  12. Evolution of class-specific peptides targeting a hot spot of the Galphas subunit.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan J; Ja, William W; Roberts, Richard W

    2008-04-11

    The four classes of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits act as molecular routers inside cells, gating signals based on a bound guanosine nucleotide (guanosine 5'-triphosphate versus guanosine 5'-diphosphate). Ligands that specifically target individual subunits provide new tools for monitoring and modulating these networks, but are challenging to design due to the high sequence homology and structural plasticity of the Galpha-binding surface. Here we have created an mRNA display library of peptides based on the short Galpha-modulating peptide R6A-1 and selected variants that target a convergent protein-binding surface of Galphas.guanosine 5'-diphosphate. After selection/evolution, the most Galphas-specific peptide, Galphas(s)-binding peptide (GSP), was used to design a second-generation library, resulting in several new affinity- and selectivity-matured peptides denoted as mGSPs. The two-step evolutionary walk from R6A-1 to mGSP-1 resulted in an 8000-fold inversion in binding specificity, altered seven out of nine residues in the starting peptide core, and incorporated both positive and negative design steps. The resulting mGSP-1 peptide shows remarkable selectivity and affinity, exhibiting little or no binding to nine homologous Galpha subunits or human H-Ras, and even discriminates the Galphas splice variant Galphas(l). Selected peptides make specific contacts with the effector-binding region of Galpha, which may explain an interesting bifunctional activity observed in GSP. Overall, our work demonstrates a design of simple, linear, highly specific peptides that target a protein-binding surface of Galphas and argues that mRNA display-based selection/evolution is a powerful route for targeting protein families with high class specificity and state specificity.

  13. Cloning and expression of the tumstatin active peptides-T(7) and its derivant-T(7)-NGR.

    PubMed

    Naling, Song; Xin, He; Qiren, Zhao; Tingdong, Yan; Lei, Wen

    2009-06-01

    To enhance the role targeting, design to link NGR sequence with tumstatin active peptides-T(7)'s C-terminal, the derivant called T(7)-NGR. The cloning vector pMD-T(7) and pMD-T(7) N were constructed by PCR and gene synthesis methods, respectively, identified by digestion and DNA sequencing. After the digested plasmids were isolated by the low melting point agarose electrophoresis, the target-fragment was cut off and mixed with the recovery of the digested vector pET28a. Expression vector pET-T(7) and pET-T(7) N were constructed in low melting point agarose, identified by digestion and DNA sequencing, transformed into competent Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), induced by IPTG. Identification result shows that pET-T(7) and pET-T(7) N were correct. Tricine-SDS-PAGE results showed that IPTG concentration of 1 mM, after the induction of 25 degrees C, 8 h, T(7) peptides and T(7)-NGR peptides have achieved the optimum conditions of expression. In conclusion, the expression vectors of the two peptides has been successfully constructed, and got product, no coverage at home and abroad, laid the foundation for further activity experiments.

  14. Identification of epitope mimics recognized by CTL reactive to the melanoma/melanocyte-derived peptide MART-1(27-35)

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CTL reactivity to the epitope MART-1(27-35), of the melanoma (self) antigen MART-1/melan A is frequently observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and may be readily elicited from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients that express HLA-A*0201. Available data suggest that these observations contrast with those made for other HLA-A*0201- presented melanoma self antigens regarding the regularity of observed CTL responses. Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesized that the CTL response to MART-1 might be augmented in part by T cell encounters with peptides derived from sources other than MART-1, which show sequence similarity to MART-1(27-35). To test this idea, a protein database search for potential MART-1 epitope mimics was done using criteria developed from analyses of effector recognition of singly- substituted peptide analogues of MART-1(27-35). Synthetic peptides were made for a portion of the sequences retrieved; 12/40 peptides tested were able to sensitize target cells for lysis by one or more anti-MART- 1 effectors. The peptides recognized correspond to sequences occurring in a variety of proteins of viral, bacterial, and human (self) origin. One peptide derives from glycoprotein C of the common pathogen HSV-1; cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding native glycoprotein C were lysed by anti-MART-1 effectors. Our results overall indicate that sequences conforming to the A2.1 binding motif and possessing features essential to recognition by anti-MART-1 CTL occur frequently in proteins. These findings further suggest that T cells might encounter a variety of such sequences in vivo, and that epitope mimicry may play a role in modulating the CTL response to MART-1(27-35). PMID:8760818

  15. Bioavailability of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides: a glycaemic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Drummond, Elaine; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability. However, these studies are currently limited and the structure and sequence of milk peptides exerting bioactivity for glycaemic management has received little investigation in human subjects. The present article reviews the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides in human studies to date, and examines the evidence on milk proteins and glycaemic management, including potential mechanisms of action. Areas in need of advancement are identified. Only by establishing the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides, the active components and the mechanistic pathways involved can the benefits of milk proteins for the prevention or management of type 2 diabetes be fully realised in future.

  16. Determination of CK2 specificity and substrates by proteome-derived peptide libraries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Ye, Mingliang; Bian, Yangyang; Liu, Fangjie; Cheng, Kai; Dong, Mingming; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-08-02

    Understanding the specificity of kinases enables prediction of their substrates and uncovering kinase functions in signaling pathways. Traditionally synthesized peptide libraries are used to determine the kinase specificity. In this study, a proteomics-based method was developed to determine the specificity of kinase by taking the advantages of proteome-derived peptide libraries and quantitative proteomics. Proteome-derived peptide libraries were constructed by digesting proteins in total cell lysate followed with dephosphorylation of the resulting peptides. After incubating the peptide libraries with/without CK2 for in vitro kinase assay, stable isotopic labeling based quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to distinguish the in vitro phosphosites generated by CK2. By using the above approach, 404 CK2 in vitro phosphosites were identified by 1D LC-MS/MS. Those sites allowed the statistic determination of the CK2 specificity. In addition to the easy construction of the proteome-derived peptide library, another significant advantage of this method over the method with synthesized peptide libraries is that the identified phosphosites could be directly mapped to proteins for the screening of putative kinase substrates. It was found that the confidence for substrate identification could be significantly improved by comparing the in vitro CK2 sites with the in vivo sites identified by phosphoproteomics analysis of the same cell lines. By applying this integrated strategy, 138 phosphosites from 105 putative CK2 substrates of high confidence were determined.

  17. Efficacy of glypican-3-derived peptide vaccine therapy on the survival of patients with refractory ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shiro; Sakata, Jun; Utsumi, Fumi; Sekiya, Ryuichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compared with other epithelial ovarian carcinoma subtypes, ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) has been recognized to show chemoresistance. Therefore, new treatment modalities are required for patients with OCCC that is refractory to chemotherapy. The carcinoembryonic antigen glypican-3 (GPC3) is expressed by approximately half of OCCC and is a promising immunotherapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of GPC3 peptide vaccine against refractory OCCC patients. We conducted a phase II trial with a GPC3-derived peptide vaccine in OCCC patients. Immunological responses were analyzed by ex vivo IFNγ ELISPOT assay. We also evaluated control subjects, who received best supportive care without vaccinations during the same period. Thirty-two patients with refractory OCCC were enrolled between July 2010 and September 2015, and underwent GPC3 peptide vaccination. Fifteen patients were vaccinated less than six times because their general condition progressively deteriorated, and 17 patients were vaccinated at least six times. Three patients showed a partial response as the best overall response. The GPC3 peptide vaccine induced a GPC3-specific CTL response in 15 out of 24 patients who had PBMCs collected three times or more. The prognosis of palliative care patients without GPC3 peptide vaccinations was significantly poorer than that of those with GPC3 peptide vaccinations (post cancer-treatment survival: p = 0.002). Although the disease control rate was not high, our results suggest that GPC3 peptide vaccinations may hold a significant impact to prolong survival of patients with refractory OCCC, allowing them to maintain quality of life with no serious toxicities. PMID:27999758

  18. Direct selection of targeted adenovirus vectors by random peptide display on the fiber knob.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Yoshida, K; Nishimoto, T; Hatanaka, K; Ohnami, S; Asaka, M; Douglas, J T; Curiel, D T; Yoshida, T; Aoki, K

    2007-10-01

    Targeting of gene transfer at the level of cell entry is one of the most attractive challenges in vector development. However, attempts to redirect adenovirus vectors to alternative receptors by engineering the capsid-coding region have shown limited success because proper targeting ligand-receptor systems on the cells of interest are generally unknown. Systematic approaches to generate adenovirus vectors targeting any given cell type need to be developed to achieve this goal. Here, we constructed an adenovirus library that was generated by a Cre-lox-mediated in vitro recombination between an adenoviral fiber-modified plasmid library and genomic DNA to display random peptides on a fiber knob. As proof of concept, we screened the adenovirus display library on a glioma cell line and observed selection of several particular peptide sequences. The targeted vector carrying the most frequently isolated peptide significantly enhanced gene transduction in the glioma cell line but not in many other cell lines. Because the insertion of a pre-selected peptide into a fiber knob often fails to generate an adenovirus vector, the selection of targeting peptides is highly useful in the context of the adenoviral capsid. This vector-screening system can facilitate the development of a targeted adenovirus vector for a variety of applications in medicine.

  19. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with therapeutic and targeted peptides for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ma, Huili; Zhang, Xu; Huang, Keyang; Jin, Shubin; Liu, Juan; Wei, Tuo; Cao, Weipeng; Zou, Guozhang; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Functionalization of nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different biological molecules has many applications in biomedical imaging, clinical diagnosis and therapy. Researchers mostly employed AuNPs larger than 10 nm for different biological and medicinal applications in previous studies. Herein, we synthesized a novel small (2 nm) AuNPs, which were functionalized with the therapeutic peptide, PMI (p12), and a targeted peptide, CRGDK for selective binding to neuropilin-1(Nrp-1) receptors which overexpressed on the cancer cells and regulated the process of membrane receptor-mediated internalization. It was found that CRGDK peptides increased intracellular uptake of AuNPs compared to other surface conjugations quantified by ICP-MS. Interestingly, CRGDK functionalized AuNPs resulted in maximal binding interaction between the CRGDK peptide and targeted Nrp-1 receptor overexpressed on MDA-MB-321 cell surface, which improved the delivery of therapeutic P12 peptide inside targeted cells. Au@p12 + CRGDK nanoparticles indicated with highly effective cancer treatment by increasing p53 expression upregulated with intracellular enhanced p12 therapeutic peptide. These results have implications to design and functionalize different molecules onto AuNPs surfaces to make hybrid model system for selective target binding as well as therapeutic effects for cancer treatment.

  20. Targeting cancer cell invasiveness using homing peptide-nanocomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarato, Giulia; Cathcart, Jillian; Li, Weiyi; Cao, Jian; Meng, Yizhi

    Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) plays critical roles in digesting the basement membrane and extracellular matrix and inducing cancer migration. We recently unraveled a unique role in cell invasion of the hemopexin (PEX) domain of MMP-14. The minimal motif located at the outmost strand of the fourth blade of the PEX domain was identified to form homodimers of MMP-14. A peptide (IVS4) mimicking the binding motif was shown to interrupt MMP-14 dimerization and decrease MMP-14-mediated functions. Since most invasive cancer cells express upregulated MMP-14 at the surface, IVS4 could be used as a cancer homing peptide to specifically deliver cytotoxic drugs for cancer therapy. We developed cancer homing nanocarriers by linking IVS4 to polysaccharide-based micellar nanoparticles (NPs). To determine if conjugation of IVS4 to NPs maintains the IVS4 inhibition of MMP-14 function, substrate degradation and cell migration assays were performed. IVS4-NPs efficiently prevented MMP-14-mediated substrate degradation and cell migration, and were minimally uptaken by non-cancer cells. Importantly, IVS4 confers an uptake advantage compared to the control peptide in MMP-14-expressing cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the potential use of IVS4-NPs as novel cancer nanotherapeutics.

  1. Identification of parathyroid hormone-related protein-derived peptides immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-A24+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yao, A; Harada, M; Matsueda, S; Ishihara, Y; Shomura, H; Noguchi, M; Matsuoka, K; Hara, I; Kamidono, S; Itoh, K

    2004-07-19

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a key factor in the development of bone metastases, which are a major barrier in treating prostate cancer patients. In this study, we attempted to identify PTHrP-derived peptides immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24(+) prostate cancer patients. Among four different PTHrP peptides carrying the HLA-A24 binding motif, both the PTHrP(36-44) and PTHrP(102-111) peptides efficiently induced peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A24(+) prostate cancer patients. Peptide-stimulated PBMCs showed cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells in an HLA-A24-restricted manner. Experiments using antibodies and cold inhibition targets confirmed that their cytotoxicity was dependent on PTHrP peptide-specific and CD8(+) T cells. Immunoglobulin G reactive to the PTHrP(102-111) or PTHrP(110-119) peptide was frequently detected in the plasma of prostate cancer patients, suggesting that the PTHrP(102-111) peptide is able to elicit cellular and humoral immune responses in cancer patients. These results indicate that the PTHrP could be a promising target molecule for specific immunotherapy of HLA-A24(+) prostate cancer patients with metastases.

  2. Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

    2014-09-15

    Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability.

  3. Prevention of passively transferred experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by a phage library-derived cyclic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Natarajan; Im, Sin-Heyog; Balass, Moshe; Fuchs, Sara; Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim

    2000-01-01

    Many pathogenic antibodies in myasthenia gravis (MG) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG), are directed against the main immunogenic region (MIR) of the acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR). These antibodies are highly conformation dependent; hence, linear peptides derived from native receptor sequences are poor candidates for their immunoneutralization. We employed a phage-epitope library to identify peptide-mimotopes capable of preventing the pathogenicity of the anti-MIR mAb 198. We identified a 15-mer peptide (PMTLPENYFSERPYH) that binds specifically to mAb 198 and inhibits its binding to AcChoR. A 10-fold increase in the affinity of this peptide was achieved by incorporating flanking amino acid residues from the coat protein as present in the original phage library. This extended peptide (AEPMTLPENYFSERPYHPPPP) was constrained by the addition of cysteine residues on both ends of the peptide, thus generating a cyclic peptide that inhibited the binding of mAb 198 to AcChoR with a potency that is three orders of magnitude higher when compared with the parent library peptide. This cyclic peptide inhibited the in vitro binding of mAb 198 to AcChoR and prevented the antigenic modulation of AcChoR caused by mAb 198 in human muscle cell cultures. The cyclic peptide also reacted with several other anti-MIR mAbs and the sera of EAMG rats. In addition, this peptide blocked the ability of mAb 198 to passively transfer EAMG in rats. Further derivatization of the cyclic peptide may aid in the design of suitable synthetic mimotopes for modulation of MG. PMID:10639153

  4. An overview of antifungal peptides derived from insect.

    PubMed

    Faruck, Mohammad Omer; Yusof, Faridah; Chowdhury, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are not classified as plants or animals. They resemble plants in many ways but do not produce chlorophyll or make their own food photosynthetically like plants. Fungi are useful for the production of beer, bread, medicine, etc. More complex than viruses or bacteria; fungi can be destructive human pathogens responsible for various diseases in humans. Most people have a strong natural immunity against fungal infection. However, fungi can cause diseases when this immunity breaks down. In the last few years, fungal infection has increased strikingly and has been accompanied by a rise in the number of deaths of cancer patients, transplant recipients, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients owing to fungal infections. The growth rate of fungi is very slow and quite difficult to identify. A series of molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungi have been found in insects, which can be of great importance to tackle human diseases. Insects secrete such compounds, which can be peptides, as a part of their immune defense reactions. Active antifungal peptides developed by insects to rapidly eliminate infectious pathogens are considered a component of the defense munitions. This review focuses on naturally occurring antifungal peptides from insects and their challenges to be used as armaments against human diseases.

  5. HIV-1 Drug Discovery: Targeting Folded RNA Structures With Branched Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an RNA virus that is prone to high rates of mutation. While the disease is managed with current antiretroviral therapies, drugs with a new mode of action are needed. A strategy towards this goal is aimed at targeting the native three-dimensional fold of conserved RNA structures. This perspective highlights medium-sized peptides and peptidomimetics used to target two conserved RNA structures of HIV-1. In particular, branched peptides have the capacity to bind in a multivalent fashion, utilizing a large surface area to achieve the necessary affinity and selectivity toward the target RNA. PMID:25958855

  6. Myostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, K

    2008-07-01

    Gene-targeted therapies, such as adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene therapy and cell-mediated therapy using myogenic stem cells, are hopeful molecular strategies for muscular dystrophy. In addition, drug therapies based on the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy patients are desirable. Multidisciplinary approaches to drug design would offer promising therapeutic strategies. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is predominantly produced by skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the growth and differentiation of cells of the skeletal muscle lineage. Myostatin inhibition would increase the skeletal muscle mass and prevent muscle degeneration, regardless of the type of muscular dystrophy. Myostatin inhibitors include myostatin antibodies, myostatin propeptide, follistatin and follistatin-related protein. Although follistatin possesses potent myostatin-inhibiting activity, it works as an efficient inhibitor of activins. Unlike myostatin, activins regulate the growth and differentiation of nearly all cell types, including cells of the gonads, pituitary gland and skeletal muscle. We have developed a myostatin-specific inhibitor derived from follistatin, designated FS I-I. Transgenic mice expressing this myostatin-inhibiting peptide under the control of a skeletal muscle-specific promoter showed increased skeletal muscle mass and strength. mdx mice were crossed with FS I-I transgenic mice and any improvement of the pathological signs was investigated. The resulting mdx/FS I-I mice exhibited increased skeletal muscle mass and reduced cell infiltration in muscles. Muscle strength was also recovered in mdx/FS I-I mice. Our data indicate that myostatin inhibition by this follistatin-derived peptide has therapeutic potential for muscular dystrophy.

  7. From phage display to nanoparticle delivery: functionalizing liposomes with multivalent peptides improves targeting to a cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bethany Powell; Li, Shunzi; Brown, Kathlynn C

    2013-01-16

    Phage display is commonly used to isolate peptides that bind to a desired cell type. While chemical synthesis of selected peptides often results in ligands with low affinity, a multivalent tetrameric presentation of the peptides dramatically improves affinity. One of the primary uses of these peptides is conjugation to nanoparticle-based therapeutics for specific delivery to target cell types. We set out to optimize the path from phage display peptide selection to peptide presentation on a nanoparticle surface for targeted delivery. Here, we examine the effects of peptide valency, density, and affinity on nanoparticle delivery and therapeutic efficacy, using the α(v)β(6)-specific H2009.1 peptide as a model phage-selected peptide and liposomal doxorubicin as a model therapeutic nanoparticle. Liposomes displaying the higher affinity multivalent H2009.1 tetrameric peptide demonstrate 5-10-fold higher drug delivery than liposomes displaying the lower affinity monomeric H2009.1 peptide, even when the same number of peptide subunits are displayed on the liposome. Importantly, a 6-fold greater toxicity is observed toward α(v)β(6)-expressing cells for liposomes displaying tetrameric verses monomeric H2009.1 peptides. Additionally, liposomal targeting and toxicity increase with increasing concentrations of H2009.1 tetrameric peptide on the liposome surface. Thus, both the multivalent peptide and the multivalent liposome scaffold work together to increase targeting to α(v)β(6)-expressing cells. This multilayered approach to developing high affinity targeted nanoparticles may improve the utility of moderate affinity peptides. As tetramerization is known to increase affinity for a variety of phage-selected peptides, it is anticipated that the tetrameric scaffold may act as a general method for taking peptides from phage display to nanoparticle display.

  8. Role of Arginine and Lysine in the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Histone-derived Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cutrona, Kara J.; Kaufman, Bethany A.; Figueroa, Dania M.; Elmore, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides is often promoted by increased content of arginine or other guanidinum groups. However, relatively little research has considered the role of these functional groups on antimicrobial peptide activity. This study compared the activity of three histone-derived antimicrobial peptides—buforin II, DesHDAP1, and parasin— with variants that contain only lysine or arginine cationic residues. These peptides operate via different mechanisms as parasin causes membrane permeabilization while buforin II and DesHDAP1 translocate into bacteria. For all peptides, antibacterial activity increased with increased arginine content. Higher arginine content increased permeabilization for parasin while it improved translocation for buforin II and DesHDAP1. These observations provide insight into the relative importance of arginine and lysine in these antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26555191

  9. Development and Testing of a 212Pb/212Bi Peptide for Targeting Metastatic Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop a new radiolabeled peptide for imaging and treating metastatic melanoma. The immunoconjugate consists of a receptor-specific peptide that targets melanoma cells. The beta-emitter lead-212 (half-life = 10.4 hours) is linked by coordination chemistry to the peptide. After injection, the peptide targets melanoma receptors on the surfaces of melanoma cells. Lead-212 decays to the alpha-emitter bismuth-212 (half-life = 60 minutes). Alpha-particles that hit melanoma cell nuclei are likely to kill the melanoma cell. For cancer cell imaging, the lead-212 is replaced by lead-203 (half-life = 52 hours). Lead-203 emits 279 keV photons (80.1% abundance) that can be imaged and measured for biodistribution analysis, cancer imaging, and quantitative dosimetry.

  10. Protein-protein interface-binding peptides inhibit the cancer therapy target human thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniela; Guaitoli, Giambattista; Tondi, Donatella; Luciani, Rosaria; Henrich, Stefan; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Ferrari, Stefania; Marverti, Gaetano; Guerrieri, Davide; Ligabue, Alessio; Frassineti, Chiara; Pozzi, Cecilia; Mangani, Stefano; Fessas, Dimitrios; Guerrini, Remo; Ponterini, Glauco; Wade, Rebecca C; Costi, M Paola

    2011-08-23

    Human thymidylate synthase is a homodimeric enzyme that plays a key role in DNA synthesis and is a target for several clinically important anticancer drugs that bind to its active site. We have designed peptides to specifically target its dimer interface. Here we show through X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, kinetic, and calorimetric evidence that the peptides do indeed bind at the interface of the dimeric protein and stabilize its di-inactive form. The "LR" peptide binds at a previously unknown binding site and shows a previously undescribed mechanism for the allosteric inhibition of a homodimeric enzyme. It inhibits the intracellular enzyme in ovarian cancer cells and reduces cellular growth at low micromolar concentrations in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells without causing protein overexpression. This peptide demonstrates the potential of allosteric inhibition of hTS for overcoming platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  11. Self-assembled peptide-based nanostructures: Smart nanomaterials toward targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Neda; Kamaly, Nazila; Memic, Adnan; Shafiee, Hadi

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembly of peptides can yield an array of well-defined nanostructures that are highly attractive nanomaterials for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery. Some of the advantages of self-assembled peptide nanostructures over other delivery platforms include their chemical diversity, biocompatibility, high loading capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and their ability to target molecular recognition sites. Furthermore, these self-assembled nanostructures could be designed with novel peptide motifs, making them stimuli-responsive and achieving triggered drug delivery at disease sites. The goal of this work is to present a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on self-assembled peptides with a focus on their "smart" activity for formation of targeted and responsive drug-delivery carriers.

  12. Is phage display technology on target for developing peptide-based cancer drugs?

    PubMed

    Landon, Linda A; Zou, Jun; Deutscher, Susan L

    2004-06-01

    New tumor targeting agents are required to advance cancer diagnosis and treatment. Bacteriophage (phage) display technology, a molecular genetic means of combinatorial drug discovery, is an emerging approach to identify and improve peptide molecules as pharmaceuticals. Peptides are thought to have clinically desirable benefits over currently used biomolecules, such as antibodies, because of their rapid blood clearance, increased diffusion and tissue penetration, non-immunogenic nature and ease of synthesis. Using phage display, one can rapidly and simultaneously survey billion-clone peptide libraries, resulting in large numbers of "hits". However, only a few lead compounds resulting from the hits historically reach the drug market. Hence determining which peptide may best translate into a useful drug is of particular importance. Examination of successfully marketed drugs has highlighted key features of a winning agent, including low molecular weight, high affinity, stability, solubility, lipophilicity and conformational rigidity. Although peptide modulators of tumor cell function and cancer targeting agents have been developed, the majority of peptide-based drugs reported thus far are immune and cardiac regulators. In this review, we will highlight how phage display has been employed to isolate peptides that target key steps in cancer progression--from tumor growth to metastasis--and how phage display technology can be harnessed to select a priori peptides with inherent features essential for anti-cancer drug efficacy. In 2003, phage display provided us with several novel peptides not only in clinical trials but approved by the FDA for use as therapeutics in a variety of diseases--suggesting that the future looks bright for phage display in anti-cancer drug development.

  13. "Potential health benefits of lunasin: a multifaceted soy-derived bioactive peptide".

    PubMed

    Lule, Vaibhao Kisanrao; Garg, Sheenam; Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Hitesh; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, fermentation with proteolytic starter cultures, and gastrointestinal digestion. These peptides have positive impacts on a number of physiological functions in living beings. Lunasin, a soy-derived bioactive peptide, is one of the most promising among them. Lunasin encoded within 2S albumin (GM2S-1) gene, identified as a novel peptide extracted from soybean seed. It is composed of 43 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 5.5 kDa. Extensive scientific studies have shown that lunasin possesses inherent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous properties and could also play a vital role in regulating of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body. Its high bioavailability and heat stable nature allow its potential use as dietary supplement. The present review summarizes some of the potential health and therapeutic benefits of lunasin reported hitherto.

  14. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison.

  15. Delivery of siRNA using ternary complexes containing branched cationic peptides: the role of peptide sequence, branching and targeting.

    PubMed

    Kudsiova, Laila; Welser, Katharina; Campbell, Frederick; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Dawson, Natalie; Cui, Lili; Hailes, Helen C; Lawrence, M Jayne; Tabor, Alethea B

    2016-03-01

    Ternary nanocomplexes, composed of bifunctional cationic peptides, lipids and siRNA, as delivery vehicles for siRNA have been investigated. The study is the first to determine the optimal sequence and architecture of the bifunctional cationic peptide used for siRNA packaging and delivery using lipopolyplexes. Specifically three series of cationic peptides of differing sequence, degrees of branching and cell-targeting sequences were co-formulated with siRNA and vesicles prepared from a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the cationic lipid DOTMA and the helper lipid, DOPE. The level of siRNA knockdown achieved in the human alveolar cell line, A549-luc cells, in both reduced serum and in serum supplemented media was evaluated, and the results correlated to the nanocomplex structure (established using a range of physico-chemical tools, namely small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement); the conformational properties of each component (circular dichroism); the degree of protection of the siRNA in the lipopolyplex (using gel shift assays) and to the cellular uptake, localisation and toxicity of the nanocomplexes (confocal microscopy). Although the size, charge, structure and stability of the various lipopolyplexes were broadly similar, it was clear that lipopolyplexes formulated from branched peptides containing His-Lys sequences perform best as siRNA delivery agents in serum, with protection of the siRNA in serum balanced against efficient release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  16. Spontaneous intermolecular amide bond formation between side chains for irreversible peptide targeting.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Howarth, Mark

    2010-04-07

    Peptides and synthetic peptide-like molecules are powerful tools for analysis and control of biological function. One major limitation of peptides is the instability of their interactions with biomolecules, because of the limited accessible surface area for noncovalent interactions and the intrinsic flexibility of peptides. Peptide tags are nonetheless fundamental for protein detection and purification, because their small size minimizes the perturbation to protein function. Here we have designed a 16 amino acid peptide that spontaneously forms an amide bond to a protein partner, via reaction between lysine and asparagine side chains. This depended upon splitting a pilin subunit from a human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, which usually undergoes intramolecular amide bond formation to impart mechanical and proteolytic stability to pili. Reaction of the protein partner was able to proceed to 98% conversion. The amide bond formation was independent of redox state and occurred at pH 5-8. The reaction was efficient in phosphate buffered saline and a wide range of biological buffers. Surprisingly, amide bond formation occurred at a similar rate at 4 and 37 degrees C. Both peptide and protein partners are composed of the regular 20 amino acids and reconstituted efficiently inside living E. coli. Labeling also showed high specificity on the surface of mammalian cells. Irreversible targeting of a peptide tag may have application in bioassembly, in cellular imaging, and to lock together proteins subject to high biological forces.

  17. Assessment of multifunctional activity of bioactive peptides derived from fermented milk by specific Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Toalá, J E; Santiago-López, L; Peres, C M; Peres, C; Garcia, H S; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Hernández-Mendoza, A

    2017-01-01

    Milk-derived bioactive peptides with a single activity (e.g., antioxidant, immunomodulatory, or antimicrobial) have been previously well documented; however, few studies describe multifunctional bioactive peptides, which may be preferred over single-activity peptides, as they can simultaneously trigger, modulate, or inhibit multiple physiological pathways. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, antihemolytic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts (CE) and peptide fractions (<3 and 3-10 kDa) obtained from fermented milks with specific Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Overall, CE showed higher activity than both peptide fractions (<3 and 3-10 kDa) in most of the activities assessed. Furthermore, activity of <3 kDa was generally higher, or at least equal, to the 3 to 10 kDa peptide fractions. In particular, L. plantarum 55 crude extract or their fractions showed the higher anti-inflammatory (723.68-1,759.43μg/mL of diclofenac sodium equivalents), antihemolytic (36.65-74.45% of inhibition), and antioxidant activity [282.8-362.3µmol of Trolox (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) equivalents]. These results provide valuable evidence of multifunctional role of peptides derived of fermented milk by the action of specific L. plantarum strains. Thus, they may be considered for the development of biotechnological products to be used to reduce the risk of disease or to enhance a certain physiological function.

  18. Specific interactions between amyloid-β peptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  19. Commercially available antibodies can be applied in quantitative multiplexed peptide immunoaffinity enrichment targeted mass spectrometry assays

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Zhao, Lei; Ivey, Richard G.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Kennedy, Jacob; Yan, Ping; Lin, Chenwei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables highly specific, sensitive, and precise quantification of peptides and post-translational modifications. Major obstacles to developing a large number of immuno-MRM assays are the poor availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) validated for immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides and the cost and lead time of developing the antibodies de novo. Although many thousands of mAbs are commercially offered, few have been tested for application to immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides. In this study we tested the success rate of using commercially available mAbs for peptide immuno-MRM assays. We selected 105 commercial mAbs (76 targeting non-modified “pan” epitopes, 29 targeting phosphorylation) to proteins associated with the DNA damage response network. We found that 8 of the 76 pan (11%) and 5 of the 29 phospho-specific mAbs (17%) captured tryptic peptides (detected by LC-MS/MS) of their protein targets from human cell lysates. Seven of these mAbs were successfully used to configure and analytically characterize immuno-MRM assays. By applying selection criteria upfront, the results indicate that a screening success rate of up to 24% is possible, establishing the feasibility of screening a large number of catalog antibodies to provide readily-available assay reagents. PMID:27094115

  20. In Vivo Efficacy of Measles Virus Fusion Protein-Derived Peptides Is Modulated by the Properties of Self-Assembly and Membrane Residence.

    PubMed

    Figueira, T N; Palermo, L M; Veiga, A S; Huey, D; Alabi, C A; Santos, N C; Welsch, J C; Mathieu, C; Horvat, B; Niewiesk, S; Moscona, A; Castanho, M A R B; Porotto, M

    2017-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. MV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins; upon receptor engagement by H, the prefusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then refolding into a postfusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes. By interfering with this structural transition of F, peptides derived from the heptad repeat (HR) regions of F can inhibit MV infection at the entry stage. In previous work, we have generated potent MV fusion inhibitors by dimerizing the F-derived peptides and conjugating them to cholesterol. We have shown that prophylactic intranasal administration of our lead fusion inhibitor efficiently protects from MV infection in vivo We show here that peptides tagged with lipophilic moieties self-assemble into nanoparticles until they reach the target cells, where they are integrated into cell membranes. The self-assembly feature enhances biodistribution and the half-life of the peptides, while integration into the target cell membrane increases fusion inhibitor potency. These factors together modulate in vivo efficacy. The results suggest a new framework for developing effective fusion inhibitory peptides.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Fusion Peptides of Influenza A Viruses, a Promising Approach to Designing Potent Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Dongguo; Xia, Fan; Wu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Heyuan; Lv, Lin; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have spurred the urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial agents with different mode of action. In this respect, we turned several fusogenic peptides (FPs) derived from the hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs) of IAV into potent antibacterials by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated by testing the MICs against a panel of bacterial strains including S. aureus, S. mutans, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The results showed that peptides HA-FP-1, HA-FP-2-1, and HA-FP-3-1 were effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MICs ranging from 1.9 to 16.0 μm, while the toxicities toward mammalian cells were low. In addition, the mode of action and the secondary structure of these peptides were also discussed. These data not only provide several potent peptides displaying promising potential in development as broad antimicrobial agents, but also present a useful strategy in designing new antimicrobial agents.

  2. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-hong; Zhang, Wan-gang

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides. PMID:27657142

  3. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-09-20

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  4. Angioedema induced by a peptide derived from complement component C2

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic peptides that correspond to the COOH-terminal portion of C2b enhance vascular permeability in human and guinea pig skin. In human studies, 1 nmol of the most active peptide of 25-amino acid residues produced substantial local edema. A pentapeptide and a heptapeptide corresponding to the COOH-terminal sequence of C2b each induced contraction of estrous rat uterus in the micromole range; a peptide of 25 amino acids from this region induced a like contraction of rat uterus at a concentration 20-fold lower than the smaller peptides. The vascular permeability of guinea pig skin was enhanced by doses of these synthetic peptides in a similar fashion as that observed for the concentration of rat uterus. The induction of localized edema by intradermal injection in both the guinea pig and the human proceeds in the presence of antihistaminic drugs, suggesting that there is a histamine-independent component to the observed increase in vascular permeability. Cleavage of C2 with the enzymic subcomponent of C1, C1s, yields only C2a and C2b, and no small peptides, whereas cleavage of C2 with C1s and plasmin yields a set of small peptides. These plasmin- cleaved peptides are derived from the COOH terminus of C2b, and they induce the contraction of estrous rat uterus. PMID:2972793

  5. C-terminal Amidation of an Osteocalcin-derived Peptide Promotes Hydroxyapatite Crystallization*

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Samaneh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Mountassif, Driss; Cerruti, Marta; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Genesis of natural biocomposite-based materials, such as bone, cartilage, and teeth, involves interactions between organic and inorganic systems. Natural biopolymers, such as peptide motif sequences, can be used as a template to direct the nucleation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, a natural motif sequence consisting of 13 amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin was selected based on its calcium binding ability and used as substrate for nucleation of HA crystals. The acidic (acidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSC)) and amidic (amidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSN)) forms of this sequence were synthesized to investigate the effects of different C termini on the process of biomineralization. Electron microscopy analyses show the formation of plate-like HA crystals with random size and shape in the presence of OSN. In contrast, spherical amorphous calcium phosphate is formed in the presence of OSC. Circular dichroism experiments indicate conformational changes of amidic peptide to an open and regular structure as a consequence of interaction with calcium and phosphate. There is no conformational change detectable in OSC. It is concluded that HA crystal formation, which only occurred in OSN, is attributable to C-terminal amidation of a natural peptide derived from osteocalcin. It is also proposed that natural peptides with the ability to promote biomineralization have the potential to be utilized in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:23362258

  6. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Transfection by Melittin-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kirk K.; Pan, Hua; Ratner, Lee; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional peptide-mediated siRNA transfection via peptide transduction domains exhibits limited cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA due to endosomal entrapment. This work overcomes these limitations with the use of membrane-destabilizing peptides derived from melittin for the knockdown of NFkB signaling in a model of adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma. While the mechanism of siRNA delivery into the cytoplasmic compartment by peptide transduction domains has not been well studied, our analysis of melittin derivatives indicates that concurrent nanocomplex disassembly and peptide-mediated endosomolysis are crucial to siRNA transfection. Importantly, in the case of the most active derivative, p5RHH, this process is initiated by acidic pH, indicating that endosomal acidification after macropinocytosis can trigger siRNA release into the cytoplasm. These data provide general principles regarding nanocomplex response to endocytosis which may guide the development of peptide/siRNA nanocomplex-based transfection. PMID:24053333

  7. Enhanced Membrane Pore Formation through High-Affinity Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Arnusch, Christopher J.; Pieters, Roland J.; Breukink, Eefjan

    2012-01-01

    Many cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) target the unique lipid composition of the prokaryotic cell membrane. However, the micromolar activities common for these peptides are considered weak in comparison to nisin, which follows a targeted, pore-forming mode of action. Here we show that AMPs can be modified with a high-affinity targeting module, which enables membrane permeabilization at low concentration. Magainin 2 and a truncated peptide analog were conjugated to vancomycin using click chemistry, and could be directed towards specific membrane embedded receptors both in model membrane systems and whole cells. Compared with untargeted vesicles, a gain in permeabilization efficacy of two orders of magnitude was reached with large unilamellar vesicles that included lipid II, the target of vancomycin. The truncated vancomycin-peptide conjugate showed an increased activity against vancomycin resistant Enterococci, whereas the full-length conjugate was more active against a targeted eukaryotic cell model: lipid II containing erythrocytes. This study highlights that AMPs can be made more selective and more potent against biological membranes that contain structures that can be targeted. PMID:22768121

  8. Variant antigenic peptide promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte adhesion to target cells without cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David M.; Attaran, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Timelapse video microscopy has been used to record the motility and dynamic interactions between an H-2Db-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone (F5) and Db-transfected L929 mouse fibroblasts (LDb) presenting normal or variant antigenic peptides from human influenza nucleoprotein. F5 cells will kill LDb target cells presenting specific antigen (peptide NP68: ASNENMDAM) after “browsing” their surfaces for between 8 min and many hours. Cell death is characterized by abrupt cellular rounding followed by zeiosis (vigorous “boiling” of the cytoplasm and blebbing of the plasma membrane) for 10–20 min, with subsequent cessation of all activity. Departure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from unkilled target cells is rare, whereas serial killing is sometimes observed. In the absence of antigenic peptide, cytotoxic T lymphocytes browse target cells for much shorter periods, and readily leave to encounter other targets, while never causing target cell death. Two variant antigenic peptides, differing in nonamer position 7 or 8, also act as antigens, albeit with lower efficiency. A third variant peptide NP34 (ASNENMETM), which differs from NP68 in both positions and yet still binds Db, does not stimulate F5 cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, timelapse video analysis shows that NP34 leads to a significant modification of cell behavior, by up-regulating F5–LDb adhesive interactions. These data extend recent studies showing that partial agonists may elicit a subset of the T cell responses associated with full antigen stimulation, by demonstrating that TCR interaction with variant peptide antigens can trigger target cell adhesion and surface exploration without activating the signaling pathway that results in cytotoxicity. PMID:9861010

  9. Peptide-decorated chitosan derivatives enhance fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Hirt-Burri, N; Jeannerat, A; Applegate, L A; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-05-20

    RGD peptide sequences are known to regulate cellular activities by interacting with α5β1, αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrin, which contributes to the wound healing process. In this study, RGDC peptide was immobilized onto chitosan derivative 1,6-diaminohexane-O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (DAH-CMTMC) to display RGDC-promoting adhesion for enhanced wound healing. The efficiency of N-methylation, O-carboxymethylation and spacer grafting was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by (1)H NMR and FTIR, yielding 0.38 degree of substitution for N-methylation and >0.85 for O-carboxymethylation. The glass transition temperatures for chitosan derivatives were also studied. Peptide immobilization was achieved through sulfhydryl groups using sulfosuccinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)amino-benzoate (sulfo-SIAB method). RGDC immobilized peptide onto DAH-CMTMC was found to be about 15.3 μg/mg of chitosan derivative by amino acid analysis (AAA). The significant increase of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) viability in vitro over 7 days suggests that RGDC-functionalized chitosan may lead to enhanced wound healing (viability >140%). Moreover, bio-adhesion and proliferation assays confirmed that coatings of RGDC-functionalized chitosan derivatives exhibit in vitro wound healing properties by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and adhesion. These results showed that RGDC peptide-functionalized chitosan provides an optimal environment for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation.

  10. Protective Role of PEDF-Derived Synthetic Peptide Against Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Taira, J; Higashimoto, Y; Yamagishi, S

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with complex neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, all of which could potentially be exploited as a therapeutic option for vascular complications in diabetes. We have previously shown that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 (FIFVLRD) has a comparable ability with full PEDF protein to inhibit rat corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization. However, the effects of PEDF peptide on experimental diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. To address the issue, we modified P5-3 to stabilize and administered the modified peptide (d-Lys-d-Lys-d-Lys-Gln-d-Pro-P5-3-Cys-amide, 0.2 nmol/day) or vehicle to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) intraperitoneally by an osmotic mini pump for 2 weeks. We further examined the effects of modified peptide on human proximal tubular cells. Renal PEDF expression was decreased in STZ-rats. Although the peptide administration did not affect blood glucose or blood pressure, it decreased urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression, and suppressed glomerular expansion in the diabetic kidneys. High glucose or advanced glycation end products stimulated oxidative stress generation and PAI-1 gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were significantly suppressed by 10 nM modified P5-3 peptide. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic modified peptide could protect against experimental diabetic nephropathy and inhibit tubular cell damage under diabetes-like conditions through its anti-oxidative properties. Supplementation of modified P5-3 peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by Acylated Peptides Derived from the Large Viral Surface Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Gripon, Philippe; Cannie, Isabelle; Urban, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The lack of an appropriate in vitro infection system for the major human pathogen hepatitis B virus (HBV) has prevented a molecular understanding of the early infection events of HBV. We used the novel HBV-infectible cell line HepaRG and primary human hepatocytes to investigate the interference of infection by HBV envelope protein-derived peptides. We found that a peptide consisting of the authentically myristoylated N-terminal 47 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the large viral envelope protein (L protein) specifically prevented HBV infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8 nM. The replacement of myristic acid with other hydrophobic moieties resulted in changes in the inhibitory activity, most notably by a decrease in the IC50 to picomolar concentrations for longer unbranched fatty acids. The obstruction of HepaRG cell susceptibility to HBV infection after short preincubation times with the peptides suggested that the peptides efficiently target and inactivate a receptor at the hepatocyte surface. Our data both shed light on the molecular mechanism of HBV entry into hepatocytes and provide a basis for the development of potent hepadnaviral entry inhibitors as a novel therapeutic concept for the treatment of hepatitis Β. PMID:15650187

  12. Antiviral activity of peptide inhibitors derived from the protein E stem against Japanese encephalitis and Zika viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liman; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaobo; Sun, Jianhong; Wang, Peilin; Xin, Qilin; Zhang, Leike; Xiao, Gengfu; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viruses of the Flavivirus genus that cause viral encephalitis and congenital microcephaly, respectively, in humans, and thus present a risk to global public health. The envelope glycoprotein (E protein) of flaviviruses is a class II viral fusion protein that mediates host cell entry through a series of conformational changes, including association between the stem region and domain II leading to virion-target cell membrane fusion. In this study, peptides derived from the JEV E protein stem were investigated for their ability to block JEV and ZIKV infection. Peptides from stem helix 2 inhibit JEV infection with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the nanomolar range. One of these peptides (P5) protected mice against JEV-induced lethality by decreasing viral load, while abrogating histopathological changes associated with JEV infection. We also found that P5 blocked ZIKV infection with IC50 at the micromolar level. Moreover, P5 was proved to reduce the histopathological damages in brain and testes resulting from ZIKV infection in type I and II interferon receptor-deficient (AG6) mice. These findings provide a basis for the development of peptide-based drugs against JEV and ZIKV.

  13. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes which may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten

  14. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes that may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten-free or

  15. LL-37-derived peptides eradicate multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from thermally wounded human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Haisma, Elisabeth M; de Breij, Anna; Chan, Heelam; van Dissel, Jaap T; Drijfhout, Jan W; Hiemstra, Pieter S; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Nibbering, Peter H

    2014-08-01

    Burn wound infections are often difficult to treat due to the presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilms. Currently, mupirocin is used to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from colonized persons; however, mupirocin resistance is also emerging. Since we consider antimicrobial peptides to be promising candidates for the development of novel anti-infective agents, we studied the antibacterial activities of a set of synthetic peptides against different strains of S. aureus, including mupirocin-resistant MRSA strains. The peptides were derived from P60.4Ac, a peptide based on the human cathelicidin LL-37. The results showed that peptide 10 (P10) was the only peptide more efficient than P60.4Ac, which is better than LL-37, in killing MRSA strain LUH14616. All three peptides displayed good antibiofilm activities. However, both P10 and P60.4Ac were more efficient than LL-37 in eliminating biofilm-associated bacteria. No toxic effects of these three peptides on human epidermal models were detected, as observed morphologically and by staining for mitochondrial activity. In addition, P60.4Ac and P10, but not LL-37, eradicated MRSA LUH14616 and the mupirocin-resistant MRSA strain LUH15051 from thermally wounded human skin equivalents (HSE). Interestingly, P60.4Ac and P10, but not mupirocin, eradicated LUH15051 from the HSEs. None of the peptides affected the excretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) by thermally wounded HSEs upon MRSA exposure. In conclusion, the synthetic peptides P60.4Ac and P10 appear to be attractive candidates for the development of novel local therapies to treat patients with burn wounds infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  16. ATP synthase: a molecular therapeutic drug target for antimicrobial and antitumor peptides.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Okafor, Florence; Azim, Sofiya; Laughlin, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss the role of ATP synthase as a molecular drug target for natural and synthetic antimicrobial/ antitumor peptides. We start with an introduction of the universal nature of the ATP synthase enzyme and its role as a biological nanomotor. Significant structural features required for catalytic activity and motor functions of ATP synthase are described. Relevant details regarding the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it a potential drug target with respect to antimicrobial peptides and other inhibitors such as dietary polyphenols, is also reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have about twelve discrete inhibitor binding sites including peptides and other inhibitors located at the interface of α/β subunits on the F(1) sector of the enzyme. Molecular interaction of peptides at the β DEELSEED site on ATP synthase is discussed with specific examples. An inhibitory effect of other natural/synthetic inhibitors on ATP is highlighted to explore the therapeutic roles played by peptides and other inhibitors. Lastly, the effect of peptides on the inhibition of the Escherichia coli model system through their action on ATP synthase is presented.

  17. Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and configurational assignment of fulleroproline derivatives and peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, A.; Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G.; Toniolo, C.; Marconi, G.; Villani, C.; Prato, M.

    1996-05-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides to C{sub 60} leads to fulleroproline derivatives, in which a proline ring is fused on a 6,6-ring junction of the fullerene spheroid. This unnatural amino acid can be manipulated under standard coupling conditions to afford fulleroproline-containing peptides. All optically active fulleroproline derivatives and peptides display a characteristic maximum at 428 nm in CD spectra, which is diagnostic for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the C{sup {alpha}} atom of the proline ring. Calculation of the CD spectra confirm the configurational assignment. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Translational medicine in fish-derived peptides: from fish endocrinology to human physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of fish-derived peptide hormones to human endocrinology. These peptides include melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), urocortins (human urotensin-I), and urotensin-II. MCH, a hypothalamic peptide, is a potent stimulator on appetite. Urocortins, e.g. urocortin 1 and urocortin 3 (stresscopin), are endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, particularly CRF type 2 receptor, that mediates a vasodilator action, a positive inotropic action and a central appetite-inhibiting action. These actions mediated by CRF type 2 receptor may ameliorate the stress response. Human urotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, while it acts as a vasodilator on some arteries. Human urotensin-II is expressed in various types of cells and tissues, including cardiovascular tissues, as well as many types of tumor cells. Thus, these fish-derived peptides appear to play important roles in human physiology, such as appetite regulation, stress response and cardiovascular regulation, and also in diseases, for example, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Development of antagonists/agonists against the receptors for these peptides may open new strategies for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity-related diseases, hypertension, heart failure and malignant tumors.

  19. Self-Assembly and Anti-Amyloid Cytotoxicity Activity of Amyloid beta Peptide Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Castelletto, V; Ryumin, P; Cramer, R; Hamley, I W; Taylor, M; Allsop, D; Reza, M; Ruokolainen, J; Arnold, T; Hermida-Merino, D; Garcia, C I; Leal, M C; Castaño, E

    2017-03-08

    The self-assembly of two derivatives of KLVFF, a fragment Aβ(16-20) of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, is investigated and recovery of viability of neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ (1-42) is observed at sub-stoichiometric peptide concentrations. Fluorescence assays show that NH2-KLVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse and amyloid formation at the same critical aggregation concentration (cac). In contrast, NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse at a low concentration, followed by amyloid formation at a higher cac. These findings are supported by the β-sheet features observed by FTIR. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicates that NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 forms a significant population of oligomeric species above the cac. Cryo-TEM, used together with SAXS to determine fibril dimensions, shows that the length and degree of twisting of peptide fibrils seem to be influenced by the net peptide charge. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering from thin peptide films shows features of β-sheet ordering for both peptides, along with evidence for lamellar ordering of NH2-KLVFF-CONH2. This work provides a comprehensive picture of the aggregation properties of these two KLVFF derivatives and shows their utility, in unaggregated form, in restoring the viability of neuroblastoma cells against Aβ-induced toxicity.

  20. Self-Assembly and Anti-Amyloid Cytotoxicity Activity of Amyloid beta Peptide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, V.; Ryumin, P.; Cramer, R.; Hamley, I. W.; Taylor, M.; Allsop, D.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.; Arnold, T.; Hermida-Merino, D.; Garcia, C. I.; Leal, M. C.; Castaño, E.

    2017-01-01

    The self-assembly of two derivatives of KLVFF, a fragment Aβ(16–20) of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, is investigated and recovery of viability of neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ (1–42) is observed at sub-stoichiometric peptide concentrations. Fluorescence assays show that NH2-KLVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse and amyloid formation at the same critical aggregation concentration (cac). In contrast, NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse at a low concentration, followed by amyloid formation at a higher cac. These findings are supported by the β-sheet features observed by FTIR. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicates that NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 forms a significant population of oligomeric species above the cac. Cryo-TEM, used together with SAXS to determine fibril dimensions, shows that the length and degree of twisting of peptide fibrils seem to be influenced by the net peptide charge. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering from thin peptide films shows features of β-sheet ordering for both peptides, along with evidence for lamellar ordering of NH2-KLVFF-CONH2. This work provides a comprehensive picture of the aggregation properties of these two KLVFF derivatives and shows their utility, in unaggregated form, in restoring the viability of neuroblastoma cells against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:28272542

  1. Derivatives of the Mouse Cathelicidin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide (CRAMP) Inhibit Fungal and Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    De Brucker, Katrijn; Delattin, Nicolas; Robijns, Stijn; Steenackers, Hans; Verstraeten, Natalie; Landuyt, Bart; Luyten, Walter; Schoofs, Liliane; Dovgan, Barbara; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Michiels, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    We identified a 26-amino-acid truncated form of the 34-amino-acid cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the islets of Langerhans of the murine pancreas. This peptide, P318, shares 67% identity with the LL-37 human antimicrobial peptide. As LL-37 displays antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, we tested antifungal and antibiofilm activity of P318 against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. P318 shows biofilm-specific activity as it inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.15 μM without affecting planktonic survival at that concentration. Next, we tested the C. albicans biofilm-inhibitory activity of a series of truncated and alanine-substituted derivatives of P318. Based on the biofilm-inhibitory activity of these derivatives and the length of the peptides, we decided to synthesize the shortened alanine-substituted peptide at position 10 (AS10; KLKKIAQKIKNFFQKLVP). AS10 inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.22 μM and acted synergistically with amphotericin B and caspofungin against mature biofilms. AS10 also inhibited biofilm formation of different bacteria as well as of fungi and bacteria in a mixed biofilm. In addition, AS10 does not affect the viability or functionality of different cell types involved in osseointegration of an implant, pointing to the potential of AS10 for further development as a lead peptide to coat implants. PMID:24982087

  2. Challenging the catechism of therapeutics for chronic neuropathic pain: Targeting CaV2.2 interactions with CRMP2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Polina; Khanna, Rajesh

    2013-12-17

    Chronic neuropathic pain management is a worldwide concern. Pharmaceutical companies globally have historically targeted ion channels as the therapeutic catechism with many blockbuster successes. Remarkably, no new pain therapeutic has been approved by European or American regulatory agencies over the last decade. This article will provide an overview of an alternative approach to ion channel drug discovery: targeting regulators of ion channels, specifically focusing on voltage-gated calcium channels. We will highlight the discovery of an anti-nociceptive peptide derived from a novel calcium channel interacting partner - the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). In vivo administration of this peptide reduces pain behavior in a number of models of neuropathic pain without affecting sympathetic-associated cardiovascular activity, memory retrieval, sensorimotor function, or depression. A CRMP2-derived peptide analgesic, with restricted access to the CNS, represents a completely novel approach to the treatment of severe pain with an improved safety profile. As peptides now represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drugs, it is expected that peptide targeting of protein interactions within the calcium channel complex may be a paradigm shift in ion channel drug discovery.

  3. Peptide derived from Pvfp-1 as bioadhesive on bio-inert surface.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Yu, Yabiao; Du, Lina; Ding, Xiyu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Yanan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-02-01

    Surface property is one important characteristic of materials, especially for ones that are bio-inert but designed for bio-medical application. In this study, we designed a series of peptides and compared their capacities as bioadhesive to improve the surface bioactivity of bio-inert material. The peptides were designed according to the sequence of Perna viridis foot protein 1 (Pvfp-1), one of the Mfp-1s (mussel foot protein 1) which play key roles in wet adhesion of mussel byssus. And the Teflon (PTFE) was chosen as a model of bio-inert material. With adsorption, adhesion and coating analysis, it was found that peptide C2 (M) (derived from the non-repeating region of Pvfp-1, contains modified DOPA) has superior coating and adhesion abilities especially on the bio-inert surface of PTFE. After coating with peptide C2 (M), the cell adhesion and spreading of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells on PTFE were significantly improved compared with those on non-coated surface, and the peptide-coating did not show any cell toxicity. Therefore, peptide C2 (M) is effective for improving the bioactivity of bio-inert PTFE, and could be potentially used as a bioadhesive on other bio-inert materials for biomedical application. Moreover, this study also provided new insights in designing other peptide-based bioadhesive materials.

  4. Insights into the Mechanism of Peptide Cyclodehydrations Achieved Through the Chemoenzymatic Generation of Amide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Kyle L.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Current strategies for generating peptides and proteins bearing amide carbonyl derivatives rely on solid-phase peptide synthesis for amide functionalization. Although such strategies have been successfully implemented, technical limitations restrict both the length and sequence of the synthetic fragments. Herein we report the repurposing of a thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) cyclodehydratase to site-specifically install amide backbone labels onto diverse peptide substrates, a method we refer to as azoline-mediated peptide backbone labeling (AMPL). This convenient chemoenzymatic strategy can generate both thioamides and amides with isotopically labeled oxygen atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate the first leader peptide-independent activity of a TOMM synthetase, circumventing the requirement that sequences of interest be fused to a leader peptide for modification. Through bioinformatics-guided site-directed mutagenesis, we also convert a strictly dehydrogenase-dependent TOMM azole synthetase into an azoline synthetase. This vastly expands the spectrum of substrates modifiable by AMPL by allowing any in vitro reconstituted TOMM synthetase to be employed. To demonstrate the utility of AMPL for mechanistic enzymology studies, an 18O-labeled substrate was generated to provide direct evidence that cyclodehydrations in TOMMs occur through the phosphorylation of the carbonyl oxygen preceding the cyclized residue. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMPL is a useful tool for establishing the location of azolines both on in vitro modified peptides and azoline-containing natural products. PMID:23721104

  5. Peptide-22 and Cyclic RGD Functionalized Liposomes for Glioma Targeting Drug Delivery Overcoming BBB and BBTB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuitian; Duan, Ziqing; Yuan, Yan; Li, Ruixiang; Pang, Liang; Liang, Jianming; Xu, Xinchun; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-02-22

    Chemotherapy outcomes for the treatment of glioma remain unsatisfied due to the inefficient drug transport across BBB/BBTB and poor drug accumulation in the tumor site. Nanocarriers functionalized with different targeting ligands are considered as one of the most promising alternatives. However, few studies were reported to compare the targeting efficiency of the ligands and develop nanoparticles to realize BBB/BBTB crossing and brain tumor targeting simultaneously. In this study, six peptide-based ligands (Angiopep-2, T7, Peptide-22, c(RGDfK), D-SP5 and Pep-1), widely used for brain delivery, were selected to decorate liposomes, respectively, so as to compare their targeting ability to BBB or BBTB. Based on the in vitro cellular uptake results on BCECs and HUVECs, Peptide-22 and c(RGDfK) were picked to construct a BBB/BBTB dual-crossing, glioma-targeting liposomal drug delivery system c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-DOX-LP. In vitro cellular uptake demonstrated that the synergetic effect of c(RGDfK) and Peptide-22 could significantly increase the internalization of liposomes on U87 cells. In vivo imaging further verified that c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-LP exhibited higher brain tumor distribution than single ligand modified liposomes. The median survival time of glioma-bearing mice treated with c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-DOX-LP (39.5 days) was significantly prolonged than those treated with free doxorubicin or other controls. In conclusion, the c(RGDfK) and Peptide-22 dual-modified liposome was constructed based on the targeting ability screening of various ligands. The system could effectively overcome BBB/BBTB barriers, target to tumor cells and inhibit the growth of glioma, which proved its potential for improving the efficacy of chemotherapeutics for glioma therapy.

  6. A peptide antigen derived from EGFR T790M is immunogenic in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    OFUJI, KAZUYA; TADA, YOSHITAKA; YOSHIKAWA, TOSHIAKI; SHIMOMURA, MANAMI; YOSHIMURA, MAYUKO; SAITO, KEIGO; NAKAMOTO, YASUNARI; NAKATSURA, TETSUYA

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have demonstrated marked clinical activity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, in most cases, patients develop acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. The threonine to methionine change at codon 790 of EGFR (EGFR T790M) mutation is the most common acquired resistance mutation, and is present in ~50% cases of TKI resistance. New treatment strategies for NSCLC patients harboring the EGFR T790M mutation are required. We evaluated the immunogenicity of an antigen derived from EGFR with the T790M mutation. Using BIMAS we selected several EGFR T790M-derived peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02:01. T790M-A peptide (789–797) (IMQLMPFGC)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A2+ healthy donors. An established T790M-A-specific CTL line showed reactivity against the NCSLC cell line, H1975-A2 (HLA-A2+, T790M+), but not H1975 (HLA-A2−, T790M+), and the corresponding wild-type peptide (ITQLMPFGC)-pulsed T2 cells using an interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immuno spot (ELISPOT) assay. This CTL line also demonstrated peptide-specific cytotoxicity against H1975-A2 cells. This finding suggests that the EGFR T790M mutation-derived antigen could be a new target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25532027

  7. Structure-Activity Relations of Myxinidin, an Antibacterial Peptide Derived from the Epidermal Mucus of Hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Marco; Leone, Marilisa; Mignogna, Eleonora; Kampanaraki, Katerina; Falanga, Annarita; Morelli, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The structure-activity relations of myxinidin, a peptide derived from epidermal mucus of hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L., were investigated. Analysis of key residues allowed us to design new peptides with increased efficiency. Antimicrobial activity of native and modified peptides demonstrated the key role of uncharged residues in the sequence; the loss of these residues reduces almost entirely myxinidin antimicrobial activity, while insertion of arginine at charged and uncharged position increases antimicrobial activity compared with that of native myxinidin. Particularly, we designed a peptide capable of achieving a high inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. Experiments were conducted using both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that myxinidin is able to form an amphipathic α-helical structure at the N terminus and a random coil region at the C terminus. PMID:24002100

  8. Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana M; Marshall, Eleanor; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Mori, Masashi; Umetsu, Yoshitaka; Otterbach, Sophie L; Papareddy, Ranjith; Dickinson, Hugh G; Boutiller, Kim; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Ohki, Shinya; Gutierrez-Marcos, José F

    2014-04-11

    Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non-cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants.

  9. Peptide-drug conjugate linked via a disulfide bond for kidney targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qian; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-Rong

    2012-06-20

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, and unfortunately, the therapeutic index of clinically available drugs is limited. Thus, there is a great need to exploit effective treatment strategies, and the carrier-drug approach is an attractive method to improve the kidney specificity of the therapeutic agents. The aim of this present study is to develop a peptide-drug conjugate for the kidney targeted delivery of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (CAP), since G3-C12 peptide (ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR) could specifically accumulate in the kidney after intravenous injection. Therefore, FITC labeled G3-C12 peptide (G3-C12-FITC) and peptide-drug conjugate (G3-C12-CAP) with a disulfide bond which can be cleaved by reduced glutathione in the kidney were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The fluorescence imaging of G3-C12-FITC revealed that the labeled peptide specifically accumulated in the kidney soon after i.v. injection to mice, and the accumulation is due largely to the reabsorption of the peptide by the proximal renal tubule cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the corresponding nonconjugated form, a 2.7-fold increase in renal area under concentration-time curve produced by the conjugate was observed in mice. Interestingly, the CAP entirely released in the kidney even at 0.05 h postinjection through disulfide reduction. As a consequence, the in vivo renal ACE inhibition was significantly increased. In conclusion, these findings suggest the potential of G3-C12 peptide serving as a suitable candidate carrier for kidney-targeted drug delivery.

  10. Thermally Targeted Delivery of a c-Myc Inhibitory Peptide In Vivo Using Elastin-Like Polypeptide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), bactenecin (Bac), penetratin ( Pen ), or Tat, is conjugated to the ELP to enhance delivery of the polypeptide across the...CPPs are short peptides known to enhance the cellular uptake of large cargo. The three CPPs proposed for this study are the penetratin ( Pen ...we conjugated the c-Myc inhibitory peptide and the Pen peptide to ELP for thermally targeted delivery ( Pen -ELP-H1) (1). Uptake of Pen -ELP-H1 in MCF-7

  11. Possible role of milk-derived bioactive peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Herrera, Manuel Olalla; Artacho, Reyes

    2012-04-01

    The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as its impact on public health has garnered increased attention in recent years. As a result, metabolic syndrome is now considered one of the world's leading public health problems. Bioactive peptides deriving from milk proteins may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and its complications via several mechanisms, such as the satiety response, the regulation of insulinemia levels and blood pressure, the uptake of free radicals, and alteration of the lipid profile. These peptides can be incorporated into functional foods or administered via nutraceuticals to decrease the risk of obesity, atherogenesis, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings have generated considerable scientific and commercial interest in milk-derived bioactive peptides, leading to numerous publications on the effectiveness of these substances. This review summarizes the current knowledge on bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and examines the potential value of these peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  12. Identification of peptide sequences that target to the brain using in vivo phage display.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwei; Zhang, Qizhi; Pang, Zhiqing; Wang, Yuchen; Liu, Qingfeng; Guo, Liangran; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-06-01

    Phage display technology could provide a rapid means for the discovery of novel peptides. To find peptide ligands specific for the brain vascular receptors, we performed a modified phage display method. Phages were recovered from mice brain parenchyma after administrated with a random 7-mer peptide library intravenously. A longer circulation time was arranged according to the biodistributive brain/blood ratios of phage particles. Following sequential rounds of isolation, a number of phages were sequenced and a peptide sequence (CTSTSAPYC, denoted as PepC7) was identified. Clone 7-1, which encodes PepC7, exhibited translocation efficiency about 41-fold higher than the random library phage. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Clone 7-1 had a significant superiority on transport efficiency into the brain compared with native M13 phage. Clone 7-1 was inhibited from homing to the brain in a dose-dependent fashion when cyclic peptides of the same sequence were present in a competition assay. Interestingly, the linear peptide (ATSTSAPYA, Pep7) and a scrambled control peptide PepSC7 (CSPATSYTC) did not compete with the phage at the same tested concentration (0.2-200 pg). Labeled by Cy5.5, PepC7 exhibited significant brain-targeting capability in in vivo optical imaging analysis. The cyclic conformation of PepC7 formed by disulfide bond, and the correct structure itself play a critical role in maintaining the selectivity and affinity for the brain. In conclusion, PepC7 is a promising brain-target motif never been reported before and it could be applied to targeted drug delivery into the brain.

  13. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis.

  14. Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole body homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system and thus constitutes a "neuroendocrine axis". The potent anti-inflammatory activities, both in vivo and in vitro, of the tripeptide Phe-Glu-Gly (FEG) are reviewed. FEG is a carboxyl terminal peptide of the prohormone SMR1 identified in the rat submandibular salivary gland, The D-isomeric form (feG) mimics the activity of its L-isomer FEG. Macropharmacologically, feG attenuates the cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of endotoxemia and anaphylaxis, by inhibition of hypotension, leukocyte migration, vascular leak, and disruption of pulmonary function and intestinal motility. Mechanistically, feG affects activated inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, by regulating integrins and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Pharmacodynamically, feG is active at low doses (100 μg/kg) and has a long (9-12 hour) biological half life. As a therapeutic agent, feG shows promise in diseases characterized by over exuberant inflammatory responses such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other acute inflammatory diseases. Arthritis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, asthma, acute respiratory inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, and equine laminitis are potential targets for this promising therapeutic peptide. The term "Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives" (ImSAIDs) is proposed for salivary-derived peptides to distinguish this class of agents from corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  15. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide − a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization − derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic

  16. Chemokine CCR3 ligands-binding peptides derived from a random phage-epitope library.

    PubMed

    Houimel, Mehdi; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are major effectors cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in humans, particularly bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The human chemokine receptor C-C receptor 3 (hCCR3) provides a mechanism for the recruitment of eosinophils into tissue and thus has recently become an attractive biological target for therapeutic intervention. In order to develop peptides antagonists of hCCR3-hCCL11 (human eotaxin) interactions, a random bacteriophage hexapeptide library was used to map structural features of hCCR3 by determining the epitopes of neutralizing anti-hCCR3 mAb 7B11. This mAb t is selective for hCCR3 and exhibit potent antagonist activity in receptor binding and functional assays. After three rounds of biopanning, four mAb7B11-binding peptides were identified from a 6-mer linear peptide library. The phage bearing the peptides showed specific binding to immobilized mAb 7B11 with over 94% of phages bound being competitively inhibited by free synthetic peptides. In FACScan analysis all selected phage peptides were able to strongly inhibit the binding of mAb 7B11 to hCCR3-transfected preB-300-19 murine cells. Furthermore, synthetic peptides of the corresponding phage epitopes were effective in blocking the antibody-hCCR3 interactions and to inhibit the binding of hCCL11 to hCCR3 transfectants. Chemically synthesized peptides CKGERF, FERKGK, SSMKVK and RHVSSQ, effectively competed for (125)I-hCCL11 binding to hCCR3 with IC(50) ranging from 3.5 to 9.7μM. Calcium release and chemotaxis of hCCR3 transfectants or human eosinophils were inhibited by all peptides in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they showed inhibitory effects on chemotaxis of human eosinophils induced by hCCL11, hCCL5, hCCL7, hCCL8, and hCCL24. Specificities of all selected peptides were assessed with hCXCR1, hCXCR2, hCXCR3, and hCCR5 receptors. Peptides CKGERF and FERKGK showed inhibitory effects on eosinophil chemotaxis in a murine model of mCCL11-induced

  17. Peptide vaccination against multiple myeloma using peptides derived from anti-apoptotic proteins: a phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Abildgaard, Niels; Straten, Per Thor; Svane, Inge Marie; Andersen, Mads Hald; Knudsen, Lene Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in multiple myeloma (MM), contributing to lacking apoptosis which is a hallmark of the disease. This makes the Bcl-2 proteins interesting targets for therapeutic peptide vaccination. We report a phase I trial of therapeutic vaccination with peptides from the proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 in patients with relapsed MM. Vaccines were given concomitant with bortezomib. Out of 7 enrolled patients, 4 received the full course of 8 vaccinations. The remaining 3 patients received fewer vaccinations due to progression, clinical decision of lacking effect and development of hypercalcemia, respectively. There were no signs of toxicity other than what was to be expected from bortezomib. Immune responses to the peptides were seen in all 6 patients receiving more than 2 vaccinations. Three patients had increased immune responses after vaccination. Vaccination against Bcl-2 was well tolerated and was able to induce immune responses in patients with relapsed MM. PMID:28078275

  18. Targeted Drug Delivery Systems Mediated by a Novel Peptide in Breast Cancer Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chien-Yu; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Yan, Shin-Long; Wang, Yi-Ping; Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Yeh, Chen-Yun; Lo, Albert; Wu, Han-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs to tumors represents a significant advance in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, development of novel tumor-specific ligands or pharmaceutical nanocarriers is highly desirable. In this study, we utilized phage display to identify a new targeting peptide, SP90, which specifically binds to breast cancer cells, and recognizes tumor tissues from breast cancer patients. We used confocal and electron microscopy to reveal that conjugation of SP90 with liposomes enables efficient delivery of drugs into cancer cells through endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescent imaging demonstrated that SP90-conjugated quantum dots possess tumor-targeting properties. In tumor xenograft and orthotopic models, SP90-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin was found to improve the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic drug by selectively increasing its accumulation in tumors. We conclude that the targeting peptide SP90 has significant potential in improving the clinical benefits of chemotherapy in the treatment and the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:23776619

  19. PeptideManager: a peptide selection tool for targeted proteomic studies involving mixed samples from different species

    PubMed Central

    Demeure, Kevin; Duriez, Elodie; Domon, Bruno; Niclou, Simone P.

    2014-01-01

    The search for clinically useful protein biomarkers using advanced mass spectrometry approaches represents a major focus in cancer research. However, the direct analysis of human samples may be challenging due to limited availability, the absence of appropriate control samples, or the large background variability observed in patient material. As an alternative approach, human tumors orthotopically implanted into a different species (xenografts) are clinically relevant models that have proven their utility in pre-clinical research. Patient derived xenografts for glioblastoma have been extensively characterized in our laboratory and have been shown to retain the characteristics of the parental tumor at the phenotypic and genetic level. Such models were also found to adequately mimic the behavior and treatment response of human tumors. The reproducibility of such xenograft models, the possibility to identify their host background and perform tumor-host interaction studies, are major advantages over the direct analysis of human samples. At the proteome level, the analysis of xenograft samples is challenged by the presence of proteins from two different species which, depending on tumor size, type or location, often appear at variable ratios. Any proteomics approach aimed at quantifying proteins within such samples must consider the identification of species specific peptides in order to avoid biases introduced by the host proteome. Here, we present an in-house methodology and tool developed to select peptides used as surrogates for protein candidates from a defined proteome (e.g., human) in a host proteome background (e.g., mouse, rat) suited for a mass spectrometry analysis. The tools presented here are applicable to any species specific proteome, provided a protein database is available. By linking the information from both proteomes, PeptideManager significantly facilitates and expedites the selection of peptides used as surrogates to analyze proteins of interest

  20. A Fly-Through Mission Strategy Targeting Peptide as a Signature of Chemical Evolution and Possible Life in Enceladus Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujishima, Kosuke; Dziomba, Szymon; Takahagi, Wataru; Shibuya, Takazo; Takano, Yoshinori; Guerrouache, Mohamed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Takai, Ken; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Yano, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    In situ detection of organic molecules in the extraterrestrial environment provides a key step towards better understanding the variety and the distribution of building blocks of life and it may ultimately lead to finding extraterrestrial life within the Solar System. Here we present combined results of two separate experiments that enable us to realize such in situ life signature detection from the deep habitats of the "Ocean World": a hydrothermal reactor experiment simulating complex organic synthesis and a simulated fly-through capture experiment of organic-bearing microparticles using silica aerogels, followed by subsequent analysis. Both experiments employ peptide as a plausible organics existing in Encleadus plume particles produced in its subsurface ocean. Recent laboratory hydrothermal experiments and a theoretical model on silica saturation indicated an on going hydrothermal reactions in subsurface Enceladus ocean. Given the porous chondritic origin of the core, it is likely that organic compounds originated by radiation chemistry such as amino acid precursors could have been provided, leached, and altered through widespread water-rock interactions. By using the same laboratory experimental setup from the latest water-rock interaction study, we performed amino acid polymerization experiments for 144 days and monitored the organic complexity changing over time. So far over 3,000 peaks up to the size of greater than 600 MW were observed through the analysis of capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS) with an indication of amino acid derivatives and short peptides. Generally abiotic polymerization of enantiomeric amino acids results in forming stereoisomeric peptides with identical molecular weight and formula as opposed to homochiral biopolymers. Assuming Enceladus plume particles may contain a mixture of stereoisomeric peptides, we were able to distinguish 16 of the 17 stereoisomeric tripeptides as a test sample using

  1. The fusogenic peptide HA2 impairs selectivity of CXCR4-targeted protein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, L; Serna, N; Mattanovich, M; Cazzanelli, P; Sánchez-Chardi, A; Conchillo-Solé, O; Cortés, F; Daura, X; Unzueta, U; Mangues, R; Villaverde, A; Vázquez, E

    2017-03-21

    We demonstrate here that the genetic incorporation of the fusogenic peptide HA2 into a CXCR4-targeted protein nanoparticle dramatically reduces the specificity of the interaction between nanoparticles and cell receptors, a factor to be considered when designing tumor-homing drug vehicles displaying endosomal-escape agents. The loss of specificity is concomitant with enhanced cell penetrability.

  2. Antiprion properties of prion protein-derived cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Kajsa; Wahlström, Anna; Lundberg, Pontus; Langel, Ulo; Gräslund, Astrid; Bedecs, Katarina

    2008-07-01

    In prion diseases, the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) becomes misfolded into the pathogenic scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)) responsible for prion infectivity. We show here that peptides derived from the prion protein N terminus have potent antiprion effects. These peptides are composed of a hydrophobic sequence followed by a basic segment. They are known to have cell-penetrating ability like regular cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), short peptides that can penetrate cellular membranes. Healthy (GT1-1) and scrapie-infected (ScGT1-1) mouse neuronal hypothalamic cells were treated with various CPPs, including the prion protein-derived CPPs. Lysates were analyzed for altered protein levels of PrP(C) or PrP(Sc). Treatment with the prion protein-derived CPPs mouse mPrP(1-28) or bovine bPrP(1-30) significantly reduced PrP(Sc) levels in prion-infected cells but had no effect on PrP(C) levels in noninfected cells. Further, presence of prion protein-derived CPPs significantly prolonged the time before infection was manifested when infecting GT1-1 cells with scrapie. Treatment with other CPPs (penetratin, transportan-10, or poly-L-arginine) or prion protein-derived peptides lacking CPP function (mPrP(23-28,) mPrP(19-30,) or mPrP(23-50)) had no effect on PrP(Sc) levels. The results suggest a mechanism by which the signal sequence guides the prion protein-derived CPP into a cellular compartment, where the basic segment binds specifically to PrP(Sc) and disables formation of prions.

  3. Development of a novel cyclic RGD peptide for multiple targeting approaches of liposomes to tumor region.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohamadreza; Mansourian, Mercedeh; Koning, Gerben A; Badiee, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes containing cytotoxic agents and targeted with Arg-Gly-Asp based peptides have frequently been used against αvβ3 integrin on tumor neovasculature. However, like many other ligand modified liposomes these preparations suffered from enhanced uptake by the reticulo endothelial system (RES) and off-targeted interaction with integrin receptors vastly expressed in normal organs causing poor biodistribution and toxic effects. Here we mainly focus on development of a RGD-modified liposomal delivery system to enhance both targeting selectivity and tumor uptake. First, sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSLD) prepared and decorated with cRGDfK and RGDyC peptides differ in their physical properties. Stability assessments as well as in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that increasing the peptide hydrophobicity promotes the therapeutic efficacy of RGD-SSLD in a C-26 tumor model due to decreased recognition by RES and opsonization and limited off-targeted interactions. Then a novel N-methylated RGD peptide was designed and its capability in targeting integrin presenting cells was comprehensively assessed both in vitro and in vivo. RGDf[N-methyl]C promotes the liposome internalization by HUVEC via integrin mediated endocytosis. Intravital microscopy in window chamber bearing mice illustrated the capability of RGDf[N-methyl]C-liposomes in targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells in murine B16F0 and human BLM tumor models. Quantitative biodistribution in mice bearing B16F0 tumor revealed its high affinity to tumor with no considerable affinity to normal organs. Treatment by high dose of RGDf[N-methyl]C-SSLD was found more effective than non-targeted SSLD and no toxic side effect was observed. In conclusion, the RGDf[N-methyl]C-liposome was found promising in targeting tumor vasculature as well as other cells inside the tumor.

  4. Antidepressant-like effect of food-derived pyroglutamyl peptides in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukako; Mizushige, Takafumi; Mori, Yukiha; Shimmura, Yuki; Fukutomi, Ruuta; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2015-06-01

    The N-terminal glutamine residue, exposed by enzymatic cleavage of precursor proteins, is known to be modified to a pyroglutamyl residue with a cyclic structure in not only endogenous but also food-derived peptides. We investigated the effects of wheat-derived pyroglutamyl peptides on emotional behaviors. Pyroglutamyl leucine (pyroGlu-Leu, pEL) and pyroglutamyl glutaminyl leucine (pyroGlu-Gln-Leu, pEQL) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the tail suspension and forced swim tests in mice. pEQL exhibited more potent antidepressant-like activity than pEL after i.p. and i.c.v. administration. pEQL exhibited antidepressant-like activity at a lower dose than Gln-Gln-Leu, suggesting that pyroglutamyl peptide had more potent activity. To examine whether pyroglutamyl peptides increased hippocampus neurogenesis, associated with the effects of antidepressants, we measured 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. pEL and pEQL increased BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Intriguingly, pEL did not increase hippocampal mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a factor associated with both neuropoietic and antidepressive effects. Thus, pyroglutamyl peptides may enhance hippocampal neurogenesis via a pathway independent of BDNF. We also confirmed that pEL and pEQL were produced in the subtilisin digest of major wheat proteins, glutenin and gliadin, after heat treatment. pEL and pEQL are the first peptides derived from wheat proteins to be shown to exhibit an antidepressant-like activity.

  5. MHC class I–associated peptides derive from selective regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Hillary; Granados, Diana Paola; Durette, Chantal; Bonneil, Eric; Courcelles, Mathieu; Rodenbrock, Anja; Laverdure, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Caroline; Thibault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    MHC class I–associated peptides (MAPs) define the immune self for CD8+ T lymphocytes and are key targets of cancer immunosurveillance. Here, the goals of our work were to determine whether the entire set of protein-coding genes could generate MAPs and whether specific features influence the ability of discrete genes to generate MAPs. Using proteogenomics, we have identified 25,270 MAPs isolated from the B lymphocytes of 18 individuals who collectively expressed 27 high-frequency HLA-A,B allotypes. The entire MAP repertoire presented by these 27 allotypes covered only 10% of the exomic sequences expressed in B lymphocytes. Indeed, 41% of expressed protein-coding genes generated no MAPs, while 59% of genes generated up to 64 MAPs, often derived from adjacent regions and presented by different allotypes. We next identified several features of transcripts and proteins associated with efficient MAP production. From these data, we built a logistic regression model that predicts with good accuracy whether a gene generates MAPs. Our results show preferential selection of MAPs from a limited repertoire of proteins with distinctive features. The notion that the MHC class I immunopeptidome presents only a small fraction of the protein-coding genome for monitoring by the immune system has profound implications in autoimmunity and cancer immunology. PMID:27841757

  6. Inhibition of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle formation by Gag protein-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Niedrig, M; Gelderblom, H R; Pauli, G; März, J; Bickhard, H; Wolf, H; Modrow, S

    1994-06-01

    Sequential overlapping Gag protein-derived oligopeptides of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) 22 to 24 amino acids long, were synthesized and tested in vitro for antiviral activity. Two synthetic peptides, one derived from the matrix protein p17 (NPGLLETSEGCRQ, amino acids 47 to 59) and one located in the capsid protein p24 (PAATLEEMMTA, amino acids 339 to 349) inhibited the production of infectious virus when added to HIV-1-infected cultures when used in the range of 20 to 200 micrograms/ml. As shown by thin section electron microscopy, peptide treatment resulted in the release of immature, deformed virus particles suggesting that the two peptides interfered with assembly and maturation. Other Gag protein-derived oligopeptides had little or no influence on virus production. To characterize further the functionally active regions we synthesized peptide derivatives with three consecutive amino acids substituted by alanine; they did not cause inhibition. Therefore the regions responsible for inhibition were located between amino acids 50 to 61 in p17, and 342 to 350 in p24. These observations might lead to the development of a new antiviral strategy affecting the late stage of virus replication.

  7. Nuclear and perinuclear targeting efficiency of quantum dots depends on density of peptidic targeting residues on their surface.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2016-12-29

    Targeted delivery to the cell nucleus can enhance the efficiency of drugs with nuclear site of action (some anti-cancer agents, DNA drugs, etc.), and can reduce their toxicity. Such targeting can be attained using nano-drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs) decorated with nuclear targeting sequences (such as nuclear localization sequence peptides, NLS). Several types of nano-DDSs decorated with NLS peptides were designed, but their investigation usually did not include quantitate analysis of the decoration efficiency and its correlation with the nano-DDSs intracellular localization. Thus, the major mechanisms and limiting factors of the nano-DDSs nuclear targeting are largely unknown yet. In this study, we report quantitative data for specific nano-formulation (CdSe-ZnS quantum dots) that include the efficiencies of its decoration with NLS residues and of its nuclear and perinuclear targeting, and demonstrate correlation between these parameters. For instance, QDs decorated with 83, 246, and 265 NLS peptides accumulated efficiently in the nucleus of HeLa cells or its vicinity (an average of 30.4%, 43.3%, and 49.0% of the intracellular QDs, respectively). On the other hand, QDs decorated with 63, 231, and 308 scrambled peptides accumulated in the nucleus of HeLa cells or its vicinity to a much lower extent (an average of 17.3%, 21.1%, and 25.5% of the intracellular QDs, respectively). Thus, results of our study provide important insights into the structure-activity correlations (i.e., the relationships between the formulation properties and the intracellular fate of nano-DDSs) of nuclear-targeted drug delivery. We plan to apply the research tools that were developed in the course of this and our previous studies to investigate the nuclear and perinuclear targeting activities of different NLS sequences, and to investigate the effects of nano-DDSs size, charge, shape, decoration efficiency with nuclear targeting sequences, and other structural factors on nuclear and

  8. Identification of Programmed Death Ligand 1-derived Peptides Capable of Inducing Cancer-reactive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes From HLA-A24+ Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Minami, Tomoko; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; De Velasco, Marco; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-09-01

    Molecular therapy targeting tumor angiogenesis has been the standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, despite their significant antitumor effects, most of patients with mRCC have not been cured. Under such circumstances, anticancer immunotherapy has been considered a promising treatment modality for mRCC, and cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the most powerful effectors among several immune cells. However, anticancer CTLs can be inhibited by several immune inhibitory mechanisms, including the interaction between programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, on T cells and cancer cells, respectively. Alternatively, this also means that PD-L1 could be a promising target for anticancer immunotherapy. Therefore, we searched for PD-L1-derived peptides that are applicable for anticancer vaccine for HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Among 5 peptides derived from PD-L1, which were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A24(+) allele, both PD-L1(11-19) and PD-L1(41-50) peptides induced peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Such PD-L1 peptide-stimulated CD8 T cells showed cytotoxicity against HLA-A24(+) and PD-L1-expressing RCC cells. Although IFN-γ treatment increased PD-L1 expression on PD-L1(low) RCC cells, their sensitivity to cytotoxicity of PD-L1 peptide-stimulated CD8(+) T cells varied between patients. Altogether, these results indicate that both PD-L1(11-19) and PD-L1(41-50) peptides could be candidates for peptide-based anticancer vaccines for HLA-A24(+) mRCC patients.

  9. A New Synthetic Peptide Having Two Target of Antibacterial Action in E. coli ML35.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Santamaría, Adriana; Curtidor, Hernando; Arévalo-Pinzón, Gabriela; Herrera, Chonny; Suárez, Diana; Pérez, Walter H; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2016-01-01

    The increased resistance of microorganisms to the different antimicrobials available to today has highlighted the need to find new therapeutic agents, including natural and/or synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This study has evaluated the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptide 35409 (RYRRKKKMKKALQYIKLLKE) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Escherichia coli ML 35 (ATCC 43827). The results have shown that peptide 35409 inhibited the growth of these three bacterial strains, having 16-fold greater activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but requiring less concentration regarding E. coli (22 μM). When analyzing this activity against E. coli compared to time taken, it was found that this peptide inhibited bacterial growth during the first 60 min and reduced CFU/mL 1 log after 120 min had elapsed. This AMP permeabilized the E. coli membrane by interaction with membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylethanolamine, inhibited cell division and induced filamentation, suggesting two different targets of action within a bacterial cell. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that peptide 35409 had low hemolytic activity and was not cytotoxic for two human cell lines. We would thus propose, in the light of these findings, that the peptide 35409 sequence should provide a promising template for designing broad-spectrum AMPs.

  10. A New Synthetic Peptide Having Two Target of Antibacterial Action in E. coli ML35

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Santamaría, Adriana; Curtidor, Hernando; Arévalo-Pinzón, Gabriela; Herrera, Chonny; Suárez, Diana; Pérez, Walter H.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased resistance of microorganisms to the different antimicrobials available to today has highlighted the need to find new therapeutic agents, including natural and/or synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This study has evaluated the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptide 35409 (RYRRKKKMKKALQYIKLLKE) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Escherichia coli ML 35 (ATCC 43827). The results have shown that peptide 35409 inhibited the growth of these three bacterial strains, having 16-fold greater activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but requiring less concentration regarding E. coli (22 μM). When analyzing this activity against E. coli compared to time taken, it was found that this peptide inhibited bacterial growth during the first 60 min and reduced CFU/mL 1 log after 120 min had elapsed. This AMP permeabilized the E. coli membrane by interaction with membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylethanolamine, inhibited cell division and induced filamentation, suggesting two different targets of action within a bacterial cell. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that peptide 35409 had low hemolytic activity and was not cytotoxic for two human cell lines. We would thus propose, in the light of these findings, that the peptide 35409 sequence should provide a promising template for designing broad-spectrum AMPs. PMID:28066341

  11. Sequence-independent Control of Peptide Conformation in Liposomal Vaccines for Targeting Protein Misfolding Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, David T.; López-Deber, María Pilar; Ndao, Dorin Mlaki; Silva, Alberto B.; Nand, Deepak; Pihlgren, Maria; Giriens, Valérie; Madani, Rime; St-Pierre, Annie; Karastaneva, Hristina; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Willbold, Dieter; Riesner, Detlev; Nicolau, Claude; Baldus, Marc; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptide immunogens that mimic the conformation of a target epitope of pathological relevance offer the possibility to precisely control the immune response specificity. Here, we performed conformational analyses using a panel of peptides in order to investigate the key parameters controlling their conformation upon integration into liposomal bilayers. These revealed that the peptide lipidation pattern, the lipid anchor chain length, and the liposome surface charge all significantly alter peptide conformation. Peptide aggregation could also be modulated post-liposome assembly by the addition of distinct small molecule β-sheet breakers. Immunization of both mice and monkeys with a model liposomal vaccine containing β-sheet aggregated lipopeptide (Palm1–15) induced polyclonal IgG antibodies that specifically recognized β-sheet multimers over monomer or non-pathological native protein. The rational design of liposome-bound peptide immunogens with defined conformation opens up the possibility to generate vaccines against a range of protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer disease. PMID:21343310

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-negative Pathogens, Produced and Delivered by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis. Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter nisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host’s viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations. PMID:23808914

  13. Synthesis of Diketopiperizine Peptide Derivatives by Cross-Metathesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    derivatives using Grubbs’ second generation ruthenium catalyst 13 [(H2IMes)(PCy 3)( Cl )2Ru=CHPh] (1) to couple amino acids to the diketopiperazine...catalyst [(PCy3)2( Cl )2Ru=CHPh] where they employed allyl and homoallylamides. 14 Here we report the product yields and distributions of CM reactions of... Fmoc - kin 0 -ý " N R 2 Mes-N N-Mes = cyclohexyl, CP"’ I PhMes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl CI Ph PCY3 1 R - PG O R N 0 PG PG. 0 k~ N 0n PG R Heterodimer

  14. Quantification of hydroxyl radical-derived oxidation products in peptides containing glycine, alanine, valine, and proline.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip E; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2012-01-15

    Proteins are a major target for oxidation due to their abundance and high reactivity. Despite extensive investigation over many years, only limited quantitative data exist on the contributions of different pathways to the oxidation of peptides and proteins. This study was designed to obtain quantitative data on the nature and yields of oxidation products (alcohols, carbonyls, hydroperoxides, fragment species) formed by a prototypic oxidant system (HO(•)/O(2)) on small peptides of limited, but known, amino acid composition. Peptides composed of Gly, Ala, Val, and Pro were examined with particular emphasis on the peptide Val-Gly-Val-Ala-Pro-Gly, a repeat motif in elastin with chemotactic activity and metalloproteinase regulation properties. The data obtained indicate that hydroperoxide formation occurs nonrandomly (Pro > Val > Ala > Gly) with this inversely related to carbonyl yields (both peptide-bound and released). Multiple alcohols are generated at both side-chain and backbone sites. Backbone fragmentation has been characterized at multiple positions, with sites adjacent to Pro residues being of major importance. Summation of the product concentrations provides clear evidence for the occurrence of chain reactions in peptides exposed to HO(•)/O(2), with the overall product yields exceeding that of the initial HO(•) generated.

  15. Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Do Not Significantly Affect Acute Exocrine Pancreas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akalestou, Elina; Christakis, Ioannis; Solomou, Antonia M.; Minnion, James S.; Rutter, Guy A.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reports have suggested a link between treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and an increased risk of pancreatitis. Oxyntomodulin, a dual agonist of both GLP-1 and glucagon receptors, is currently being investigated as a potential anti-obesity therapy, but little is known about its pancreatic safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of oxyntomodulin and other proglucagon-derived peptides on the rat exocrine pancreas. Methods GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, glucagon and exendin-4 were infused into anaesthetised rats to measure plasma amylase concentration changes. Additionally, the effect of each peptide on both amylase release and proliferation in rat pancreatic acinar (AR42J) and primary isolated ductal cells was determined. Results Plasma amylase did not increase post peptide infusion, compared to vehicle and cholecystokinin (CCK); however, oxyntomodulin inhibited plasma amylase when co-administered with CCK. None of the peptides caused a significant increase in proliferation rate or amylase secretion from acinar and ductal cells. Conclusions The investigated peptides do not have an acute effect on the exocrine pancreas with regard to proliferation and plasma amylase, when administered individually. Oxyntomodulin appears to be a potent inhibitor of amylase release, potentially making it a safer anti-obesity agent regarding pancreatitis, compared to GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26731187

  16. Identification of erythropoietin receptor-derived peptides having the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from HLA-A24(+) patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Minami, Tomoko; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; De Velasco, Marco; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-05-01

    Molecular targeting therapy with anti-angiogenic agents, including sunitinib and sorafenib, has been proven to be the first- and second-line standard treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) worldwide. Despite their significant antitumor effects, most of the patients with mRCC have not been cured. Under such circumstances, anti-cancer immunotherapy has been considered as a promising treatment modality for mRCC, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the most powerful effectors among several immune cells and molecules. Therefore, we previously conducted anti-cancer vaccine therapy with peptides derived from carbonic anhydrase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 as phase-I/II trials for mRCC patients and reported their clinical benefits. Alternatively, up-regulated expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) in RCC has been reported, and their co-expression is involved in tumorigenesis. In order to increase options for peptide-based vaccination therapy, we searched for novel EpoR-peptides for HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Among 5 peptides derived from EpoR, which were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A24 allele, EpoR52-60 peptide had the potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Cytotoxicity toward HLA-A24(+) and EpoR-expressing RCC cells was ascribed to peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells. These results indicate that the EpoR52-60 peptide could be a promising candidate for a peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine for HLA-A24(+) mRCC patients.

  17. Bacteriophage-Derived Vectors for Targeted Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam; Hajitou, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy expanded and reached its pinnacle in research in the last decade. Both viral and non-viral vectors have entered clinical trials, and significant successes have been achieved. However, a systemic administration of a vector, illustrating safe, efficient, and targeted gene delivery to solid tumors has proven to be a major challenge. In this review, we summarize the current progress and challenges in the targeted gene therapy of cancer. Moreover, we highlight the recent developments of bacteriophage-derived vectors and their contributions in targeting cancer with therapeutic genes following systemic administration. PMID:25606974

  18. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  19. New tris-alkoxycarbonyl arginine derivatives for peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Izdebski, Jan; Gers, Tomasz; Kunce, Danuta; Markowski, Paweł

    2005-01-01

    alpha-Alkoxycarbonyl protected ornithines were treated with N,N'-[Z(2Cl)](2)-S-methylisothiourea and N,N'-[Z(2Br)](2)-S-methylisothiourea, N,N'-Z(2)-S-methylisothiourea and N,N'-Boc(2)-S-methylisothiourea to form N(alpha, omega, omega')-tris-alkoxycarbonyl arginines. Two of them, Boc-Arg-{omega,omega'-[Z(2Br)](2)}-OH and Boc-Arg-{omega,omega'-[Z(2Cl)](2)}-OH, were used for the synthesis of dermorphin fragments containing two or three arginine residues. Examination of the products by HPLC and ESI-MS revealed that the purity of the materials obtained with the use of the new derivatives was higher than that obtained in concurrent syntheses in which Boc-Arg(Tos) was used.

  20. Nanocarrier possibilities for functional targeting of bioactive peptides and proteins: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Carla G; Matos, Carla M; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M

    2012-02-01

    This review attempts to provide an updated compilation of studies reported in the literature pertaining to production of nanocarriers encasing peptides and/or proteins, in a way that helps the reader direct a bibliographic search and develop an integrated perspective of the subject. Highlights are given to bioactive proteins and peptides, with a special focus on those from dairy sources (including physicochemical characteristics and properties, and biopharmaceutical application possibilities of e.g. lactoferrin and glycomacropeptide), as well as to nanocarrier functional targeting. Features associated with micro- and (multiple) nanoemulsions, micellar systems, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles, together with biopharmaceutical considerations, are presented in the text in a systematic fashion.

  1. An extra dimension in protein tagging by quantifying universal proteotypic peptides using targeted proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Vandemoortele, Giel; Staes, An; Gonnelli, Giulia; Samyn, Noortje; De Sutter, Delphine; Vandermarliere, Elien; Timmerman, Evy; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart; Eyckerman, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The use of protein tagging to facilitate detailed characterization of target proteins has not only revolutionized cell biology, but also enabled biochemical analysis through efficient recovery of the protein complexes wherein the tagged proteins reside. The endogenous use of these tags for detailed protein characterization is widespread in lower organisms that allow for efficient homologous recombination. With the recent advances in genome engineering, tagging of endogenous proteins is now within reach for most experimental systems, including mammalian cell lines cultures. In this work, we describe the selection of peptides with ideal mass spectrometry characteristics for use in quantification of tagged proteins using targeted proteomics. We mined the proteome of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus to obtain two peptides that are unique in the proteomes of all known model organisms (proteotypic) and allow sensitive quantification of target proteins in a complex background. By combining these ’Proteotypic peptides for Quantification by SRM’ (PQS peptides) with epitope tags, we demonstrate their use in co-immunoprecipitation experiments upon transfection of protein pairs, or after introduction of these tags in the endogenous proteins through genome engineering. Endogenous protein tagging for absolute quantification provides a powerful extra dimension to protein analysis, allowing the detailed characterization of endogenous proteins. PMID:27264994

  2. Targeting the WASF3-CYFIP1 Complex Using Stapled Peptides Suppresses Cancer Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Bahassan, Abdulaziz; Dong, Dayong; Hanold, Laura E; Ren, Xiaoou; Kennedy, Eileen J; Cowell, John K

    2016-02-15

    Activation of the WASF3 protein by extracellular stimuli promotes actin cytoskeleton reorganization and facilitates cancer cell invasion, whereas WASF3 depletion suppresses invasion and metastasis. In quiescent cells, the interaction between WASF3 and a complex of proteins, including CYFIP1, acts as a conformational restraint to prevent WASF3 activation. Therefore, we took advantage of this endogenous regulatory mechanism to investigate potential sites that disrupt WASF3 function. Here, we show that genetic knockdown of CYFIP1 in cancer cells led to the destabilization of the WASF3 complex, loss of WASF3 function, and suppressed invasion. Based on existing crystallographic data, we developed stapled peptides, referred to as WASF Helix Mimics (WAHM), that target an α-helical interface between WASF3 and CYFIP1. Treatment of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells with WAHM inhibitor peptides significantly reduced motility and invasion in vitro. Mechanistic investigations revealed that these inhibitors suppressed the interaction between Rac and the WASF3 complex, which has been shown to promote cell migration. Furthermore, peptide-mediated inhibition of WASF3 also resulted in the dysregulation of known downstream targets such as MMP-9 and KISS1. Finally, we demonstrate that this invasive phenotype is specific to WASF3 as depletion of WASF1 and WASF2, which can also bind to CYFIP1, did not affect invasion. Collectively, our findings suggest that targeting WASF3 function with WAHM peptides could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis.

  3. Targeting the WASF3-CYFIP1 complex using stapled peptides suppresses cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Bahassan, Abdulaziz; Dong, Dayong; Hanold, Laura E; Ren, Xiaoou; Kennedy, Eileen J; Cowell, John K

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the WASF3 protein by extracellular stimuli promotes actin cytoskeleton reorganization and facilitates cancer cell invasion, whereas WASF3 depletion suppresses invasion and metastasis. In quiescent cells, the interaction between WASF3 and a complex of proteins including CYFIP1 acts as a conformational restraint to prevent WASF3 activation. Therefore, we took advantage of this endogenous regulatory mechanism to investigate potential sites that disrupt WASF3 function. Here, we show that genetic knockdown of CYFIP1 in cancer cells led to the destabilization of the WASF3 complex, loss of WASF3 function, and suppressed invasion. Based on existing crystallographic data, we developed stapled peptides, referred to as WASF Helix Mimics (WAHM), that target an α-helical interface between WASF3 and CYFIP1. Treatment of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells with WAHM inhibitor peptides significantly reduced motility and invasion in vitro. Mechanistic investigations revealed that these inhibitors suppressed the interaction between Rac and the WASF3 complex, which has been shown to promote cell migration. Furthermore, peptide-mediated inhibition of WASF3 also resulted in the dysregulation of known downstream targets such as MMP-9 and KISS1. Finally, we demonstrate that this invasive phenotype is specific to WASF3 as depletion of WASF1 and WASF2, which can also bind to CYFIP1, did not affect invasion. Collectively, our findings suggest that targeting WASF3 function with WAHM peptides could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:26676744

  4. Rapid biosynthesis of stable isotope-labeled peptides from a reconstituted in vitro translation system for targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xian, Feng; Li, Shuwei; Liu, Siqi

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope-labeled peptides are routinely used as internal standards (a.k.a. reference peptides) for absolute quantitation of proteins in targeted proteomics. These peptides can either be synthesized chemically on solid supports or expressed biologically by concatenating multiple peptides together to a large protein. Neither method, however, has required versatility, convenience, and economy for making a large number of reference peptides. Here, we describe the biosynthesis of stable isotope-labeled peptides from a reconstituted Escherichia coli in vitro translation system. We provide a detailed protocol on how to express these peptides with high purity and how to determine their concentrations with easiness. Our strategy offers a general, fast, and scalable approach for the easy preparation of labeled reference peptides, which will have broad application in both basic research and translational medicine.

  5. Role of αA-crystallin-derived αA66-80 peptide in guinea pig lens crystallin aggregation and insolubilization

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Murugesan; Mooney, Brian P.; Thakkar, Kavi M.; Giblin, Frank J.; Schey, Kevin L.; Sharma, K. Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we reported that low molecular weight (LMW) peptides accumulate in aging human lens tissue and that among the LMW peptides, the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80, derived from α-crystallin protein, is one of the predominant peptides. We showed that in vitro αA66-80 induces protein aggregation. The current study was undertaken to determine whether LMW peptides are also present in guinea pig lens tissue subjected to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in vivo. The nuclear opacity induced by HBO in guinea pig lens is the closest animal model for studying age-related cataract formation in humans. A LMW peptide profile by mass spectrometry showed the presence of an increased amount of LMW peptides in HBO-treated guinea pig lenses compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, the mass spectrometric data also showed that the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 accumulates in HBO-treated guinea pig lens. Following incubation of synthetic chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 with α-crystallin from guinea pig lens extracts, we observed a decreased ability of α-crystallin to inhibit the amorphous aggregation of the target protein alcohol dehydrogenase and the formation of large light scattering aggregates, similar to those we have observed with human α-crystallin and αA66-80 peptide. Further, time-lapse recordings showed that a preformed complex of α-crystallin and αA66-80 attracted additional crystallin molecules to form even larger aggregates. These results demonstrate that LMW peptide–mediated cataract development in aged human lens and in HBO-induced lens opacity in the guinea pig may have common molecular pathways. PMID:25639202

  6. Hemopressin: a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Dale, Camila Squarzoni; Pagano, Rosana de Lima; Rioli, Vanessa

    2005-03-01

    Hemopressin (PVNFKFLSH), a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin, was originally isolated from rat brain homogenates. Hemopressin causes hypotension in anesthetized rats and is metabolized in vivo and in vitro by endopeptidase 24.15 (EP24.15), neurolysin (EP24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Hemopressin also exerts an antinociceptive action in experimental inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or bradykinin via a mechanism that is independent of opioids. These findings suggest that this peptide may have important regulatory physiological actions in vivo.

  7. Linear aliphatic dialkynes as alternative linkers for double-click stapling of p53-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; de Andrade, Peterson; McKenzie, Grahame J; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Spring, David R

    2014-12-15

    We investigated linear aliphatic dialkynes as a new structural class of i,i+7 linkers for the double-click stapling of p53-based peptides. The optimal combination of azido amino acids and dialkynyl linker length for MDM2 binding was determined. In a direct comparison between aliphatic and aromatic staple scaffolds, the aliphatic staples resulted in superior binding to MDM2 in vitro and superior p53-activating capability in cells when using a diazidopeptide derived from phage display. This work demonstrates that the nature of the staple scaffold is an important factor that can affect peptide bioactivity in cells.

  8. The expanding roles of the ghrelin-gene derived peptide obestatin in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina; Amorim, Laura; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid, ghrelin gene-derived peptide hormone produced in the stomach and a range of other tissues throughout the body. While it was initially reported that obestatin opposed the actions of ghrelin with regards to appetite and food intake, it is now clear that obestatin is not an endogenous ghrelin antagonist, but it is a multi-functional peptide hormone in its own right. In this review we will discuss the controversies associated with the discovery of obestatin and explore emerging central and peripheral roles of obestatin, which includes adipogenesis, pancreatic homeostasis and cancer.

  9. PEDF-derived peptide inhibits corneal angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takanori; Nishino, Yuri; Maeda, Sayaka; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-07-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has been recently shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye. However, which active domain of PEDF protein could be involved in its anti-angiogenic properties remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined which PEDF-derived synthetic peptides could inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in vivo. Rats treated with topical application of PEDF protein had 31% less corneal neovascularization at day 7 after the injury than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated rats. P5-2 and P5-3 peptides (residues 388-393 and 394-400 of PEDF protein, respectively) significantly suppressed the corneal neovascularization after chemical cauterization at day 7, and its anti-angiogenic potential was almost equal to that of full-length PEDF protein. Further, full-length PEDF protein and P5-3 peptide significantly decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the corneal. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 could inhibit the corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in rats by suppressing VEGF expression via its anti-oxidative properties.

  10. Remodeling of Hepatic Metabolism and Hyperaminoacidemia in Mice Deficient in Proglucagon-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Chika; Seino, Yusuke; Miyahira, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Michiyo; Fukami, Ayako; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Sato, Jun; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Oiso, Yutaka; Murata, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon is believed to be one of the most important peptides for upregulating blood glucose levels. However, homozygous glucagon–green fluorescent protein (gfp) knock-in mice (Gcggfp/gfp: GCGKO) are normoglycemic despite the absence of proglucagon-derived peptides, including glucagon. To characterize metabolism in the GCGKO mice, we analyzed gene expression and metabolome in the liver. The expression of genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes for gluconeogenesis was only marginally altered. On the other hand, genes encoding enzymes involved in conversion of amino acids to metabolites available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and/or gluconeogenesis showed lower expression in the GCGKO liver. The expression of genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and nicotinamide was also altered. Concentrations of the metabolites in the GCGKO liver were altered in manners concordant with alteration in the gene expression patterns, and the plasma concentrations of amino acids were elevated in the GCGKO mice. The insulin concentration in serum and phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase in liver were reduced in GCGKO mice. These results indicated that proglucagon-derived peptides should play important roles in regulating various metabolic pathways, especially that of amino acids. Serum insulin concentration is lowered to compensate the impacts of absent proglucagon-derived peptide on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, impacts on other metabolic pathways are only partially compensated by reduced insulin action. PMID:22187375

  11. A HSP60-targeting peptide for cell apoptosis imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, S; Meng, J; Yang, Y; Liu, H; Wang, C; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Xu, H

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis has a critical role in both physiological and pathological processes, and therefore probes that enable direct and fast visualization for apoptosis in vitro and in vivo have great significance for evaluation of therapeutic effects, disease monitoring and drug screening. We report here a novel apoptotic marker heat shock protein 60 (HSP60)-based apoptosis imaging probe, P17. In this study, we show that P17 can label multiple drug-induced apoptotic cells in vitro, and the difference in binding intensities between apoptotic and viable cells by fluorescent P17 is more than 10-fold in six cell lines measured by flow cytometry and proportional to the apoptotic level of the cells. We further visualized the apoptosis in the subcutaneous tumor of mice by vein injection of P17 using in vivo fluorescent imaging. P17 was identified to bind specifically to HSP60 accumulated in apoptotic cells by pull-down experiments and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the P17 binding was correlated with the apoptotic feature of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and caspase-3 activation. We also clarify that P17 labels the cells in late stage apoptosis by double staining with different stage markers, unveiling that HSP60 may be involved with late stage of apoptosis. Overall, this study has demonstrated that P17 is a novel apoptosis probe targeting HSP60 and promising for the detection of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26926787

  12. Receptor for complement peptide C3a: a therapeutic target for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Järlestedt, Katarina; Rousset, Catherine I; Ståhlberg, Anders; Sourkova, Hana; Atkins, Alison L; Thornton, Claire; Barnum, Scott R; Wetsel, Rick A; Dragunow, Mike; Pekny, Milos; Mallard, Carina; Hagberg, Henrik; Pekna, Marcela

    2013-09-01

    Complement is an essential component of inflammation that plays a role in ischemic brain injury. Recent reports demonstrate novel functions of complement in normal and diseased CNS, such as regulation of neurogenesis and synapse elimination. Here, we examined the role of complement-derived peptide C3a in unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), a model of neonatal HI encephalopathy. HI injury was induced at postnatal day 9 (P9), and loss of hippocampal tissue was determined on P31. We compared WT mice with transgenic mice expressing C3a under the control of glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, which express biologically active C3a only in CNS and without the requirement of a priori complement activation. Further, we injected C3a peptide into the lateral cerebral ventricle of mice lacking the C3a receptor (C3aR) and WT mice and assessed HI-induced memory impairment 41 d later. We found that HI-induced tissue loss in C3a overexpressing mice was reduced by 50% compared with WT mice. C3a peptide injected 1 h after HI protected WT but not C3aR-deficient mice against HI-induced memory impairment. Thus, C3a acting through its canonical receptor ameliorates behavioral deficits after HI injury, and C3aR is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neonatal HI encephalopathy.

  13. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activities in vitro and/or in vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activities in vitro. The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide. We evaluated the contribution of each residue to the peptide self-assembling capability by circular-dichroism spectroscopy. The interaction of the N10K peptide and its derivatives with Candida albicans cells was studied by confocal, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis and autophagy induction profiles in yeast cells treated with the peptides were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the therapeutic efficacy against candidal infection was studied in a Galleria mellonella model. Overall, the results indicate a critical role for some residues in the self-assembly process and a correlation of that capability with the candidacidal activities of the peptides in vitro and their therapeutic effects in vivo. PMID:26856836

  14. Selective Modification of HK Peptides Enhances siRNA Silencing of Tumor Targets In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Szu-Ting; Leng, Qixin; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Mixson, A. James

    2011-01-01

    Our research has focused on systemic delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) by branched peptides composed of histidine and lysine, called HK peptides. After studying several HK peptides, one four-branched peptide, H3K(+H)4b, with a predominant repeating pattern of -HHHK-, was found to be an effective carrier of siRNA. Although the unmodified H3K(+H)4b carrier of siRNA targeting an oncogene was previously shown to have promise in a tumor-bearing mouse model, we sought to develop a more effective HK carrier of siRNA in the current study. Our primary goal was to determine whether different ligand (cyclic RGD)-pegylation patterns on the H3K(+H)4b peptide affect siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. We compared the unmodified H3K(+H)4b with two modified H3K(+H)4b peptides for their ability to deliver siRNA in a tumor-bearing mouse model; one modified HK peptide, (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b, had four cRGD-PEG conjugated to each molecule, while the other peptide, (RGD-PEG)-H3K(+H)4b, had one cRGD-PEG per molecule. Although the modified HK peptides by themselves did not form stable nanoplexes with siRNA, combination of a highly charged unmodified HK peptide, H2K4b, with either of the modified HK peptides did form stable siRNA nanoparticles. For in vitro experiments with MDA-MB-435 cells that expressed luciferase, the H3K(+H)4b siRNA nanoplexes targeting luciferase decreased its activity by 90% compared with negligible down-regulation by the modified H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes (P<0.01). In contrast, the two modified H3K(+H)4b siRNA nanoplexes administered intravenously were more effective than the H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes in silencing luciferase in a tumor xenograft model. The luciferase activity in tumor lysates of mice administered H3K(+H)4b, (RGD-PEG)-H3K(+H)4b, and (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes decreased by 18%, 35%, and 75%, respectively. Thus, the siRNA nanoplex incorporating the highly modified peptide, (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b, was the most effective at silencing its target in vivo

  15. The apelin peptides as putative targets in cardiovascular drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Charles, Cj

    2008-01-01

    Apelin is a recently isolated peptide that appears to act as an endogenous ligand for the previously orphaned G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. A number of studies have reported cardiovascular actions of apelin, including changes in the blood pressure and potent inotropic actions. Furthermore, perturbations of both apelin and APJ within the myocardial tissue and circulating levels of the peptide have been reported in a number of cardiovascular disease states. Taken together, these studies suggest a role for apelin in the pressure/volume homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. However, findings in the literature to date are, at times, disparate. This review highlights key areas where further work is required to clarify the role of apelin/APJ in both normal physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless, preliminary evidence suggests that the manipulation of this receptor/ligand peptide system may be a target for drug development, thereby offering a therapeutic benefit in cardiovascular diseases.

  16. In Vivo Detection of Human TRPV6-Rich Tumors with Anti-Cancer Peptides Derived from Soricidin

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Chris V.; DeBay, Drew; Ewart, H. Stephen; Gallant, Pamela; Gormley, Sean; Ilenchuk, T. Toney; Iqbal, Umar; Lutes, Tyler; Martina, Marzia; Mealing, Geoffrey; Merkley, Nadine; Sperker, Sandra; Moreno, Maria J.; Rice, Christopher; Syvitski, Raymond T.; Stewart, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Soricidin is a 54-amino acid peptide found in the paralytic venom of the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and has been found to inhibit the transient receptor potential of vallinoid type 6 (TRPV6) calcium channels. We report that two shorter peptides, SOR-C13 and SOR-C27, derived from the C-terminus of soricidin, are high-affinity antagonists of human TRPV6 channels that are up-regulated in a number of cancers. Herein, we report molecular imaging methods that demonstrate the in vivo diagnostic potential of SOR-C13 and SOR-C27 to target tumor sites in mice bearing ovarian or prostate tumors. Our results suggest that these novel peptides may provide an avenue to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic reagents directly to TRPV6-rich tumors and, as such, have potential applications for a range of carcinomas including ovarian, breast, thyroid, prostate and colon, as well as certain leukemia's and lymphomas. PMID:23554944

  17. Mitochondrial targeting functional peptides as potential devices for the mitochondrial delivery of a DF-MITO-Porter.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Eriko; Yamada, Yuma; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-11-01

    To achieve mitochondrial therapy, we previously reported on the use of an octaarginine (R8) modified Dual Function (DF)-MITO-Porter for delivering molecules to mitochondria in living cells. In this study, using isolated mitochondria, homogenates and living cells, we evaluated the utility of mitochondrial targeting functional peptides as a ligand for delivering carriers. The S2 peptide modified carrier showed a high mitochondrial targeting activity in homogenates and living cells. In addition, the S2 peptide had a lower cell toxicity compared to R8 modified liposomes. The S2 peptide represents a potentially useful moiety for constructing an efficient and safe mitochondrial delivery system.

  18. Analysis of the antimicrobial activities of a chemokine-derived peptide (CDAP-4) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Becerra, Francisco; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Soldevila, Gloria . E-mail: garciaze@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-04-06

    Chemokines are key molecules involved in the control of leukocyte trafficking. Recently, a novel function as antimicrobial proteins has been described. CCL13 is the only member of the MCP chemokine subfamily displaying antimicrobial activity. To determine Key residues involved in its antimicrobial activity, CCL13 derived peptides were synthesized and tested against several bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of these peptides, corresponding to the C-terminal region of CCL13 (CDAP-4) displayed good antimicrobial activity. Electron microscopy studies revealed remarkable morphological changes after CDAP-4 treatment. By computer modeling, CDAP-4 in {alpha} helical configuration generated a positive electrostatic potential that extended beyond the surface of the molecule. This feature is similar to other antimicrobial peptides. Altogether, these findings indicate that the antimicrobial activity was displayed by CCL13 resides to some extent at the C-terminal region. Furthermore, CDAP-4 could be considered a good antimicrobial candidate with a potential use against pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  19. Targeted Melanoma Imaging and Therapy with Radiolabeled Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Thomas; Zhang, Xiuli; Miao, Yubin

    2010-01-01

    Radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues have been used to define the expression, affinity and function of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R). The MC1-R is one of a family of five G-protein linker receptors, which is primarily involved in regulation of skin pigmentation. Over-expression of the MC1-R on melanoma tumor cells has made it an attractive target for the development of α-MSH peptide based imaging and therapeutic agents. Initially, the native α-MSH peptide was radiolabeled directly, but it suffered from low specific activity and poor stability. The addition of non-natural amino acids yielded α-MSH analogues with greater MC-1R affinity and stability. Furthermore, peptide cyclization via disulfide and lactam bond formation as well as site-specific metal coordination resulted in additional gains in receptor affinity and peptide stability in vitro and in vivo. Radiochemical stability of the α-MSH analogues was improved through the conjugation of metal chelators to the peptide’s N-terminus or lysine residues for radionuclide coordination. In vitro cell binding studies demonstrated that the radiolabeled α-MSH analogues had low to subnanomolar affinities for the MC1-R. Biodistribution and imaging studies in the B16 mouse melanoma modeled showed rapid tumor uptake of the radiolabeled peptides, with the cyclic peptides demonstrating prolonged tumor retention. Cyclic α-MSH analogues labeled with beta and alpha emitting radionuclides demonstrated melanoma therapeutic efficacy in the B16 melanoma mouse model. Strong pre-clinical imaging and therapy data highlight the clinical potential use of radiolabeled α-MSH peptides for melanoma imaging and treatment of disseminated disease. PMID:20467398

  20. Peptide-Metal Organic Framework Swimmers that Direct the Motion toward Chemical Targets.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Shi, Menglu; Uemura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-10

    Highly efficient and robust chemical motors are expected for the application in microbots that can selectively swim toward targets and accomplish their tasks in sensing, labeling, and delivering. However, one of major issues for such development is that current artificial swimmers have difficulty controlling their directional motion toward targets like bacterial chemotaxis. To program synthetic motors with sensing capability for the target-directed motion, we need to develop swimmers whose motions are sensitive to chemical gradients in environments. Here we create a new intelligent biochemical swimmer by integrating metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and peptides that can sense toxic heavy metals in solution and swim toward the targets. With the aid of Pb-binding enzymes, the peptide-MOF motor can directionally swim toward PbSe quantum dots (QD) by sensing pH gradient and eventually complete the motion as the swimmer reaches the highest gradient point at the target position in solution. This type of technology could be evolved to miniaturize chemical robotic systems that sense target chemicals and swim toward target locations.

  1. A novel peptide targeting Clec9a on dendritic cell for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongyi; Wu, Yahong; Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Guodong; Wang, Shengdian; Cao, Wenpeng; Zhou, Xiuman; Wu, Chunjing; Zhang, Dan; Jing, Xueli; Li, Yifan; Wang, Hongfei; Gao, Yanfeng; Qi, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells with antigen recognition molecules on the surface. Clec9a is selectively expressed on mouse CD8a+ DCs and CD103+ DCs subsets, which are functionally similar to human BDCA3+ DCs. It is reported that Clec9a is responsible for the antigen cross-presentation of these DC subsets. In the present study, by using phage display technique, we discovered a novel peptide WH, which can selectively bind to mouse Flt3L induced Clec9a+ DCs or Clec9a over-expressed HEK-293T cells. Furthermore, by using computer-aided docking model and mutation assay, we observed that Asp248 and Trp250 are two key residues for Clec9a to bind with peptide WH. When coupled with OVA257-264 epitope, peptide WH can significantly enhance the ability of Clec9a+ DCs to activate OVA-specific CD8+ T cells, which elicit strong ability to secret IFN-γ, express perforin and granzyme B mRNA. In B16-OVA lung metastasis mouse model, WH-OVA257-264 fusion peptide can also enhance the activation of CD8+ T cells and decrease the lung metastasis loci. All these results suggested that peptide WH could be considered as an antigen delivery carrier targeting Clec9a+ DCs for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27250027

  2. Medicinal Chemistry of ATP Synthase: A Potential Drug Target of Dietary Polyphenols and Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial/antitumor peptides on ATP synthase. In the beginning general structural features highlighting catalytic and motor functions of ATP synthase will be described. Some details on the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it an interesting drug target with respect to dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial peptides will also be reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have distinct polyphenol and peptide binding sites at the interface of α/β subunits. Molecular interaction of polyphenols and peptides with ATP synthase at their respective binding sites will be discussed. Binding and inhibition of other proteins or enzymes will also be covered so as to understand the therapeutic roles of both types of molecules. Lastly, the effects of polyphenols and peptides on the inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth through their action on ATP synthase will also be presented. PMID:20586714

  3. A Tubulin Binding Peptide Targets Glioma Cells Disrupting Their Microtubules, Blocking Migration, and Inducing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Berges, Raphael; Balzeau, Julien; Peterson, Alan C; Eyer, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment regimes, glioma remains a largely fatal disease. Current treatment limitations are attributed to the precarious locations within the brain where such tumors grow, their highly infiltrative nature precluding complete resection and lack of specificity among agents capable of attenuating their growth. Here, we show that in vitro, glioma cells of diverse origins internalize a peptide encompassing a tubulin-binding site (TBS) on the neurofilament light protein. The internalized peptide disrupts the microtubule network, inhibits migration and proliferation, and leads to apoptosis. Using an intracerebral transplant model, we show that most, if not all, of these responses to peptide exposure also occur in vivo. Notably, a single intratumor injection significantly attenuates tumor growth, while neither peptide uptake nor downstream consequences are observed elsewhere in the host nervous system. Such preferential uptake suggests that the peptide may have potential as a primary or supplementary glioblastoma treatment modality by exploiting its autonomous microtubule-disrupting activity or engaging its capacity to selectively target glioma cells with other cell-disrupting cargos. PMID:22491214

  4. Design, synthesis and activity evaluation of novel peptide fusion inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianjun; Su, Min; Zeng, Yi; Wang, Cunxin

    2016-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the pathogen of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes about 2 million people to death every year. Fusion inhibitors targeted the envelope protein (gp41) represent a novel and alternative approach for anti-AIDS therapy, which terminates the HIV-1 life cycle at an early stage. Using CP621-652 as a template, a series of peptides were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro assays. An interesting phenomenon was found that the substitution of hydrophobic residues at solvent accessible sites could increase the anti-HIV activity when the C-terminal sequence was extended with an enough numbers of amino acids. After the active peptides was synthesized and evaluated, peptide 8 showed the best anti-HIV-1 IIIB whole cell activity (MAGI IC50=53.02 nM). Further study indicated that peptide 8 bound with the gp41 NHR helix, and then blocked the conformation of 6-helix, thus inhibited virus-cell membrane fusion. The results would be helpful for the design of peptide fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 infection.

  5. Characterization of the triphenylphosphonium derivative of peptides by fast atom bombardment-tandem mass spectrometry, and investigations of the mechanisms of fragmentation of peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fast atom bombardment collisionally activated dissociation tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the determination of the primary structure of peptides. However, there are factors that frequently prevent successful sequence analysis by mass spectrometry. Two such factors are the poor ionization efficiency of some hydrophilic peptides and, for many peptides, ambiguities in interpretation of the spectra when key sequence ions are weak or absent. Novel and simple procedures for preparing ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivatives of peptides are described. These procedures allow an ethyl-triphenylphosphonium moiety to be selectively attached to either the N- or C-terminus. Modification of peptides by these chemical methods significantly enhances the efficiency of fast atom bombardment ionization. Moreover, upon collisionally activated dissociation, the derivatized peptides generate a predictable series of sequence ions from either the C-terminus or the N-terminus, depending on the location of the ethyl-triphenylphosphonium moiety. The potential utility of the ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivative in structure elucidation is illustrated by a comparison of the mass spectra of underivatized and derivatized peptides containing up to 20 amino acid residues, or contain an N-terminal blocking group, or contain a phosphate group, or contain a disulfide bond, or contain a backbone modification. When protonated peptide molecules and cationized peptide molecules are subjected to high-energy collisionally activated dissociation, skeletal bonds cleave generating sequence-specific fragment ions. These bond cleavages usually involve H-shifts. The utility of selective deuterium labeling was applied here to elucidate fragmentation mechanisms. Skeletal bond cleavages in the ionized peptide H-VGVAPG-OH were investigated, in which the molecule was analyzed in the protonated form, cationized form, or as the charge-localized ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivative.

  6. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Phycobiliproteins of Dulse Palmaria palmata

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Tomoe; Miyabe, Yoshikatsu; Yasui, Hajime; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Kishimura, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the inhibitory activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in protein hydrolysates from dulse, Palmaria palmata. The proteins extracted from dulse were mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE) followed by phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). The dulse proteins showed slight ACE inhibitory activity, whereas the inhibitory activity was extremely enhanced by thermolysin hydrolysis. The ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates was hardly affected by additional pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides (YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, IKGHY, LKNPG, LDY, LRY, FEQDWAS) were isolated from the hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was demonstrated that the synthetic peptide LRY (IC50: 0.044 μmol) has remarkably high ACE inhibitory activity. Then, we investigated the structural properties of dulse phycobiliproteins to discuss the origin of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides. Each dulse phycobiliprotein possesses α-subunit (Mw: 17,477–17,638) and β-subunit (Mw: 17,455–18,407). The sequences of YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, LKNPG and LDY were detected in the primary structure of PE α-subunit, and the LDY also exists in the APC α- and β-subunits. In addition, the LRY sequence was found in the β-subunits of PE, PC and APC. From these results, it was suggested that the dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were derived from phycobiliproteins, especially PE. To make sure the deduction, we carried out additional experiment by using recombinant PE. We expressed the recombinant α- and β-subunits of PE (rPEα and rPEβ, respectively), and then prepared their peptides by thermolysin hydrolysis. As a result, these peptides showed high ACE inhibitory activities (rPEα: 94.4%; rPEβ: 87.0%). Therefore, we concluded that the original proteins of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were phycobiliproteins. PMID:26861357

  7. The possible roles of food-derived bioactive peptides in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Kati; Cheung, Belinda W Y; Schröder, Henning

    2008-10-01

    Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke or myocardial infarction are a significant public health problem worldwide. Attempts to prevent vascular diseases often imply modifications and improvement of causative risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, an unfavorable profile of blood lipids or insulin resistance. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug regimens, there has been increased focus on identifying dietary compounds that may contribute to cardiovascular health in recent years. Food-derived bioactive peptides represent one such source of health-enhancing components. They can be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing from a multitude of plant and animal proteins, especially milk, soy or fish proteins. Biologically active peptides are considered to promote diverse activities, including opiate-like, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive actions. By modulating and improving physiological functions, bioactive peptides may provide new therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. As components of functional foods or nutraceuticals with certain health claims, bioactive peptides are of commercial interest as well. The current review centers on bioactive peptides with properties relevant to cardiovascular health.

  8. Opioid peptides derived from food proteins suppress aggregation and promote reactivation of partly unfolded stressed proteins.

    PubMed

    Artemova, N V; Bumagina, Z M; Kasakov, A S; Shubin, V V; Gurvits, B Ya

    2010-02-01

    A new view of the opioid peptides is presented. The potential of small peptides derived from precursor food proteins, to bind to partly unfolded stressed proteins to prevent their irreversible aggregation and inactivation has been demonstrated in various in vitro test systems: dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of alpha-lactalbumin (LA), heat-induced aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aggregation and inactivation of bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the process of its refolding after removal of stress conditions. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidimetry, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements protective effects of the synthetic opioid peptides: exorphin C from wheat gluten (Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu), rubiscolin-5 from spinach ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu), and hemorphin-6 from bovine hemoglobin (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr-Gln-Arg) have been revealed. We have demonstrated the concentration-dependent suppression of light scattering intensity of aggregates of LA and ADH in the presence of the peptides, the population of nanoparticles with higher hydrodynamic radii being shifted to the lower ones, accompanied by an increase in the lag period of aggregation. The presence of the peptides in the refolding solution was shown to assist reactivation of CA and enhance the yield of the CA soluble protein. The results suggest that bioactive food protein fragments may be regarded as exogenous supplements to the endogenous defense mechanisms of the human organism under stress conditions.

  9. Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Epling, Daniel E; Sophocleous, Andreas M; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds stabilize proteins by cross-linking distant regions into a compact three-dimensional structure. They can also participate in hydrolytic and oxidative pathways to form nonnative disulfide bonds and other reactive species. Such covalent modifications can contribute to protein aggregation. Here, we present experimental data for the mechanism of thiol-disulfide exchange in tryptic peptides derived from human growth hormone in aqueous solution. Reaction kinetics was monitored to investigate the effect of pH (6.0-10.0), temperature (4-50°C), oxidation suppressants [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N2 sparging], and peptide secondary structure (amide cyclized vs. open form). The concentrations of free thiol containing peptides, scrambled disulfides, and native disulfide-linked peptides generated via thiol-disulfide exchange and oxidation reactions were determined using reverse-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration versus time data were fitted to a mathematical model using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. At all pH values, the model was able to fit the data with R(2) ≥ 0.95. Excluding oxidation suppressants (EDTA and N2 sparging) resulted in an increase in the formation of scrambled disulfides via oxidative pathways but did not influence the intrinsic rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. In addition, peptide secondary structure was found to influence the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange.

  10. Targeted separation of antibacterial peptide from protein hydrolysate of anchovy cooking wastewater by equilibrium dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-02-01

    Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) cooking wastewater (ACWW) is a by-product resulted from the production of boiled-dried anchovies in the seafood processing industry. In this study, the protein hydrolysate of ACWW (ACWWPH) was found to have antimicrobial activity after enzymatic hydrolysis with Protamex. For the targeted screening of antibacterial peptides, liposomes constructed from Staphylococcus aureus membrane lipids were used in an equilibrium dialysis system. The hydrolysate was further purified by liposome equilibrium dialysis combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The purified antimicrobial peptide (ACWWP1) was determined to be GLSRLFTALK, with a molecular weight of 1104.6622Da. The peptide exhibited no haemolytic activity up to a concentration of 512μg/ml. It displayed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect in reconstituted milk. The change in cell surface hydrophobicity and membrane-permeable action of the purified ACWWP1 may have contributed to the antibacterial effect. This study suggests that liposome equilibrium dialysis can be used for the targeted screening of antimicrobial peptides.

  11. A novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting residues that bind the substrate peptide.

    PubMed

    Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Parker, Lorien; Yuki, Hitomi; Taruya, Shigenao; Nakagawa, Yukari; Kamei, Daisuke; Mori, Masumi; Ogawa, Naoko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Honma, Teruki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-03-30

    A new screening method using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy was developed to select kinase inhibitors that competitively inhibit the binding of a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide. Using the method, among approximately 700 candidate compounds selected by virtual screening, we identified a novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting its peptide binding residues. X-ray crystal analysis of the complex structure of Pim-1 with the inhibitor indicated that the inhibitor actually binds to the ATP-binding site and also forms direct interactions with residues (Asp128 and Glu171) that bind the substrate peptide. These interactions, which cause small side-chain movements, seem to affect the binding ability of the fluorescently labeled substrate. The compound inhibited Pim-1 kinase in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 150 nM. Treatment of cultured leukemia cells with the compound reduced the amount of p21 and increased the amount of p27, due to Pim-1 inhibition, and then triggered apoptosis after cell-cycle arrest at the G(1)/S phase. This screening method may be widely applicable for the identification of various new Pim-1 kinase inhibitors targeting the residues that bind the substrate peptide.

  12. Avoiding drug resistance through extended drug target interfaces: a case for stapled peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siau Jia; Chee, Sharon; Yurlova, Larisa; Lane, David; Verma, Chandra; Brown, Christopher; Ghadessy, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Cancer drugs often fail due to the emergence of clinical resistance. This can manifest through mutations in target proteins that selectively exclude drug binding whilst retaining aberrant function. A priori knowledge of resistance-inducing mutations is therefore important for both drug design and clinical surveillance. Stapled peptides represent a novel class of antagonists capable of inhibiting therapeutically relevant protein-protein interactions. Here, we address the important question of potential resistance to stapled peptide inhibitors. HDM2 is the critical negative regulator of p53, and is often overexpressed in cancers that retain wild-type p53 function. Interrogation of a large collection of randomly mutated HDM2 proteins failed to identify point mutations that could selectively abrogate binding by a stapled peptide inhibitor (PM2). In contrast, the same interrogation methodology has previously uncovered point mutations that selectively inhibit binding by Nutlin, the prototypical small molecule inhibitor of HDM2. Our results demonstrate both the high level of structural p53 mimicry employed by PM2 to engage HDM2, and the potential resilience of stapled peptide antagonists to mutations in target proteins. This inherent feature could reduce clinical resistance should this class of drugs enter the clinic. PMID:27057630

  13. A novel BK channel-targeted peptide suppresses sound evoked activity in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Scott, L. L.; Brecht, E. J.; Philpo, A.; Iyer, S.; Wu, N. S.; Mihic, S. J.; Aldrich, R. W.; Pierce, J.; Walton, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated (BK) channels are broadly expressed in neurons and muscle where they modulate cellular activity. Decades of research support an interest in pharmaceutical applications for modulating BK channel function. Here we report a novel BK channel-targeted peptide with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. This 9-amino acid peptide, LS3, has a unique action, suppressing channel gating rather than blocking the pore of heterologously expressed human BK channels. With an IC50 in the high picomolar range, the apparent affinity is higher than known high affinity BK channel toxins. LS3 suppresses locomotor activity via a BK channel-specific mechanism in wild-type or BK channel-humanized Caenorhabditis elegans. Topical application on the dural surface of the auditory midbrain in mouse suppresses sound evoked neural activity, similar to a well-characterized pore blocker of the BK channel. Moreover, this novel ion channel-targeted peptide rapidly crosses the BBB after systemic delivery to modulate auditory processing. Thus, a potent BK channel peptide modulator is open to neurological applications, such as preventing audiogenic seizures that originate in the auditory midbrain. PMID:28195225

  14. Mitochondria targeted peptides protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H; Beal, M Flint

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD.

  15. Mitochondria Targeted Peptides Protect Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2095–2104. PMID:19203217

  16. Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide Reverses Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cognitive Deficits in Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Mingqiang; Hao, Shuangying; Jia, Ming; Ji, Muhuo; Qiu, Lili; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and long-term cognitive impairments. Its pathophysiology remains to be determined and an effective pharmacologic treatment is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 on mitochondrial function and cognitive deficits in SAE mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into sham, sham + SS-31, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP + SS-31 groups. Peptide SS-31 (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after operation and afterwards once daily for six consecutive days. Surviving mice were subjected to behavioral tests and the hippocampus was collected for biochemical analysis 7 days after operation. The results showed that CLP resulted in high mortality rate and cognitive deficits, representative characteristics of SAE. A physiological mechanistic investigation revealed that mitochondrial function of hippocampus was severely impaired, coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggering neuronal apoptosis and inflammation. Notably, administration of peptide SS-31 protected the integrity of mitochondria, reversed the mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibited the apoptosis resulting from the release of cytochrome c, diminished the response of inflammation, and ultimately reversed the behavior deficits in the SAE mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that daily treatment with mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 reduces mortality rate and ameliorates cognitive deficits, which is possibly through a mechanism of reversing mitochondrial dysfunction and partial inhibition of neuronal apoptosis and inflammation in the hippocampus of the SAE mice.

  17. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity.

  18. Comparison of patient-derived high and low phosphatidylserine-exposing colorectal carcinoma cells in their interaction with anti-cancer peptides.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Dominik; Andrä, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Current cancer treatment is frequently compromised by severe adverse effects on healthy cells and tissues as well as by the increasing burden of (multi-)drug resistances. Some representatives of small, amphipathic peptides known as host defense peptides possess the potential to overcome these limitations and to evolve as future anti-cancer therapeutics. Peptide NK-2, derived from porcine NK-lysin, was originally discovered due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Today, also potent anti-cancer activity is proven and accompanied by low toxicity towards normal human cells. The molecular basis underlying this target selectivity remains rather elusive. Nevertheless, it is presumptive that preferential peptide interactions with surface factors non-abundant on healthy human cells play a key role. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of peptide NK-2 and structurally improved anti-cancer variants thereof against two patient-derived colorectal cancer cell lines, exposing high and low levels of phosphatidylserine on their cell surfaces, respectively. Concluding from a range of in vitro tests involving cellular as well as lipid vesicle-based methods, it is proposed that the magnitude of the accessible membrane surface charge is not a primarily decisive factor for selective peptide interactions. Instead, it is suggested that the level of membrane surface-exposed phosphatidylserine is of crucial importance for the activity of peptide NK-2 and enhanced variants thereof in terms of their cancer cell selectivity, the overall efficacy, as well as the underlying mode of action and kinetics. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of a New Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative Kn2-7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoqing; Cao, Luyang; Zhong, Maohua; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chen; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Jingyi; Zhou, Dihan; Shi, Wei; He, Benxia; Liu, Fang; Yu, Jie; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yaoming; Li, Wenxin; Guo, Deying; Cao, Zhijian; Yan, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1). In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM) and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI) of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV) with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1. PMID:22536342

  20. RGD peptide-modified multifunctional dendrimer platform for drug encapsulation and targeted inhibition of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xuedan; Alves, Carla S; Oliveira, Nilsa; Rodrigues, João; Zhu, Jingyi; Bányai, István; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Development of multifunctional nanoscale drug-delivery systems for targeted cancer therapy still remains a great challenge. Here, we report the synthesis of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-conjugated generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers for anticancer drug encapsulation and targeted therapy of cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrins. In this study, amine-terminated G5 dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) via a thiourea linkage and RGD peptide via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The developed multifunctional dendrimer platform (G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD) was then used to encapsulate an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that approximately six DOX molecules are able to be encapsulated within each dendrimer platform. The formed complexes are water-soluble, stable, and able to release DOX in a sustained manner. One- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were applied to investigate the interaction between dendrimers and DOX, and the impact of the environmental pH on the release rate of DOX from the dendrimer/DOX complexes was also explored. Furthermore, cell biological studies demonstrate that the encapsulation of DOX within the G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD dendrimers does not compromise the anticancer activity of DOX and that the therapeutic efficacy of the dendrimer/DOX complexes is solely related to the encapsulated DOX drug. Importantly, thanks to the role played by RGD-mediated targeting, the developed dendrimer/drug complexes are able to specifically target αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells and display specific therapeutic efficacy to the target cells. The developed RGD peptide-targeted multifunctional dendrimers may thus be used as a versatile platform for targeted therapy of different types of αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells.

  1. Peptides derived from CXCL8 based on in silico analysis inhibit CXCL8 interactions with its receptor CXCR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Chun-Chun; Chung, Yi; Lin, Lee-Fong; Hsu, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Chemokine CXCL8 is crucial for regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via activating its cognate receptor CXCR1. In this study, molecular docking and binding free energy calculations were combined to predict the initial binding event of CXCL8 to CXCR1 for peptide drug design. The simulations reveal that in the initial binding, the N-loop of CXCL8 interacts with the N-terminus of CXCR1, which is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The derived peptides from the binding region of CXCL8 are synthesized for further confirmation. Surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that the CXCL8 derived peptide with 14 residues is able to bind to the receptor CXCR1 derived peptide with equilibrium KD of 252 μM while the peptide encompassing a CXCL8 K15A mutation hardly binds to CXCR1 derived peptide (KD = 1553 μM). The cell experiments show that the designed peptide inhibits CXCL8-induced and LPS-activated monocytes adhesion and transmigration. However, when the peptides were mutated on two lysine residues (K15 and K20), the inhibition effects were greatly reduced indicating these two amino acids are key residues for the initial binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. This study demonstrates that in silico prediction based functional peptide design can be effective for developing anti-inflammation drugs.

  2. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries. PMID:27351915

  3. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  4. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cromm, Philipp M.; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N.; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets. PMID:27075966

  5. Rational derivation of CETP self-binding helical peptides by π-π stacking and halogen bonding: Therapeutic implication for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Lu, Meijuan; Zhu, Lixia

    2016-10-01

    The human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfers cholesteryl ester from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to other lipoproteins and has been established as an attractive target for reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Here, an amphipathic α-helix peptide, namely SBH-peptide ((465)EHLLVDFLQSLS(476)), was derived from the C-terminal tail of CETP. The peptide exhibits self-binding capability towards the CETP. Crystal structure analysis, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and ab initio electron correlation characterizations of CETP-SBH-peptide complex system revealed that the Phe471 residue plays a key role in SBH-peptide binding, which can form a π-π stacking with the Phe197 residue of CETP. In addition, substitution of the hydrogen atom H4 of Phe471 with halogen atoms, in particular the bromine atom Br4, can constitute a geometrically satisfactory halogen bonding with the oxygen atom O of CETP Ile193 residue. Fluorescence polarization assays substantiated that (i) mutation of the aromatic Phe471 to small Ala residue would impair the SBH-peptide affinity with Kd change from 10.5 to 26.4μM, indicating that the π-π stacking should exist in Phe471⋯Phe197 adduct, and (ii) substitution with Br4 can considerably improve SBH-peptide affinity by ∼3-fold, but the SBH-peptide binding does not change essentially upon substitution with Br3 (a negative control that is theoretically unable to form the halogen bonding), indicating that the rationally designed halogen bonding should form between the Phe471(Br4) residue of SBH-peptide and the Ile193 residue of CETP protein.

  6. Targeted delivery of peptide-conjugated biocompatible gold nanoparticles into cancer cell nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Curry, Taeyjuana; Che, Yong; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-02-01

    Nucleus remains a significant target for nanoparticles with diagnostic and therapeutic applications because both genetic information of the cell and transcription machinery reside there. Novel therapeutic strategies (for example, gene therapy), enabled by safe and efficient delivery of nanoparticles and drug molecules into the nucleus, are heralded by many as the ultimate treatment for severe and intractable diseases. However, most nanomaterials and macromolecules are incapable of reaching the cell nucleus on their own, because of biological barriers carefully honed by evolution including cellular membrane and nuclear envelope. In this paper, we have demonstrated an approach of fabrication of biocompatible gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based vehicles which can entering into cancer cell nucleus by modifying Au NPs with both PEG 5000 and two different peptides (RGD and nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide). The Au NPs used were fabricated via femtosecond laser ablation of Au bulk target in deionized water. The Au NPs produced by this method provide chemical free, virgin surface, which allows us to carry out "Sequential Conjugation" to modify their surface with PEG 5000, RGD, and NLS. "Sequential Conjugation" described in this presentation is very critical for the fabrication of Au NP-based vehicles capable of entering into cancer cell nucleus as it enables the engineering and tuning surface chemistries of Au NPs by independently adjusting amounts of PEG and peptides bound onto surface of Au NPs so as to maximize their nuclear targeting performance and biocompatibility regarding the cell line of interest. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to confirm the in vitro targeted nuclear delivery of peptide-conjugated biocompatible Au NPs by showing their presence in the cancer cell nucleus.

  7. Interaction of PiB-derivative metal complexes with beta-amyloid peptides: selective recognition of the aggregated forms.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Dias, David M; Morfin, Jean-François; Lacerda, Sara; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2015-03-27

    Metal complexes are increasingly explored as imaging probes in amyloid peptide related pathologies. We report the first detailed study on the mechanism of interaction between a metal complex and both the monomer and the aggregated form of Aβ1-40 peptide. We have studied lanthanide(III) chelates of two PiB-derivative ligands (PiB=Pittsburgh compound B), L(1) and L(2), differing in the length of the spacer between the metal-complexing DO3A macrocycle (DO3A=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) and the peptide-recognition PiB moiety. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy revealed that they both bind to aggregated Aβ1-40 (KD =67-160 μM), primarily through the benzothiazole unit. HSQC NMR spectroscopy on the (15) N-labeled, monomer Aβ1-40 peptide indicates nonsignificant interaction with monomeric Aβ. Time-dependent circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM investigations of the secondary structure and of the aggregation of Aβ1-40 in the presence of increasing amounts of the metal complexes provide coherent data showing that, despite their structural similarity, the two complexes affect Aβ fibril formation distinctly. Whereas GdL(1), at higher concentrations, stabilizes β-sheets, GdL(2) prevents aggregation by promoting α-helical structures. These results give insight into the behavior of amyloid-targeted metal complexes in general and contribute to a more rational design of metal-based diagnostic and therapeutic agents for amyloid- associated pathologies.

  8. Maintaining the Phenotype Stability of Chondrocytes Derived from MSCs by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Jie; Xu, Juan; Guo, Ximin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation. Besides, based on its biological effects on protection of extracellular matrix of cartilage and inhibition of mineralization, we hypothesize that CNP may contribute to the stability of chondrocyte phenotype of MSCs-derived chondrocytes. PMID:28337152

  9. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activitiesin vitroand/orin vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activitiesin vitro The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide. We evaluated the contribution of each residue to the peptide self-assembling capability by circular-dichroism spectroscopy. The interaction of the N10K peptide and its derivatives withCandida albicanscells was studied by confocal, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis and autophagy induction profiles in yeast cells treated with the peptides were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the therapeutic efficacy against candidal infection was studied in aGalleria mellonellamodel. Overall, the results indicate a critical role for some residues in the self-assembly process and a correlation of that capability with the candidacidal activities of the peptidesin vitroand their therapeutic effectsin vivo.

  10. Selecting Optimal Peptides for Targeted Proteomic Experiments in Human Plasma Using In Vitro Synthesized Proteins as Analytical Standards.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, James G; Stergachis, Andrew B; Johnson, Richard S; Egertson, Jarrett D; MacCoss, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In targeted proteomics, the development of robust methodologies is dependent upon the selection of a set of optimal peptides for each protein-of-interest. Unfortunately, predicting which peptides and respective product ion transitions provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio in a particular assay matrix is complicated. Using in vitro synthesized proteins as analytical standards, we report here an empirically driven method for the selection of said peptides in a human plasma assay matrix.

  11. Phthalocyanine-Peptide Conjugates for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeting1

    PubMed Central

    Ongarora, Benson G.; Fontenot, Krystal R.; Hu, Xiaoke; Sehgal, Inder; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama D.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalocyanine (Pc)-peptide conjugates designed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro using four cell lines: human carcinoma A431 and HEp2, human colorectal HT-29, and kidney Vero (negative control) cells. Two peptide ligands for EGFR were investigated: EGFR-L1 and -L2, bearing 6 and 13 amino acid residues, respectively. The peptides and Pc-conjugates were shown to bind to EGFR using both theoretical (Autodock) and experimental (SPR) investigations. The Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates 5a and 5b efficiently targeted EGFR and were internalized, in part due to their cationic charge, whereas the uncharged Pc-EGFR-L2 conjugates 4b and 6a poorly targeted EGFR maybe due to their low aqueous solubility. All conjugates were non-toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) to HT-29 cells, both in the dark and upon light activation (1 J/cm2). Intravenous (iv) administration of conjugate 5b into nude mice bearing A431 and HT-29 human tumor xenografts resulted in a near-IR fluorescence signal at ca. 700 nm, 24 h after administration. Our studies show that Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates are promising near-IR fluorescent contrast agents for CRC, and potentially other EGFR over-expressing cancers. PMID:22468711

  12. Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived From the Envelope Glycoprotein Gene Sequence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-29

    AD-A261 707 AD____ ARMY PROJECT ORDER NO: 89PP9961 TITLE: ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ENHANCING EPITOPES USING PEPTIDE ANTIGENS DERIVED FROM THE...DATES COVERED 29 Nov 91 Final Report (9/1/89 - 11/30/91) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ana ysis or Dengue Vnrus nancing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Epitopes Using...biological events leading to the development of severe disease manifestations of dengue infections ( dengue hemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome

  13. Dual-targeting hybrid peptide-conjugated doxorubicin for drug resistance reversal in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuan; You, Yiwen; Chen, Yun

    2016-10-15

    The extended use of doxorubicin (DOX) could be limited due to the emergence of drug resistance associated with its treatment. In addition to the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), other mechanisms including apoptosis evasion and tumor cell survival may also be important contributor to drug resistance. Within this context, targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), one of the principle protein molecules in cell apoptosis has emerged as an attractive therapeutic concept. In this study, a dual-targeting hybrid peptide HAIYPRHGGCGMPKKKPTPIQLNP (T10-ERK), which is composed of ERK peptide inhibitor MPKKKPTPIQLNP, a thiol spacer (i.e., GGCG) and transferrin receptor (TfR)-binding peptide HAIYPRH, was designed. Then, this thiol-modified hybrid peptide was conjugated to DOXO-EMCH (6-maleimidocaproyl) hydrazone of DOX), forming a novel peptide-DOX conjugate T10-ERK-DOX. The structure and properties of this conjugate were characterized using (1)H NMR, mass spectrometry and HPLC. Using MCF-7/ADR cells as an in vitro model system and nude mice bearing MCF-7/ADR xenografts as an in vivo model, the ability of T10-ERK-DOX to reverse drug resistance was accessed as compared with free DOX and T10-DOX. As a result, T10-ERK-DOX demonstrated a much lower in vitro IC50 (20.8±1.1μM) and its in vivo extent of inhibition in mice was more evident (72.2±4.6%). Induction of various apoptosis pathways was also observed. Furthermore, the potency of ERK peptide inhibitor to reverse drug resistance was individually assessed, given the pronounced efficacy of T10-DOX indicated by our previous work. The results provided evidence of its additive effect with T10-DOX, which leads to greater efficacy and less susceptibility to drug resistance. Finally, the success of multi-targeting strategy in the present study implied that multi-target drugs with rational design could be more promising in cancer therapy.

  14. Mechanisms of cell penetration and cytotoxicity of ultrasmall Au nanoparticles conjugated to doxorubicin and/or targeting peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jay; Poon, Wilson; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-03-01

    The goals of this work were to determine whether conjugation of any of four selected peptides to Au nanoparticles improved their delivery to B16 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro cytotoxicity assays, peptides and conjugates were endocytosed but did not escape from endosomes. None of the peptides showed any cytotoxicity, with or without conjugation to the nanoparticles. The combination of peptides and doxorubicin did not improve upon the cytotoxicity of gold-doxorubicin alone. We then tested targeting in vivo using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify the concentration of Au in the organs of B16 tumor-bearing mice 4, 24, and 72 h after intravenous Au nanoparticle injection. These experiments showed that in some cases, peptide conjugation improved upon the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. A peptide based upon the myxoma virus and the cyclic RGD peptide were both effective at tumor targeting; myxoma was more effective with un-PEGylated particles, and cRGD with PEGylated particles. The FREG and melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) peptides did not improve targeting. These results suggest that these peptides may improve delivery of Au particles to tumors, but also may prevent entry of particles into cell nuclei.

  15. Disruption of Rhodopsin Dimerization with Synthetic Peptides Targeting an Interaction Interface.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Beata; Chen, Yuanyuan; Orban, Tivadar; Jin, Hui; Hofmann, Lukas; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-10-16

    Although homo- and heterodimerizations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well documented, GPCR monomers are able to assemble in different ways, thus causing variations in the interactive interface between receptor monomers among different GPCRs. Moreover, the functional consequences of this phenomenon, which remain to be clarified, could be specific for different GPCRs. Synthetic peptides derived from transmembrane (TM) domains can interact with a full-length GPCR, blocking dimer formation and affecting its function. Here we used peptides corresponding to TM helices of bovine rhodopsin (Rho) to investigate the Rho dimer interface and functional consequences of its disruption. Incubation of Rho with TM1, TM2, TM4, and TM5 peptides in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes shifted the resulting detergent-solubilized protein migration through a gel filtration column toward smaller molecular masses with a reduced propensity for dimer formation in a cross-linking reaction. Binding of these TM peptides to Rho was characterized by both mass spectrometry and a label-free assay from which dissociation constants were calculated. A BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assay revealed that the physical interaction between Rho molecules expressed in membranes of living cells was blocked by the same four TM peptides identified in our in vitro experiments. Although disruption of the Rho dimer/oligomer had no effect on the rates of G protein activation, binding of Gt to the activated receptor stabilized the dimer. However, TM peptide-induced disruption of dimer/oligomer decreased receptor stability, suggesting that Rho supramolecular organization could be essential for ROS stabilization and receptor trafficking.

  16. Considerations for the process development of insect-derived antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hagen; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could evolve into new therapeutic lead molecules against multi-resistant bacteria. As insects are a rich source of AMP, the identification and characterization of insect-derived AMPs is particularly emphasized. One challenge of bringing these molecules into market, e.g., as a drug, is to develop a cost-efficient large-scale production process. Due to the fact that a direct AMP isolation from insects is not economical and that chemical synthesis is recommended for peptide sizes below 40 amino acids, a viable option is heterologous AMP production. Therefore, previous knowledge concerning the expression of larger proteins can be adapted, but due to the AMP nature (e.g., small size, bactericide) additional challenges have to be faced during up and downstream processing. Nonetheless the bottleneck for large-scale AMP production is the same as for proteins; mainly the downstream process. This review introduces opportunities for insect-derived AMP production, like the choice of the expression system (based on previously derived data), depending on the AMP nature, as well as new purification strategies like elastin-like peptide/intein based purification strategies. All of these aspects are discussed with regard to large-scale processes and costs.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense.

  18. An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II.

    PubMed

    Hasper, Hester E; Kramer, Naomi E; Smith, James L; Hillman, J D; Zachariah, Cherian; Kuipers, Oscar P; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2006-09-15

    Lantibiotics are polycyclic peptides containing unusual amino acids, which have binding specificity for bacterial cells, targeting the bacterial cell wall component lipid II to form pores and thereby lyse the cells. Yet several members of these lipid II-targeted lantibiotics are too short to be able to span the lipid bilayer and cannot form pores, but somehow they maintain their antibacterial efficacy. We describe an alternative mechanism by which members of the lantibiotic family kill Gram-positive bacteria by removing lipid II from the cell division site (or septum) and thus block cell wall synthesis.

  19. Peptides derived from cardiovascular G-protein-coupled receptors induce morphological cardiomyopathic changes in immunized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S; Fu, M L; Katsuda, S; Hayase, M; Yamaguchi, N; Teraoka, K; Kurihara, T; Takekoshi, N; Murakami, E; Hoebeke, J; Hjalmarson, A

    1997-02-01

    An experimental model of early-stage cardiomyopathy was created by immunizing rabbits for 1 year with synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of either beta-adrenoceptors or M2-muscarinic receptors. Thirty male rabbits were used and divided into three groups: a control group (n = 10), a group immunized with the peptide corresponding to the beta-adrenoceptor (beta 1 group) (n = 10) and a group immunized with the peptide corresponding to the M2-muscarinic receptor (M2 group) (n = 10). If the sera from both groups of immunized rabbits high-titres of anti-peptide antibodies were found throughout the study period but not in the sera from control rabbits or in the preimmune sera of immunized rabbits. No significant cross-reaction with peptides other than those used for immunization was found. The myocardial receptor density of both immunized groups displayed a strong trend toward receptor up-regulation. This was significant in the beta 1 group but not in the M2 group. Both groups of immunized rabbits displayed significantly enlarged ventricles and thinner walls, as compared with the control group. However, in contrast to the beta 1 group, which showed enlarged cavities in both left and right ventricles, the M2 group was mainly affected in the right ventricles. Moreover, morphological examinations of the hearts of rabbits from both immunized groups demonstrated focal myofibrillar lysis, loss of myofilament, mitochondrial swelling and condensation, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, deposition of dense granules in the sarcoplasm and the myofibrils. One of the sex control rabbit hearts which were examined showed mild degenerative changes in the myocardium and scant mononuclear cell infiltration. However, when all the control rabbit hearts were examined by electron microscopy, no significant alterations were found. These results suggest that immunization by peptides, corresponding to the target sequences for anti-receptor autoantibodies in

  20. Myeloid-derived cells are key targets of tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Aranda, Fernando; Berraondo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations recruited by cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. Among cells comprising the tumor stroma, myeloid-derived cells play pleiotropic roles in supporting tumorigenesis at distinct stages of tumor development. The tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell contingent is composed of mast cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Such cells are capable of evading the hostile tumor environment typically prone to immune cell destruction and can even promote angiogenesis, chronic inflammation, and invasion. This paper briefly summarizes the different myeloid-derived subsets that promote tumor development and the strategies that have been used to counteract the protumorigenic activity of these cells. These strategies include myeloid cell depletion, reduction of recruitment, and inactivation or remodeling of cell phenotype. Combining drugs designed to target tumor myeloid cells with immunotherapies that effectively trigger antitumor adaptive immune responses holds great promise in the development of novel cancer treatments. PMID:25050208

  1. Hydrolysis of milk-derived bioactive peptides by cell-associated extracellular peptidases of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Zeeshan; Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Julien; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie; Miclo, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The trend to confer new functional properties to fermented dairy products by supplementation with bioactive peptides is growing in order to encounter the challenge of health-promoting foods. But these functional ingredients have not to be hydrolysed by proteases of bacteria used in the manufacture of these products. One of the two yoghurt bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus, has long been considered as weakly proteolytic since its only cell wall-associated subtilisin-like protease, called PrtS, is not always present. Nevertheless, a recent study pointed out a possible peptidase activity in certain strains. In this present study, the stability of milk-derived bioactive peptides, e.g. the anxiolytic peptide, αs1-CN-(f91-97), in the presence of two different S. thermophilus strains with PrtS+ or PrtS− phenotype was studied. Both strains appeared to be capable of hydrolysing the αs1-CN-(f91-97) and other bioactive peptides by recurrent removal of N-terminal residues. The hydrolysis was neither due to intracellular peptidases nor to HtrA protease. Results obtained showed that the observed activity originates from the presence at the surface of both strains of an extracellular aminopeptidase activity. Moreover, a cell wall-associated X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity was also highlighted when β-casomorphin-7 was used as substrate. All of these findings suggest that, in order to use fermented milks as vector of bioactive peptides, the stability of these bioactive peptides in this kind of products implies to carefully characterize the potential action of the surface proteolytic enzymes of S. thermophilus.

  2. Small Retinoprotective Peptides Reveal a Receptor-binding Region on Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Kenealey, Jason; Subramanian, Preeti; Comitato, Antonella; Bullock, Jeanee; Keehan, Laura; Polato, Federica; Hoover, David; Marigo, Valeria; Becerra, S. Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) require interactions between an as of a yet undefined region with a distinct ectodomain on the PEDF receptor (PEDF-R). Here we characterized the area in PEDF that interacts with PEDF-R to promote photoreceptor survival. Molecular docking studies suggested that the ligand binding site of PEDF-R interacts with the neurotrophic region of PEDF (44-mer, positions 78–121). Binding assays demonstrated that PEDF-R bound the 44-mer peptide. Moreover, peptide P1 from the PEDF-R ectodomain had affinity for the 44-mer and a shorter fragment within it, 17-mer (positions 98–114). Single residue substitutions to alanine along the 17-mer sequence were designed and tested for binding and biological activity. Altered 17-mer[R99A] did not bind to the P1 peptide, whereas 17-mer[H105A] had higher affinity than the unmodified 17-mer. Peptides 17-mer, 17-mer[H105A], and 44-mer exhibited cytoprotective effects in cultured retina R28 cells. Intravitreal injections of these peptides and PEDF in the rd1 mouse model of retinal degeneration decreased the numbers of dying photoreceptors, 17-mer[H105A] being most effective. The blocking peptide P1 hindered their protective effects both in retina cells and in vivo. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that the region composed of positions 98–114 of PEDF contains critical residues for PEDF-R interaction that mediates survival effects, the findings reveal distinct small PEDF fragments with neurotrophic effects on photoreceptors. PMID:26304116

  3. The potential use of rabies virus glycoprotein-derived peptides to facilitate drug delivery into the central nervous system: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Huey, Rachel; Hawthorne, Susan

    2016-08-31

    Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), a 505 amino acid type-1 glycoprotein, is responsible for the neurotrophic nature of the rabies virus infection. Despite varying reports in the literature as to which receptor is ultimately responsible for interaction of RVG with the nervous system, there is a strong argument for major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) involvement. Peptide derivatives of RVG, such as rabies virus-derived peptide (RDP) and RVG-29 are emerging as promising targeting ligands for the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotrophic nature of RVG and indeed its derivatives may be due to interaction with ubiquitous nAChRs principally, but also association with other neural cell-specific molecules such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). It is possible that nAChR-mediated uptake of RVG-derived peptides may serve as an attractive new approach for targeting drug delivery to the brain. Potential application of this type of drug delivery system extends to many diseases affecting the CNS, where specific and effective drug delivery is normally a challenging process.

  4. A mastoparan-derived peptide has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Christopher J.; Hudak, Kathryn E.; Barefoot, Brice E.; Koci, Matthew D.; Wanyonyi, Moses S.; Abraham, Soman; Staats, Herman F.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to treat individuals infected with new and re-emerging viruses, or with viruses that have developed resistance to antiviral therapies. Mammalian natural host defense peptides (mNHP) are short, usually cationic, peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity, and which in some instances activate cell-mediated antiviral immune responses. Although mNHP have potent activity in vitro, efficacy trials in vivo of exogenously provided mNHP have been largely disappointing, and no mNHP are currently licensed for human use. Mastoparan is an invertebrate host defense peptide that penetrates lipid bilayers, and we reasoned that a mastoparan analog might interact with the lipid component of virus membranes and thereby reduce infectivity of enveloped viruses. Our objective was to determine whether mastoparan-derived peptide MP7-NH2 could inactivate viruses of multiple types, and whether it could stimulate cell-mediated antiviral activity. We found that MP7-NH2 potently inactivated a range of enveloped viruses. Consistent with our proposed mechanism of action, MP7-NH2 was not efficacious against a non-enveloped virus. Pre-treatment of cells with MP7-NH2 did not reduce the amount of virus recovered after infection, which suggested that the primary mechanism of action in vitro was direct inactivation of virus by MP7-NH2. These results demonstrate for the first time that a mastoparan derivative has broad-spectrum antiviral activity in vitro and suggest that further investigation of the antiviral properties of mastoparan peptides in vivo is warranted. PMID:23891650

  5. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA by Peptide-Targeted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Carlee E.; Carnes, Eric C.; Epler, Katharine E.; Padilla, David P.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Castillo, Robert E.; Wilkinson, Dan C.; Wilkinson, Brian S.; Burgard, Cameron A.; Sewell, Robin M.; Townson, Jason L.; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is severely limited by the availability of delivery platforms that protect siRNA from degradation, deliver it to the target cell with high specificity and efficiency, and promote its endosomal escape and cytosolic dispersion. Here we report that mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (or ‘protocells’), exhibit multiple properties that overcome many of the limitations of existing delivery platforms. Protocells have a 10- to 100-fold greater capacity for siRNA than corresponding lipid nanoparticles and are markedly more stable when incubated under physiological conditions. Protocells loaded with a cocktail of siRNAs bind to cells in a manner dependent on the presence of an appropriate targeting peptide and, through an endocytic pathway followed by endosomal disruption, promote delivery of the silencing nucleotides to the cytoplasm. The expression of each of the genes targeted by the siRNAs was shown to be repressed at the protein level, resulting in a potent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. Incubation of control cells that lack expression of the antigen recognized by the targeting peptide with siRNA-loaded protocells induced neither repression of protein expression nor apoptosis, indicating the precise specificity of cytotoxic activity. In terms of loading capacity, targeting capabilities, and potency of action, protocells provide unique attributes as a delivery platform for therapeutic oligonucleotides. PMID:22309035

  6. Delivery of small interfering RNA by peptide-targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Carlee E; Carnes, Eric C; Epler, Katharine E; Padilla, David P; Phillips, Genevieve K; Castillo, Robert E; Wilkinson, Dan C; Wilkinson, Brian S; Burgard, Cameron A; Kalinich, Robin M; Townson, Jason L; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2012-03-27

    The therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is severely limited by the availability of delivery platforms that protect siRNA from degradation, deliver it to the target cell with high specificity and efficiency, and promote its endosomal escape and cytosolic dispersion. Here we report that mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (or "protocells") exhibit multiple properties that overcome many of the limitations of existing delivery platforms. Protocells have a 10- to 100-fold greater capacity for siRNA than corresponding lipid nanoparticles and are markedly more stable when incubated under physiological conditions. Protocells loaded with a cocktail of siRNAs bind to cells in a manner dependent on the presence of an appropriate targeting peptide and, through an endocytic pathway followed by endosomal disruption, promote delivery of the silencing nucleotides to the cytoplasm. The expression of each of the genes targeted by the siRNAs was shown to be repressed at the protein level, resulting in a potent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. Incubation of control cells that lack expression of the antigen recognized by the targeting peptide with siRNA-loaded protocells induced neither repression of protein expression nor apoptosis, indicating the precise specificity of cytotoxic activity. In terms of loading capacity, targeting capabilities, and potency of action, protocells provide unique attributes as a delivery platform for therapeutic oligonucleotides.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Small Inhibitory Peptide That Can Target DNA-PKcs Autophosphorylation and Increase Tumor Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xiaonan; Yang Chunying; Liu Hai; Wang Qi; Wu Shixiu; Li Xia; Xie Tian; Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Teh, Bin S.; Butler, E. Brian; Xu Bo; Zheng, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is one of the critical elements involved in the DNA damage repair process. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR); therefore, this approach has been explored to develop molecular targeted radiosensitizers. Here, we aimed to develop small inhibitory peptides that could specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a critical step for the enzymatic activation of the kinase in response to IR. Methods and Materials: We generated several small fusion peptides consisting of 2 functional domains, 1 an internalization domain and the other a DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation inhibitory domain. We characterized the internalization, toxicity, and radiosensitization activities of the fusion peptides. Furthermore, we studied the mechanisms of the inhibitory peptides on DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and DNA repair. Results: We found that among several peptides, the biotin-labeled peptide 3 (BTW3) peptide, which targets DNA-PKcs threonine 2647 autophosphorylation, can abrogate IR-induced DNA-PKcs activation and cause prolonged {gamma}-H2AX focus formation. We demonstrated that BTW3 exposure led to hypersensitivity to IR in DNA-PKcs-proficient cells but not in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Conclusions: The small inhibitory peptide BTW3 can specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and enhance radiosensitivity; therefore, it can be further developed as a novel class of radiosensitizer.

  8. A muscle-targeting peptide displayed on AAV2 improves muscle tropism on systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-Y; Yuan, Z; Cao, Z; Wang, B; Qiao, C; Li, J; Xiao, X

    2009-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become a leading gene transfer vector for striated muscles. However, the AAV vectors also exhibit broad tropisms after systemic delivery. In an attempt to improve muscle tropism, we inserted a 7-amino-acid (ASSLNIA) muscle-targeting peptide (MTP) in the capsids of AAV2 at residue 587 or 588, generating AAV(587)MTP and AAV(588)MTP. In vitro studies showed that both viruses diminished their infectivity on non-muscle cell lines as well as on un-differentiated myoblasts; however, preserved or enhanced their infectivity on differentiated myotubes. AAV(587)MTP, but not AAV(588)MTP, also abolished its heparin-binding capacity and infected myotubes in a heparin-independent manner. Furthermore, in vivo studies by intravenous vector administration in mice showed that AAV(587)MTP enhanced its tropism to various muscles and particularly to the heart (24.3-fold of unmodified AAV2), whereas reduced its tropism to the non-muscle tissues such as the liver, lungs, spleen and so on. This alteration of tissue tropism is not simply because of the loss of heparin-binding, as a mutant AAV2 (AAVHBSMut) containing heparin-binding site mutations lost infectivity on both non-muscle and muscle cells. Furthermore, free MTP peptide, but not the scrambled control peptide, competitively inhibited AAV(587)MTP infection on myotubes. These results suggest that AAV2 could be re-targeted to the striated muscles by a MTP inserted after residue 587 of the capsids. This proof of principle study showed first evidence of peptide-directed muscle targeting on systemic administration of AAV vectors.

  9. Peptide-Like Molecules (PLMs): A Journey from Peptide Bond Isosteres to Gramicidin S Mimetics and Mitochondrial Targeting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wipf, Peter; Xiao, Jingbo; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are natural ligands and substrates for receptors and enzymes and exhibit broad physiological effects. However, their use as therapeutic agents often suffers from poor bioavailability and insufficient membrane permeability. The success of peptide mimicry hinges on the ability of bioisosteres, in particular peptide bond replacements, to adopt suitable secondary structures relevant to peptide strands and position functional groups in equivalent space. This perspective highlights past and ongoing studies in our group that involve new methods development as well as specific synthetic library preparations and applications in chemical biology, with the goal to enhance the use of alkene and cyclopropane peptide bond isosteres. PMID:20725595

  10. Identification and analysis of insulin like peptides in nematode secretomes provide targets for parasite control

    PubMed Central

    Gahoi, Shachi; Gautam, Budhayash

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like (ins) peptides play an important role in development and metabolism across the metazoa. In nematodes, these are also required for dauer formation and longevity and are expressed in different types of neurons across various life stages which demonstrate their role in parasites and could become possible targets for parasite control. To date, many nematode genomes are publically available. However, a systematic screening of ins peptides across different nematode group has not been reported. In the present study, we systematically identified ins peptides in the secretomes of 73 nematodes with fully sequenced genomes covering five different groups viz. plant parasitic, animal parasitic, human parasitic, entomopathogenic and free living nematodes. From the total of 93,949 secretory proteins, 176 proteins were uniquely mapped to 40 identified C. elegans ins families. The obtained result showed that 74.15% of the identified ins proteins were represented in free living nematodes only and remaining 25.84% were combinedly identified in all other nematode groups. The ins-1, ins-17 and ins-18 were the only ins families which were detected in all the studied nematode groups. Out of 176 proteins, 96 of ins proteins were predicted as hydrophilic in nature and 39 proteins were found stable using ProtParam analysis. Our study provides insight into the distribution of ins peptides across different group of nematodes and this information could be useful for further experimental study. PMID:28356679

  11. Structure and Activity of Human Mitochondrial Peptide Deformylase, a Novel Cancer Target

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar-Alvarez, Sindy; Goldgur, Yehuda; Yang, Guangli; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Li, Yueming; Scheinberg, David A.

    2009-07-21

    Peptide deformylase proteins (PDFs) participate in the N-terminal methionine excision pathway of newly synthesized peptides. We show that the human PDF (HsPDF) can deformylate its putative substrates derived from mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins. The first structural model of a mammalian PDF (1.7 A), HsPDF, shows a dimer with conserved topology of the catalytic residues and fold as non-mammalian PDFs. The HsPDF C-terminus topology and the presence of a helical loop (H2 and H3), however, shape a characteristic active site entrance. The structure of HsPDF bound to the peptidomimetic inhibitor actinonin (1.7 A) identified the substrate-binding site. A defined S1' pocket, but no S2' or S3' substrate-binding pockets, exists. A conservation of PDF-actinonin interaction across PDFs was observed. Despite the lack of true S2' and S3' binding pockets, confirmed through peptide binding modeling, enzyme kinetics suggest a combined contribution from P2'and P3' positions of a formylated peptide substrate to turnover.

  12. Screening of integrin-binding peptides in a laminin peptide library derived from the mouse laminin β chain short arm regions.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Takagi, Masaharu; Nakamura, Minako; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-05-15

    Laminins, major components of basement membrane, consist of three different subunits, α, β, and γ chains, and so far, five α, three β, and three γ chains have been identified. We have constructed synthetic peptide libraries derived from the laminin sequences and identified various cell-adhesive peptides. Ten active peptides from the laminin α chain sequences (α1-α5) were found to promote integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Previously, we found fourteen cell-adhesive peptides from the β1 chain sequence but their receptors have not been analyzed. Here, we expanded the synthetic peptide library to add peptides from the short arm regions of the laminin β2 and β3 chains and screened for integrin-binding peptides. Twenty-seven peptides promoted human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment in a peptide-coated plate assay. The morphological appearance of HDFs on the peptide-coated plates differed depending on the peptides. B34 (REKYYYAVYDMV, mouse laminin β1 chain, 255-266), B67 (IPYSMEYEILIRY, mouse laminin β1 chain, 604-616), B2-105 (APNFWNFTSGRG, mouse laminin β2 chain, 1081-1092), and B3-19 (GHLTGGKVQLNL, mouse laminin β3 chain, 182-193) promoted HDF spreading and HDF attachment was inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that the peptides interact with integrins. Immunostaining analyses revealed that B67 induced well-organized actin stress fibers and focal contacts containing vinculin, however, B34, B2-105, and B3-19 did not exhibit stress fiber formation or focal contacts. The inhibition assay using anti-integrin antibodies indicated that B67 interacts with α3, α6, and β1 integrins, and B34 and B3-19 interact with β1 integrin. Based on adhesion analysis of peptides modified with an alanine scan and on switching analysis with the homologous inactive sequence B2-64 (LPRAMDYDLLLRW, mouse laminin β2 chain, 618-630), the Glu(8) residue in the B67 peptide was critical for HDF adhesion. These findings are useful for identifying an integrin binding motif. The B67 peptide

  13. MALDI-based identification of stable hazelnut protein derived tryptic marker peptides.

    PubMed

    Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important health problem especially in industrialised countries. Tree nuts, among which are hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), are typically causing serious and life-threatening symptoms in sensitive subjects. Hazelnut is used as a food ingredient in pastry, confectionary products, ice cream and meat products, therefore undeclared hazelnut can be often present as a cross-contaminant representing a threat for allergic consumers. Mass spectrometric techniques are used for the detection of food allergens in processed foods, but limited information regarding stable tryptic peptide markers for hazelnut is available. The aim of this study was to detect stable peptide markers from modified hazelnut protein through the Maillard reaction and oxidation in a buffered solution. Peptides ³⁹⁵Gly-Arg⁴⁰³ from Cor a 11 and ²⁰⁹Gln-Arg²¹⁷, ³⁵¹Ile-Arg³⁶³, ⁴⁶⁴Ala-Arg⁴⁷⁸ and ⁴⁰¹Val-Arg⁴¹⁷ from Cor a 9 hazelnut allergens proved to be the most stable and could be detected and confirmed with high scores in most of the modified samples. The identified peptides can be further used as analytical targets for the development of more robust quantitative methods for hazelnut detection in processed foods.

  14. Milk-derived proteins and peptides of potential therapeutic and nutritive value.

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michal; Kruzel, Marian L

    2007-01-01

    Milk and colostrum are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in development of the immune system in mammalian offspring. Immunotropic properties of these compounds prompted investigators to search for their utility in prevention and therapy of various disorders in humans. The following constituents of milk are of particular interest: 1) Lactoferrin (LF)--exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasite and antitumor activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth and accelerates recovery of the immune system function in immunocompromised animal; 2) A Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) shows a variety of immunotropic functions, including promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition'of autoimmune disorders. PRP was recently found to improve or stabilize the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living status in Alzheimer's disease patients. 3) Casein--has been protective in experimental bacteremia by eliciting myelopoiesis. Casein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced the tumor growth and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Casein-derived peptides have been found to have antihypertensive effects. Glycomacropeptide (GMP)--a peptide derived from kappa casein, exhibits antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. 4) Alpha lactalbumin (LA)--demonstrates antiviral, antitumor and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. 5) Lysozyme--is effective in treatment of periodentitis and prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. 6) Lactoperoxidase--shows antibacterial properties. In conclusion, milk-derived proteins and peptides are bio-accessible and safe for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders in humans.

  15. Penetration of Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides into Phospholipid Monolayers as Model Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalska, Ewa; Więcław-Czapla, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Three antimicrobial peptides derived from bovine milk proteins were examined with regard to penetration into insoluble monolayers formed with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) sodium salt (DPPG). Effects on surface pressure (Π) and electric surface potential (ΔV) were measured, Π with a platinum Wilhelmy plate and ΔV with a vibrating plate. The penetration measurements were performed under stationary diffusion conditions and upon the compression of the monolayers. The two type measurements showed greatly different effects of the peptide-lipid interactions. Results of the stationary penetration show that the peptide interactions with DPPC monolayer are weak, repulsive, and nonspecific while the interactions with DPPG monolayer are significant, attractive, and specific. These results are in accord with the fact that antimicrobial peptides disrupt bacteria membranes (negative) while no significant effect on the host membranes (neutral) is observed. No such discrimination was revealed from the compression isotherms. The latter indicate that squeezing the penetrant out of the monolayer upon compression does not allow for establishing the penetration equilibrium, so the monolayer remains supersaturated with the penetrant and shows an under-equilibrium orientation within the entire compression range, practically. PMID:24455264

  16. Chicken cathelicidin-2-derived peptides with enhanced immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Molhoek, E Margo; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Dijk-Knijnenburg, Helma; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Boele, Linda C L; Kaman-van Zanten, Wendy E; Haagsman, Henk P; Bikker, Floris J

    2010-09-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are considered to be excellent candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Recently, it was demonstrated that the peptide C1-15, an N-terminal segment of chicken HDP cathelicidin-2, exhibits potent antibacterial activity while lacking cytotoxicity towards eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we report that C1-15 is active against bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis that may potentially be used by bioterrorists. Substitution of single and multiple phenylalanine (Phe) residues to tryptophan (Trp) in C1-15 resulted in variants with improved antibacterial activity against B. anthracis and Y. pestis as well as decreased salt sensitivity. In addition, these peptides exhibited enhanced neutralisation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities of these C1-15-derived peptides are exerted at concentrations far below the concentrations that are toxic to human PBMCs. Taken together, we show that Phe-->Trp substitutions in C1-15 variants enhances the antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities against pathogenic bacteria, including those that may potentially be used as biological warfare agents.

  17. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  18. Simple peptides derived from the ribosomal core potentiate RNA polymerase ribozyme function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of functional interactions between nucleic acids and polypeptides was a key transition in the origin of life and remains at the heart of all biology. However, how and why simple non-coded peptides could have become critical for RNA function is unclear. Here, we show that putative ancient peptide segments from the cores of both ribosomal subunits enhance RNA polymerase ribozyme (RPR) function, as do derived homopolymeric peptides comprising lysine or the non-proteinogenic lysine analogues ornithine or, to a lesser extent, diaminobutyric acid, irrespective of chirality or chiral purity. Lysine decapeptides enhance RPR function by promoting holoenzyme assembly through primer-template docking, accelerate RPR evolution, and allow RPR-catalysed RNA synthesis at near physiological (≥1 mM) Mg2+ concentrations, enabling templated RNA synthesis within membranous protocells. Our results outline how compositionally simple, mixed-chirality peptides may have augmented the functional potential of early RNAs and promoted the emergence of the first protocells.

  19. Simple peptides derived from the ribosomal core potentiate RNA polymerase ribozyme function.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of functional interactions between nucleic acids and polypeptides was a key transition in the origin of life and remains at the heart of all biology. However, how and why simple non-coded peptides could have become critical for RNA function is unclear. Here, we show that putative ancient peptide segments from the cores of both ribosomal subunits enhance RNA polymerase ribozyme (RPR) function, as do derived homopolymeric peptides comprising lysine or the non-proteinogenic lysine analogues ornithine or, to a lesser extent, diaminobutyric acid, irrespective of chirality or chiral purity. Lysine decapeptides enhance RPR function by promoting holoenzyme assembly through primer-template docking, accelerate RPR evolution, and allow RPR-catalysed RNA synthesis at near physiological (≥1 mM) Mg(2+) concentrations, enabling templated RNA synthesis within membranous protocells. Our results outline how compositionally simple, mixed-chirality peptides may have augmented the functional potential of early RNAs and promoted the emergence of the first protocells.

  20. Tyrosine sulfation influences the chemokine binding selectivity of peptides derived from chemokine receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, John Z; Millard, Christopher J; Ludeman, Justin P; Simpson, Levi S; Clayton, Daniel J; Payne, Richard J; Widlanski, Theodore S; Stone, Martin J

    2011-03-08

    The interactions of chemokines with their G protein-coupled receptors play critical roles in the control of leukocyte trafficking in normal homeostasis and in inflammatory responses. Tyrosine sulfation is a common post-translational modification in the amino-terminal regions of chemokine receptors. However, tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptors is commonly incomplete or heterogeneous. To investigate the possibility that differential sulfation of two adjacent tyrosine residues could bias the responses of chemokine receptor CCR3 to different chemokines, we have studied the binding of three chemokines (eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26) to an N-terminal CCR3-derived peptide in each of its four possible sulfation states. Whereas the nonsulfated peptide binds to the three chemokines with approximately equal affinity, sulfation of Tyr-16 gives rise to 9-16-fold selectivity for eotaxin-1 over the other two chemokines. Subsequent sulfation of Tyr-17 contributes additively to the affinity for eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 but cooperatively to the affinity for eotaxin-3. The doubly sulfated peptide selectively binds to both eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-3 approximately 10-fold more tightly than to eotaxin-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift mapping indicates that these variations in affinity probably result from only subtle differences in the chemokine surfaces interacting with these receptor peptides. These data support the proposal that variations in sulfation states or levels may regulate the responsiveness of chemokine receptors to their cognate chemokines.

  1. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jung Young

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images.

  2. Cationic bactericidal peptide 1018 does not specifically target the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Liis; Tenson, Tanel; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial stringent response is a key regulator of bacterial virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance, and is a promising target for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The intracellular nucleotide (p)ppGpp acts as a messenger orchestrating the stringent response. A synthetic peptide 1018 was recently proposed to specifically disrupt biofilms by inhibiting the stringent response via direct interaction with (p)ppGpp (de la Fuente-Núñez et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens). We have interrogated the specificity of the proposed molecular mechanism. When inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic and biofilm growth is tested simultaneously in the same assay, peptides 1018 and the control peptide 8101 generated by an inversion of the amino acid sequence of 1018 are equally potent, and, importantly, do not display a preferential activity against biofilm. 1018 inhibits planktonic growth of Escherichia coli equally efficiently either when the alleged target, (p)ppGpp, is essential (MOPS media lacking amino acid L-valine), or dispensable for growth (MOPS media supplemented with L-valine). Genetic disruption of the genes relA and spoT responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis moderately sensitizes – rather than protects – E. coli to 1018. We suggest that the antimicrobial activity of 1018 does not rely on specific recognition of the stringent response messenger (p)ppGpp. PMID:27819280

  3. Cancer Cell Signaling Pathways Targeted by Spice-Derived Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, car-damonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. PMID:22149093

  4. Cancer cell signaling pathways targeted by spice-derived nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, cardamonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer.

  5. Targeting dendritic cells in lymph node with an antigen peptide-based nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuan; Jin, Honglin; Qiao, Sha; Dai, Yanfeng; Huang, Chuan; Lu, Lisen; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-08-01

    The design of peptide-based subunit vaccine formulations for the direct delivery of tumor antigen peptides (Aps) to dendritic cells (DCs) localized within draining lymph nodes (DLNs) is challenging. Mature DCs (mDCs) are abundantly distributed within DLNs but have dramatically reduced endocytic uptake and antigen-processing abilities, so their role as potential vaccine targets has been largely overlooked. Here we report an ultra-small biocompatible nanovaccine (α-Ap-FNP) functionalized by avidly targeting delivery of Ap via the scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1) pathway to mDCs. The self-assembly, small size (∼30 nm), SR-B1-targeting and optical properties of α-Ap-FNP resulted in its efficient Ap loading, substantial LN accumulation, targeting of mDCs and enhanced Ap presentation, and fluorescence trafficking, respectively. We also demonstrate that the α-Ap-FNP can be either used alone or encapsulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide as a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine. Thus, the excellent properties of α-Ap-FNP provide it potential for clinical applications as a potent nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Incorporation of Peptides Targeting EGFR and FGFR1 into the Adenoviral Fiber Knob Domain and Their Evaluation as Targeted Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Legut, Mateusz; Davies, James; Jones, Rachel; Hudson, Emma; Hanna, Louise; Stanton, Richard J.; Chester, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oncolytic virotherapies based on adenovirus 5 (Ad5) hold promise as adjunctive cancer therapies; however, their efficacy when delivered systemically is hampered by poor target cell specificity and preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity. Ovarian cancer represents a promising target for virotherapy, since the virus can be delivered locally into the peritoneal cavity. Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) are overexpressed in the majority of human tumors, including ovarian cancer. To generate adenoviral vectors with improved tumor specificity, we generated a panel of Ad5 vectors with altered tropism for EGFR and FGFR, rather than the natural Ad5 receptor, hCAR. We have included mutations within AB loop of the viral fiber knob (KO1 mutation) to preclude interaction with hCAR, combined with insertions in the HI loop to incorporate peptides that bind either EGFR (peptide YHWYGYTPQNVI, GE11) or FGFR1 (peptides MQLPLAT, M*, and LSPPRYP, LS). Viruses were produced to high titers, and the integrity of the fiber protein was validated by Western blotting. The KO1 mutation efficiently ablated hCAR interactions, and significantly increased transduction was observed in hCARlow/EGFRhigh cell lines using Ad5.GE11, while transduction levels using Ad5.M* or Ad5.LS were not increased. In the presence of physiological concentrations of human blood clotting factor X (hFX), significantly increased levels of transduction via the hFX-mediated pathway were observed in cell lines, but not in primary tumor cells derived from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ascites samples. Ad5-mediated transduction of EOC cells was completely abolished by the presence of 2.5% serum from patients, while, surprisingly, incorporation of the GE11 peptide resulted in significant evasion of neutralization in the same samples. We thus speculate that incorporation of the YHWYGYTPQNVI dodecapeptide within the fiber knob domain may provide a novel means of

  7. Incorporation of Peptides Targeting EGFR and FGFR1 into the Adenoviral Fiber Knob Domain and Their Evaluation as Targeted Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Legut, Mateusz; Davies, James; Jones, Rachel; Hudson, Emma; Hanna, Louise; Stanton, Richard J; Chester, John D; Parker, Alan L

    2015-05-01

    Oncolytic virotherapies based on adenovirus 5 (Ad5) hold promise as adjunctive cancer therapies; however, their efficacy when delivered systemically is hampered by poor target cell specificity and preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity. Ovarian cancer represents a promising target for virotherapy, since the virus can be delivered locally into the peritoneal cavity. Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) are overexpressed in the majority of human tumors, including ovarian cancer. To generate adenoviral vectors with improved tumor specificity, we generated a panel of Ad5 vectors with altered tropism for EGFR and FGFR, rather than the natural Ad5 receptor, hCAR. We have included mutations within AB loop of the viral fiber knob (KO1 mutation) to preclude interaction with hCAR, combined with insertions in the HI loop to incorporate peptides that bind either EGFR (peptide YHWYGYTPQNVI, GE11) or FGFR1 (peptides MQLPLAT, M*, and LSPPRYP, LS). Viruses were produced to high titers, and the integrity of the fiber protein was validated by Western blotting. The KO1 mutation efficiently ablated hCAR interactions, and significantly increased transduction was observed in hCAR(low)/EGFR(high) cell lines using Ad5.GE11, while transduction levels using Ad5.M* or Ad5.LS were not increased. In the presence of physiological concentrations of human blood clotting factor X (hFX), significantly increased levels of transduction via the hFX-mediated pathway were observed in cell lines, but not in primary tumor cells derived from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ascites samples. Ad5-mediated transduction of EOC cells was completely abolished by the presence of 2.5% serum from patients, while, surprisingly, incorporation of the GE11 peptide resulted in significant evasion of neutralization in the same samples. We thus speculate that incorporation of the YHWYGYTPQNVI dodecapeptide within the fiber knob domain may provide a novel means of circumventing

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Suite of Tumor Targeting Peptides for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Michael J.; Gray, Bethany Powell; Li, Shunzi; Cupka, Dorothy; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wu, Lei; Rezaie, Shaghayegh; Liu, Ying-Horng; Pattisapu, Naveen; Issac, James; Oyama, Tsukasa; Diao, Lixia; Heymach, John V.; Xie, Xian-Jin; Minna, John D.; Brown, Kathlynn C.

    2014-03-01

    Tumor targeting ligands are emerging components in cancer therapies. Widespread use of targeted therapies and molecular imaging is dependent on increasing the number of high affinity, tumor-specific ligands. Towards this goal, we biopanned three phage-displayed peptide libraries on a series of well-defined human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, isolating 11 novel peptides. The peptides show distinct binding profiles across 40 NSCLC cell lines and do not bind normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Binding of specific peptides correlates with onco-genotypes and activation of particular pathways, such as EGFR signaling, suggesting the peptides may serve as surrogate markers. Multimerization of the peptides results in cell binding affinities between 0.0071-40 nM. The peptides home to tumors in vivo and bind to patient tumor samples. This is the first comprehensive biopanning for isolation of high affinity peptidic ligands for a single cancer type and expands the diversity of NSCLC targeting ligands.

  9. Selective detection of target proteins by peptide-enabled graphene biosensor.

    PubMed

    Khatayevich, Dmitriy; Page, Tamon; Gresswell, Carolyn; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Grady, William; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2014-04-24

    Direct molecular detection of biomarkers is a promising approach for diagnosis and monitoring of numerous diseases, as well as a cornerstone of modern molecular medicine and drug discovery. Currently, clinical applications of biomarkers are limited by the sensitivity, complexity and low selectivity of available indirect detection methods. Electronic 1D and 2D nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, respectively, offer unique advantages as sensing substrates for simple, fast and ultrasensitive detection of biomolecular binding. Versatile methods, however, have yet to be developed for simultaneous functionalization and passivation of the sensor surface to allow for enhanced detection and selectivity of the device. Herein, we demonstrate selective detection of a model protein against a background of serum protein using a graphene sensor functionalized via self-assembling multifunctional short peptides. The two peptides are engineered to bind to graphene and undergo co-assembly in the form of an ordered monomolecular film on the substrate. While the probe peptide displays the bioactive molecule, the passivating peptide prevents non-specific protein adsorption onto the device surface, ensuring target selectivity. In particular, we demonstrate a graphene field effect transistor (gFET) biosensor which can detect streptavidin against a background of serum bovine albumin at less than 50 ng/ml. Our nano-sensor design, allows us to restore the graphene surface and utilize each sensor in multiple experiments. The peptide-enabled gFET device has great potential to address a variety of bio-sensing problems, such as studying ligand-receptor interactions, or detection of biomarkers in a clinical setting.

  10. Assessment of meat authenticity using bioinformatics, targeted peptide biomarkers and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Orduna, Alberto; Husby, Erik; Yang, Charles T; Ghosh, Dipankar; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a significant increase of food fraud has been observed, ranging from false label claims to the use of additives and fillers to increase profitability. Recently in 2013 horse and pig DNAs were detected in beef products sold from several retailers. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become the workhorse in protein research, and the detection of marker proteins could serve for both animal species and tissue authentication. Meat species authenticity is performed in this paper using a well-defined proteogenomic annotation, carefully chosen surrogate tryptic peptides and analysis using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Selected mammalian meat samples were homogenised and proteins were extracted and digested with trypsin. The samples were analysed using a high-resolution MS. Chromatography was achieved using a 30-min linear gradient along with a BioBasic C8 100 × 1 mm column at a flow rate of 75 µl min(-1). The MS was operated in full-scan high resolution and accurate mass. MS/MS spectra were collected for selected proteotypic peptides. Muscular proteins were methodically analysed in silico in order to generate tryptic peptide mass lists and theoretical MS/MS spectra. Following a comprehensive bottom-up proteomic analysis, we detected and identified a proteotypic myoglobin tryptic peptide (120-134) for each species with observed m/z below 1.3 ppm compared with theoretical values. Moreover, proteotypic peptides from myosin-1, myosin-2 and β-haemoglobin were also identified. This targeted method allowed comprehensive meat speciation down to 1% (w/w) of undesired product.

  11. [Amino acid and peptide derivatives of the tylosin family of macrolide antibiotics modified at the aldehyde group].

    PubMed

    Sumbatian, N V; Kuznetsova, I V; Karpenko, V V; Fedorova, N V; Chertkov, V A; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen new functionally active amino acid and peptide derivatives of the antibiotics tylosin, desmycosin, and 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide were synthesized in order to study the interaction of the growing polypeptide chain with the ribosomal tunnel. The conjugation of various amino acids and peptides with a macrolide aldehyde group was carried out by two methods: direct reductive amination with the isolation of the intermediate Schiff bases or through binding via oxime using the preliminarily obtained derivatives of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.

  12. Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships, Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    Universal Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria Based on SSU rRNA Sequences Aquificae Termotogae Planctomycetes Actinobacteria Firmicutes Cyanobacteria...Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins Jacek P...Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. A peptide-linked recombinant glucocerebrosidase for targeted neuronal delivery: Design, production, and assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gramlich, Paul A.; Westbroek, Wendy; Feldman, Ricardo A.; Awad, Ola; Mello, Nicholas; Remington, Mary P.; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wujuan; Sidransky, Ellen; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Fishman, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Although recombinant glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is the standard therapy for the inherited lysosomal storage disease Gaucher’s disease (GD), enzyme replacement is not effective when the central nervous system is affected. We created a series of recombinant genes/proteins where GCase was linked to different membrane binding peptides including the Tat peptide, the rabies glycoprotein derived peptide (RDP), the binding domain from tetanus toxin (TTC), and a tetanus like peptide (Tet1). The majority of these proteins were well-expressed in a mammalian producer cell line (HEK 293F). Purified recombinant Tat-GCase and RDP-GCase showed similar GCase protein delivery to a neuronal cell line that genetically lacks the functional enzyme, and greater delivery than control GCase, Cerezyme (Genzyme). This initial result was unexpected based on observations of superior protein delivery to neurons with RDP as a vector. A recombinant protein where a fragment of the flexible hinge region from IgA (IgAh) was introduced between RDP and GCase showed substantially enhanced GCase neuronal delivery (2.5 times over Tat-GCase), suggesting that the original construct resulted in interference with the capacity of RDP to bind neuronal membranes. Extended treatment of these knockout neuronal cells with either Tat-GCase or RDP-IgAh-GCase resulted in an >90% reduction in the lipid substrate glucosylsphingosine, approaching normal levels. Further in vivo studies of RDP-IgAh-GCase as well as Tat-GCase are warranted to assess their potential as treatments for neuronopathic forms of GD. These peptide vectors are especially attractive as they have the potential to carry a protein across the blood–brain barrier, avoiding invasive direct brain delivery. PMID:26795355

  14. Novel strategy for protein production using a peptide tag derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Sato, Shinya; Iwamoto, Shigehisa; Sudo, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Takaaki; Uchida, Motoaki; Matsushima, Kenji; Kashino, Yohko; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Numerous proteins cannot be sufficiently prepared by ordinary recombinant DNA techniques because they are unstable or have deleterious effects on the host cell. One idea to prepare such proteins is to produce them as protein inclusions. Here we developed a novel system to effectively prepare proteins by using peptide tags derived from the insecticidal Cry toxin of a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. Fusion with this peptide tag, designated 4AaCter, facilitates the formation of protein inclusions of glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli without losing the enzyme activity. Application of 4AaCter to the production of syphilis antigens TpN15, TpN17 and TpN47 from Treponema pallidum yielded excellent results, including a dramatic increase in the production level, simplification of the product purification and high reactivity with syphilis antibody. The use of 4AaCter may provide an innovational strategy for the efficient production of proteins.

  15. Amyloid fibril formation of peptides derived from the C-terminus of CETP modulated by lipids

    SciTech Connect

    García-González, Victor; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •The secondary structure of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP was studied. •Lipids modulate secondary structure changes of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP. •Lysophosphatidic acid maintains a functional α-helix and prevents fibril formation. •Transfer of lipids by CETP is related to the presence of an α-helix at its C-end. -- Abstract: Cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasmatic protein involved in neutral lipid transfer between lipoproteins. Focusing on the last 12 C-terminus residues we have previously shown that mutation D{sub 470}N promotes a conformational change towards a β-secondary structure. In turn, this modification leads to the formation of oligomers and fibrillar structures, which cause cytotoxic effects similar to the ones provoked by amyloid peptides. In this study, we evaluated the role of specific lipid arrangements on the structure of peptide helix-Z (D{sub 470}N) through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, peptide bond absorbance, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The results indicate that the use of micelles formed with lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) under neutral pH induce a conformational transition of peptide helix-Z containing a β-sheet conformation to a native α-helix structure, therefore avoiding the formation of amyloid fibrils. In contrast, incubation with phosphatidic acid does not change the profile for the β-sheet conformation. When the electrostatic charge at the surface of micelles or vesicles is regulated through the use of lipids such as phospholipid and LPA, minimal changes and the presence of β-structures were recorded. Mixtures with a positive net charge diminished the percentage of β-structure and the amount of amyloid fibrils. Our results suggest that the degree of solvation determined by the presence of a free hydroxyl group on lipids such as LPA is a key condition that can modulate the secondary structure and the consequent formation of

  16. TDP6, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-based trkB peptide mimetic, promotes oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Wong, Agnes W; Giuffrida, Lauren; Wood, Rhiannon; Peckham, Haley; Gonsalvez, David; Murray, Simon S; Hughes, Richard A; Xiao, Junhua

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in the development and maintenance of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). BDNF exerts its biological effects via tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). We have recently identified that BDNF promotes CNS myelination via oligodendroglial TrkB receptors. In order to selectively target TrkB to promote CNS myelination, we have used a putative TrkB agonist, a small multicyclic peptide (tricyclic dimeric peptide 6, TDP6) previously described by us that structurally mimics a region of BDNF that binds TrkB. We confirmed that TDP6 acts as a TrkB agonist as it provoked autophosphorylation of TrkB and its downstream signalling effector extracellular related-kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in primary oligodendrocytes. Using an in vitro myelination assay, we show that TDP6 significantly promotes myelination by oligodendrocytes in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced myelin protein expression and an increased number of myelinated axonal segments. In contrast, a second, structurally distinct BDNF mimetic (cyclo-dPAKKR) that targets p75NTR had no effect upon oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro, despite the fact that cyclo-dPAKKR is a very effective promoter of peripheral (Schwann cell) myelination. The selectivity of TDP6 was further verified by using TrkB-deficient oligodendrocytes, in which TDP6 failed to promote myelination, indicating that the pro-myelinating effect of TDP6 is oligodendroglial TrkB-dependent. Together, our results demonstrate that TDP6 is a novel BDNF mimetic that promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro via targeting TrkB.

  17. Monodisperse Magnetite Nanoparticles Coupled with Nuclear Localization Signal Peptide for Cell-Nucleus Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenjie; Xie, Jin; Kohler, Nathan; Walsh, Edward G.; Chin, Y. Eugene; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of monodisperse superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles for cell specific targeting is crucial for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Targeted magnetic nanoparticles can be used to enhance the tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to improve the efficiency in anticancer drug delivery, and to eliminate tumor cells by magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Herein we report the nucleus-targeting Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized with protein and nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide. These NLS-coated nanoparticles were introduced into the HeLa cell cytoplasm and nucleus, where the particles were monodispersed and non-aggregated. The success of labeling was examined and identified by fluorescence microscopy and MRI. The work demonstrates that monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles can be readily functionalized and stabilized for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:18080259

  18. PACE4-based molecular targeting of prostate cancer using an engineered ⁶⁴Cu-radiolabeled peptide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; D'Anjou, François; Day, Robert; Guérin, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML), and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA) to the ML peptide for copper-64 ((64)Cu) labeling and positron emission tomography (PET)- based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor-based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy.

  19. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III{sub 8-11}) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III{sub 8-11} scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin {beta}1 but not with {alpha}v{beta}3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials.

  20. Induction of eEF2-specific antitumor CTL responses in vivo by vaccination with eEF2-derived 9mer-peptides.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroko; Murakami, Yui; Morii, Eiichi; Akao, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Naoya; Odajima, Satoko; Fukuda, Mari; Machitani, Takao; Iwai, Miki; Kawata, Sayo; Hojo, Nozomi; Oka, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Haruo; Oji, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is an essential factor for protein synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the eEF2 gene was overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in various types of cancers and that eEF2 gene product elicited both humoral immune responses to produce eEF2-specific IgG autoantibody in cancer-bearing individuals and cellular immune responses to induce eEF2 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to induce eEF2-specific, antitumor CTL responses in vivo by vaccination with MHC class I-binding eEF2-derived peptide. First, two mouse MHC class I-restricted eEF2‑derived, 9-mer peptides, EF17 (17-25 aa, ANIRNMSVI) and EF180 (180-188 aa, RIVENVNVI) were identified as eEF2-specific CTL peptides, and mice were vaccinated intradermally eight times with either EF17 or EF180 peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant. Cytotoxicity assay showed that eEF2-specific CTLs were induced in both EF17‑and EF180‑vaccinated mice, and histological study showed no detectable damage in the organs of these mice. Next, to examine in vivo antitumor effects of eEF2 peptide vaccination in a therapeutic model, mice were vaccinated four times with one each of the two eEF2 peptides at weekly intervals after implantation of eEF2-expressing leukemia cells. The vaccination with eEF2 peptides induced eEF2-specific CTLs and suppressed tumor growth, and disease-free survival was significantly longer in EF180-vaccinated mice compared to control mice. The survival was associated with the robustness of eEF2-specific CTL induction. These results indicate that vaccination with MHC class I-binding eEF2 peptide induced eEF2-targeting, antitumor CTL responses in vivo without damage to normal organs, which provided us a rationale for eEF2 peptide-based cancer immunotherapy.

  1. [The Qualitative Analysis of the Amide Derivative of HLDF-6 Peptide and Its Metabolites with the Use of Tritium- and Deuterium-Labeled Derivatives].

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, A; Dadayan, A K; Kost, N V; Voevodina, M E; Sokolov, O Y; Kozik, V S; Shram, S I; Azev, V N; Bocharov, E V; Bogachouk, A P; Lipkin, V M; Myasoedov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to elaborate the pharmacokinetics methods of the amide derivative of peptide HLDF-6 (TGENHR-NH2) and its range of nootropic and neuroprotective activity is wide. The hexapeptide 41TGENHR46 is a fragment of the HDLF differentiation factor. It forms the basis for the development of preventive and therapeutic preparations for treating cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative conditions. Pharmacokinetic and molecular mechanisms of the action of the HLDF-6 peptide were studied using tritium- and deuterium-labeled derivatives of this peptide, produced with the use of the high-temperature solid-state catalytic isotope exchange reaction (HSCIE). This reaction was employed to produce the tritium-labeled peptide [3H]TGENHR-NH2 with a molar radioactivity of 230 Ci/mmol and the deuterium-labeled peptide [2H]TGENHR-NH2 with an average deuterium incorporation equal to 10.5 atoms. It was shown by the NMR spectroscopy that the isotope label distribution over the labeled peptide's molecule was uniform, which allowed qualitative analysis ofboth the peptide itself and its fragments in the organism's tissues to be conducted. The newly developed pharmacokinetics method makes it possible to avoid almost completely losses of the peptides under study due to biodegradation during the analysis of tissues. These labeled peptides were used in mice, rats and rabbits to study the pharmacokinetics of the peptide and to calculate the values of its principal pharmacokinetic parameters. Characteristics of its pharmacokinetic profile in the blood were obtained, the hypothesis of pharmacokinetics linearity tested, its metabolism analyzed and its bioavailability value, 34%, calculated. It has been shown that the studied TGENHR-NH2 peptide shows high resistance to hydrolysis in the blood plasma, with dipeptidyl aminopeptidases making the largest contribution to its hydrolysis.

  2. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta

    PubMed Central

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R.; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D.; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  3. Targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor with mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Krystal R; Ongarora, Benson G; LeBlanc, Logan E; Zhou, Zehua; Jois, Seetharama D; Vicente, M Graça H

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro evaluation of four mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates designed to target EGFR, over-expressed in colorectal and other cancers, are reported. Two peptides with known affinity for EGFR, LARLLT (1) and GYHWYGYTPQNVI (2), were conjugated to mesoporphyrin IX (MPIX, 3) via one or both the propionic side chains, directly (4, 5) or with a triethylene glycol spacer (7, 8). The conjugates were characterized using NMR, MS, CD, SPR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. Energy minimization and molecular dynamics suggest different conformations for the conjugates. SPR studies show that conjugate 4, bearing two LARLLT with no PEG spacers, has the greatest affinity for binding to EGFR, followed by conjugate 7 with two PEG and two LARLLT sequences. Molecular modeling and docking studies suggest that both conjugates 4 and 7 can bind to monomer and dimer EGFR in open and closed conformations. The cytotoxicity and cellular targeting ability of the conjugates were investigated in human HEp2 cells over-expressing EGFR. All conjugates showed low dark- and photo-toxicities. The cellular uptake was highest for conjugates 4 and 8 and lowest for 7 bearing two LARLLT linked via PEG groups, likely due to decreased hydrophobicity. Among the conjugates investigated 4 is the most efficient EGFR-targeting agent, and therefore the most promising for the detection of cancers that over-express EGFR.

  4. Impact of different cell penetrating peptides on the efficacy of antisense therapeutics for targeting intracellular pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Mohammad, Haroon; Thangamani, Shankar; Hussein, Asmaa A. A.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need for novel and innovative therapeutic strategies to address infections caused by intracellular pathogens. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) present a novel method to target intracellular pathogens due to their unique mechanism of action and their ability to be conjugated to cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to overcome challenging delivery barriers. In this study, we targeted the RNA polymerase α subunit (rpoA) using a PNA that was covalently conjugated to five different CPPs. Changing the conjugated CPP resulted in a pronounced improvement in the antibacterial activity observed against Listeria monocytogenes in vitro, in cell culture, and in a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) infection model. Additionally, a time-kill assay revealed three conjugated CPPs rapidly kill Listeria within 20 minutes without disrupting the bacterial cell membrane. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of other critical virulence genes (Listeriolysin O, and two phospholipases plcA and plcB) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PNA-inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis was selective and did not adversely affect mitochondrial protein synthesis. This study provides a foundation for improving and developing PNAs conjugated to CPPs to better target intracellular pathogens. PMID:26860980

  5. Targeting cancer cells via tumor-homing peptide CREKA functional PEG nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Okur, Aysu Ceren; Erkoc, Pelin; Kizilel, Seda

    2016-11-01

    Targeting cell microenvironment via nano-particle based therapies holds great promise for the treatment of various diseases. One of the main challenges in targeted delivery of nanoparticles for cancer therapy is the reduced localization of delivery vehicles to the tumor site. The therapeutic efficacy of drugs can be improved by recruiting delivery vehicles towards specific region of tumorigenesis in the body. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach in creating PEG particles via water-in-water emulsion technique with a tumor-homing peptide CREKA functionalization. The CREKA conjugated hydrogel nanoparticles were found to be more effective at inducing Doxorubicin (DOX)-mediated apoptosis compared to that of particles conjugated with laminin peptide IKVAV. Fluorescence intensity analysis on confocal micrographs suggested significantly higher cellular uptake of CREKA conjugated PEG particles than internalization of nanoparticles in other groups. We observed that fibrin binding ability of PEG particles could be increased up to 94% through CREKA conjugation. Our results suggest the possibility of cancer cell targeting via CREKA-functional PEG nanoparticles.

  6. An optimized transit peptide for effective targeting of diverse foreign proteins into chloroplasts in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo-Ran; Zhu, Cheng-Hua; Yao, Zhen; Cui, Li-Li; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; He, Zheng-Hui; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Various chloroplast transit peptides (CTP) have been used to successfully target some foreign proteins into chloroplasts, but for other proteins these same CTPs have reduced localization efficiencies or fail completely. The underlying cause of the failures remains an open question, and more effective CTPs are needed. In this study, we initially observed that two E.coli enzymes, EcTSR and EcGCL, failed to be targeted into rice chloroplasts by the commonly-used rice rbcS transit peptide (rCTP) and were subsequently degraded. Further analyses revealed that the N-terminal unfolded region of cargo proteins is critical for their localization capability, and that a length of about 20 amino acids is required to attain the maximum localization efficiency. We considered that the unfolded region may alleviate the steric hindrance produced by the cargo protein, by functioning as a spacer to which cytosolic translocators can bind. Based on this inference, an optimized CTP, named RC2, was constructed. Analyses showed that RC2 can more effectively target diverse proteins, including EcTSR and EcGCL, into rice chloroplasts. Collectively, our results provide further insight into the mechanism of CTP-mediated chloroplastic localization, and more importantly, RC2 can be widely applied in future chloroplastic metabolic engineering, particularly for crop plants.

  7. Targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor with mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Krystal R.; Ongarora, Benson G.; LeBlanc, Logan E.; Zhou, Zehua; Jois, Seetharama D.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro evaluation of four mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates designed to target EGFR, over-expressed in colorectal and other cancers, are reported. Two peptides with known affinity for EGFR, LARLLT (1) and GYHWYGYTPQNVI (2), were conjugated to mesoporphyrin IX (MPIX, 3) via one or both the propionic side chains, directly (4, 5) or with a triethylene glycol spacer (7, 8). The conjugates were characterized using NMR, MS, CD, SPR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. Energy minimization and molecular dynamics suggest different conformations for the conjugates. SPR studies show that conjugate 4, bearing two LARLLT with no PEG spacers, has the greatest affinity for binding to EGFR, followed by conjugate 7 with two PEG and two LARLLT sequences. Molecular modeling and docking studies suggest that both conjugates 4 and 7 can bind to monomer and dimer EGFR in open and closed conformations. The cytotoxicity and cellular targeting ability of the conjugates were investigated in human HEp2 cells over-expressing EGFR. All conjugates showed low dark- and photo-toxicities. The cellular uptake was highest for conjugates 4 and 8 and lowest for 7 bearing two LARLLT linked via PEG groups, likely due to decreased hydrophobicity. Among the conjugates investigated 4 is the most efficient EGFR-targeting agent, and therefore the most promising for the detection of cancers that over-express EGFR. PMID:27738394

  8. Enhanced pulmonary absorption of a macromolecule through coupling to a sequence-specific phage display-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Smith, Mathew W; Griffiths, Peter C; McKeown, Neil B; Gumbleton, Mark

    2011-04-10

    With the aim of identifying a peptide sequence that promotes pulmonary epithelial transport of macromolecule cargo we used a stringent peptide-phage display library screening protocol against rat lung alveolar epithelial primary cell cultures. We identified a peptide-phage clone (LTP-1) displaying the disulphide-constrained 7-mer peptide sequence, C-TSGTHPR-C, that showed significant pulmonary epithelial translocation across highly restrictive polarised cell monolayers. Cell biological data supported a differential alveolar epithelial cell interaction of the LTP-1 peptide-phage clone and the corresponding free synthetic LTP-1 peptide. Delivering select phage-clones to the intact pulmonary barrier of an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) resulted in 8.7% of lung deposited LTP-1 peptide-phage clone transported from the IPRL airways to the vasculature compared (p<0.05) to the cumulative transport of less than 0.004% for control phage-clone groups. To characterise phage-independent activity of LTP-1 peptide, the LTP-1 peptide was conjugated to a 53kDa anionic PAMAM dendrimer. Compared to respective peptide-dendrimer control conjugates, the LTP-1-PAMAM conjugate displayed a two-fold (bioavailability up to 31%) greater extent of absorption in the IPRL. The LTP-1 peptide-mediated enhancement of transport, when LTP-1 was either attached to the phage clone or conjugated to dendrimer, was sequence-dependent and could be competitively inhibited by co-instillation of excess synthetic free LTP-1 peptide. The specific nature of the target receptor or mechanism involved in LTP-1 lung transport remains unclear although the enhanced transport is enabled through a mechanism that is non-disruptive with respect to the pulmonary transport of hydrophilic permeability probes. This study shows proof-of principle that array technologies can be effectively exploited to identify peptides mediating enhanced transmucosal delivery of macromolecule therapeutics across an intact organ.

  9. Identification of lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) as the target of unbiasedly selected cancer specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Tanvi J.; Toombs, Jason E.; Minna, John D.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Udugamasooriya, Damith Gomika

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an anionic phospholipid maintained on the inner-leaflet of the cell membrane and is externalized in malignant cells. We previously launched a careful unbiased selection targeting biomolecules (e.g. protein, lipid or carbohydrate) distinct to cancer cells by exploiting HCC4017 lung cancer and HBEC30KT normal epithelial cells derived from the same patient, identifying HCC4017 specific peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1. In this current study, we identified PS as the target of PPS1. We validated direct PPS1 binding to PS using ELISA-like assays, lipid dot blot and liposome based binding assays. In addition, PPS1 recognized other negatively charged and cancer specific lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. PPS1 did not bind to neutral lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine found in cancer and phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin found in normal cells. Further we found that the dimeric version of PPS1 (PPS1D1) displayed strong cytotoxicity towards lung cancer cell lines that externalize PS, but not normal cells. PPS1D1 showed potent single agent anti-tumor activity and enhanced the efficacy of docetaxel in mice bearing H460 lung cancer xenografts. Since PS and anionic phospholipid externalization is common across many cancer types, PPS1 may be an alternative to overcome limitations of protein targeted agents. PMID:27120792

  10. Purification and characterisation of antibacterial peptide-containing compound derived from palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yen Nee; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Wan Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most useful by-product resulted from palm kernel oil production. In this study, PKC-derived protein product was found suitable for use as an antimicrobial agent with potent antibacterial activity, particularly against Bacillus species, after enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified fraction was found to have 14.63±0.70% (w/w) protein, a molecular mass of 2.4kDa and low hemolytic activity (<50% hemolysis of human erythrocytes at concentration of 1000μg/ml). The presence of lysine and the major component lauric acid derivative, as indicated by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) direct infusion and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, may have contributed to the antibacterial effect of purified PKC fraction. This study suggests that the antibacterial PKC compound may be not a pure peptide but instead a peptide-containing compound high in lauric acid derivative.

  11. Synthesis and antifungal activities of glycosylated derivatives of the cyclic peptide fungicide caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junxiang; Hu, Honggang; Zhao, Qingjie; Wang, Ting; Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by systemic fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem in recent decades. A series of glycosyl derivatives of the approved cyclic peptide antifungal drug caspofungin conjugated with β-D-glucopyranose, β-D-galactopyranose, β-D-xylopyranose, β-L-rhamnopyranose, β-maltose and β-lactose units were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as new potential antifungal drugs. The compounds were obtained by coupling the corresponding glycosyl amines to the free primary amino groups of caspofungin through a bifunctional glutaryl linker. In contrast to caspofungin, these glycosylated derivatives are soluble in water, but are not hygroscopic and moreover, are more stable than caspofungin under high humidity and temperature. CD studies showed that glycosylation has very little impact on the conformation of the cyclic peptide of caspofungin. In vitro antifungal tests against seven human pathogenic fungi revealed that the caspofungin-monosaccharide conjugates, but not the disaccharide conjugates, have increased antifungal activities against the majority of tested fungus species relative to caspofungin. The β-D-glucopyranosyl derivative 2 a showed the strongest and broadest antifungal activity, providing a lead for further studies.

  12. New biological aspects of chromogranin A-derived peptides: focus on vasostatins.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Quintieri, Anna Maria; Di Felice, Valentina; Cerra, Maria Carmela

    2007-05-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA), one component of the granin family, represents the major soluble protein co-stored and co-released with catecholamines, within chromaffin cells secretory granules. It is considered a diagnostic and prognostic marker of several diseases, including a variety of tumours and cardiac heart failure. It also represents a precursor of biologically active fragments, generated after proteolytic cleavage at the level of the multiple pairs of dibasic sites which enrich its sequence. CgA, and its derived fragments show an old evolutionary history being ubiquitously present throughout the animal word, from mammals to invertebrates. Their biological functions include control of hormone production, and several paracrine and autocrine actions mainly attributed to its derived peptides. Two N-terminal fragments, named vasostatins 1 (VS-1: CgA(1-76)) and vasostatin 2 (VS-2: CgA(1-113)) due to their ability to dilate pre-constricted vessels, exert a large spectrum of homeostatic actions, including antifungal and antimicrobial effect, modulation of cell adhesion, and inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion. Recently, on isolated heart preparations from eel, frog and rat they were shown to act as negative inotropic agents able to counteract the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation. This short note introduces the abstracts of the contributions at the "International Workshop on Vasostatins and Chromogranin A-derived peptides" (Island of Capri, Italy; September 2005). The Workshop was focused on recent findings on the role of vasostatins (VSs) in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, extracellular fluids composition, and innate immunity. Particular attention has been given to the still elusive mechanism of action of these peptides.

  13. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep–wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis

  14. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis.

  15. Improving Recognition of Antimicrobial Peptides and Target Selectivity through Machine Learning and Genetic Programming.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Daniel; Kamath, Uday; Shehu, Amarda

    2017-01-01

    Growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is spurring research on utilizing naturally-occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as templates for novel drug design. While experimentalists mainly focus on systematic point mutations to measure the effect on antibacterial activity, the computational community seeks to understand what determines such activity in a machine learning setting. The latter seeks to identify the biological signals or features that govern activity. In this paper, we advance research in this direction through a novel method that constructs and selects complex sequence-based features which capture information about distal patterns within a peptide. Comparative analysis with state-of-the-art methods in AMP recognition reveals our method is not only among the top performers, but it also provides transparent summarizations of antibacterial activity at the sequence level. Moreover, this paper demonstrates for the first time the capability not only to recognize that a peptide is an AMP or not but also to predict its target selectivity based on models of activity against only Gram-positive, only Gram-negative, or both types of bacteria. The work described in this paper is a step forward in computational research seeking to facilitate AMP design or modification in the wet laboratory.

  16. Targeting of gastrointestinal tract for amended delivery of protein/peptide therapeutics: strategies and industrial perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vivek K; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Singh, Yuvraj; Chaurasia, Mohini; Surendar Reddy, B; Chourasia, Manish K

    2014-12-28

    Delivery of proteins/peptides to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via peroral/oral route involves tremendous challenges due to unfavorable environmental conditions like harsh pH, presence of proteolytic enzymes and absorption barriers. Detailed research is being conducted at the academic and industrial levels to diminish these troubles and various products are under clinical trials. Several approaches have been established to optimize oral delivery of proteins and peptides and can be broadly categorized into chemical and physical strategies. Chemical strategies include site specific mutagenesis, proteinylation, glycosylation, PEGylation and prodrug approaches, whereas physical strategies comprise formulation based approaches including application of absorption enhancers and metabolism modifiers along with delivering them via colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles, and micro- and nano-emulsions. This review stands to accomplish the diverse aspects of oral delivery of proteins/peptides and summarizes the key concepts involved in targeting the biodrugs to specific sites of the GI tract such as the intestine and colon. Furthermore some light has also been shed on the current industrial practices followed in developing oral formulations of such bioactives.

  17. Black mamba venom peptides target acid-sensing ion channels to abolish pain.

    PubMed

    Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Salinas, Miguel; Douguet, Dominique; Scarzello, Sabine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Debayle, Delphine; Friend, Valérie; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Lazdunski, Michel; Lingueglia, Eric

    2012-10-25

    Polypeptide toxins have played a central part in understanding physiological and physiopathological functions of ion channels. In the field of pain, they led to important advances in basic research and even to clinical applications. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are generally considered principal players in the pain pathway, including in humans. A snake toxin activating peripheral ASICs in nociceptive neurons has been recently shown to evoke pain. Here we show that a new class of three-finger peptides from another snake, the black mamba, is able to abolish pain through inhibition of ASICs expressed either in central or peripheral neurons. These peptides, which we call mambalgins, are not toxic in mice but show a potent analgesic effect upon central and peripheral injection that can be as strong as morphine. This effect is, however, resistant to naloxone, and mambalgins cause much less tolerance than morphine and no respiratory distress. Pharmacological inhibition by mambalgins combined with the use of knockdown and knockout animals indicates that blockade of heteromeric channels made of ASIC1a and ASIC2a subunits in central neurons and of ASIC1b-containing channels in nociceptors is involved in the analgesic effect of mambalgins. These findings identify new potential therapeutic targets for pain and introduce natural peptides that block them to produce a potent analgesia.

  18. [Designation, solid-phase synthesis and antimicrobial activity of Mytilin derived peptides based on Mytilin-1 from Mytilus coruscus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Wu, Mei; Zhou, Shiquan; Gao, Peng; Lu, Tao; Wang, Rixin; Shi, Ge; Liao, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    As a key role in mussel defense system, Mytilin is an important antibacterial peptide isolated from the mussel serum. The structural and functional researches on Mytilin showed that the fragment connecting two beta-sheets in a stable beta-hairpin structure was probably required for antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the structural features and the antimicrobial activity of this fragment, we re-designed and synthesized two peptides corresponding to the main mimic structures of Mytilin-1 from Mytilus coruscus, we named these two peptides Mytilin Derived Peptide-1 and Mytilin Derived Peptide-2, respectively. Using a liquid growth inhibition assay, we evaluated their activity towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The results showed that both peptides can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Besides, these two peptides showed high stability in heat water and human serum. These works laid the foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of Mytilin and for further exploitation of antibacterial peptides with lower molecular mass and more stable structure.

  19. A potent antimicrobial peptide derived from the protein LsGRP1 of Lilium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chang, Min-Wei; Chen, Chao-Ying

    2014-04-01

    LsGRP1 is a defense-related gene differentially expressed in lily leaves in response to pathogen attack. The difficulty in the expression of LsGRP1 in Escherichia coli suggested the presence of antimicrobial activity in LsGRP1. To evaluate the antimicrobial trait of LsGRP1, three LsGRP1-derived peptides were chemically synthesized; namely LsGRP1(N) (N-terminal region without the signal peptide), LsGRP1(G) (glycine-rich region), and LsGRP1(C) (C-terminal cysteine-rich region). LsGRP1(C) was proposed to be a potential antimicrobial agent according to its broad-spectrum and effective antimicrobial activity. LsGRP1(C) displayed inhibition effects on bacterial and fungal growth, possibly by altering the integrity of the cell membrane, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy and SYTOX Green staining assays. Additionally, LsGRP1(C) induced programmed cell death-like phenomenon in the tested fungal species as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole assays. Further immunofluorescence staining showed that LsGRP1(C) was located at the fungal cell surface. According to these observations, we concluded that LsGRP1(C) originated from the plant defense-related protein LsGRP1 would play a role as an antimicrobial peptide and have a potential for practical use.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Oat Proteins Derived Peptides in Stressed Hepatic HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yichen; Esfandi, Ramak; Willmore, William G.; Tsopmo, Apollinaire

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1–P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14–0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20–300 µM. In addition to having the highest ORAC value, P2 was also the most protective (29% increase in cell viability) against 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride -induced oxidative stress. P1, P6, and P7 protected at a lesser extent, with an 8%–21% increase viability of cells. The protection of cells was attributed to several factors including reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased cellular glutathione, and increased activities of three main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27775607

  1. Immunologic evaluation of peptides derived from BCR/ABL-out-of-frame fusion protein in HLA A2.1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Casnici, Claudia; Volpe, Gisella; Crotta, Katia; Lattuada, Donatella; Saglio, Giuseppe; Marelli, Ornella

    2012-05-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia express, besides the main BCR/ABL transcripts, novel BCR/ABL transcripts derived from alternative splicing between BCR exons 1, 13, or 14 with ABL exons 4 and 5. Their translational products present at C-terminus an amino acid portion derived from out-of-frame (OOF) reading of the ABL gene. The presence of OOF-peptide-specific T cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients was demonstrated and a first study in in vivo model demonstrated that OOF ABL portion was immunogenic in human leukcocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 transgenic mice. Here we immunized HLA A2.1 mice with novel peptides designed on the ABL OOF sequence, containing epitopes with high affinity for HLA A2.1 molecule. The specific immune response, cellular and humoral, obtained ex vivo against HLA A2.1-positive human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells using peptide 22-53 and the cytotoxic activity induced by peptide 32mer confirm the possibility to use the ABL OOF portion as target to evoke a specific and multiple immune response in Philadelphia positive leukemic patients in cytogenetic remission.

  2. Tetramer-organizing polyproline-rich peptides differ in CHO cell-expressed and plasma-derived human butyrylcholinesterase tetramers.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    Tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in human plasma is the product of multiple genes, namely one BCHE gene on chromosome 3q26.1 and multiple genes that encode polyproline-rich peptides. The function of the polyproline-rich peptides is to assemble BChE into tetramers. CHO cells transfected with human BChE cDNA express BChE monomers and dimers, but only low quantities of tetramers. Our goal was to identify the polyproline-rich peptides in CHO-cell derived human BChE tetramers. CHO cell-produced human BChE tetramers were purified from serum-free culture medium. Peptides embedded in the tetramerization domain were released from BChE tetramers by boiling and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 270 proline-rich peptides were sequenced, ranging in size from 6-41 residues. The peptides originated from 60 different proteins that reside in multiple cell compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and endoplasmic reticulum. No single protein was the source of the polyproline-rich peptides in CHO cell-expressed human BChE tetramers. In contrast, 70% of the tetramer-organizing peptides in plasma-derived BChE tetramers originate from lamellipodin. No protein source was identified for polyproline peptides containing up to 41 consecutive proline residues. In conclusion, the use of polyproline-rich peptides as a tetramerization motif is documented only for the cholinesterases, but is expected to serve other tetrameric proteins as well. The CHO cell data suggest that the BChE tetramer-organizing peptide can arise from a variety of proteins.

  3. Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A as a Novel Target for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The receptor for the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), is expressed in cancer cells, and natriuretic peptides have been implicated in cancers. However, the direct role of NPRA signaling in prostate cancer remains unclear. Results NPRA expression was examined by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NPRA was downregulated by transfection of siRNA, shRNA and NPRA inhibitor (iNPRA). Antitumor efficacy of iNPRA was tested in mice using a TRAMP-C1 xenograft. Here, we demonstrated that NPRA is abundantly expressed on tumorigenic mouse and human prostate cells, but not in nontumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. NPRA expression showed positive correlation with clinical staging in a human PCa tissue microarray. Down-regulation of NPRA by siNPRA or iNPRA induced apoptosis in PCa cells. The mechanism of iNPRA-induced anti-PCa effects was linked to NPRA-induced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine over-expressed in PCa and significantly reduced by siNPRA. Prostate tumor cells implanted in mice deficient in atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA-KO) failed to grow, and treatment of TRAMP-C1 xenografts with iNPRA reduced tumor burden and MIF expression. Using the TRAMP spontaneous PCa model, we found that NPRA expression correlated with MIF expression during PCa progression. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that NPRA promotes PCa development in part by regulating MIF. Our findings also suggest that NPRA is a potential prognostic marker and a target for PCa therapy. PMID:21586128

  4. Antibacterial activity of lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived lactoferrin peptide fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, K; Tomita, M; Giehl, T J; Ellison, R T

    1993-01-01

    Although the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin has been well described, its mechanism of action has been poorly characterized. Recent work has indicated that in addition to binding iron, human lactoferrin damages the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined whether bovine lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived bovine lactoferrin peptide (lactoferricin) fragment have similar activities. We found that both 20 microM bovine lactoferrin and 20 microM lactoferricin release intrinsically labeled [3H]lipopolysaccharide ([3H]LPS) from three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli CL99 1-2, Salmonella typhimurium SL696, and Salmonella montevideo SL5222. Under most conditions, more LPS is released by the peptide fragment than by whole bovine lactoferrin. In the presence of either lactoferrin or lactoferricin there is increased killing of E. coli CL99 1-2 by lysozyme. Like human lactoferrin, bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin have the ability to bind to free intrinsically labeled [3H]LPS molecules. In addition to these effects, whereas bovine lactoferrin was at most bacteriostatic, lactoferricin demonstrated consistent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria. This bactericidal effect is modulated by the cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ but is independent of the osmolarity of the medium. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells exposed to lactoferricin show the immediate development of electron-dense "membrane blisters." These experiments offer evidence that bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin damage the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the peptide fragment lactoferricin has direct bactericidal activity. As lactoferrin is exposed to proteolytic factors in vivo which could cleave the lactoferricin fragment, the effects of this peptide are of both mechanistic and physiologic relevance. Images PMID:8423097

  5. A novel antimicrobial peptide derived from fish goose type lysozyme disrupts the membrane of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Ganesh, Munuswamy-Ramanujam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, MariadhasValan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Marimuthu, Kasi; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-12-01

    In aquaculture, accumulation of antibiotics resulted in development of resistance among bacterial pathogens. Consequently, it became mandatory to find alternative to synthetic antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are described as evolutionary ancient weapons have been considered as promising alternates in recent years. In this study, a novel antimicrobial peptide had been derived from goose type lysozyme (LyzG) which was identified from the cDNA library of freshwater fish Channa striatus (Cs). The identified lysozyme cDNA contains 585 nucleotides which encodes a protein of 194 amino acids. CsLyzG was closely related to Siniperca chuatsi with 92.8% homology. The depicted protein sequence contained a GEWL domain with conserved GLMQ motif, 7 active residues and 2 catalytic residues. Gene expression analysis revealed that CsLyzG was distributed in major immune organs with highest expression in head kidney. Results of temporal expression analysis after bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) challenges indicated a stimulant-dependent expression pattern of CsLyzG. Two antimicrobial peptides IK12 and TS10 were identified from CsLyzG and synthesized. Antibiogram showed that IK12 was active against Salmonella enterica, a major multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogen which produces beta lactamase. The IK12 induced loss of cell viability in the bacterial pathogen. Flow cytometry assay revealed that IK12 disrupt the membrane of S. enterica which is confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis that reveals blebs around the bacterial cell membrane. Conclusively, CsLyzG is a potential innate immune component and the identified antimicrobial peptide has great caliber to be used as an ecofriendly antibacterial substance in aquaculture.

  6. Direct inhibition of NF-κB activation by peptide targeting the NOA ubiquitin binding domain of NEMO.

    PubMed

    Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Fontan, Elisabeth; Fsihi, Hafida; Coic, Yves-Marie; Baleux, Françoise; Véron, Michel; Agou, Fabrice

    2011-11-01

    Aberrant and constitutive NF-κB activation are frequently reported in numerous tumor types, making its inhibition an attractive target for the treatment of certain cancers. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is the crucial component of the canonical NF-κB pathway that mediates IκB kinase (IKK) complex activation. IKK activation resides in the ability of the C-terminal domain of NEMO to properly dimerize and interact with linear and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here, we have identified a new NEMO peptide inhibitor, termed UBI (ubiquitin binding inhibitor) that derives from the NOA/NUB/UBAN ubiquitin binding site located in the CC2-LZ domain of NEMO. UBI specifically inhibits the NF-κB pathway at the IKK level in different cell types stimulated by a variety of NF-κB signals. Circular dichroïsm and fluorescence studies showed that UBI exhibits an increased α-helix character and direct, good-affinity binding to the NOA-LZ region of NEMO. We also showed that UBI targets NEMO in cells but its mode of inhibition is completely different from the previously reported LZ peptide (herein denoted NOA-LZ). UBI does not promote dissociation of NEMO subunits in cells but impairs the interaction between the NOA UBD of NEMO and polyubiquitin chains. Importantly, we showed that UBI efficiently competes with the in vitro binding of K63-linked chains, but not with linear chains. The identification of this new NEMO inhibitor emphasizes the important contribution of K63-linked chains for IKK activation in NF-κB signaling and would provide a new tool for studying the complex role of NF-κB in inflammation and cancer.

  7. Targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer using specific binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianfeng; Tan, Gewen; Sheng, Nengquan; You, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the first in China among all gastrointestinal cancers in terms of incidence, and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine commonly chosen as the target for gene therapy against cancers. The specific binding peptide pd20 of gastric cancer cells with a high potential for liver metastasis was fused with human TNF to obtain the pd20-TNF gene using DNA recombinant technique. The expression of the fusion protein was induced and the protein was purified. In vitro activity test showed that the fusion protein greatly improved the membrane permeability of liver cells in nude mice with liver metastasis from gastric cancer. The tumor implantation experiment in nude mice showed that the fusion protein effectively mitigated the cancer lesions. The results provide important clues for developing the drugs for targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. PMID:27347305

  8. Affinity capture using peptide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles to target Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Fang-Yin; Lin, Wei-Lien; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commonly found pathogen, can cause food poisoning and infections. Thus, it is necessary to develop analytical methods for the rapid screening of S. aureus in suspicious samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used as affinity probes to selectively enrich target species from complex samples because of their high specific surface area and magnetic properties. The MNP surface should be functionalized to have the capability to target specific species. We herein propose a straightforward method to functionalize aluminum oxide-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4@Al2O3) MNPs with the peptide HHHHHHDEEGLFVD (D). The peptide D was comprised of three domains: polyhistidine (H6) used as the linker, DEE added as the spacer, and GLFVD used for targeting S. aureus. D was immobilized on the surface of Fe3O4@Al2O3 MNPs through H6-Al chelation. Our results showed that the D-functionalized Fe3O4@Al2O3 MNPs (D-Fe3O4 MNPs) possess the capability to target S. aureus. The selective trapping experiments were conducted under microwave-heating for only 60 s, and sufficient bacterial cells were trapped by the MNPs to be identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). We demonstrated that the D-Fe3O4@Al2O3 MNPs combined with MALDI-MS can be used to rapidly characterize trace amounts of S. aureus in complex juice and egg samples.Staphylococcus aureus, a commonly found pathogen, can cause food poisoning and infections. Thus, it is necessary to develop analytical methods for the rapid screening of S. aureus in suspicious samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used as affinity probes to selectively enrich target species from complex samples because of their high specific surface area and magnetic properties. The MNP surface should be functionalized to have the capability to target specific species. We herein propose a straightforward method to functionalize aluminum oxide-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4@Al2O3) MNPs with the

  9. A New Peptide Ligand for Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    PubMed Central

    Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Garcia-Boy, Regine; Rana, Shoaib; Krämer, Susanne; Hebling, Ulrike; Mier, Walter; Altmann, Annette; Markert, Annette; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. Methods Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. Results In vitro binding experiments of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. Conclusions These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX. PMID:21209841

  10. Poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rush Lloyd, II

    Inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cause $127.8 billion in US healthcare expenditures each year and are the cause of disability for 27% of disabled persons in the United States. Current treatment options rarely halt disease progression and often result in significant unwanted and debilitating side effects. Our laboratory has previously developed a family of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which inhibit the activity of mitogen activated protein kinase activate protein kinase 2 (MK2). MK2 mediates the inflammatory response by activating Tristetraprline (TTP). Once activated, TTP rapidly stabilizes AU rich regions of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA which allows translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines to occur. Blocking MK2 with our labs CPPs yields a decrease in inflammatory activity but CPPs by are highly non specific and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation in vivo.. In order to increase the potency of MK2 inhibiting CPPs we have developed a novel nanoparticle drug carrier composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid). This drug carrier has been shown to have preliminary efficacy in vitro and ex vivo for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production when releasing CPPs. This thesis will present progress made on three aims: Specific Aim 1) Create and validate a NIPAm based drug delivery system that mimics the binding and release previously observed between cell penetrating peptides and glycosaminoglycans. Specific Aim 2) Engineer degradability into poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles to enable more drug to be released and qualify that system in vitro. Specific Aim 3) Validate poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in an ex vivo inflammatory model. Overall we have developed a novel anionic nanoparticle system that is biocompatible and efficient at loading and releasing cell penetrating peptides to inflamed tissue. Once loaded with a CPP the nanoparticle drug complex is

  11. Discovery Strategies of Bioactive Compounds Synthesized by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Type-I Polyketide Synthases Derived from Marine Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Chaliotis, Anargyros; Mossialos, Dimitris

    2016-04-16

    Considering that 70% of our planet's surface is covered by oceans, it is likely that undiscovered biodiversity is still enormous. A large portion of marine biodiversity consists of microbiomes. They are very attractive targets of bioprospecting because they are able to produce a vast repertoire of secondary metabolites in order to adapt in diverse environments. In many cases secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest such as nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by multimodular enzymes named nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSes) and type-I polyketide synthases (PKSes-I), respectively. Novel findings regarding the mechanisms underlying NRPS and PKS evolution demonstrate how microorganisms could leverage their metabolic potential. Moreover, these findings could facilitate synthetic biology approaches leading to novel bioactive compounds. Ongoing advances in bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are driving the discovery of NRPs and PKs derived from marine microbiomes mainly through two strategies: genome-mining and metagenomics. Microbial genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and this vast quantity of biological information can be analyzed through genome mining in order to identify gene clusters encoding NRPSes and PKSes of interest. On the other hand, metagenomics is a fast-growing research field which directly studies microbial genomes and their products present in marine environments using culture-independent approaches. The aim of this review is to examine recent developments regarding discovery strategies of bioactive compounds synthesized by NRPS and type-I PKS derived from marine microbiomes and to highlight the vast diversity of NRPSes and PKSes present in marine environments by giving examples of recently discovered bioactive compounds.

  12. Discovery Strategies of Bioactive Compounds Synthesized by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Type-I Polyketide Synthases Derived from Marine Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D.; Chaliotis, Anargyros; Mossialos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Considering that 70% of our planet’s surface is covered by oceans, it is likely that undiscovered biodiversity is still enormous. A large portion of marine biodiversity consists of microbiomes. They are very attractive targets of bioprospecting because they are able to produce a vast repertoire of secondary metabolites in order to adapt in diverse environments. In many cases secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest such as nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by multimodular enzymes named nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSes) and type-I polyketide synthases (PKSes-I), respectively. Novel findings regarding the mechanisms underlying NRPS and PKS evolution demonstrate how microorganisms could leverage their metabolic potential. Moreover, these findings could facilitate synthetic biology approaches leading to novel bioactive compounds. Ongoing advances in bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are driving the discovery of NRPs and PKs derived from marine microbiomes mainly through two strategies: genome-mining and metagenomics. Microbial genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and this vast quantity of biological information can be analyzed through genome mining in order to identify gene clusters encoding NRPSes and PKSes of interest. On the other hand, metagenomics is a fast-growing research field which directly studies microbial genomes and their products present in marine environments using culture-independent approaches. The aim of this review is to examine recent developments regarding discovery strategies of bioactive compounds synthesized by NRPS and type-I PKS derived from marine microbiomes and to highlight the vast diversity of NRPSes and PKSes present in marine environments by giving examples of recently discovered bioactive compounds. PMID:27092515

  13. Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Peptide-Docetaxel Nanoassembly Targeted to Tubulin: Toward Development of Dual Warhead Containing Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Saswat; Saha, Abhijit; Mondal, Prasenjit; Jana, Batakrishna; Ghosh, Subhajit; Biswas, Atanu; Ghosh, Surajit

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics play a crucial role in cancer cell division. Various drugs are developed to target microtubule. Although a few of them show potential in treatment of cancer, but success rate is limited due to their poor bioavailability and lack of specificity. Thus, development of highly bioavailable and target specific anticancer drug is extremely necessary. To address these key issues, here, a combination of approaches such as development of a dodecapeptide-docetaxel nanoassembly targeted to tubulin and MUC1 (mucin 1, cell surface associated glycoprotein) targeting oligonucleotide aptamer conjugated liposome for delivering peptide-docetaxel nanoassembly into the breast cancer cell have been demonstrated. These studies reveal that the peptide forms nanoassembly and entraps docetaxel drug. Further, the liposomal formulation of peptide-docetaxel exerts synergistic anticancer effect, activates key mitotic check point proteins, and inhibits bipolar spindle formation, metastatic cancer cell migration, and growth of tumor mimicking 3D multicellular spheroid.

  14. Challenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda L; Meijer, Dimphna H; Guerra, Rachel M; Molenaar, Remco J; Alberta, John A; Bernal, Federico; Bird, Gregory H; Stiles, Charles D; Walensky, Loren D

    2016-11-18

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in organism development and disease by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional activity, whether by bHLH homo- or heterodimerization, is dependent on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions mediated by α-helices. Thus, α-helical decoys have been proposed as potential targeted therapies for pathologic bHLH transcription. Here, we developed a library of stabilized α-helices of OLIG2 (SAH-OLIG2) to test the capacity of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides to disrupt OLIG2 homodimerization, which drives the development and chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme, one of the deadliest forms of human brain cancer. Although stapling successfully reinforced the α-helical structure of bHLH constructs of varying length, sequence-specific dissociation of OLIG2 dimers from DNA was not achieved. Re-evaluation of the binding determinants for OLIG2 self-association and stability revealed an unanticipated role of the C-terminal domain. These data highlight potential pitfalls in peptide-based targeting of bHLH transcription factors given the liabilities of their positively charged amino acid sequences and multifactorial binding determinants.

  15. Selective Covalent Targeting of Anti-Apoptotic BFL-1 by Cysteine-Reactive Stapled Peptide Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Annissa J; Guerra, Rachel M; Harvey, Edward P; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2016-09-22

    Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins block cell death by trapping the critical α-helical BH3 domains of pro-apoptotic members in a surface groove. Cancer cells hijack this survival mechanism by overexpressing a spectrum of anti-apoptotic members, mounting formidable apoptotic blockades that resist chemotherapeutic treatment. Drugging the BH3-binding pockets of anti-apoptotic proteins has become a highest-priority goal, fueled by the clinical success of ABT-199, a selective BCL-2 inhibitor, in reactivating apoptosis in BCL-2-dependent cancers. BFL-1 is a BCL-2 homolog implicated in melanoma, lymphoma, and other cancers, and remains undrugged. A natural juxtaposition of two unique cysteines at the binding interface of the NOXA BH3 helix and BFL-1 pocket informed the development of stapled BH3 peptides bearing acrylamide warheads to irreversibly inhibit BFL-1 by covalent targeting. Given the frequent proximity of native cysteines to regulatory binding surfaces, covalent stapled peptide inhibitors provide a new therapeutic strategy for targeting pathologic protein interactions.

  16. Peptide targeted tripod macrocyclic Gd(III) chelates for cancer molecular MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Wu, Xueming; Kresak, Adam; Griswold, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-10-01

    Rational design and develop of targeted contrast agents binding to cancer-related proteins will achieve more accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CREKA is a tumor-homing pentapeptide (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala) specifically homes to fibrin-fibronectin complexes abundantly expressed in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we developed and evaluated a CREKA peptide targeted multiplexed Gd-MR probe (CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3) for MR imaging of breast tumors. CREKA and azide bearing Gd(III) was attached to a maleimide-functional trialkyne scaffold via thiol-maleimide and azide-alkyne click chemistry, respectively. CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 has a well-defined structure with a molecular weight of 2914 Da. The T1 relaxivity of CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 is 8.06 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (24.18 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule) at room temperature and 3 T. Fluorescence imaging showed high binding specificity of CREKA to a 4T1 breast tumor model in mice while it was not found for the scrambled CREKA (CERAK). The CREKA peptide-targeted contrast agent resulted in greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding CERAK agent and the commercialized contrast agent ProHance(®) in tumor at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg in female athymic mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenograft. This small molecular contrast agent was easily excreted from body after imaging indicated low toxicity. The targeted MRI contrast agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular imaging with MRI.

  17. Colon-targeted cell-permeable NFκB inhibitory peptide is orally active against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungchae; Yum, Soohwan; Yoo, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Sookjin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Min, Dosik; Kim, Young Mi; Jung, Yunjin

    2012-05-07

    For the purpose of development of orally active peptide therapeutics targeting NFκB for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), two major barriers in oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, metabolic lability and tissue impermeability, were circumvented by introduction of a colon-targeted delivery system and cell permeable peptides (CPP) to NFκB inhibitory peptides (NIP). Suppression of NFκB activation was compared following treatment with various CPP conjugated NIPs (CPP-NIP). The most potent CPP-NIP was loaded in a capsule coated with a colon specific polymer, which was administered orally to colitic rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of the colon-targeted CPP-NIP was evaluated by measuring inflammatory indices in the inflamed colonic tissue. For confirmation of the local action of the CPP-NIP, the same experiment was done after rectal administration. Tissue permeability of the CPP-NIP was examined microscopically and spectrophotometrically using FITC-labeled CPP-NIP (CPP-NIP-FITC). NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD, TALDWSWLQTE) fused with a cell permeable peptide CTP (YGRRARRRARR), CTP-NBD, was most potent in inhibiting NFκB activity in cells. Colon-targeted CTP-NBD, but not colon-targeted NBD and CTP-NBD in an enteric capsule, ameliorated the colonic injury, which was in parallel with decrease in MPO activity and the levels of inflammatory mediators. Intracolonic treatment with CTP-NBD alleviated rat colitis and improved all the inflammatory indicators. CTP-NBD-FITC was detected at much greater level in the inflamed tissue than was NBD-FITC. Taken together, introduction of cell permeability and colon targetability to NIP may be a feasible strategy for an orally active peptide therapy for treatment of IBD.

  18. Rice seed ER-derived protein body as an efficient delivery vehicle for oral tolerogenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hidenori; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirose, Sakiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2010-08-01

    Mucosal delivery of peptide/protein therapeutics via the oral route is a desirable strategy in human immunotherapy. A key step for enhancing the bioavailability of orally administered therapeutics is to protect them from enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we generated transgenic rice seeds accumulating allergen-derived T cell epitopes, a model tolerogen for the control of pollen allergy, in either ER-derived protein body-I (PB-I) or protein storage vacuole protein body-II (PB-II). Compared with PB-II-localized or chemically synthesized forms, PB-I-localized T cell epitopes showed higher resistance to enzymatic digestion in simulated gastric fluid. Moreover, the dose of T cell epitope required for suppression of allergen-specific IgE in mice was about 20-fold lower when fed in PB-I localized form than when unprotected. These findings demonstrate the potential of bioencapsulation in PB-I for broad applications as a viable strategy to achieve efficient mucosal delivery of oral peptide/protein therapeutics.

  19. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Michal; Soifer, Ilya; Petzold, Heike; Howard, Jonathon; Elbaum, Michael; Reiner, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport. PMID:23213412

  20. Selection and identification of ligand peptides targeting a model of castrate-resistant osteogenic prostate cancer and their receptors.

    PubMed

    Mandelin, Jami; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Driessen, Wouter H P; Mathew, Paul; Navone, Nora M; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Logothetis, Christopher J; Rietz, Anna Cecilia; Dobroff, Andrey S; Proneth, Bettina; Sidman, Richard L; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-03-24

    We performed combinatorial peptide library screening in vivo on a novel human prostate cancer xenograft that is androgen-independent and induces a robust osteoblastic reaction in bonelike matrix and soft tissue. We found two peptides, PKRGFQD and SNTRVAP, which were enriched in the tumors, targeted the cell surface of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro, and homed to androgen receptor-null prostate cancer in vivo. Purification of tumor homogenates by affinity chromatography on these peptides and subsequent mass spectrometry revealed a receptor for the peptide PKRGFQD, α-2-macroglobulin, and for SNTRVAP, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). These results indicate that GRP78 and α-2-macroglobulin are highly active in osteoblastic, androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo. These previously unidentified ligand-receptor systems should be considered for targeted drug development against human metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  1. A novel bispecific peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the N-terminal heptad repeat and fusion peptide domains in gp41.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xifeng; Jia, Qiyan; Lu, Lu; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Jishen; Shi, Weiguo; Cai, Lifeng; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 fusion with the target cell is initiated by the insertion of the gp41 fusion peptide (FP) into the target cell membrane and the interaction between the gp41 N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR), followed by the formation of the six-helix bundle (6-HB) fusion core. Therefore, both FP and NHR are important targets for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Here, we designed and synthesized a dual-target peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, 4HR-LBD-VIRIP, in which 4HR-LBD is able to bind to the gp41 NHR domain, while VIRIP is able to interact with gp41 FP. We found that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP is about tenfold more potent than 4HR-LBD and VIRIP in inhibiting HIV-1IIIB infection and HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting that this dual-target HIV-1 fusion inhibitor possesses a strong synergistic antiviral effect. A biophysical analysis indicates that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP can interact with N70 peptide that contains the gp41 NHR and FP domains and binds with lipid membrane. This study provides a new approach for designing novel viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses with class I membrane fusion proteins.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase. PMID:25329706

  3. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases.

  4. Formation pathways and opioid activity data for 3-hydroxypyridinium compounds derived from glucuronic acid and opioid peptides by Maillard processes.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Stefica; Roscić, Maja; Lemieux, Carole; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Schiller, Peter W

    2007-07-01

    The kinetics of formation and identity of the reaction products of the glucuronic acid with three representative opioid peptides were investigated in vitro. Peptides were conjugated with glucuronic acid either in solution or under dry-heating conditions. From the incubations performed in solution N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranos-1-yluronic acid)-peptide derivatives (Amadori compounds) were isolated, whereas from the dry-heated reactions products containing the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety at the N-terminal of the peptide chain were obtained. Experiments performed under mild dry-heating conditions (40 degrees C) in model systems based on Leu-enkephalin and glucuronic acid, and in environment of either 40% or 75% relative humidity, revealed that the higher level of humidity promoted a process that enhanced 3-hydroxypyridinium compound generation. The mechanism of 3-hydroxypyridinium formation is discussed. In comparison with their respective parent peptides, the N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranosyl-uronic acid) derivatives of the opioid peptides showed three- to 11-fold lower mu- and delta-receptor-binding affinities and agonist potencies in the functional assays, likely as a consequence of the steric bulk introduced at the N-terminal amino group. The further decrease in opioid activity observed with the 3-hydroxypyridinium-containing peptides may be due to the lower pK(a) of the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety and to delocalization of the positive charge in the pyridinium ring system.

  5. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from glycinin, the 11S globulin of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun Gouda, K G; Gowda, Lalitha R; Rao, A G Appu; Prakash, V

    2006-06-28

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor Angiotensin II and plays an important physiological role in regulating blood pressure. Inhibitors of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme derived from food proteins are utilized for pharmaceuticals and physiologically functional foods. ACE inhibitory properties of different enzymatic hydrolysates of glycinin, the major storage protein of soybean, have been demonstrated. The IC50 value for the different enzyme digests ranges from 4.5 to 35 microg of N2. The Protease P hydrolysate contained the most potent suite of ACE inhibitory peptides. The ACE inhibitory activity of the Protease P hydrolysate after fractionation by RP-HPLC and ion-pair chromatography was ascribed to a single peptide. The peptide was homogeneous as evidenced by MALDI-TOF and identified to be a pentapeptide. The sequence was Val-Leu-Ile-Val-Pro. This peptide was synthesized using solid-phase FMOC chemistry. The IC50 for ACE inhibition was 1.69 +/- 0.17 microM. The synthetic peptide was a potent competitive inhibitor of ACE with a Ki of 4.5 +/- 0.25 x 10(-6) M. This peptide was resistant to digestion by proteases of the gastrointestinal tract. The antihypertensive property of this peptide derived from glycinin might find importance in the development of therapeutic functional foods.

  6. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    PubMed

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    PubMed Central

    León-Calvijo, María A.; Leal-Castro, Aura L.; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A.; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E.; García-Castañeda, Javier E.; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  8. Comparison of targeted peptide quantification assays for reductive dehalogenases by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM).

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Christian; Hansen, Rasmus; Baumann, Sven; Kublik, Anja; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Adrian, Lorenz; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico; Seifert, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Targeted absolute protein quantification yields valuable information about physiological adaptation of organisms and is thereby of high interest. Especially for this purpose, two proteomic mass spectrometry-based techniques namely selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM) are commonly applied. The objective of this study was to establish an optimal quantification assay for proteins with the focus on those involved in housekeeping functions and putative reductive dehalogenase proteins from the strictly anaerobic bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. This microbe is small and slow-growing; hence, it provides little biomass for comprehensive proteomic analysis. We therefore compared SRM and PRM techniques. Eleven peptides were successfully quantified by both methods. In addition, six peptides were solely quantified by SRM and four by PRM, respectively. Peptides were spiked into a background of Escherichia coli lysate and the majority of peptides were quantifiable down to 500 amol absolute on column by both methods. Peptide quantification in CBDB1 lysate resulted in the detection of 15 peptides using SRM and 14 peptides with the PRM assay. Resulting quantification of five dehalogenases revealed copy numbers of <10 to 115 protein molecules per cell indicating clear differences in abundance of RdhA proteins during growth on hexachlorobenzene. Our results indicated that both methods show comparable sensitivity and that the combination of the mass spectrometry assays resulted in higher peptide coverage and thus more reliable protein quantification.

  9. Human platelet-rich plasma- and extracellular matrix-derived peptides promote impaired cutaneous wound healing in vivo.