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Sample records for peptide mediated cellular

  1. Cellular delivery of doxorubicin mediated by disulfide reduction of a peptide-dendrimer bioconjugate.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kelly E; Delehanty, James B

    2018-04-27

    In this study, we developed a peptide-dendrimer-drug conjugate system for the pH-triggered direct cytosolic delivery of the cancer chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) using the pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP). We synthesized a pHLIP-dendrimer-DOX conjugate in which a single copy of pHLIP displayed a generation three dendrimer bearing multiple copies of DOX via disulfide linkages. Biophysical analysis showed that both the dendrimer and a single DOX conjugate inserted into membrane bilayers in a pH-dependent manner. Time-resolved confocal microscopy indicate the single DOX conjugate may undergo a faster rate of membrane translocation, due to greater nuclear localization of DOX at 24 h and 48 h post delivery. At 72 h, however, the levels of DOX nuclear accumulation for both constructs were identical. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that both constructs mediated ∼80% inhibition of cellular proliferation at 10 µM, the dendrimer complex exhibited a 17% greater cytotoxic effect at lower concentrations and greater than three-fold improvement in IC 50 over free DOX. Our findings show proof of concept that the dendrimeric display of DOX on the pHLIP carrier (1) facilitates the pH-dependent and temporally-controlled release of DOX to the cytosol, (2) eliminates the endosomal sequestration of the drug cargo, and (3) augments DOX cytotoxicity relative to the free drug. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Antibody-Mediated and Cellular Immune Responses Induced in Naive Volunteers by Vaccination with Long Synthetic Peptides Derived from the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Soto, Liliana; Perlaza, Blanca Liliana; Céspedes, Nora; Vera, Omaira; Lenis, Ana Milena; Bonelo, Anilza; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-γ production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-γ production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:21292876

  3. Synthesis, characterization and applications of carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolated bifunctionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots in cellular internalization mediated by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lo, Shih-Yen; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are widely used in biomedical imaging studies and pharmaceutical research. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of small peptides that are able to traverse cell membrane and deliver a variety of cargoes into living cells. CPPs deliver QDs into cells with minimal nonspecific absorption and toxic effect. In this study, water-soluble, monodisperse, carboxyl-functionalized indium phosphide (InP)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs coated with polyethylene glycol lipids (designated QInP) were synthesized for the first time. The physicochemical properties (optical absorption, fluorescence and charging state) and cellular internalization of QInP and CPP/QInP complexes were characterized. CPPs noncovalently interact with QInP in vitro to form stable CPP/QInP complexes, which can then efficiently deliver QInP into human A549 cells. The introduction of 500nM of CPP/QInP complexes and QInP at concentrations of less than 1μM did not reduce cell viability. These results indicate that carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolylated (PEGylated) bifunctionalized QInP are biocompatible nanoparticles with potential for use in biomedical imaging studies and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  5. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  6. Prototype foamy virus envelope glycoprotein leader peptide processing is mediated by a furin-like cellular protease, but cleavage is not essential for viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Anja; Stange, Annett; Lüftenegger, Daniel; Stanke, Nicole; Westphal, Dana; Pietschmann, Thomas; Eastman, Scott W; Linial, Maxine L; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2004-12-01

    Analogous to cellular glycoproteins, viral envelope proteins contain N-terminal signal sequences responsible for targeting them to the secretory pathway. The prototype foamy virus (PFV) envelope (Env) shows a highly unusual biosynthesis. Its precursor protein has a type III membrane topology with both the N and C terminus located in the cytoplasm. Coexpression of FV glycoprotein and interaction of its leader peptide (LP) with the viral capsid is essential for viral particle budding and egress. Processing of PFV Env into the particle-associated LP, surface (SU), and transmembrane (TM) subunits occur posttranslationally during transport to the cell surface by yet-unidentified cellular proteases. Here we provide strong evidence that furin itself or a furin-like protease and not the signal peptidase complex is responsible for both processing events. N-terminal protein sequencing of the SU and TM subunits of purified PFV Env-immunoglobulin G immunoadhesin identified furin consensus sequences upstream of both cleavage sites. Mutagenesis analysis of two overlapping furin consensus sequences at the PFV LP/SU cleavage site in the wild-type protein confirmed the sequencing data and demonstrated utilization of only the first site. Fully processed SU was almost completely absent in viral particles of mutants having conserved arginine residues replaced by alanines in the first furin consensus sequence, but normal processing was observed upon mutation of the second motif. Although these mutants displayed a significant loss in infectivity as a result of reduced particle release, no correlation to processing inhibition was observed, since another mutant having normal LP/SU processing had a similar defect.

  7. Helical synthetic peptides that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.; Natarajan, Pradeep

    2010-04-06

    The present invention provides peptides comprising at least one amphipathic alpha helix and having an cholesterol mediating activity and a ABCA stabilization activity. The invention further provides methods of using such peptides.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum mediated signaling in cellular microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Biwer, Lauren; Isakson, Brant E

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a prime mediator of cellular signaling due to its functions as an internal cellular store for calcium, as well as a site for synthesis of proteins and lipids. Its peripheral network of sheets and tubules facilitate calcium and lipid signaling, especially in areas of the cell that are more distant to the main cytoplasmic network. Specific membrane proteins shape the peripheral ER architecture and influence the network stability in order to project into restricted spaces. The signaling microdomains are anatomically separate from the cytoplasm as a whole and exhibit localized protein, ion channel and cytoskeletal element expression. Signaling can also occur between the ER and other organelles, such as the Golgi or mitochondria. Lipids made in the ER membrane can be sent to the Golgi via specialized transfer proteins and specific phospholipid synthases are enriched at ER-mitochondria junctions to more efficiently expedite phospholipid transfer. As a hub for protein and lipid synthesis, a store for intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, and a mediator of cellular stress, the ER is an important cellular organelle. Its ability to organize into tubules and project into restricted spaces allows for discrete and temporal signaling, which is important for cellular physiology and organism homeostasis. PMID:26973141

  9. Combinatorial contextualization of peptidic epitopes for enhanced cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaki; Hayashi, Kazumi; Adachi, Eru; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Homma, Sadamu; Koido, Shigeo; Shiba, Kiyotaka

    2014-01-01

    Invocation of cellular immunity by epitopic peptides remains largely dependent on empirically developed protocols, such as interfusion of aluminum salts or emulsification using terpenoids and surfactants. To explore novel vaccine formulation, epitopic peptide motifs were co-programmed with structural motifs to produce artificial antigens using our "motif-programming" approach. As a proof of concept, we used an ovalbumin (OVA) system and prepared an artificial protein library by combinatorially polymerizing MHC class I and II sequences from OVA along with a sequence that tends to form secondary structures. The purified endotoxin-free proteins were then examined for their ability to activate OVA-specific T-cell hybridoma cells after being processed within dendritic cells. One clone, F37A (containing three MHC I and two MHC II OVA epitopes), possessed a greater ability to evoke cellular immunity than the native OVA or the other artificial antigens. The sensitivity profiles of drugs that interfered with the F37A uptake differed from those of the other artificial proteins and OVA, suggesting that alteration of the cross-presentation pathway is responsible for the enhanced immunogenicity. Moreover, F37A, but not an epitopic peptide, invoked cellular immunity when injected together with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and retarded tumor growth in mice. Thus, an artificially synthesized protein antigen induced cellular immunity in vivo in the absence of incomplete Freund's adjuvant or aluminum salts. The method described here could be potentially used for developing vaccines for such intractable ailments as AIDS, malaria and cancer, ailments in which cellular immunity likely play a crucial role in prevention and treatment.

  10. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Handan; Samaeekia, Ravand; Schnorenberg, Mathew R.

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are twomore » major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.« less

  11. Distinguishing between biochemical and cellular function: Are there peptide signatures for cellular function of proteins?

    PubMed

    Jain, Shruti; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bakshi, Rachit; Narang, Ankita; Brahmachari, Vani

    2017-04-01

    The genome annotation and identification of gene function depends on conserved biochemical activity. However, in the cell, proteins with the same biochemical function can participate in different cellular pathways and cannot complement one another. Similarly, two proteins of very different biochemical functions are put in the same class of cellular function; for example, the classification of a gene as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene is not related to its biochemical function, but is related to its cellular function. We have taken an approach to identify peptide signatures for cellular function in proteins with known biochemical function. ATPases as a test case, we classified ATPases (2360 proteins) and kinases (517 proteins) from the human genome into different cellular function categories such as transcriptional, replicative, and chromatin remodelling proteins. Using publicly available tool, MEME, we identify peptide signatures shared among the members of a given category but not between cellular functional categories; for example, no motif sharing is seen between chromatin remodelling and transporter ATPases, similarly between receptor Serine/Threonine Kinase and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase. There are motifs shared within each category with significant E value and high occurrence. This concept of signature for cellular function was applied to developmental regulators, the polycomb and trithorax proteins which led to the prediction of the role of INO80, a chromatin remodelling protein, in development. This has been experimentally validated earlier for its role in homeotic gene regulation and its interaction with regulatory complexes like the Polycomb and Trithorax complex. Proteins 2017; 85:682-693. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mitochondrial peptides modulate mitochondrial function during cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jeong; Mehta, Hemal H; Wan, Junxiang; Kuehnemann, Chisaka; Chen, Jingcheng; Hu, Ji-Fan; Hoffman, Andrew R; Cohen, Pinchas

    2018-06-10

    Cellular senescence is a complex cell fate response that is thought to underlie several age-related pathologies. Despite a loss of proliferative potential, senescent cells are metabolically active and produce energy-consuming effectors, including senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs). Mitochondria play crucial roles in energy production and cellular signaling, but the key features of mitochondrial physiology and particularly of mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs), remain underexplored in senescence responses. Here, we used primary human fibroblasts made senescent by replicative exhaustion, doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide treatment, and examined the number of mitochondria and the levels of mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial DNA methylation and the mitochondria-encoded peptides humanin, MOTS-c, SHLP2 and SHLP6. Senescent cells showed increased numbers of mitochondria and higher levels of mitochondrial respiration, variable changes in mitochondrial DNA methylation, and elevated levels of humanin and MOTS-c. Humanin and MOTS-c administration modestly increased mitochondrial respiration and selected components of the SASP in doxorubicin-induced senescent cells partially via JAK pathway. Targeting metabolism in senescence cells is an important strategy to reduce SASP production for eliminating the deleterious effects of senescence. These results provide insight into the role of MDPs in mitochondrial energetics and the production of SASP components by senescent cells.

  13. A specific RAGE-binding peptide biopanning from phage display random peptide library that ameliorates symptoms in amyloid β peptide-mediated neuronal disorder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Cuizan; Dai, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Yujie; Lian, Mengyang; Xiao, Fei; Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Qihao; Huang, Yadong; Zheng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder in which amyloid β (Aβ) peptide accumulates in the brain. The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a cellular binding site for Aβ peptide and mediates amyloid β-induced perturbations in cerebral vessels, neurons, and microglia in AD. Here, we identified a specific high-affinity RAGE inhibitor (APDTKTQ named RP-1) from a phage display library. RP-1 bound to RAGE and inhibited Aβ peptide-induced cellular stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SYSY cells in vitro. Three amino acids in RP-1 are identical to those in the Aβ peptide. RP-1 shows high homology to the 16-23 (KLVFFAED) regions in Aβ peptide and high-affinity RAGE. Functional analyses indicated that RP-1 significantly reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS products and that it enhanced catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Furthermore, it inactivated caspase3 and caspase9 and inhibited the upregulation of RAGE, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) protein expression. In addition, RP-1 activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, inhibiting the interaction between Bax and Bcl-2. Our data suggest that RP-1 is a potent RAGE blocker that effectively controls the progression of Aβ peptide-mediated brain disorders and that it may have potential as a disease-modifying agent for AD.

  14. Increased cellular uptake of peptide-modified PEGylated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Yang, Dan; Qin, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua; Yin, Changcheng

    2017-12-09

    Gold nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles for nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins, allowing various modifications on the particle surface. However, the instability and low bioavailability of gold nanoparticles compromise their clinical application. Here, we functionalized gold nanoparticles with CPP fragments (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR) through sulfhydryl PEG to increase their stability and bioavailability. The resulting gold nanoparticles were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the stability in biological solutions was evaluated. Comparing to PEGylated gold nanoparticles, CPP (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR)-modified gold nanoparticles showed 46 folds increase in cellular uptake in A549 and B16 cell lines, as evidenced by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The interactions between gold nanoparticles and liposomes indicated CPP-modified gold nanoparticles bind to cell membrane more effectively than PEGylated gold nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to measure interactions between nanoparticles and the membrane. TEM and uptake inhibitor experiments indicated that the cellular entry of gold nanoparticles was mediated by clathrin and macropinocytosis. Other energy independent endocytosis pathways were also identified. Our work revealed a new strategy to modify gold nanoparticles with CPP and illustrated the cellular uptake pathway of CPP-modified gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging peptides from corn peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liying; Ding, Long; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-02-16

    Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs) were investigated. Results indicated that CPF1 (molecular weight less than 1 kDa) and CPF2 (molecular weight between 1 and 3 kDa) exhibited good hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Meanwhile, the in vitro radical scavenging activity of CPF1 was slightly higher than that of CPF2. Both CPF1 and CPF2 also exhibited significant cytoprotective effects and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The amino acid composition analysis revealed that the CPF were rich in hydrophobic amino acids, which comprised of more than 45% of total amino acids. An antioxidant peptide sequence of Tyr-Phe-Cys-Leu-Thr (YFCLT) was identified from CPF1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The YFCLT exhibited excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 37.63 µM, which was much lower than that of Trolox. In conclusion, corn gluten meal might be a good source to prepare antioxidant peptides.

  16. Amphiphilic cationic peptides mediate cell adhesion to plastic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rideout, D C; Lambert, M; Kendall, D A; Moe, G R; Osterman, D G; Tao, H P; Weinstein, I B; Kaiser, E T

    1985-09-01

    Four amphiphilic peptides, each with net charges of +2 or more at neutrality and molecular weights under 4 kilodaltons, were found to mediate the adhesion of normal rat kidney fibroblasts to polystyrene surfaces. Two of these peptides, a model for calcitonin (peptide 1, MCT) and melittin (peptide 2, MEL), form amphiphilic alpha-helical structures at aqueous/nonpolar interfaces. The other two, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone model (peptide 3, LHM) and a platelet factor model (peptide 4, MPF) form beta-strand structures in amphiphilic environments. Although it contains only 10 residues, LHM mediated adhesion to surfaces coated with solutions containing as little as 10 pmoles/ml of peptide. All four of these peptides were capable of forming monolayers at air-buffer interfaces with collapse pressures greater than 20 dynes/cm. None of these four peptides contains the tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which has been associated with fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Ten polypeptides that also lacked the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser but were nonamphiphilic and/or had net charges less than +2 at neutrality were all incapable of mediating cell adhesion (Pierschbacher and Ruoslahti, 1984). The morphologies of NRK cells spread on polystyrene coated with peptide LHM resemble the morphologies on fibronectin-coated surfaces, whereas cells spread on surfaces coated with MCT or MEL exhibit strikingly different morphologies. The adhesiveness of MCT, MEL, LHM, and MPF implies that many amphiphilic cationic peptides could prove useful as well defined adhesive substrata for cell culture and for studies of the mechanism of cell adhesion.

  17. Cellular membrane enrichment of self-assembling D-peptides for cell surface engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaimin; Wang, Youzhi; Han, Aitian; Cai, Yanbin; Xiao, Nannan; Wang, Ling; Ding, Dan; Yang, Zhimou

    2014-06-25

    We occasionally found that several self-assembling peptides containing D-amino acids would be preferentially enriched in cellular membranes at self-assembled stages while distributed evenly in the cytoplasma of cells at unassembled stages. Self-assembling peptides containing only Lamino acids distributed evenly in cytoplasma of cells at both self-assembled and unassembled stages. The self-assembling peptides containing D-amino acids could therefore be applied for engineering cell surface with peptides. More importantly, by integrating a protein binding peptide (a PDZ domain binding hexapeptide of WRESAI) with the self-assembling peptide containing D-amino acids, protein could also be introduced to the cell surface. This study not only provided a novel approach to engineer cell surface, but also highlighted the unusual properties and potential applications of self-assembling peptides containing D-amino acids in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  18. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca(2+) and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System.

  19. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System. PMID:26998193

  20. Effect of arginine methylation on the RNA recognition and cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jhe-Hao; Chiu, Wen-Chieh; Yao, Yun-Chiao; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    Arginine (Arg) methylation is a common post-translational modification that regulates gene expression and viral infection. The HIV-1 Tat protein is an essential regulatory protein for HIV proliferation, and is methylated in the cell. The basic region (residues 47-57) of the Tat protein contains six Arg residues, and is responsible for two biological functions: RNA recognition and cellular uptake. In this study, we explore the effect of three different methylation states at each Arg residue in Tat-derived peptides on the two biological functions. The Tat-derived peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis. TAR RNA binding of the peptides was assessed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. The cellular uptake of the peptides into Jurkat cells was determined by flow cytometry. Our results showed that RNA recognition was affected by both methylation state and position. In particular, asymmetric dimethylation at position 53 decreased TAR RNA binding affinity significantly, but unexpectedly less so upon asymmetric dimethylation at position 52. The RNA binding affinity even slightly increased upon methylation at some of the flanking Arg residues. Upon Arg methylation, the cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides mostly decreased. Interestingly, cellular uptake of Tat-derived peptides with a single asymmetrically dimethylated Arg residue was similar to the native all Arg peptide (at 120 μM). Based on our results, TAR RNA binding apparently required both guanidinium terminal NH groups on Arg53, whereas cellular uptake apparently required guanidinium terminal NH₂ groups instead. These results should provide insight into how nature uses arginine methylation to regulate different biological functions, and should be useful for the development of functional molecules with methylated arginines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Selective Intracellular Delivery of Ganglioside GM3-Binding Peptide through Caveolae/Raft-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Otani, Ryohei; Yamashita, Miki; Maeno, Haruka; Nodono, Hanae; Sato, Toshinori

    2017-02-13

    Glycosphingolipids are major components of the membrane raft, and several kinds of viruses and bacterial toxins are known to bind to glycosphingolipids in the membrane raft. Since the viral genes and pathogenic proteins that are taken into cells are directly delivered to their target organelles, caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis represents a promising pathway for specific delivery. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of an artificial pentadecapeptide, which binds to ganglioside GM3, to deliver protein into cells by caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis. The cellular uptake of a biotinylated GM3-binding peptide (GM3BP)-avidin complex into HeLa cells was observed, and the cellular uptake of this complex was inhibited by an incubation with sialic acid or endocytic inhibitors such as methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and also by an incubation at 4 °C. These results indicate that the GM3BP-avidin complex bind to GM3 in membrane raft, and are taken into cell through caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis. The GM3BP-avidin complex was transported into cells and localized around the nucleus more slowly than a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAT peptide. Furthermore, the uptake of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked with GM3BP into HeLa cells was similar to that of the GM3BP-avidin complex, and the localization of the GM3BP-GFP fusion protein was markedly different with that of the TAT-GFP fusion protein. The uptake and trafficking of GM3BP were distinguished from conventional cell-penetrating peptides. GM3BP has potential as a novel peptide for the selective delivery of therapeutic proteins and materials into cells in addition to being a cell-penetrating peptide.

  2. Enhanced Cellular Uptake of Short Polyarginine Peptides through Fatty Acylation and Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many of the reported arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for the enhanced delivery of drugs are linear peptides composed of more than seven arginine residues to retain the cell penetration properties. Herein, we synthesized a class of nine polyarginine peptides containing 5 and 6 arginines, namely, R5 and R6. We further explored the effect of acylation with long chain fatty acids (i.e., octanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid) and cyclization on the cell penetrating properties of the peptides. The fluorescence-labeled acylated cyclic peptide dodecanoyl-[R5] and linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) showed approximately 13.7- and 10.2-fold higher cellular uptake than that of control 5,6-carboxyfluorescein, respectively. The mechanism of the peptide internalization into cells was found to be energy-dependent endocytosis. Dodecanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R6] enhanced the intracellular uptake of a fluorescence-labeled cell-impermeable negatively charged phosphopeptide (F′-GpYEEI) in human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3) by 3.4-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively, as shown by flow cytometry. The cellular uptake of F′-GpYEEI in the presence of hexadecanoyl-[R5] was 9.3- and 6.0-fold higher than that in the presence of octanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R5], respectively. Dodecanoyl-[R5] enhanced the cellular uptake of the phosphopeptide by 1.4–2.5-fold higher than the corresponding linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) and those of representative CPPs, such as hepta-arginine (CR7) and TAT peptide. These results showed that a combination of acylation by long chain fatty acids and cyclization on short arginine-containing peptides can improve their cell-penetrating property, possibly through efficient interaction of rigid positively charged R and hydrophobic dodecanoyl moiety with the corresponding residues in the cell membrane phospholipids. PMID:24978295

  3. Peptide trafficking and translocation across membranes in cellular signaling and self-defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Abele, Rupert; Tampé, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Cells are metastable per se and a fine-tuned balance of de novo protein synthesis and degradation shapes their proteome. The primary function of peptides is to supply amino acids for de novo protein synthesis or as an energy source during starvation. Peptides are intrinsically short-lived and steadily trimmed by an armada of intra and extracellular peptidases. However, peptides acquired additional, more sophisticated tasks already early in evolution. Here, we summarize current knowledge on intracellular peptide trafficking and translocation mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport machineries with a focus on the functions of protein degradation products as important signaling molecules in self-defense mechanisms.

  4. Efficacy of peptide nucleic acid and selected conjugates against specific cellular pathologies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Browne, Elisse C; Parakh, Sonam; Duncan, Luke F; Langford, Steven J; Atkin, Julie D; Abbott, Belinda M

    2016-04-01

    Cellular studies have been undertaken on a nonamer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence, which binds to mRNA encoding superoxide dismutase 1, and a series of peptide nucleic acids conjugated to synthetic lipophilic vitamin analogs including a recently prepared menadione (vitamin K) analog. Reduction of both mutant superoxide dismutase 1 inclusion formation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, two of the key cellular pathological hallmarks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, by two of the prepared PNA oligomers is reported for the first time. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A biomimetic colorimetric logic gate system based on multi-functional peptide-mediated gold nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Li, Wang; He, Kai-Yu; Li, Pei; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular activities. Building biomimetic peptide-based bio-logic systems is highly intriguing but remains relatively unexplored due to limited logic recognition elements and complex signal outputs. In this proof-of-principle work, we attempted to address these problems by utilizing multi-functional peptide probes and the peptide-mediated nanoparticle assembly system. Here, the rationally designed peptide probes function as the dual-target responsive element specifically responsive to metal ions and enzymes as well as the mediator regulating the assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Taking advantage of Zn2+ ions and chymotrypsin as the model inputs of metal ions and enzymes, respectively, we constructed the peptide logic system computed by the multi-functional peptide probes and outputted by the readable colour change of AuNPs. In this way, the representative binary basic logic gates (AND, OR, INHIBIT, NAND, IMPLICATION) have been achieved by delicately coding the peptide sequence, demonstrating the versatility of our logic system. Additionally, we demonstrated that the three-input combinational logic gate (INHIBIT-OR) could also be successfully integrated and applied as a multi-tasking biosensor for colorimetric detection of dual targets. This nanoparticle-based peptide logic system presents a valid strategy to illustrate peptide information processing and provides a practical platform for executing peptide computing or peptide-related multiplexing sensing, implying that the controllable nanomaterial assembly is a promising and potent methodology for the advancement of biomimetic bio-logic computation.In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular

  6. Cellular internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking of filamentous M13 phages displaying a cell-penetrating transbody and TAT peptide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Shin, Tae-Hwan; Shin, Seung-Min; Pham, Chuong D; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Cellular internalization of bacteriophage by surface-displayed cell penetrating peptides has been reported, though the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we describe in detail the internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking and stability of filamentous M13 phages, the cellular entry of which is mediated by surface-displayed cell-penetrating light chain variable domain 3D8 VL transbody (3D8 VL-M13) or TAT peptide (TAT-M13). Recombinant 3D8 VL-M13 and TAT-M13 phages were efficiently internalized into living mammalian cells via physiologically relevant, energy-dependent endocytosis and were recovered from the cells in their infective form with the yield of 3D8 VL-M13 being higher (0.005 ≈ 0.01%) than that of TAT-M13 (0.001 ≈ 0.005%). Biochemical and genetic studies revealed that 3D8 VL-M13 was internalized principally by caveolae-mediated endocytosis via interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, whereas TAT-M13 was internalized by clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis utilizing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, suggesting that phage internalization occurs by physiological endocytotic mechanism through specific cell surface receptors rather than non-specific transcytotic pathways. Internalized 3D8 VL-M13 phages routed to the cytosol and remained stable for more than 18 h without further trafficking to other subcellular compartments, whereas TAT-M13 phages routed to several subcellular compartments before being degraded in lysosomes even after 2 h of internalization. Our results suggest that the internalizing mechanism and intracellular trafficking of filamentous M13 bacteriophages largely follow the attributes of the displayed cell-penetrating moiety. Efficient internalization and cytosolic localization of 3D8 VL transbody-displayed phages will provide a useful tool for intracellular delivery of polar macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, and siRNAs.

  7. Cellular Internalization Mechanism and Intracellular Trafficking of Filamentous M13 Phages Displaying a Cell-Penetrating Transbody and TAT Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung-Min; Pham, Chuong D.; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Cellular internalization of bacteriophage by surface-displayed cell penetrating peptides has been reported, though the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we describe in detail the internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking and stability of filamentous M13 phages, the cellular entry of which is mediated by surface-displayed cell-penetrating light chain variable domain 3D8 VL transbody (3D8 VL-M13) or TAT peptide (TAT-M13). Recombinant 3D8 VL-M13 and TAT-M13 phages were efficiently internalized into living mammalian cells via physiologically relevant, energy-dependent endocytosis and were recovered from the cells in their infective form with the yield of 3D8 VL-M13 being higher (0.005∼0.01%) than that of TAT-M13 (0.001∼0.005%). Biochemical and genetic studies revealed that 3D8 VL-M13 was internalized principally by caveolae-mediated endocytosis via interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, whereas TAT-M13 was internalized by clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis utilizing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, suggesting that phage internalization occurs by physiological endocytotic mechanism through specific cell surface receptors rather than non-specific transcytotic pathways. Internalized 3D8 VL-M13 phages routed to the cytosol and remained stable for more than 18 h without further trafficking to other subcellular compartments, whereas TAT-M13 phages routed to several subcellular compartments before being degraded in lysosomes even after 2 h of internalization. Our results suggest that the internalizing mechanism and intracellular trafficking of filamentous M13 bacteriophages largely follow the attributes of the displayed cell-penetrating moiety. Efficient internalization and cytosolic localization of 3D8 VL transbody-displayed phages will provide a useful tool for intracellular delivery of polar macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, and siRNAs. PMID:23251631

  8. A biomimetic colorimetric logic gate system based on multi-functional peptide-mediated gold nanoparticle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Li, Wang; He, Kai-Yu; Li, Pei; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2016-04-28

    In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular activities. Building biomimetic peptide-based bio-logic systems is highly intriguing but remains relatively unexplored due to limited logic recognition elements and complex signal outputs. In this proof-of-principle work, we attempted to address these problems by utilizing multi-functional peptide probes and the peptide-mediated nanoparticle assembly system. Here, the rationally designed peptide probes function as the dual-target responsive element specifically responsive to metal ions and enzymes as well as the mediator regulating the assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Taking advantage of Zn2+ ions and chymotrypsin as the model inputs of metal ions and enzymes, respectively, we constructed the peptide logic system computed by the multi-functional peptide probes and outputted by the readable colour change of AuNPs. In this way, the representative binary basic logic gates (AND, OR, INHIBIT, NAND, IMPLICATION) have been achieved by delicately coding the peptide sequence, demonstrating the versatility of our logic system. Additionally, we demonstrated that the three-input combinational logic gate (INHIBIT-OR) could also be successfully integrated and applied as a multi-tasking biosensor for colorimetric detection of dual targets. This nanoparticle-based peptide logic system presents a valid strategy to illustrate peptide information processing and provides a practical platform for executing peptide computing or peptide-related multiplexing sensing, implying that the controllable nanomaterial assembly is a promising and potent methodology for the advancement of biomimetic bio-logic computation.

  9. Cellular Insulin Resistance Disrupts Leptin-Mediated Control of Neuronal Signaling and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Menchella, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Central resistance to the actions of insulin and leptin is associated with the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas leptin and insulin signaling is essential for both glucose and energy homeostasis. Although it is known that leptin resistance can lead to attenuated insulin signaling, whether insulin resistance can lead to or exacerbate leptin resistance is unknown. To investigate the molecular events underlying crosstalk between these signaling pathways, immortalized hypothalamic neuronal models, rHypoE-19 and mHypoA-2/10, were used. Prolonged insulin exposure was used to induce cellular insulin resistance, and thereafter leptin-mediated regulation of signal transduction and gene expression was assessed. Leptin directly repressed agouti-related peptide mRNA levels but induced urocortin-2, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS2, and IR transcription, through leptin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Neuronal insulin resistance, as assessed by attenuated Akt phosphorylation, blocked leptin-mediated signal transduction and agouti-related peptide, urocortin-2, IRS1, IRS2, and insulin receptor synthesis. Insulin resistance caused a substantial decrease in insulin receptor protein levels, forkhead box protein 1 phosphorylation, and an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 protein levels. Cellular insulin resistance may cause or exacerbate neuronal leptin resistance and, by extension, obesity. It is essential to unravel the effects of neuronal insulin resistance given that both peripheral, as well as the less widely studied central insulin resistance, may contribute to the development of metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular disorders. This study provides improved understanding of the complex cellular crosstalk between insulin-leptin signal transduction that is disrupted during neuronal insulin resistance. PMID:23579487

  10. Nitric oxide mediates antimicrobial peptide gene expression by activating eicosanoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sadekuzzaman, Md.

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates both cellular and humoral immune responses in insects. Its mediation of cellular immune responses uses eicosanoids as a downstream signal. However, the cross-talk with two immune mediators was not known in humoral immune responses. This study focuses on cross-talk between two immune mediators in inducing gene expression of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) of a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. Up-regulation of eight AMPs was observed in S. exigua against bacterial challenge. However, the AMP induction was suppressed by injection of an NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, while little expressional change was observed on injecting its enantiomer, D-NAME. The functional association between NO biosynthesis and AMP gene expression was further supported by RNA interference (RNAi) against NO synthase (SeNOS), which suppressed AMP gene expression under the immune challenge. The AMP induction was also mimicked by NO alone because injecting an NO analog, SNAP, without bacterial challenge significantly induced the AMP gene expression. Interestingly, an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, dexamethasone (DEX), suppressed the NO induction of AMP expression. The inhibitory activity of DEX was reversed by the addition of arachidonic acid, a precursor of eicosanoid biosynthesis. AMP expression of S. exigua was also controlled by the Toll/IMD signal pathway. The RNAi of Toll receptors or Relish suppressed AMP gene expression by suppressing NO levels and subsequently reducing PLA2 enzyme activity. These results suggest that eicosanoids are a downstream signal of NO mediation of AMP expression against bacterial challenge. PMID:29466449

  11. Butelase-mediated cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Qiu, Yibo; Cao, Yuan; Hemu, Xinya; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Tam, James P

    2016-10-01

    Enzymes that catalyze efficient macrocyclization or site-specific ligation of peptides and proteins can enable tools for drug design and protein engineering. Here we describe a protocol to use butelase 1, a recently discovered peptide ligase, for high-efficiency cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins ranging in size from 10 to >200 residues. Butelase 1 is the fastest known ligase and is found in pods of the common medicinal plant Clitoria ternatea (also known as butterfly pea). It has a very simple C-terminal-specific recognition motif that requires Asn/Asp (Asx) at the P1 position and a dipeptide His-Val at the P1' and P2' positions. Substrates for butelase-mediated ligation can be prepared by standard Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) chemistry or recombinant expression with the minimal addition of this tripeptide Asn-His-Val motif at the C terminus. Butelase 1 achieves cyclizations that are 20,000 times faster than those of sortase A, a commonly used enzyme for backbone cyclization. Unlike sortase A, butelase is traceless, and it can be used for the total synthesis of naturally occurring peptides and proteins. Furthermore, butelase 1 is also useful for intermolecular ligations and synthesis of peptide or protein thioesters, which are versatile activated intermediates necessary for and compatible with many chemical ligation methods. The protocol describes steps for isolation and purification of butelase 1 from plant extract using a four-step chromatography procedure, which takes ∼3 d. We then describe steps for intramolecular cyclization, intermolecular ligation and butelase-mediated synthesis of protein thioesters. Butelase reactions are generally completed within minutes and often achieve excellent yields.

  12. Surface Mediated Self-Assembly of Amyloid Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been considered as causative agents in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils form when proteins or peptides misfold into one dimensional crystals of stacked beta-sheets. In solution, amyloid fibrils form through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The rate limiting nucleation step requires a critical concentration much larger than those measured in physiological conditions. As such the exact origins of the seeds or oligomers that result in the formation of fully mature fibrils in the body remain topic intense studies. It has been suggested that surfaces and interfaces can enhance the fibrillization rate. However, studies of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization are technologically challenging due to the small size of the oligomer and protofibril species. Using smart sample preparation technique to dry the samples after various incubation times we are able to study the kinetics of fibril formation both in solution and in the vicinity of various surfaces using high-resolution atomic force microscopy. These studies elucidate the role of surfaces in catalyzing amyloid peptide formation through a nucleation-free process. The nucleation free self-assembly is rapid and requires much smaller concentrations of peptides or proteins. We show that this process resembles diffusion limited aggregation and is governed by the peptide adhesion rate, two -dimensional diffusion of the peptides on the surface, and preferential interactions between the peptides. These studies suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation may exist, which could lead to new criteria for disease prevention and alternative therapies. Research was partially supported by a seed grant from the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P30AG010124 (PI: John Trojanowski) and the University of Pennsylvania.

  13. Dual peptide conjugation strategy for improved cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ran; Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G; Walston, Jeremy; Abadir, Peter; Cui, Honggang

    2015-01-21

    Mitochondria are critical regulators of cellular function and survival. Delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into mitochondria is a challenging task in modern pharmacology because the molecule to be delivered needs to first overcome the cell membrane barrier and then be able to actively target the intracellular organelle. Current strategy of conjugating either a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) or a subcellular targeting sequence to the molecule of interest only has limited success. We report here a dual peptide conjugation strategy to achieve effective delivery of a non-membrane-penetrating dye 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) into mitochondria through the incorporation of both a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) and a CPP into one conjugated molecule. Notably, circular dichroism studies reveal that the combined use of α-helix and PPII-like secondary structures has an unexpected, synergistic contribution to the internalization of the conjugate. Our results suggest that although the use of positively charged MTS peptide allows for improved targeting of mitochondria, with MTS alone it showed poor cellular uptake. With further covalent linkage of the MTS-5-FAM conjugate to a CPP sequence (R8), the dually conjugated molecule was found to show both improved cellular uptake and effective mitochondria targeting. We believe these results offer important insight into the rational design of peptide conjugates for intracellular delivery.

  14. Neuroactive Peptides as Putative Mediators of Antiepileptic Ketogenic Diets

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Carmela; Marchiò, Maddalena; Timofeeva, Elena; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of KDs. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for altered regulation of the synthesis of neuropeptides and peripheral hormones in response to KDs, and we try to define a possible role for specific neuroactive peptides in mediating the antiepileptic properties of diet-induced ketogenesis. PMID:24808888

  15. A novel Chk1-binding peptide that enhances genotoxic sensitivity through the cellular redistribution of nuclear Chk1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Seok; Choi, Kyu Jin; Bae, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Since checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an essential factor for cell viability following DNA damage, the inhibition of Chk1 has been a major focus of pharmaceutical development to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy that damage DNA. However, due to the off-target effects of conventional Chk1-targeting strategies and the toxicity of Chk1 inhibitors, alternative strategies are required to target Chk1. To facilitate such efforts, in this study, we identified a specific Chk1-binding 12-mer peptide from the screening of a phage display library and characterized the peptide in terms of cellular cytotoxicity, and in terms of its effect on Chk1 activity and sensitivity to genotoxic agents. This peptide, named N-terminal Chk1-binding peptide (Chk1-NP), bound the kinase domain of Chk1. Simulation of the binding revealed that the very N-terminus of the Chk1 kinase domain is the potential peptide binding site. Of note, the polyarginine-mediated internalization of Chk1-NP redistributed nuclear Chk1 with a prominent decrease in the nucleus in the absence of DNA damage. Treatment with Chk1-NP peptide alone decreased the viability of p53-defective HeLa cells, but not that of p53-functional NCI-H460 cells under normal conditions. The treatment of HeLa or NCI-H460 cells with the peptide significantly enhanced radiation sensitivity following ionizing radiation (IR) with a greater enhancement observed in HeLa cells. Moreover, the IR-induced destabilization of Chk1 was aggravated by treatment with Chk1-NP. Therefore, the decreased nuclear localization and protein levels of Chk1 seem to be responsible for the enhanced cancer cell killing following combined treatment with IR and Chk1-NP. The approach using the specific Chk1-binding peptide may facilitate the mechanistic understanding and potential modulation of Chk1 activities and may provide a novel rationale for the development of specific Chk1-targeting agents. PMID:28025997

  16. HLA-A11-mediated protection from NK cell-mediated lysis: role of HLA-A11-presented peptides.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, R; Zhang, Q J; Masucci, M G

    1996-08-01

    The capacity of MHC class I to protect target cells from NK is well established, but the mechanism by which these molecules influence NK recognition and the physical properties associated with this function remain poorly defined. We have examined this issue using as a model the HLA-A11 allele. HLA-A11 expression correlated with reduced susceptibility to NK and interferon-activated cytotoxicity in transfected sublines of the A11-defective Burkitt's lymphoma WW2-BL and the HLA class I A,B-null C1R cell line. Protection was also achieved by transfection of HLA-A11 in the peptide processing mutant T2 cells line (T2/A11), despite a very low expression of the transfected product at the cell surface. Induction of surface HLA-A11 by culture of T2/A11 cells at 26 degrees C or in the presence of beta 2m did not affect lysis, whereas NK sensitivity was restored by culture in the presence of HLA-All-binding synthetic peptides derived from viral or cellular proteins. Acid treatment rendered T2/A11 and C1R/A11 cells sensitive to lysis, but protection was restored after preincubation with peptide preparations derived from surface stripping of T2/A11 cells. Similar peptide preparations from T2 cells had no effect. The results suggest that NK protection is mediated by HLA-A11 molecules carrying a particular set of peptides that are translocated to the site of MHC class I assembly in the ER in a TAP-independent fashion.

  17. Amelogenin exons 8 and 9 encoded peptide enhances leucine rich amelogenin peptide mediated dental pulp repair.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yulei; Goldberg, Michel; Le, Thuan; Qiang, Ran; Warner, Douglas; Witkowska, Halina Ewa; Liu, Haichuan; Zhu, Li; Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenins containing exons 8 and 9 are alternatively spliced variants of amelogenin. Some amelogenin spliced variants have been found to promote pulp regeneration following pulp exposure. The function of the amelogenin spliced variants with the exons 8 and 9 remains unknown. In this study, we synthesized recombinant leucine rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP, A-4), LRAP plus exons 8 and 9 peptide (LRAP 8, 9) or exons 8 and 9 peptide (P89), to determine their effects on odontoblasts. In vivo analyses were completed following the insertion of agarose beads containing LRAP or LRAP 8, 9 into exposed cavity preparations of rat molars. After 8, 15 or 30 days' exposure, the pulp tissues were analyzed for changes in histomorphometry and cell proliferation by PCNA stainings. In vitro analyses included the effects of the addition of the recombinant proteins or peptide on cell proliferation, differentiation and adhesion of postnatal human dental pulp cells (DPCs). These studies showed that in vivo LRAP 8, 9 enhanced the reparative dentin formation as compared to LRAP. In vitro LRAP 8, 9 promoted DPC proliferation and differentiation to a greater extent than LRAP. These data suggest that amelogenin exons 8 and 9 may be useful in amelogenin-mediated pulp repair. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries as driving force for HIV fusion peptide-mediated fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2016-04-01

    Lipids and proteins are organized in cellular membranes in clusters, often called `lipid rafts'. Although raft-constituent ordered lipid domains are thought to be energetically unfavourable for membrane fusion, rafts have long been implicated in many biological fusion processes. For the case of HIV gp41-mediated membrane fusion, this apparent contradiction can be resolved by recognizing that the interfaces between ordered and disordered lipid domains are the predominant sites of fusion. Here we show that line tension at lipid domain boundaries contributes significant energy to drive gp41-fusion peptide-mediated fusion. This energy, which depends on the hydrophobic mismatch between ordered and disordered lipid domains, may contribute tens of kBT to fusion, that is, it is comparable to the energy required to form a lipid stalk intermediate. Line-active compounds such as vitamin E lower line tension in inhomogeneous membranes, thereby inhibit membrane fusion, and thus may be useful natural viral entry inhibitors.

  19. Axl as a mediator of cellular growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Haley; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2014-10-15

    The control of cellular growth and proliferation is key to the maintenance of homeostasis. Survival, proliferation, and arrest are regulated, in part, by Growth Arrest Specific 6 (Gas6) through binding to members of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family. Activation of the TAM receptors leads to downstream signaling through common kinases, but the exact mechanism within each cellular context varies and remains to be completely elucidated. Deregulation of the TAM family, due to its central role in mediating cellular proliferation, has been implicated in multiple diseases. Axl was cloned as the first TAM receptor in a search for genes involved in the progression of chronic to acute-phase leukemia, and has since been established as playing a critical role in the progression of cancer. The oncogenic nature of Axl is demonstrated through its activation of signaling pathways involved in proliferation, migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and therapeutic resistance. Despite its recent discovery, significant progress has been made in the development of effective clinical therapeutics targeting Axl. In order to accurately define the role of Axl in normal and diseased processes, it must be analyzed in a cell type-specific context.

  20. Axl as a mediator of cellular growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Haley; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of cellular growth and proliferation is key to the maintenance of homeostasis. Survival, proliferation, and arrest are regulated, in part, by Growth Arrest Specific 6 (Gas6) through binding to members of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family. Activation of the TAM receptors leads to downstream signaling through common kinases, but the exact mechanism within each cellular context varies and remains to be completely elucidated. Deregulation of the TAM family, due to its central role in mediating cellular proliferation, has been implicated in multiple diseases. Axl was cloned as the first TAM receptor in a search for genes involved in the progression of chronic to acute-phase leukemia, and has since been established as playing a critical role in the progression of cancer. The oncogenic nature of Axl is demonstrated through its activation of signaling pathways involved in proliferation, migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and therapeutic resistance. Despite its recent discovery, significant progress has been made in the development of effective clinical therapeutics targeting Axl. In order to accurately define the role of Axl in normal and diseased processes, it must be analyzed in a cell type-specific context. PMID:25344858

  1. VIPhyb, an antagonist of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor, enhances cellular antiviral immunity in murine cytomegalovirus infected mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ming; Darlak, Kasia A; Southerland, Lauren; Hossain, Mohammad S; Jaye, David L; Josephson, Cassandra D; Rosenthal, Hilary; Waller, Edmund K

    2013-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide hormone that suppresses Th1-mediated cellular immunity. We previously reported that VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice have enhanced cellular immune responses and increased survival following murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection in C57BL/6 mice. In this study, we tested whether treatment with a VIP receptor antagonistic peptide protects C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice from mCMV-infection. One week of daily subcutaneous injections of VIPhyb was non-toxic and did not alter frequencies of immune cell subsets in non-infected mice. VIPhyb administration to mCMV-infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice markedly enhanced survival, viral clearance, and reduced liver and lung pathology compared with saline-treated controls. The numbers of effector/memory CD8+ T-cells and mature NK cells were increased in VIPhyb-treated mice compared with PBS-treated groups. Pharmacological blockade of VIP-receptor binding or genetic blockade of VIP-signaling prevented the up-regulation of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression on DC and activated CD8+ T-cells, respectively, in mCMV-infected mice, and enhanced CD80, CD86, and MHC-II expression on conventional and plasmacytoid DC. VIPhyb-treatment increased type-I IFN synthesis, numbers of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-expressing NK cells and T-cells, and the numbers of mCMV-M45 epitope-peptide-MHC-I tetramer CD8+ T-cells following mCMV infection. VIP-treatment lowered the percentage of Treg cells in spleens compared with PBS-treated WT mice following mCMV infection, while significantly decreasing levels of serum VEGF induced by mCMV-infection. The mice in all treated groups exhibited similar levels of anti-mCMV antibody titers. Short-term administration of a VIP-receptor antagonist represents a novel approach to enhance innate and adaptive cellular immunity in a murine model of CMV infection.

  2. The Primary Mechanism of Cellular Internalization for a Short Cell- Penetrating Peptide as a Nano-Scale Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lo, Shih-Yen; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective drug delivery systems (DDS) is a critical issue in health care and medicine. Advances in molecular biology and nanotechnology have allowed the introduction of nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can form the basis of drug delivery systems by virtue of their ability to support the transport of cargoes into the cell. Potential cargoes include proteins, DNA, RNA, liposomes, and nanomaterials. These cargoes generally retain their bioactivities upon entering cells. In the present study, the smallest, fully-active lactoferricin-derived CPP, L5a is used to demonstrate the primary contributor of cellular internalization. The secondary helical structure of L5a encompasses symmetrical positive charges around the periphery. The contributions of cell-specificity, peptide length, concentration, zeta potential, particle size, and spatial structure of the peptides were examined, but only zeta potential and spatial structure affected protein transduction efficiency. FITC-labeled L5a appeared to enter cells via direct membrane translocation insofar as endocytic modulators did not block FITC-L5a entry. This is the same mechanism of protein transduction active in Cy5 labeled DNA delivery mediated by FITC-L5a. A significant reduction of transduction efficiency was observed with structurally incomplete FITC-L5a formed by tryptic destruction, in which case the mechanism of internalization switched to a classical energydependent endocytosis pathway. These results support the continued development of the non-cytotoxic L5a as an efficient tool for drug delivery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Mechanisms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation of CIGB-300, a Tat-conjugated peptide, in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Benavent Acero, Fernando R; Perera Negrin, Yasser; Alonso, Daniel F; Perea, Silvio E; Gomez, Daniel E; Farina, Hernán G

    2014-06-02

    CIGB-300 is a cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells, elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models, and shows tumor reduction signs when assayed in first-in-human phase I trial in patients with cervical tumors. CIGB-300 impairs phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 through targeting the substrate's phosphoacceptor domain. CIGB-300 was linked to the cell penetrating peptide Tat to facilitate the delivery into cells. Previously, we showed that CIGB-300 had a differential antiproliferative behavior in different tumor cell lines. In this work, we studied differential antiproliferative behavior in terms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation in tumor cell lines with dissimilar sensitivity to CIGB-300. The internalization of CIGB-300 was studied in different malignant cell lines. We found that the cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as main receptors for extracellular CIGB-300 uptake. The most sensitive tumor cell lines showed higher intracellular incorporation of CIGB-300 in comparison to less sensitive cell lines. Furthermore, CIGB-300 uptake is time- and concentration-dependent in all studied cell lines. It was shown that CIGB-300 has the ability to penetrate cells mainly by direct membrane translocation. However, a minor proportion of the peptide uses an energy-dependent endocytic pathway mechanism to gain access into cells. CIGB-300 is internalized and transported into cells preferentially by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Lysosomes are involved in CIGB-300 degradation; highly sensitive cell lines showed degradation at earlier times compared to low sensitive cells. Altogether, our data suggests a mechanism of internalization, vesicular transportation, and degradation for CIGB-300 in tumor cells.

  4. Cellular Internalization of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides by Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers and Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Didem; Sardan Ekiz, Melis; Gunay, Gokhan; Tekinay, Turgay; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-05-11

    Oligonucleotides are promising drug candidates due to the exceptionally high specificity they exhibit toward their target DNA and RNA sequences. However, their poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, in conjunction with problems associated with their internalization by cells, necessitates their delivery through specialized carrier systems for efficient therapy. Here, we investigate the effects of carrier morphology on the cellular internalization mechanisms of oligonucleotides by using self-assembled fibrous or spherical peptide nanostructures. Size and geometry were both found to be important parameters for the oligonucleotide internalization process; direct penetration was determined to be the major mechanism for the internalization of nanosphere carriers, whereas nanofibers were internalized by clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathways. We further showed that glucose conjugation to carrier nanosystems improved cellular internalization in cancer cells due to the enhanced glucose metabolism associated with oncogenesis, and the internalization of the glucose-conjugated peptide/oligonucleotide complexes was found to be dependent on glucose transporters present on the surface of the cell membrane.

  5. Divergent unprotected peptide macrocyclisation by palladium-mediated cysteine arylation.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Anthony J; Zhang, Chi; Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Buchwald, Nathan H; Reilly, John; Pentelute, Bradley L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Macrocyclic peptides are important therapeutic candidates due to their improved physicochemical properties in comparison to their linear counterparts. Here we detail a method for a divergent macrocyclisation of unprotected peptides by crosslinking two cysteine residues with bis-palladium organometallic reagents. These synthetic intermediates are prepared in a single step from commercially available aryl bis-halides. Two bioactive linear peptides with cysteine residues at i , i + 4 and i , i + 7 positions, respectively, were cyclised to introduce a diverse array of aryl and bi-aryl linkers. These two series of macrocyclic peptides displayed similar linker-dependent lipophilicity, phospholipid affinity, and unique volume of distributions. Additionally, one of the bioactive peptides showed target binding affinity that was predominantly affected by the length of the linker. Collectively, this divergent strategy allowed rapid and convenient access to various aryl linkers, enabling the systematic evaluation of the effect of appending unit on the medicinal properties of macrocyclic peptides.

  6. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  7. Discovery of cellular substrates for protein kinase A using a peptide array screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Smith, F Donelson; Samelson, Bret K; Scott, John D

    2011-08-15

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a universal form of cellular regulation. Phosphorylation on serine, threonine, tyrosine or histidine residues by protein kinases is the most widespread and versatile form of covalent modification. Resultant changes in activity, localization or stability of phosphoproteins drives cellular events. MS and bioinformatic analyses estimate that ~30% of intracellular proteins are phosphorylated at any given time. Multiple approaches have been developed to systematically define targets of protein kinases; however, it is likely that we have yet to catalogue the full complement of the phosphoproteome. The amino acids that surround a phosphoacceptor site are substrate determinants for protein kinases. For example, basophilic enzymes such as PKA (protein kinase A), protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent kinases recognize basic side chains preceding the target serine or threonine residues. In the present paper we describe a strategy using peptide arrays and motif-specific antibodies to identify and characterize previously unrecognized substrate sequences for protein kinase A. We found that the protein kinases PKD (protein kinase D) and MARK3 [MAP (microtubule-associated protein)-regulating kinase 3] can both be phosphorylated by PKA. Furthermore, we show that the adapter protein RIL [a product of PDLIM4 (PDZ and LIM domain protein 4)] is a PKA substrate that is phosphorylated on Ser(119) inside cells and that this mode of regulation may control its ability to affect cell growth. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  8. Adsorption of cellular peptides of Microcystis aeruginosa and two herbicides onto activated carbon: effect of surface charge and interactions.

    PubMed

    Hnatukova, Petra; Kopecka, Ivana; Pivokonsky, Martin

    2011-05-01

    In this research, the adsorption of two herbicides, alachlor (ALA) and terbuthylazine (TBA), on granular activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of well-characterized peptide fraction of cellular organic matter (COM) produced by cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was studied. Two commercially available GACs were characterized using nitrogen gas adsorption and surface charge titrations. The COM peptides of molecular weight (MW) < 10 kDa were isolated and characterized using MW fractionation technique and high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The effect of surface charge on the adsorption of COM peptides was studied by means of equilibrium adsorption experiments at pH 5 and pH 8.5. Electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding proved to be important mechanisms of COM peptides adsorption. The adsorption of ALA and TBA on granular activated carbon preloaded with COM peptides was influenced by solution pH. The reduction in adsorption was significantly greater at pH 5 compared to pH 8.5, which corresponded to the increased adsorption of COM peptides at pH 5. The majority of the competition between COM peptides and both herbicides was attributed to low molecular weight COM peptides with MW of 700, 900, 1300 and 1700 Da. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing the cellular uptake of siRNA duplexes following noncovalent packaging with protein transduction domain peptides.

    PubMed

    Meade, Bryan R; Dowdy, Steven F

    2008-03-01

    The major limitation in utilizing information rich macromolecules for basic science and therapeutic applications is the inability of these large molecules to readily diffuse across the cellular membrane. While this restriction represents an efficient defense system against cellular penetration of unwanted foreign molecules and thus a crucial component of cell survival, overcoming this cellular characteristic for the intracellular delivery of macromolecules has been the focus of a large number of research groups worldwide. Recently, with the discovery of RNA interference, many of these groups have redirected their attention and have applied previously characterized cell delivery methodologies to synthetic short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA). Protein transduction domain and cell penetrating peptides have been shown to enhance the delivery of multiple types of macromolecular cargo including peptides, proteins and antisense oligonucleotides and are now being utilized to enhance the cellular uptake of siRNA molecules. The dense cationic charge of these peptides that is critical for interaction with cell membrane components prior to internalization has also been shown to readily package siRNA molecules into stable nanoparticles that are capable of traversing the cell membrane. This review discusses the recent advances in noncovalent packaging of siRNA molecules with cationic peptides and the potential for the resulting complexes to successfully induce RNA interference within both in vitro and in vivo settings.

  10. The Design and Delivery of a Thermally Responsive Peptide to Inhibit S100B Mediated Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Scoty M; Walker, Leslie R; Shao, Qingmei; Lopez, Mariper; Raucher, Drazen; Vig, Parminder J S

    2011-01-01

    S100B, a glial secreted protein is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). SCA1 is a trinucleotide repeat disorder in which the expanded polyglutamine mutation in the protein ataxin-1 primarily targets Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellum. Currently, the exact mechanism of S100B mediated PC damage in SCA1 is not clear. However, here we show that S100B may act via the activation of the RAGE signaling pathway resulting in oxidative stress mediated injury to mutant ataxin-1 expressing neurons. To combat S100B mediated neurodegeneration, we have designed a selective thermally responsive S100B inhibitory peptide, Synb1-ELP-TRTK. Our therapeutic polypeptide was developed using three key elements: (1) the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), a thermally responsive polypeptide, (2) the TRTK12 peptide, a known S100B inhibitory peptide and (3) a cell penetrating peptide, Synb1, to enhance intracellular delivery. Binding studies revealed that our peptide, Synb1-ELP-TRTK, interacts with its molecular target S100B and maintains a high S100B binding affinity as comparable with the TRTK12 peptide alone. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that Synb1-ELP-TRTK treatment reduces S100B uptake in SHSY5Y cells. Furthermore, the Synb1-ELP-TRTK peptide decreased S100B induced oxidative damage to mutant ataxin-1 expressing neurons. To test the delivery capabilities of ELP based therapeutic peptides to the cerebellum; we treated mice with fluorescently labeled Synb1-ELP and observed that thermal targeting enhanced peptide delivery to the cerebellum. Here, we have laid the framework for thermal based therapeutic targeting to regions of the brain, particularly the cerebellum. Overall, our data suggests that thermal targeting of ELP based therapeutic peptides to the cerebellum is a novel treatment strategy for cerebellar neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21958864

  11. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HLA-DM mediates epitope selection by a "compare-exchange" mechanism when a potential peptide pool is available.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Andrea; Anderson, Matthew W; Klug, Candice S; Gorski, Jack

    2008-01-01

    HLA-DM (DM) mediates exchange of peptides bound to MHC class II (MHCII) during the epitope selection process. Although DM has been shown to have two activities, peptide release and MHC class II refolding, a clear characterization of the mechanism by which DM facilitates peptide exchange has remained elusive. We have previously demonstrated that peptide binding to and dissociation from MHCII in the absence of DM are cooperative processes, likely related to conformational changes in the peptide-MHCII complex. Here we show that DM promotes peptide release by a non-cooperative process, whereas it enhances cooperative folding of the exchange peptide. Through electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and fluorescence polarization (FP) we show that DM releases prebound peptide very poorly in the absence of a candidate peptide for the exchange process. The affinity and concentration of the candidate peptide are also important for the release of the prebound peptide. Increased fluorescence energy transfer between the prebound and exchange peptides in the presence of DM is evidence for a tetramolecular complex which resolves in favor of the peptide that has superior folding properties. This study shows that both the peptide releasing activity on loaded MHCII and the facilitating of MHCII binding by a candidate exchange peptide are integral to DM mediated epitope selection. The exchange process is initiated only in the presence of candidate peptides, avoiding possible release of a prebound peptide and loss of a potential epitope. In a tetramolecular transitional complex, the candidate peptides are checked for their ability to replace the pre-bound peptide with a geometry that allows the rebinding of the original peptide. Thus, DM promotes a "compare-exchange" sorting algorithm on an available peptide pool. Such a "third party"-mediated mechanism may be generally applicable for diverse ligand recognition in other biological systems.

  13. Competition-based cellular peptide binding assays for 13 prevalent HLA class I alleles using fluorescein-labeled synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jan H; Mommaas, Bregje; Mutis, Tuna; Huijbers, Ivo; Vissers, Debby; Benckhuijsen, Willemien E; Schreuder, Geziena M Th; Offringa, Rienk; Goulmy, Els; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Drijfhout, Jan W

    2003-02-01

    We report the development, validation, and application of competition-based peptide binding assays for 13 prevalent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. The assays are based on peptide binding to HLA molecules on living cells carrying the particular allele. Competition for binding between the test peptide of interest and a fluorescein-labeled HLA class I binding peptide is used as read out. The use of cell membrane-bound HLA class I molecules circumvents the need for laborious biochemical purification of these molecules in soluble form. Previously, we have applied this principle for HLA-A2 and HLA-A3. We now describe the assays for HLA-A1, HLA-A11, HLA-A24, HLA-A68, HLA-B7, HLA-B8, HLA-B14, HLA-B35, HLA-B60, HLA-B61, and HLA-B62. Together with HLA-A2 and HLA-A3, these alleles cover more than 95% of the Caucasian population. Several allele-specific parameters were determined for each assay. Using these assays, we identified novel HLA class I high-affinity binding peptides from HIVpol, p53, PRAME, and minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1. Thus these convenient and accurate peptide-binding assays will be useful for the identification of putative cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes presented on a diverse array of HLA class I molecules.

  14. Peptide mediated intracellular delivery of semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Anshika; Safi, Malak; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Medina, Scott; Palui, Goutam; Johnson, John E.; Schneider, Joel; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2017-02-01

    As control over the growth, stabilization and functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles continue to advance, interest in integrating these materials with biological systems has steadily grown in the past decade. Much attention has been directed towards identifying effective approaches to promote cytosolic internalization of the nanoparticles while avoiding endocytosis. We describe the use of NωV virus derived gamma peptide and a chemically synthesized anticancer peptide, SVS-1 peptide, as vehicles to promote the non-endocytic uptake of luminescent quantum dots (QDs) inside live cells. The gamma peptide is expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein with poly-his tagged MBP (His-MBP-γ) to allow self-assembly onto QDs via metal-histidine conjugation. Conversely, the N-terminal cysteine residue of the SVS-1 peptide is attached to the functionalized QDs via covalent coupling chemistry. Epi-fluorescence microscopy images show that the QD-conjugate staining is distributed throughout the cytoplasm of cell cultures. Additionally, the QD staining does not show co-localization with transferrin-dye-labelled endosomes or DAPI stained nuclei. The QD uptake observed in the presence of physical and pharmacological endocytosis inhibitors further suggest that a physical translocation of QDs through the cell membrane is the driving mechanism for the uptake.

  15. Molecular Determinants of the Cellular Entry of Asymmetric Peptide Dendrimers and Role of Caveolae.

    PubMed

    Rewatkar, Prarthana V; Parekh, Harendra S; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2016-01-01

    Caveolae are flask-shaped plasma membrane subdomains abundant in most cell types that participate in endocytosis. Caveola formation and functions require membrane proteins of the caveolin family, and cytoplasmic proteins of the cavin family. Cationic peptide dendrimers are non-vesicular chemical carriers that can transport pharmacological agents or genetic material across the plasma membrane. We prepared a panel of cationic dendrimers and investigated whether they require caveolae to enter into cells. Cell-based studies were performed using wild type or caveola-deficient i.e. caveolin-1 or PTRF gene-disrupted cells. There was a statistically significant difference in entry of cationic dendrimers between wild type and caveola-deficient cells. We further unveiled differences between dendrimers with varying charge density and head groups. Our results show, using a molecular approach, that (i) expression of caveola-forming proteins promotes cellular entry of cationic dendrimers and (ii) dendrimer structure can be modified to promote endocytosis in caveola-forming cells.

  16. Molecular Determinants of the Cellular Entry of Asymmetric Peptide Dendrimers and Role of Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Rewatkar, Prarthana V.; Parekh, Harendra S.; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2016-01-01

    Caveolae are flask-shaped plasma membrane subdomains abundant in most cell types that participate in endocytosis. Caveola formation and functions require membrane proteins of the caveolin family, and cytoplasmic proteins of the cavin family. Cationic peptide dendrimers are non-vesicular chemical carriers that can transport pharmacological agents or genetic material across the plasma membrane. We prepared a panel of cationic dendrimers and investigated whether they require caveolae to enter into cells. Cell-based studies were performed using wild type or caveola-deficient i.e. caveolin-1 or PTRF gene-disrupted cells. There was a statistically significant difference in entry of cationic dendrimers between wild type and caveola-deficient cells. We further unveiled differences between dendrimers with varying charge density and head groups. Our results show, using a molecular approach, that (i) expression of caveola-forming proteins promotes cellular entry of cationic dendrimers and (ii) dendrimer structure can be modified to promote endocytosis in caveola-forming cells. PMID:26788849

  17. HLA-E: Presentation of a Broader Peptide Repertoire Impacts the Cellular Immune Response-Implications on HSCT Outcome.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Thomas; Celik, Alexander A; Huyton, Trevor; Kunze-Schumacher, Heike; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The HLA-E locus encodes a nonclassical class Ib molecule that serves many immune functions from inhibiting NK cells to activating CTLs. Structural analysis of HLA-E/NKG2A complexes visualized fine-tuning of protective immune responses through AA interactions between HLA-E, the bound peptide, and NKG2A/CD94. A loss of cellular protection through abrogation of the HLA-E/NKG2A engagement is dependent on the HLA-E bound peptide. The role of HLA-E in posttransplant outcomes is not well understood but might be attributed to its peptide repertoire. To investigate the self-peptide repertoire of HLA-E (∗) 01:01 in the absence of protective HLA class I signal peptides, we utilized soluble HLA technology in class I negative LCL cells in order to characterize HLA-E (∗) 01:01-bound ligands by mass-spectrometry. To understand the immunological impact of these analyzed ligands on NK cell reactivity, we performed cellular assays. Synthesized peptides were loaded onto recombinant T2 cells expressing HLA-E (∗) 01:01 molecules and applied in cytotoxicity assays using the leukemia derived NK cell line (NKL) as effector. HLA-E in complex with the self-peptides demonstrated a shift towards cytotoxicity and a loss of cell protection. Our data highlights the fact that the HLA-E-peptidome is not as restricted as previously thought and support the suggestion of a posttransplant role for HLA-E.

  18. Tempo-spatially resolved cellular dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus transacting activator of transcription (Tat) peptide-modified nanocargos in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Yang, Qiaoyu; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs could not actively target the cell nuclei, which is contrary to previous observations based on fixed cell results. More importantly, the inheritance of TGNPs to the daughter cells through mitosis was found to be the major route to metabolize TGNPs by HeLa cells. These understandings on the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocargos in living cells would provide deep insight on how to improve and controllably manipulate their translocation efficiency for targeted drug delivery.Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs

  19. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  20. Contribution of Kv7 channels to natriuretic peptide mediated vasodilation in normal and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jennifer B; Barrese, Vincenzo; Jepps, Thomas A; Leighton, Emma V; Greenwood, Iain A

    2015-03-01

    The Kv7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels are expressed within the vasculature where they are key regulators of vascular tone and mediate cAMP-linked endogenous vasodilator responses, a pathway that is compromised in hypertension. However, the role of Kv7 channels in non-cAMP-linked vasodilator pathways has not been investigated. Natriuretic peptides are potent vasodilators, which operate primarily through the activation of a cGMP-dependent signaling pathway. This study investigated the putative role of Kv7 channels in natriuretic peptide-dependent relaxations in the vasculature of normal and hypertensive animals. Relaxant responses of rat aorta to both atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides and the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside were impaired by the Kv7 blocker linopirdine (10 μmol/L) but not by the Kv7.1-specific blocker HMR1556 (10 μmol/L) and other K(+) channel blockers. In contrast, only the atrial natriuretic peptide response was sensitive to linopirdine in the renal artery. These Kv7-mediated responses were attenuated in arteries from hypertensive rats. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that A- and B-type natriuretic peptide receptors were expressed at high levels in the aorta and renal artery from normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This study provides the first evidence that natriuretic peptide responses are impaired in hypertension and that recruitment of Kv7 channels is a key component of natriuretic peptide-dependent vasodilations. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N.

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd{sup 2+}). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd{sup 2+} is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+}. The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2–4more » fold increase of Cd{sup 2+} uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) of 130 ± 15.8 μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139 ± 21.3 μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7 ± 13.5 μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd{sup 2+} could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 97.5 ± 6.0 μM, 20.2 ± 2.6 μM, and 49.9 ± 6.9 μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd{sup 2+} out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd{sup 2+} and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. - Highlights: • Cadmium is an environmentally prevalent toxicant. • Little was known regarding the elimination and detoxification of cadmium. • Cadmium ion is here demonstrated as a substrate of MATE transporters. • MATEs may function as cellular elimination machinery in cadmium detoxification.« less

  2. Carrier Mediated Systemic Delivery of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rahela; Othman, Iekhan; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades proteins and peptide therapeutics have occupied an enormous fraction of pharmaceutical industry. Despite their high potential as therapeutics, the big challenge often encountered is the effective administration and bioavailability of protein therapeutics in vivo system. Peptide molecules are well known for their in vivo short half-lives. In addition, due to high molecular weight and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, often it is not easy to administer peptides and proteins orally or through any other noninvasive routes. Conventional drug management system often demands for frequent and regular interval intravenous/subcutaneous administration, which decreases overall patient compliance and increases chances of side-effects related to dose-fluctuation in systemic circulation. A controlled mode of delivery system could address all these short-comings at a time. Therefore, long-acting sustained release formulations for both invasive and noninvasive routes are under rigorous study currently. Long-acting formulations through invasive routes can address patient compliance and dose-fluctuation issues by less frequent administration. Also, any new route of administration other than invasive routes will address cost-effectiveness of the therapeutic by lessening the need to deal with health professional and health care facility. Although a vast number of studies are dealing with novel drug delivery systems, till now only a handful of controlled release formulations for proteins and peptides have been approved by FDA. This study therefore focuses on current and perspective controlled release formulations of existing and novel protein/peptide therapeutics via conventional invasive routes as well as potential novel non-invasive routes of administration, e.g., oral, buccal, sublingual, nasal, ocular, rectal, vaginal and pulmonary.

  3. Gold Nanocluster-Mediated Cellular Death under Electromagnetic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Rius, Anna; Ivask, Angela; Das, Shreya; Penya-Auladell, Nuria; Fabregas, Laura; Fletcher, Nicholas L; Houston, Zachary H; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-11-29

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have become a promising nanomaterial for cancer therapy because of their biocompatibility and fluorescent properties. In this study, the effect of ultrasmall protein-stabilized 2 nm Au NCs on six types of mammalian cells (fibroblasts, B-lymphocytes, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and two types of prostate cancer cells) under electromagnetic radiation is investigated. Cellular association of Au NCs in vitro is concentration-dependent, and Au NCs have low intrinsic toxicity. However, when Au NC-incubated cells are exposed to a 1 GHz electromagnetic field (microwave radiation), cell viability significantly decreases, thus demonstrating that Au NCs exhibit specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity, likely resulting from localized heating. Upon i.v. injection in mice, Au NCs are still present at 24 h post administration. Considering the specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity and low intrinsic toxicity, our work suggests the potential of Au NCs as effective and safe nanomedicines for cancer therapy.

  4. An integrated vector system for cellular studies of phage display-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Voss, Stephan D; DeGrand, Alec M; Romeo, Giulio R; Cantley, Lewis C; Frangioni, John V

    2002-09-15

    Peptide phage display is a method by which large numbers of diverse peptides can be screened for binding to a target of interest. Even when successful, the rate-limiting step is usually validation of peptide bioactivity using living cells. In this paper, we describe an integrated system of vectors that expedites both the screening and the characterization processes. Library construction and screening is performed using an optimized type 3 phage display vector, mJ(1), which is shown to accept peptide libraries of at least 23 amino acids in length. Peptide coding sequences are shuttled from mJ(1) into one of three families of mammalian expression vectors for cell physiological studies. The vector pAL(1) expresses phage display-derived peptides as Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins for transcriptional activation studies. The vectors pG(1), pG(1)N, and pG(1)C express phage display-derived peptides as green fluorescent protein fusions targeted to the entire cell, nucleus, or cytoplasm, respectively. The vector pAP(1) expresses phage display-derived peptides as fusions to secreted placental alkaline phosphatase. Such enzyme fusions can be used as highly sensitive affinity reagents for high-throughput assays and for cloning of peptide-binding cell surface receptors. Taken together, this system of vectors should facilitate the development of phage display-derived peptides into useful biomolecules.

  5. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications. PMID:28629179

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-19

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Katzenback, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids), usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent—the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection. PMID:26426065

  9. Targeting Neutrophilic Inflammation Using Polymersome-Mediated Cellular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James D; Ward, Jon R; Avila-Olias, Milagros; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Renshaw, Stephen A

    2017-05-01

    Neutrophils are key effector cells in inflammation and play an important role in neutralizing invading pathogens. During inflammation resolution, neutrophils undergo apoptosis before they are removed by macrophages, but if apoptosis is delayed, neutrophils can cause extensive tissue damage and chronic disease. Promotion of neutrophil apoptosis is a potential therapeutic approach for treating persistent inflammation, yet neutrophils have proven difficult cells to manipulate experimentally. In this study, we deliver therapeutic compounds to neutrophils using biocompatible, nanometer-sized synthetic vesicles, or polymersomes, which are internalized by binding to scavenger receptors and subsequently escape the early endosome through a pH-triggered disassembly mechanism. This allows polymersomes to deliver molecules into the cell cytosol of neutrophils without causing cellular activation. After optimizing polymersome size, we show that polymersomes can deliver the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (R)-roscovitine into human neutrophils to promote apoptosis in vitro. Finally, using a transgenic zebrafish model, we show that encapsulated (R)-roscovitine can speed up inflammation resolution in vivo more efficiently than the free drug. These results show that polymersomes are effective intracellular carriers for drug delivery into neutrophils. This has important consequences for the study of neutrophil biology and the development of neutrophil-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Cellular Nuclear Export Factors TAP and Aly Are Required for HDAg-L-mediated Assembly of Hepatitis Delta Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, Chung-Pei; Liu, Hui-Kang; Chang, Ming-Fu; Lai, Yu-Heng; Lee, Yu-Ching; Huang, Cheng

    2016-12-09

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV genome encodes two forms of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), small HDAg (HDAg-S), which is required for viral replication, and large HDAg (HDAg-L), which is essential for viral assembly. HDAg-L is identical to HDAg-S except that it bears a 19-amino acid extension at the C terminus. Both HDAgs contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but only HDAg-L contains a CRM1-independent nuclear export signal at its C terminus. The nuclear export activity of HDAg-L is important for HDV particle formation. However, the mechanisms of HDAg-L-mediated nuclear export of HDV ribonucleoprotein are not clear. In this study, the host cellular RNA export complex TAP-Aly was found to form a complex with HDAg-L, but not with an export-defective HDAg-L mutant, in which Pro 205 was replaced by Ala. HDAg-L was found to colocalize with TAP and Aly in the nucleus. The C-terminal domain of HDAg-L was shown to directly interact with the N terminus of TAP, whereas an HDAg-L mutant lacking the NLS failed to interact with full-length TAP. In addition, small hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of TAP or Aly reduced nuclear export of HDAg-L and assembly of HDV virions. Furthermore, a peptide, TAT-HDAg-L(198-210), containing the 10-amino acid TAT peptide and HDAg-L(198-210), inhibited the interaction between HDAg-L and TAP and blocked HDV virion assembly and secretion. These data demonstrate that formation and release of HDV particles are mediated by TAP and Aly. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Cell-Penetrating Peptide-Mediated Delivery of Cas9 Protein and Guide RNA for Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Bharathi; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Kim, Hyongbum

    2017-01-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system represents an efficient tool for genome editing. It consists of two components: the Cas9 protein and a guide RNA. To date, delivery of these two components has been achieved using either plasmid or viral vectors or direct delivery of protein and RNA. Plasmid- and virus-free direct delivery of Cas9 protein and guide RNA has several advantages over the conventional plasmid-mediated approach. Direct delivery results in shorter exposure time at the cellular level, which in turn leads to lower toxicity and fewer off-target mutations with reduced host immune responses, whereas plasmid- or viral vector-mediated delivery can result in uncontrolled integration of the vector sequence into the host genome and unwanted immune responses. Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), a peptide that has an intrinsic ability to translocate across cell membranes, has been adopted as a means of achieving efficient Cas9 protein and guide RNA delivery. We developed a method for treating human cell lines with CPP-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs that leads to endogenous gene disruption. Here we describe a protocol for preparing an efficient CPP-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs, as well as treatment methods to achieve safe genome editing in human cell lines.

  12. p53-Mediated Cellular Response to DNA Damage in Cells with Replicative Hepatitis B Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puisieux, Alain; Ji, Jingwei; Guillot, Celine; Legros, Yann; Soussi, Thierry; Isselbacher, Kurt; Ozturk, Mehmet

    1995-02-01

    Wild-type p53 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by protecting cells from deleterious effects of genotoxic agents through the induction of a G_1/S arrest or apoptosis as a response to DNA damage. Transforming proteins of several oncogenic DNA viruses inactivate tumor suppressor activity of p53 by blocking this cellular response. To test whether hepatitis B virus displays a similar effect, we studied the p53-mediated cellular response to DNA damage in 2215 hepatoma cells with replicative hepatitis B virus. We demonstrate that hepatitis B virus replication does not interfere with known cellular functions of p53 protein.

  13. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Transfection by Melittin-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kirk K.; Pan, Hua; Ratner, Lee; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional peptide-mediated siRNA transfection via peptide transduction domains exhibits limited cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA due to endosomal entrapment. This work overcomes these limitations with the use of membrane-destabilizing peptides derived from melittin for the knockdown of NFkB signaling in a model of adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma. While the mechanism of siRNA delivery into the cytoplasmic compartment by peptide transduction domains has not been well studied, our analysis of melittin derivatives indicates that concurrent nanocomplex disassembly and peptide-mediated endosomolysis are crucial to siRNA transfection. Importantly, in the case of the most active derivative, p5RHH, this process is initiated by acidic pH, indicating that endosomal acidification after macropinocytosis can trigger siRNA release into the cytoplasm. These data provide general principles regarding nanocomplex response to endocytosis which may guide the development of peptide/siRNA nanocomplex-based transfection. PMID:24053333

  14. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides.

    PubMed

    Allred, Benjamin E; Rupert, Peter B; Gauny, Stacey S; An, Dahlia D; Ralston, Corie Y; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin-transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein-ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications.

  15. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Rupert, Peter B.; Gauny, Stacey S.; An, Dahlia D.; Ralston, Corie Y.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin–transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein–ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications. PMID:26240330

  16. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) – 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG5000-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG5000-DSPE/PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%–45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport. PMID:24940060

  17. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) - 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE/PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C₁₈ at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%-45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport.

  18. A photo-responsive peptide- and asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptide-mediated liposomal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangyang; Yang, Yanfang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Ying; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    The conjugation of tunable peptides or materials with nanocarriers represents a promising approach for drug delivery to tumor cells. In this study, we report the development of a novel liposomal carrier system that exploits the cell surface binding synergism between photo-sensitive peptides (PSPs) and targeting ligands. The positive charges of the lysine residues on the cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) were temporarily caged by the photolabile-protective groups (PG), thereby forming a PSP. Furthermore, this PSP enhances specific uptake into cancer cells after rapidly uncaging the PG via near-infrared (NIR) light illumination. In the circulatory system, the cell penetrability of PSP was hindered. In contrast, the asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptide moieties, selectively bind to CD13-positive tumors, were attached to the nanocarrier to facilitate the active accumulation of this liposomal carrier in tumor tissue. The dual-modified liposomes (PSP/NGR-L) were prepared by emulsification method, and the concentrations of DSPE-PEG 2000 -psCPP and DSPE-PEG 5000 -NGR in the liposomes were chosen to be 4% and 1% (molar ratio), respectively. The mean particle size of the PSP/NGR-L was about 95 nm, and the drug entrapment efficiency was more than 90%. Cellular uptake results demonstrated that the proposed PSP/NGR-L had an enhancement of cancer cell recognition and specific uptake. Furthermore, the PSP/NGR-L demonstrated a stronger antitumor efficacy in the HT-1080 tumor model in nude mice with the aid of NIR illumination.

  19. Copper(II) mediated facile and ultra fast peptide synthesis in methanol.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sachitanand M; Jadhav, Sandip V; Gopi, Hosahudya N

    2012-07-18

    A novel, ultrafast, mild and scalable amide bond formation strategy in methanol using simple thioacids and amines is described. The mechanism suggests that the coupling reactions are initially mediated by CuSO(4)·5H(2)O and subsequently catalyzed by in situ generated copper sulfide. The pure peptides were isolated in satisfactory yields in less than 5 minutes.

  20. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  1. Cellular IRES-mediated translation: the war of ITAFs in pathophysiological states.

    PubMed

    Komar, Anton A; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2011-01-15

    Translation of cellular mRNAs via initiation at Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs) has received increased attention during recent years due to its emerging significance for many physiological and pathological stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. Expression of genes bearing IRES elements in their mRNAs is controlled by multiple molecular mechanisms, with IRES-mediated translation favored under conditions when cap-dependent translation is compromised. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field and future directions that may bring us closer to understanding the complex mechanisms that guide cellular IRES-mediated expression. We present examples in which the competitive action of IRES-transacting factors (ITAFs) plays a pivotal role in IRES-mediated translation and thereby controls cell-fate decisions leading to either pro-survival stress adaptation or cell death.

  2. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  3. A surface-charge study on cellular-uptake behavior of F3-peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Mo; Park, Ji-Ho; Singelyn, Jennifer; Ma, Huiqing; Sailor, Michael J; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz

    2009-09-01

    Surface-charge measurements of mammalian cells in terms of Zeta potential are demonstrated as a useful biological characteristic in identifying cellular interactions with specific nanomaterials. A theoretical model of the changes in Zeta potential of cells after incubation with nanoparticles is established to predict the possible patterns of Zeta-potential change to reveal the binding and internalization effects. The experimental results show a distinct pattern of Zeta-potential change that allows the discrimination of human normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) from human cancer breast epithelial cells (MCF-7) when the cells are incubated with dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles that contain tumor-homing F3 peptides, where the tumor-homing F3 peptide specifically bound to nucleolin receptors that are overexpressed in cancer breast cells.

  4. Molecular cellular mechanisms of peptide regulation of melatonin synthesis in pinealocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Kvetnaia, T V; Polyakova, V O; Korf, H-W

    2012-06-01

    The effects of epithalone and vilone peptides on the synthesis of melatonin and factors involved in this process, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme and pCREB transcription protein, were studied in rat pinealocyte culture. Epithalone stimulated AANAT and pCREB synthesis and increased melatonin level in culture medium. Simultaneous addition of norepinephrine and peptides into the culture potentiated the expression of AANAT and pCREB.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Peptide Mediated Delivery of Anticancer Drug Ellipticine

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Pei; Sadatmousavi, Parisa; Yuan, Yongfang; Chen, P.

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid pairing peptide EAK16-II (EAK) has shown the ability to stabilize the hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine (EPT) in aqueous solution. In this study, we investigate pharmacokinetics of the formulation of EAK-EPT complexes in vivo. The developed formulation can achieve a sufficiently high drug concentration required in vivo animal models. The nanostructure and surface properties of EAK-EPT complexes or nanoparticle were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential measurements, respectively. 12 healthy male SD rats were divided into EPT group and EAK-EPT group randomly. Rats in EPT group were tail intravenously injected with the EPT (20 mg/kg); rats in EAK-EPT group were injected with EAK-EPT complexes (EPT's concentration is 20 mg/kg). EPT was extracted from rat plasma with dexamethasone sodium phosphate as internal standards (IS). The pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Significant differences in main pharmacokinetic parameters between EPT and EAK-EPT complexes were observed, demonstrating that the complexation with EAK prolongs the residence time of the drug and enlarges the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). This means that EAK can serve as a suitable carrier to increase the bioavailability of EPT. PMID:22952737

  6. Peptide-Mediated Platelet Capture at Gold Micropore Arrays.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Kellie; Spain, Elaine; Prendergast, Una; Moran, Niamh; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2016-11-30

    Ordered spherical cap gold cavity arrays with 5.4, 1.6, and 0.98 μm diameter apertures were explored as capture surfaces for human blood platelets to investigate the impact of surface geometry and chemical modification on platelet capture efficiency and their potential as platforms for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of single platelets. The substrates were chemically modified with single-constituent self-assembled monolayers (SAM) or mixed SAMs comprised of thiol-functionalized arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, a platelet integrin target) with or without 1-octanethiol (adhesion inhibitor). As expected, platelet adhesion was promoted and inhibited at RGD and alkanethiol modified surfaces, respectively. Platelet adhesion was reversible, and binding efficiency at the peptide modified substrates correlated inversely with pore diameter. Captured platelets underwent morphological change on capture, the extent of which depended on the topology of the underlying substrate. Regioselective capture of the platelets enabled study for the first time of the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of single blood platelets, yielding high quality Raman spectroscopy of individual platelets at 1.6 μm diameter pore arrays. Given the medical importance of blood platelets across a range of diseases from cancer to psychiatric illness, such approaches to platelet capture may provide a useful route to Raman spectroscopy for platelet related diagnostics.

  7. Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

    2004-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, β-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

  8. Ionophore-A23187-induced cellular cytotoxicity: a cell fragment mediated process.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, G S; Niedt, G W; MacDermott, R P

    1980-01-01

    Calcium ionophore A23187 was found to induce human white blood cells to kill human red blood cells. Optimal conditions for ionophore-induced cellular cytotoxicity (IICC) included an 18 h time period, an incubation temperature of 25 degrees, a 25:1 or 50:1 killer:target cell ratio,and a final ionophore concentration of 2 . 5 microgram/ml. WBC or granulocytes which were either frozen and thawed three times or sonicated were capable of mediating IICC. As intact cells, granulocytes (67 . 2% cytotoxicity), monocytes (34 . 8%), B cells (22 . 0%) and Null cells (19 . 3%) were effector cells but T cells (7 . 4%) were not. After fragmenting these cells, all cell types including T cells were able to mediate IICC. When cell lines (K562, Chang, and NCTC) were used as effectors, none would mediate IICC when intact. After freezing and thawing, Chang and NCTC would not mediate IICC, whereas K562 cells did. These studies may be indicative of a calcium-dependent, membrane-localized mechanism in cellular cytotoxic processes, and may provide a useful indicator system for isolation of the enzyme systems involved in cellular cytotoxicity. PMID:6773881

  9. Enhanced Cellular Adhesion on Titanium by Silk Functionalized with titanium binding and RGD peptides

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Guillaume; Blanchi, Thomas; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Calabrese, Rossella; Rossi, Claire; Vigneron, Pascale; Duval, Jean-Luc; Kaplan, David L.; Egles, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue adhesion on titanium represents a challenge for implantable materials. In order to improve adhesion at the cell/material interface we used a new approach based on the molecular recognition of titanium by specific peptides. Silk fibroin protein was chemically grafted with titanium binding peptide (TiBP) to increase adsorption of these chimeric proteins to the metal surface. Quartz Crystal Microbalance was used to quantify the specific adsorption of TiBP-functionalized silk and an increase in protein deposition by more than 35% was demonstrated due to the presence of the binding peptide. A silk protein grafted with TiBP and fibronectin-derived RGD peptide was then prepared. The adherence of fibroblasts on the titanium surface modified with the multifunctional silk coating demonstrated an increase in the number of adhering cells by 60%. The improved adhesion was demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and immunocytochemical staining of focal contact points. Chick embryo organotypic culture also revealed strong adhesion of endothelial cells expanding on the multifunctional silk-peptide coating. These results demonstrated that silk functionalized with TiBP and RGD represents a promising approach to modify cell-biomaterial interfaces, opening new perspectives for implantable medical devices, especially when reendothelialization is required. PMID:22975628

  10. Phosphorylation-mediated RNA/peptide complex coacervation as a model for intracellular liquid organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, William M.; Keating, Christine D.

    2016-02-01

    Biological cells are highly organized, with numerous subcellular compartments. Phosphorylation has been hypothesized as a means to control the assembly/disassembly of liquid-like RNA- and protein-rich intracellular bodies, or liquid organelles, that lack delimiting membranes. Here, we demonstrate that charge-mediated phase separation, or complex coacervation, of RNAs with cationic peptides can generate simple model liquid organelles capable of reversibly compartmentalizing biomolecules. Formation and dissolution of these liquid bodies was controlled by changes in peptide phosphorylation state using a kinase/phosphatase enzyme pair. The droplet-generating phase transition responded to modification of even a single serine residue. Electrostatic interactions between the short cationic peptides and the much longer polyanionic RNAs drove phase separation. Coacervates were also formed on silica beads, a primitive model for localization at specific intracellular sites. This work supports phosphoregulation of complex coacervation as a viable mechanism for dynamic intracellular compartmentalization in membraneless organelles.

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Arteaga, Carlos; Warters, Ray; Akhurst, Rosemary J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is rapidly activated after ionizing radiation, but its specific role in cellular responses to DNA damage is not known. Here we use Tgfbeta1 knockout mice to show that radiation-induced apoptotic response is TGF-beta1 dependent in the mammary epithelium, and that both apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in response to DNA damage decrease as a function of TGF-beta1 gene dose in embryonic epithelial tissues. Because apoptosis in these tissues has been shown previously to be p53 dependent, we then examined p53 protein activation. TGF-beta1 depletion, by either gene knockout or by using TGF-beta neutralizing antibodies, resulted in decreased p53 Ser-18 phosphorylation in irradiated mammary gland. These data indicate that TGF-beta1 is essential for rapid p53-mediated cellular responses that mediate cell fate decisions in situ.

  12. Cellular mechanisms of estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christopher L; Schwarz, Jaclyn S; Dean, Shannon L; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2010-09-01

    Gonadal steroids organize the developing brain during a perinatal sensitive period and have enduring consequences for adult behavior. In male rodents testicular androgens are aromatized in neurons to estrogens and initiate multiple distinct cellular processes that ultimately determine the masculine phenotype. Within specific brain regions, overall cell number and dendritic morphology are the principal targets for hormonal organization. Recent advances have been made in elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which the neurological underpinnings of sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior are determined. These include estradiol-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, presynaptic release of glutamate, postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptors and changes in cell adhesion molecules. Sex differences in cell death are mediated by hormonal modulation of survival and death factors such as TNFalpha and Bcl-2/BAX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring nanoparticle-mediated cellular hyperthermia with a high-sensitivity biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Amarnath; Castanares, Mark; Hedayati, Mohammad; Wabler, Michele; Trock, Bruce; Kulkarni, Prakash; Rodriguez, Ronald; Getzenberg, Robert H; DeWeese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert; Lupold, Shawn E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To develop and apply a heat-responsive and secreted reporter assay for comparing cellular response to nanoparticle (NP)- and macroscopic-mediated sublethal hyperthermia. Materials & methods Reporter cells were heated by water bath (macroscopic heating) or iron oxide NPs activated by alternating magnetic fields (nanoscopic heating). Cellular responses to these thermal stresses were measured in the conditioned media by secreted luciferase assay. Results & conclusion Reporter activity was responsive to macroscopic and nanoparticle heating and activity correlated with measured macroscopic thermal dose. Significant cellular responses were observed with NP heating under doses that were insufficient to measurably change the temperature of the system. Under these conditions, the reporter response correlated with proximity to cells loaded with heated nanoparticles. These results suggest that NP and macroscopic hyperthermia may be distinctive under conditions of mild hyperthermia. PMID:24547783

  14. The effect of static magnetic fields and tat peptides on cellular and nuclear uptake of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carol-Anne M; de la Fuente, Jesus; Pelaz, Beatriz; Furlani, Edward P; Mullin, Margaret; Berry, Catherine C

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely used in bioapplications such as imaging (MRI), targeted delivery (drugs/genes) and cell transfection (magnetofection). Historically, the impermeable nature of both the plasma and nuclear membranes hinder potential. Researchers combat this by developing techniques to enhance cellular and nuclear uptake. Two current popular methods are using external magnetic fields to remotely control particle direction or functionalising the nanoparticles with a cell penetrating peptide (e.g. tat); both of which facilitate cell entry. This paper compares the success of both methods in terms of nanoparticle uptake, analysing the type of magnetic forces the particles experience, and determines gross cell response in terms of morphology and structure and changes at the gene level via microarray analysis. Results indicated that both methods enhanced uptake via a caveolin dependent manner, with tat peptide being the more efficient and achieving nuclear uptake. On comparison to control cells, many groups of gene changes were observed in response to the particles. Importantly, the magnetic field also caused many change in gene expression, regardless of the nanoparticles, and appeared to cause F-actin alignment in the cells. Results suggest that static fields should be modelled and analysed prior to application in culture as cells clearly respond appropriately. Furthermore, the use of cell penetrating peptides may prove more beneficial in terms of enhancing uptake and maintaining cell homeostasis than a magnetic field. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides inhibits influenza A virus replication by blocking cellular attachment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Schneider, Carola; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Reimer, Rudolph; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-04-01

    Influenza A viruses are a continuous threat to human health as illustrated by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since circulating influenza virus strains become increasingly resistant against currently available drugs, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Here, we have evaluated a recently described new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides (synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; SALPs) for their potential to inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo. We found that particularly SALP PEP 19-2.5 shows high binding affinities for the influenza virus receptor molecule, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, leading to impaired viral attachment and cellular entry. As a result, replication of several influenza virus subtypes (H7N7, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1) was strongly reduced. Furthermore, mice co-treated with PEP 19-2.5 were protected against an otherwise 100% lethal H7N7 influenza virus infection. These findings show that SALPs exhibit antiviral activity against influenza viruses by blocking virus attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, SALPs present a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides for further development for influenza virus therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection-Mediated Vasoactive Peptides Modulate Cochlear Uptake of Fluorescent Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Won; Wang, Qi; Steyger, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators released during bacterial infection include vasoactive peptides such as histamine and serotonin, and their serum levels are frequently elevated. These peptides also modulate the vascular permeability of endothelial cells lining the blood-brain and blood-labyrinth barriers (BLB). These peptides may also modulate the permeability of the BLB to ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotics prescribed to resolve bacterial sepsis. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of histamine and serotonin on the cochlear distribution of fluorescently conjugated gentamicin (GTTR) in control animals at 0.5, 1 and 3 h after injection of GTTR. The intensity of GTTR fluorescence was attenuated at 1 h in the histamine group compared to control mice, and more intense 3 h after injection (p < 0.05). In the serotonin group, the intensity of GTTR fluorescence was attenuated at 0.5 and 1 h (p < 0.05) and was increased at 3 h compared to control animals, where GTTR intensities peaked at 1 h and then plateaued or was slightly decreased at 3 h. This biphasic pattern of modulation was statistically significant in the apical turn of the cochlea. No difference in the intensity of GTTR fluorescence was observed in kidney proximal tubules. Systemic increases in serum levels of vasoactive peptides can modulate cochlear uptake of gentamicin, likely via permeability changes in the BLB. Conditions that influence serum levels of vasoactive peptides may potentiate aminoglycoside ototoxicity. PMID:21196726

  17. Pharmacologic Effects in vivo in Brain by Vector-Mediated Peptide Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, Ulrich; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Landaw, Elliot M.; Faull, Kym F.; Pardridge, William M.

    1993-04-01

    Pharmacologic effects in brain caused by systemic administration of neuropeptides are prevented by poor transport of the peptide through the brain vascular endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier in vivo. In the present study, successful application of a chimeric peptide approach to enhance drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier for the purpose of achieving a central nervous system pharmacologic effect is described. The chimeric peptide was formed by linkage of a potent vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue, which had been monobiotinylated, to a drug transport vector. The vector consisted of a covalent conjugate of avidin and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor. Owing to the high concentration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelia, OX26 targets brain and undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier. Systemic infusion of low doses (12 μg/kg) of the VIP chimeric peptide in rats resulted in an in vivo central nervous system pharmacologic effect: a 65% increase in cerebral blood flow. Biotinylated VIP analogue without the brain transport vector was ineffective.

  18. Complex formation and vectorization of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide with an amphipathic leucine- and lysine-rich peptide: study at molecular and cellular levels.

    PubMed

    Boukhalfa-Heniche, Fatima-Zohra; Hernández, Belén; Gaillard, Stéphane; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Huynh-Dinh, Tam; Lecouvey, Marc; Seksek, Olivier; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2004-04-15

    Optical spectroscopic techniques such as CD, Raman scattering, and fluorescence imaging allowed us to analyze the complex formation and vectorization of a single-stranded 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide with a 15-mer amphipathic peptide at molecular and cellular levels. Different solvent mixtures (methanol and water) and molecular ratios of peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide complexes were tested in order to overcome the problems related to solubility. Optimal conditions for both spectroscopic and cellular experiments were obtained with the molecular ratio peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide equal to 21:4, corresponding to a 7:5 ratio for their respective +/- charge ratio. At the molecular level, CD and Raman spectra were consistent with a alpha-helix conformation of the peptide in water or in a methanol-water mixture. The presence of methanol increased considerably the solubility of the peptide without altering its alpha-helix conformation, as evidenced by CD and Raman spectroscopies. UV absorption melting profile of the oligodeoxynucleotide gave rise to a flat melting profile, corresponding to its random structure in solution. Raman spectra of oligodeoxynucleotide/peptide complexes could only be studied in methanol/water mixture solutions. Drastic changes observed in Raman spectra have undoubtedly shown: (a) the perturbation occurred in the peptide secondary structure, and (b) possible interaction between the lysine residues of the peptide and the oligodeoxynucleotide. At the cellular level, the complex was prepared in a mixture of 10% methanol and 90% cell medium. Cellular uptake in optimal conditions for the oligodeoxynucleotide delivery with low cytotoxicity was controlled by fluorescence imaging allowing to specifically locate the compacted oligonucleotide labeled with fluorescein at its 5'-terminus with the peptide into human glioma cells after 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characterization of the cellular response triggered by gold nanoparticle-mediated laser manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalies, Stefan; Keil, Sebastian; Sender, Sina; Hammer, Susanne C.; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Meyer, Heiko; Heinemann, Dag

    2015-11-01

    Laser-based transfection techniques have proven high applicability in several cell biologic applications. The delivery of different molecules using these techniques has been extensively investigated. In particular, new high-throughput approaches such as gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection allow efficient delivery of antisense molecules or proteins into cells preserving high cell viabilities. However, the cellular response to the perforation procedure is not well understood. We herein analyzed the perforation kinetics of single cells during resonant gold nanoparticle-mediated laser manipulation with an 850-ps laser system at a wavelength of 532 nm. Inflow velocity of propidium iodide into manipulated cells reached a maximum within a few seconds. Experiments based on the inflow of FM4-64 indicated that the membrane remains permeable for a few minutes for small molecules. To further characterize the cellular response postmanipulation, we analyzed levels of oxidative heat or general stress. Although we observed an increased formation of reactive oxygen species by an increase of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, heat shock protein 70 was not upregulated in laser-treated cells. Additionally, no evidence of stress granule formation was visible by immunofluorescence staining. The data provided in this study help to identify the cellular reactions to gold nanoparticle-mediated laser manipulation.

  20. β-Hairpin-Mediated Formation of Structurally Distinct Multimers of Neurotoxic Prion Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein misfolding disorders are associated with conformational changes in specific proteins, leading to the formation of potentially neurotoxic amyloid fibrils. During pathogenesis of prion disease, the prion protein misfolds into β-sheet rich, protease-resistant isoforms. A key, hydrophobic domain within the prion protein, comprising residues 109–122, recapitulates many properties of the full protein, such as helix-to-sheet structural transition, formation of fibrils and cytotoxicity of the misfolded isoform. Using all-atom, molecular simulations, it is demonstrated that the monomeric 109–122 peptide has a preference for α-helical conformations, but that this peptide can also form β-hairpin structures resulting from turns around specific glycine residues of the peptide. Altering a single amino acid within the 109–122 peptide (A117V, associated with familial prion disease) increases the prevalence of β-hairpin formation and these observations are replicated in a longer peptide, comprising residues 106–126. Multi-molecule simulations of aggregation yield different assemblies of peptide molecules composed of conformationally-distinct monomer units. Small molecular assemblies, consistent with oligomers, comprise peptide monomers in a β-hairpin-like conformation and in many simulations appear to exist only transiently. Conversely, larger assemblies are comprised of extended peptides in predominately antiparallel β-sheets and are stable relative to the length of the simulations. These larger assemblies are consistent with amyloid fibrils, show cross-β structure and can form through elongation of monomer units within pre-existing oligomers. In some simulations, assemblies containing both β-hairpin and linear peptides are evident. Thus, in this work oligomers are on pathway to fibril formation and a preference for β-hairpin structure should enhance oligomer formation whilst inhibiting maturation into fibrils. These simulations provide an important new

  1. A new HDL mimetic peptide that stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux with high efficiency greatly reduces atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bielicki, John K.; Zhang, Haiyan; Cortez, Yuan; Zheng, Ying; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Patel, Arti; Johansson, Jan; Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the creation of a single-helix peptide (ATI-5261) that stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux with Km molar efficiency approximating native apolipoproteins. Anti-atherosclerosis activity of ATI-5261 was evaluated in LDLR−/− and apolipoprotein (apo)E−/− mice ∼5–7 months of age, following 13–18 weeks on a high-fat Western diet (HFWD). Treatment of fat-fed LDLR−/− mice with daily intraperitoneal injections of ATI-5261 (30 mg/kg) for 6 weeks reduced atherosclerosis by 30%, as judged by lesion area covering the aorta (7.9 ± 2 vs.11.3 ± 2.5% control, P = 0.011) and lipid-content of aortic sinus plaque (25 ± 5.8 vs. 33 ± 4.9% control, P = 0.014). In apoE−/− mice, the peptide administered 30 mg/kg ip on alternate days for 6 weeks reduced atherosclerosis by ∼45% (lesion area = 15 ± 7 vs. 25 ± 8% control, P = 0.00016; plaque lipid-content = 20 ± 6 vs. 32 ± 8% control, P < 0.0001). Similar reductions in atherosclerosis were achieved using ATI-5261:POPC complexes. Single intraperitoneal injection of ATI-5261 increased reverse cholesterol transport from macrophage foam-cells to feces over 24–48 h. In summary, relatively short-term treatment of mice with the potent cholesterol efflux peptide ATI-5261 reduced substantial atherosclerosis. This was achieved using an L-amino acid peptide, in the presence of severe hypercholesterolemia/HFWD, and did not require daily injections or formulation with phospholipids when administered via intraperitoneal injection. PMID:20075422

  2. CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 in developing human fetal lung. Patterns of expression and modulation of peptide-mediated proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sunday, M E; Hua, J; Torday, J S; Reyes, B; Shipp, M A

    1992-12-01

    The cell membrane-associated enzyme CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP) functions in multiple organ systems to downregulate responses to peptide hormones. Recently, CD10/NEP was found to hydrolyze bombesin-like peptides (BLP), which are mitogens for normal bronchial epithelial cells and small cell lung carcinomas. Growth of BLP-responsive small cell lung carcinomas was potentiated by CD10/NEP inhibition, implicating CD10/NEP in regulation of BLP-mediated tumor growth. BLP are also likely to participate in normal lung development because high BLP levels are found in fetal lung, and bombesin induces proliferation and maturation of human fetal lung in organ cultures and murine fetal lung in utero. To explore potential roles for CD10/NEP in regulating peptide-mediated human fetal lung development, we have characterized temporal and cellular patterns of CD10/NEP expression and effects of CD10/NEP inhibition in organ cultures. Peak CD10/NEP transcript levels are identified at 11-13 wk gestation by Northern blots and localized to epithelial cells and mesenchyme of developing airways by in situ hybridization. CD10/NEP immunostaining is most intense in undifferentiated airway epithelium. In human fetal lung organ cultures, inhibition of CD10/NEP with either phosphoramidon or SCH32615 increases thymidine incorporation by 166-182% (P < 0.025). The specific BLP receptor antagonist, [Leu13-psi(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin abolishes these effects on fetal lung growth, suggesting that CD10/NEP modulates BLP-mediated proliferation. CD10/NEP expression in the growing front of airway epithelium and the effects of CD10/NEP inhibitors in lung explants implicate the enzyme in the regulation of peptide-mediated fetal lung growth.

  3. Peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically mediated energy delivery to lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Anastasia K; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we examine the effects of internalized peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their ability to locally convert alternating magnetic field (AMF) energy into other forms of energy (e.g., heat and rotational work). Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were functionalized with a cell penetrating peptide and after internalization by A549 and H358 cells were activated by an AMF. TAT-functionalized nanoparticles and AMF exposure increased reactive oxygen species generation compared with the nanoparticle system alone. The TAT-functionalized nanoparticles induced lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, but these effects were not further enhanced by AMF treatment. Although not statistically significant, there are trends suggesting an increase in apoptosis via the Caspase 3/7 pathways when cells are exposed to TAT-functionalized nanoparticles combined with AMF. Our results indicate that internalized TAT-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles activated by an AMF elicit cellular responses without a measurable temperature rise.

  4. The assembly and properties of protobiological structures - The beginnings of cellular peptide synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

    1980-01-01

    New data indicate that lysine-rich proteinoids have the ability to catalyze the synthesis of peptide bonds from a variety of amino acids and ATP. This capacity is evident in aqueous solution, in suspension of phase-separated complexes of lysine-rich proteinoid with acidic proteinoids, and in suspension of phase-separated particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoids with polynucleotides. Since the proteinoid complexes can contain other catalytic activities, including ability to catalyze internucleotide bond formation, it is inferred that the first protocells on earth already had a number of biological types of activity.

  5. Degradation-mediated cellular traction directs stem cell fate in covalently crosslinked three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetan, Sudhir; Guvendiren, Murat; Legant, Wesley R.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Chen, Christopher S.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2013-05-01

    Although cell-matrix adhesive interactions are known to regulate stem cell differentiation, the underlying mechanisms, in particular for direct three-dimensional encapsulation within hydrogels, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that in covalently crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels, the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is directed by the generation of degradation-mediated cellular traction, independently of cell morphology or matrix mechanics. hMSCs within HA hydrogels of equivalent elastic moduli that permit (restrict) cell-mediated degradation exhibited high (low) degrees of cell spreading and high (low) tractions, and favoured osteogenesis (adipogenesis). Moreover, switching the permissive hydrogel to a restrictive state through delayed secondary crosslinking reduced further hydrogel degradation, suppressed traction, and caused a switch from osteogenesis to adipogenesis in the absence of changes to the extended cellular morphology. Furthermore, inhibiting tension-mediated signalling in the permissive environment mirrored the effects of delayed secondary crosslinking, whereas upregulating tension induced osteogenesis even in the restrictive environment.

  6. Microfluidic device to control interstitial flow-mediated homotypic and heterotypic cellular communication.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Luis F; Moya, Monica L; Shirure, Venktesh S; George, Steven C

    2015-09-07

    Tissue engineering can potentially recreate in vivo cellular microenvironments in vitro for an array of applications such as biological inquiry and drug discovery. However, the majority of current in vitro systems still neglect many biological, chemical, and mechanical cues that are known to impact cellular functions such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. To address this gap, we have developed a novel microfluidic device that precisely controls the spatial and temporal interactions between adjacent three-dimensional cellular environments. The device consists of four interconnected microtissue compartments (~0.1 mm(3)) arranged in a square. The top and bottom pairs of compartments can be sequentially loaded with discrete cellularized hydrogels creating the opportunity to investigate homotypic (left to right or x-direction) and heterotypic (top to bottom or y-direction) cell-cell communication. A controlled hydrostatic pressure difference across the tissue compartments in both x and y direction induces interstitial flow and modulates communication via soluble factors. To validate the biological significance of this novel platform, we examined the role of stromal cells in the process of vasculogenesis. Our device confirms previous observations that soluble mediators derived from normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) are necessary to form a vascular network derived from endothelial colony forming cell-derived endothelial cells (ECFC-ECs). We conclude that this platform could be used to study important physiological and pathological processes that rely on homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell communication.

  7. Bombesin-like peptides stimulate growth hormone secretion mediated by the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongqiong; Matsuda, Seinosuke; Thanthan, Sint; Yannaing, Swe; Kuwayama, Hideto

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) and to characterize the receptor subtypes mediating these effects in cattle. Four experiments were conducted: (1) six steers were randomly assigned to receive intravenous (IV) bolus injections of 0, 0.2, 1.0, 12.5 and 50.0 μg/kg neuromedin C (NMC); (2) seven pre-weaned calves were IV injected with 1.0 μg/kg NMC; (3) six steers were IV injected with 2.5μg/kg bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), 1.0 μg/kg NMC combined with 20.0 μg/kg [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (an antagonist for the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a [GHS-R1a]), 1.0 μg/kg NMC combined with 20.0 μg/kg N-acetyl-GRP(20-26)-OCH(2)CH(3) (N-GRP-EE, an antagonist for the GRP receptor), 20.0 μg/kg N-GRP-EE alone, 1.0 μg/kg neuromedin B (NMB); and (4) four rats were IV injected 1.0 μg/kg NMC. A serial blood sample was collected before and after injection. Plasma GH levels dose-dependently increased at 5 min after NMC injection and the minimal effective dose was 1.0 μg/kg. Plasma GH level was elevated by GRP, but not by NMB. The NMC-induced elevation of GH was completely blocked by N-GRP-EE. The administration of NMC elevated GH level in pre-weaned calves but not in rats. Ghrelin level was unaffected by any treatments; and [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 did not block the NMC-induced elevation of GH. The results indicate BLP-induced elevation of GH levels is mediated by the GRP receptor but not through a ghrelin/GHS-R1a pathway in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Sono-Assembled, Bifunctional Soy Peptide Nanoparticle for Cellular Delivery of Hydrophobic Active Cargoes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanhong; Zhao, Mouming; Ning, Zhengxiang; Yu, Shujuan; Tang, Ning; Zhou, Feibai

    2018-04-25

    Soy proteins are prone to aggregate upon proteolysis, hindering their sustainable development in food processing. Here, a continuous work on the large insoluble peptide aggregates was carried out, aiming to develop a new type of soy peptide-based nanoparticle (SPN) for active cargo delivery. Sono-assembled SPN in spherical appearance and core-shell structure maintained by noncovalent interactions was successfully fabricated, exhibiting small particle size (103.95 nm) in a homogeneous distribution state (PDI = 0.18). Curcumin as a model cargo was efficiently encapsulated into SPN upon sonication, showing high water dispersity (129.6 mg/L, 10 4 higher than its water solubility) and storage stability. Additionally, the pepsin-resistant SPN contributed to the controlled release of curcumin at the intestinal phase and thus significantly improved the bioaccessibility. Encapsulated curcumin was effective in protecting glutamate-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, where the matrix SPN can simultaneously reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate antioxidant enzymes levels, innovatively demonstrating its bifunctionality during cellular delivery.

  9. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Samsung Biomedical Research Institute

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation.more » In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated

  11. Silver Nanoparticle-Mediated Cellular Responses in Various Cell Lines: An in Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted increased interest and are currently used in various industries including medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, particularly as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Recently, several studies have reported both beneficial and toxic effects of AgNPs on various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. To develop nanoparticles for mediated therapy, several laboratories have used a variety of cell lines under in vitro conditions to evaluate the properties, mode of action, differential responses, and mechanisms of action of AgNPs. In vitro models are simple, cost-effective, rapid, and can be used to easily assess efficacy and performance. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biocompatibility of AgNPs depend on many factors such as size, shape, surface charge, surface coating, solubility, concentration, surface functionalization, distribution of particles, mode of entry, mode of action, growth media, exposure time, and cell type. Cellular responses to AgNPs are different in each cell type and depend on the physical and chemical nature of AgNPs. This review evaluates significant contributions to the literature on biological applications of AgNPs. It begins with an introduction to AgNPs, with particular attention to their overall impact on cellular effects. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the reasons for different cell types exhibiting differential responses to nanoparticles even when they possess similar size, shape, and other parameters. Firstly, we discuss the cellular effects of AgNPs on a variety of cell lines; Secondly, we discuss the mechanisms of action of AgNPs in various cellular systems, and try to elucidate how AgNPs interact with different mammalian cell lines and produce significant effects; Finally, we discuss the cellular activation of various signaling molecules in response to AgNPs, and conclude with future perspectives

  12. Dual peptide-mediated targeted delivery of bioactive siRNAs to oral cancer cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Bryant, Angela A; Zhang, Haiwen; Attaway, Christopher C; Pugh, William; Eggart, Laurence; Sansevere, Robert M; Andino, Lourdes M; Dinh, Lu; Cantini, Liliana P; Jakymiw, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment, the prognosis for oral cancer remains poor in comparison to other cancer types, including breast, skin, and prostate. As a result, more effective therapeutic modalities are needed for the treatment of oral cancer. Consequently, in the present study, we examined the feasibility of using a dual peptide carrier approach, combining an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide with an endosome-disruptive peptide, to mediate targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the targeted oncogene, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A). Fluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and in vivo bioimaging of mice containing orthotopic xenograft tumors were used to examine the ability of the dual peptide carrier to mediate specific delivery of bioactive siRNAs into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells/tissues. Co-complexation of the EGFR-targeting peptide, GE11R9, with the endosome-disruptive 599 peptide facilitated the specific uptake of siRNAs into oral cancer cells overexpressing EGFR in vitro with optimal gene silencing observed at a 60:30:1 (GE11R9:599:siRNA) molar ratio. Furthermore, when administered systemically to mice bearing xenograft oral tumors, this dual peptide complex mediated increased targeted delivery of siRNAs into tumor tissues in comparison to the 599 peptide alone and significantly enhanced CIP2A silencing. Herein we provide the first report demonstrating the clinical potential of a dual peptide strategy for siRNA-based therapeutics by synergistically mediating the effective targeting and delivery of bioactive siRNAs into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atrial natriuretic peptide: a magic bullet for cancer therapy targeting Wnt signaling and cellular pH regulators.

    PubMed

    Serafino, A; Pierimarchi, P

    2014-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone playing a crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis mainly through blood volume and pressure regulation. In the last years, the new property ascribed to ANP of inhibiting tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo has made this peptide an attractive candidate for anticancer therapy. The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of ANP has been mainly related to its interaction with the specific receptors NPRs, through which this natriuretic hormone inhibits some metabolic targets critical for cancer development, including the Ras-MEK1⁄2-ERK1⁄2 kinase cascade, functioning as a multikinase inhibitor. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on this topic, focusing on our recent data demonstrating that the antitumor activity of this natriuretic hormone is also mediated by a concomitant effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on the pH regulation ability of cancer cells, through a Frizzled-related mechanism. This peculiarity of simultaneously targeting two processes crucial for neoplastic transformation and solid tumor survival reinforces the utility of ANP for the development of both preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Factor H: A Complement Regulator in Health and Disease, and a Mediator of Cellular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Anne; Hebecker, Mario; Svobodová, Eliška; Józsi, Mihály

    2012-01-01

    Complement is an essential part of innate immunity as it participates in host defense against infections, disposal of cellular debris and apoptotic cells, inflammatory processes and modulation of adaptive immune responses. Several soluble and membrane-bound regulators protect the host from the potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled and misdirected complement activation. Factor H is a major soluble regulator of the alternative complement pathway, but it can also bind to host cells and tissues, protecting them from complement attack. Interactions of factor H with various endogenous ligands, such as pentraxins, extracellular matrix proteins and DNA are important in limiting local complement-mediated inflammation. Impaired regulatory as well as ligand and cell recognition functions of factor H, caused by mutations or autoantibodies, are associated with the kidney diseases: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and dense deposit disease and the eye disorder: age-related macular degeneration. In addition, factor H binds to receptors on host cells and is involved in adhesion, phagocytosis and modulation of cell activation. In this review we discuss current concepts on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of factor H in light of new data and recent developments in our understanding of the versatile roles of factor H as an inhibitor of complement activation and inflammation, as well as a mediator of cellular interactions. A detailed knowledge of the functions of factor H in health and disease is expected to unravel novel therapeutic intervention possibilities and to facilitate the development or improvement of therapies. PMID:24970127

  15. Enhanced transfection by antioxidative polymeric gene carrier that reduces polyplex-mediated cellular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Nak Won; Lee, Kyuri; Kim, Hongtae; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis in which polyplex-induced oxidative stress may affect overall transfection efficiency, an antioxidative transfection system minimizing cellular oxidative stress was designed for enhanced transfection. An amphiphilic copolymer (PEI-PLGA) was synthesized and used as a micelle-type gene carrier containing hydrophobic antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Cellular oxidative stress and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential after transfection was measured by using a fluorescent probe (H₂DCFDA) and lipophilic cationic probe (JC-1), respectively. Transfection efficiency was determined by measuring a reporter gene (luciferase) expression level. The initial transfection study with conventional PEI/plasmid DNA polyplex showed significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PEI-PLGA copolymer successfully carried out the simultaneous delivery of α-tocopherol and plasmid DNA (PEI-PLGA/Toco/pDNA polyplex) into cells, resulting in a significant reduction in cellular ROS generation after transfection and helped to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ). In addition, the transfection efficiency was dramatically increased using the antioxidative transfection system. This work showed that oxidative stress would be one of the important factors that should be considered in designing non-viral gene carriers and suggested a possible way to reduce the carrier-mediated oxidative stress, which consequently leads to enhanced transfection.

  16. Interrelationships among mediators of cellular zinc homeostasis in healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus populations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anna; Foster, Meika; Hancock, Dale; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2017-04-01

    The involvement of zinc in multiple physiological systems requires tight control of cellular zinc concentration. This study aims to explore the relationships among selected mediators of cellular zinc homeostasis in an apparently healthy (AH) population and a cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Baseline data of three trials forming two cohorts, AH (n = 70) and T2DM (n = 42), were used for multivariate analyses to identify groupings within ten zinc transporter and metallothionein (MT) gene expressions, stratified by health status. Multiple regression models were used to explore relationships among zinc transporter/MT groupings and plasma zinc. Gene expression of zinc transporters and MTs, with the exception of ZnT6, were significantly lower in the T2DM cohort (p < 0.01). Cluster analysis showed that the groupings of zinc transporters and MTs were largely similar between the two cohorts, with the exception for ZnT1 and ZIP7. Zinc transporters and MTs were significant determinants of plasma zinc (r 2 = 0.48, p = 0.001) in the AH cohort, but not in the T2DM cohort. The current study suggests altered cellular zinc homeostasis in T2DM and supports the use of multiple zinc transporters and MTs groupings to further understand zinc homeostasis in health and T2DM. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Proteomic analysis reveals diverse proline hydroxylation-mediated oxygen-sensing cellular pathways in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Gao, Yankun; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Proline hydroxylation is a critical cellular mechanism regulating oxygen-response pathways in tumor initiation and progression. Yet, its substrate diversity and functions remain largely unknown. Here, we report a system-wide analysis to characterize proline hydroxylation substrates in cancer cells using an immunoaffinity-purification assisted proteomics strategy. We identified 562 sites from 272 proteins in HeLa cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that proline hydroxylation substrates are significantly enriched with mRNA processing and stress-response cellular pathways with canonical and diverse flanking sequence motifs. Structural analysis indicates a significant enrichment of proline hydroxylation participating in the secondary structure of substrate proteins. Our study identified and validated Brd4, a key transcription factor, as a novel proline hydroxylation substrate. Functional analysis showed that the inhibition of proline hydroxylation pathway significantly reduced the proline hydroxylation abundance on Brd4 and affected Brd4-mediated transcriptional activity as well as cell proliferation in AML leukemia cells. Taken together, our study identified a broad regulatory role of proline hydroxylation in cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and revealed potentially new targets that dynamically respond to hypoxia microenvironment in tumor cells. PMID:27764789

  18. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes cellular changes in trigeminal neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from trigeminal nerves, is implicated in the underlying pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). Elevated levels of CGRP in the joint capsule correlate with inflammation and pain. CGRP mediates neurogenic inflammation in peripheral tissues by increasing blood flow, recruiting immune cells, and activating sensory neurons. The goal of this study was to investigate the capability of CGRP to promote peripheral and central sensitization in a model of TMD. Results Temporal changes in protein expression in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus were determined by immunohistochemistry following injection of CGRP in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) capsule of male Sprague-Dawley rats. CGRP stimulated expression of the active forms of the MAP kinases p38 and ERK, and PKA in trigeminal ganglia at 2 and 24 hours. CGRP also caused a sustained increase in the expression of c-Fos neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. In contrast, levels of P2X3 in spinal neurons were only significantly elevated at 2 hours in response to CGRP. In addition, CGRP stimulated expression of GFAP in astrocytes and OX-42 in microglia at 2 and 24 hours post injection. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that an elevated level of CGRP in the joint, which is associated with TMD, stimulate neuronal and glial expression of proteins implicated in the development of peripheral and central sensitization. Based on our findings, we propose that inhibition of CGRP-mediated activation of trigeminal neurons and glial cells with selective non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists would be beneficial in the treatment of TMD. PMID:22145886

  19. Energy-independent intracellular gene delivery mediated by polymeric biomimetics of cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Chae, Su Young; Kim, Hyun June; Lee, Min Sang; Jang, Yeon Lim; Lee, Yuhan; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Kyuri; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hong Tae; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Park, Tae Gwan; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2011-09-09

    Efficient gene transfer into mammalian cells mediated by small molecular amphiphile-polymer conjugates, bile acid-polyethylenimine (BA-PEI), is demonstrated, opening an efficient transport route for genetic materials across the cell membrane. This process occurs without the aid of endocytosis or other energy-consuming processes, thus mimicking macromolecular transduction by cell-penetrating peptides. The exposure of a hydrophilic face of the amphiphilic BA moiety on the surface of BA-PEI/DNA complex that mediates direct contact of the BA molecules to the cell surface seems to play an important role in the endocytosis- and energy-independent internalization process. The new modality of the polymeric biomimetics can be applied to enhanced delivery of macromolecular therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Biofunctionalization of silica-coated magnetic particles mediated by a peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Care, Andrew; Chi, Fei; Bergquist, Peter L.; Sunna, Anwar

    2014-08-01

    A linker peptide sequence with affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to Streptococcus protein G', an antibody-binding protein. This recombinant fusion protein, linker-protein G (LPG) was produced in E. coli and exhibited strong affinity to silica-coated magnetic particles and was able to bind to them at different pHs, indicating a true pH-independent binding. LPG was used as an anchorage point for the oriented immobilization of antibodies onto the surface of the particles. These particle-bound "LPG-Antibody complexes" mediated the binding and recovery of different cell types (e.g., human stem cells, Legionella, Cryptosporidium and Giardia), enabling their rapid and simple visualization and identification. This strategy was used also for the efficient capture of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water samples. These results demonstrate that LPG can mediate the direct biofunctionalization of silica-coated magnetic particles without the need for complex surface chemical modification.

  1. Cyclic Peptides Arising by Evolutionary Parallelism via Asparaginyl-Endopeptidase–Mediated Biosynthesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mylne, Joshua S.; Chan, Lai Yue; Chanson, Aurelie H.; Daly, Norelle L.; Schaefer, Hanno; Bailey, Timothy L.; Nguyencong, Philip; Cascales, Laura; Craik, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic miniprotein Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor II (MCoTI-II) (34 amino acids) is a potent trypsin inhibitor (TI) and a favored scaffold for drug design. We have cloned the corresponding genes and determined that each precursor protein contains a tandem series of cyclic TIs terminating with the more commonly known, and potentially ancestral, acyclic TI. Expression of the precursor protein in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that production of the cyclic TIs, but not the terminal acyclic TI, depends on asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) for maturation. The nature of their repetitive sequences and the almost identical structures of emerging TIs suggest these cyclic peptides evolved by internal gene amplification associated with recruitment of AEP for processing between domain repeats. This is the third example of similar AEP-mediated processing of a class of cyclic peptides from unrelated precursor proteins in phylogenetically distant plant families. This suggests that production of cyclic peptides in angiosperms has evolved in parallel using AEP as a constraining evolutionary channel. We believe this is evolutionary evidence that, in addition to its known roles in proteolysis, AEP is especially suited to performing protein cyclization. PMID:22822203

  2. The coordinated increased expression of biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 promotes cardiomyocyte survival: a reductase-based peptide counters β-adrenergic receptor ligand-mediated cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bo; Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Brookes, Paul S.; Maines, Mahin D.

    2011-01-01

    HO-2 oxidizes heme to CO and biliverdin; the latter is reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVR). In addition, HO-2 is a redox-sensitive K/Ca2-associated protein, and BVR is an S/T/Y kinase. The two enzymes are components of cellular defense mechanisms. This is the first reporting of regulation of HO-2 by BVR and that their coordinated increase in isolated myocytes and intact heart protects against cardiotoxicity of β-adrenergic receptor activation by isoproterenol (ISO). The induction of BVR mRNA, protein, and activity and HO-2 protein was maintained for ≥96 h; increase in HO-1 was modest and transient. In isolated cardiomyocytes, experiments with cycloheximide, proteasome inhibitor MG-132, and siBVR suggested BVR-mediated stabilization of HO-2. In both models, activation of BVR offered protection against the ligand's stimulation of apoptosis. Two human BVR-based peptides known to inhibit and activate the reductase, KKRILHC281 and KYCCSRK296, respectively, were tested in the intact heart. Perfusion of the heart with the inhibitory peptide blocked ISO-mediated BVR activation and augmented apoptosis; conversely, perfusion with the activating peptide inhibited apoptosis. At the functional level, peptide-mediated inhibition of BVR was accompanied by dysfunction of the left ventricle and decrease in HO-2 protein levels. Perfusion of the organ with the activating peptide preserved the left ventricular contractile function and was accompanied by increased levels of HO-2 protein. Finding that BVR and HO-2 levels, myocyte apoptosis, and contractile function of the heart can be modulated by small human BVR-based peptides offers a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of cardiac dysfunctions.—Ding, B., Gibbs, P. E. M., Brookes, P. S., Maines, M. D. The coordinated increased expression of biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 promotes cardiomyocyte survival; a reductase-based peptide counters β-adrenergic receptor ligand-mediated cardiac dysfunction

  3. Muramyl peptides in mammalian tissues and their effects at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Karnovsky, M L

    1986-10-01

    Muramyl peptides (MPs), presumably breakdown products of bacterial cell walls, have been found in the brain, liver, and kidney of the rat. They exert multiple physiological effects on higher animals as immunoadjuvants, activators of macrophages, pyrogens, antitumor agents, inducers of contractility of smooth muscle, and promoters of slow-wave sleep, as well as nonspecific protectors of animals against infection. Structure-function relationships of these substances have been extensively studied, especially with respect to somnogenicity. In the role an intact muramyl ring is required, and the 1,6-anhydro form is active. The presence of free carboxyls or amides on the glutamyl and diaminopimelyl entities have important effects. The stereochemistry is crucial: the alanine adjacent to the N-acetylmuramyl entity must be L, and the glutamate must be D. Studies were carried out with murine macrophages to establish mechanisms of action of these glycopeptides. There are two populations of binding sites for MPs on those cells. When compounds of different structure are compared, binding ability correlates with pyrogenic and somnogenic activity. Serotonin competes with these agents for binding sites. Binding of that substance induces at least one macrophage response characteristic of the binding of MP.

  4. Peptides for Specific Intracellular Delivery and Targeting of Nanoparticles: Implications for Developing Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature. Drug Resist. Update 8(6), 381–402 (2005). 89 Smith BR, Cheng Z...component can be realized. Select examples from the literature have already demonstrated the feasibility of generating hybrid NP–peptide constructs in...peptide-mediated delivery of NP-based imaging agents (fluorescence and magnetic resonance), drug-delivery vehicles, therapeutic proteins and nucleic

  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis generates nanomechanical force reflective of ligand identity and cellular property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ren, Juan; Wang, Jingren; Li, Shixie; Zou, Qingze; Gao, Nan

    2018-08-01

    Whether environmental (thermal, chemical, and nutrient) signals generate quantifiable, nanoscale, mechanophysical changes in the cellular plasma membrane has not been well elucidated. Assessment of such mechanophysical properties of plasma membrane may shed lights on fundamental cellular process. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement of the mechanical properties of live cells was hampered by the difficulty in accounting for the effects of the cantilever motion and the associated hydrodynamic force on the mechanical measurement. These challenges have been addressed in our recently developed control-based AFM nanomechanical measurement protocol, which enables a fast, noninvasive, broadband measurement of the real-time changes in plasma membrane elasticity in live cells. Here we show using this newly developed AFM platform that the plasma membrane of live mammalian cells exhibits a constant and quantifiable nanomechanical property, the membrane elasticity. This mechanical property sensitively changes in response to environmental factors, such as the thermal, chemical, and growth factor stimuli. We demonstrate that different chemical inhibitors of endocytosis elicit distinct changes in plasma membrane elastic modulus reflecting their specific molecular actions on the lipid configuration or the endocytic machinery. Interestingly, two different growth factors, EGF and Wnt3a, elicited distinct elastic force profiles revealed by AFM at the plasma membrane during receptor-mediated endocytosis. By applying this platform to genetically modified cells, we uncovered a previously unknown contribution of Cdc42, a key component of the cellular trafficking network, to EGF-stimulated endocytosis at plasma membrane. Together, this nanomechanical AFM study establishes an important foundation that is expandable and adaptable for investigation of cellular membrane evolution in response to various key extracellular signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. E3Net: a system for exploring E3-mediated regulatory networks of cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngwoong; Lee, Hodong; Park, Jong C; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) is a key enzyme targeting specific substrates in diverse cellular processes for ubiquitination and degradation. The existing findings of substrate specificity of E3 are, however, scattered over a number of resources, making it difficult to study them together with an integrative view. Here we present E3Net, a web-based system that provides a comprehensive collection of available E3-substrate specificities and a systematic framework for the analysis of E3-mediated regulatory networks of diverse cellular functions. Currently, E3Net contains 2201 E3s and 4896 substrates in 427 organisms and 1671 E3-substrate specific relations between 493 E3s and 1277 substrates in 42 organisms, extracted mainly from MEDLINE abstracts and UniProt comments with an automatic text mining method and additional manual inspection and partly from high throughput experiment data and public ubiquitination databases. The significant functions and pathways of the extracted E3-specific substrate groups were identified from a functional enrichment analysis with 12 functional category resources for molecular functions, protein families, protein complexes, pathways, cellular processes, cellular localization, and diseases. E3Net includes interactive analysis and navigation tools that make it possible to build an integrative view of E3-substrate networks and their correlated functions with graphical illustrations and summarized descriptions. As a result, E3Net provides a comprehensive resource of E3s, substrates, and their functional implications summarized from the regulatory network structures of E3-specific substrate groups and their correlated functions. This resource will facilitate further in-depth investigation of ubiquitination-dependent regulatory mechanisms. E3Net is freely available online at http://pnet.kaist.ac.kr/e3net.

  7. Protein disulphide isomerase is required for signal peptide peptidase-mediated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Ok; Cho, Kwangmin; Cho, Sunglim; Kim, Ilkwon; Oh, Changhoon; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2010-01-20

    The human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein US2 induces dislocation of MHC class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol and targets them for proteasomal degradation. Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) has been shown to be integral for US2-induced dislocation of MHC class I heavy chains although its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we show that knockdown of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) by RNA-mediated interference inhibited the degradation of MHC class I molecules catalysed by US2 but not by its functional homolog US11. Overexpression of the substrate-binding mutant of PDI, but not the catalytically inactive mutant, dominant-negatively inhibited US2-mediated dislocation of MHC class I molecules by preventing their release from US2. Furthermore, PDI associated with SPP independently of US2 and knockdown of PDI inhibited SPP-mediated degradation of CD3delta but not Derlin-1-dependent degradation of CFTR DeltaF508. Together, our data suggest that PDI is a component of the SPP-mediated ER-associated degradation machinery.

  8. Protein disulphide isomerase is required for signal peptide peptidase-mediated protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Ok; Cho, Kwangmin; Cho, Sunglim; Kim, Ilkwon; Oh, Changhoon; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2010-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein US2 induces dislocation of MHC class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol and targets them for proteasomal degradation. Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) has been shown to be integral for US2-induced dislocation of MHC class I heavy chains although its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we show that knockdown of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) by RNA-mediated interference inhibited the degradation of MHC class I molecules catalysed by US2 but not by its functional homolog US11. Overexpression of the substrate-binding mutant of PDI, but not the catalytically inactive mutant, dominant-negatively inhibited US2-mediated dislocation of MHC class I molecules by preventing their release from US2. Furthermore, PDI associated with SPP independently of US2 and knockdown of PDI inhibited SPP-mediated degradation of CD3δ but not Derlin-1-dependent degradation of CFTR DeltaF508. Together, our data suggest that PDI is a component of the SPP-mediated ER-associated degradation machinery. PMID:19942855

  9. Disulfanyl peptide decreases melanin synthesis via receptor-mediated ERK activation and the subsequent downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, H-R; Kang, Y-A; Lee, H-S; Park, K-C

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive peptides are commonly used in cosmeceutical purpose. This study was performed to search for an effective and short hypopigmenting peptide using normal human melanocytes as a screening model. A peptide that exhibits multitarget activities will be a promising peptide. Depigmenting effects were tested in normal human melanocytes. One peptide was selected, and signalling mechanism was investigated by Western blotting and immunofluorescent microscopic examination. A novel hypopigmenting peptide (dSHP) has been found to inhibit the production of melanin. This peptide significantly decreases tyrosinase activity but was not effective in a direct in vitro assay. It also induces the prolonged activation of ERK, and subsequently downregulates the levels of MITF. PD98059 abolished the dSHP-induced downregulation of MITF. These findings indicate that the dSHP-induced activation of ERK contributes to a reduced melanin synthesis via the downregulation of MITF. Fluorescent microscopic studies were consistent with such findings. Pertussis toxin reverses the downregulation of MITF, which means that the receptor-mediated ERK activation is involved. Moreover, it was also found that downregulation of MITF was clearly inhibited by lysosomal inhibitor (chloroquine). Novel tetrapeptide dSHP reduces the melanin synthesis by a receptor-mediated pathway. Furthermore, dSHP works by ERK activation and key transcription factor MITF degradation. Thus, it may be a good candidate as an effective hypopigmenting cosmetic agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Cellular sources and targets of IFN-gamma-mediated protection against viral demyelination and neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Murray, Paul D; McGavern, Dorian B; Pease, Larry R; Rodriguez, Moses

    2002-03-01

    IFN-gamma is an anti-viral and immunomodulatory cytokine critical for resistance to multiple pathogens. Using mice with targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-gamma, we previously demonstrated that this cytokine is critical for resistance to viral persistence and demyelination in the Theiler's virus model of multiple sclerosis. During viral infections, IFN-gamma is produced by natural killer (NK) cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; however, the proportions of lymphocyte subsets responding to virus infection influences the contributions to IFN-gamma-mediated protection. To determine the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFN-gamma to maintain resistance, we used adoptive transfer strategies to generate mice with lymphocyte-specific deficiencies in IFN-gamma-production. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma production by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets is critical for resistance to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelination and neurological disease, and that CD4(+) T cells make a greater contribution to IFN-gamma-mediated protection. To determine the cellular targets of IFN-gamma-mediated responses, we used adoptive transfer studies and bone marrow chimerism to generate mice in which either hematopoietic or somatic cells lacked the ability to express IFN-gamma receptor. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma receptor must be present on central nervous system glia, but not bone marrow-derived lymphocytes, in order to maintain resistance to TMEV-induced demyelination.

  11. Cellular sources and targets of IFN-γ-mediated protection against viral demyelination and neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Paul D.; McGavern, Dorian B.; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2017-01-01

    IFN-γ is an anti-viral and immunomodulatory cytokine critical for resistance to multiple pathogens. Using mice with targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-γ, we previously demonstrated that this cytokine is critical for resistance to viral persistence and demyelination in the Theiler’s virus model of multiple sclerosis. During viral infections, IFN-γ is produced by natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; however, the proportions of lymphocyte subsets responding to virus infection influences the contributions to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFN-γ to maintain resistance, we used adoptive transfer strategies to generate mice with lymphocyte-specific deficiencies in IFN-γ-production. We demonstrate that IFN-γ production by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets is critical for resistance to Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelination and neurological disease, and that CD4+ T cells make a greater contribution to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the cellular targets of IFN-γ-mediated responses, we used adoptive transfer studies and bone marrow chimerism to generate mice in which either hematopoietic or somatic cells lacked the ability to express IFN-γ receptor. We demonstrate that IFN-γ receptor must be present on central nervous system glia, but not bone marrow-derived lymphocytes, in order to maintain resistance to TMEV-induced demyelination. PMID:11857334

  12. Regulation of N-formyl peptide-mediated degranulation by receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Vines, Charlotte M; Xue, Mei; Maestas, Diane C; Cimino, Daniel F; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2002-12-15

    One of the major functions of the N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) is to mediate leukocyte degranulation. Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the FPR is required for receptor internalization and desensitization. Although arrestins mediate phosphorylation-dependent desensitization, internalization, and initiation of novel signaling cascades for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their roles in FPR regulation and signaling remain unclear. CXCR1-mediated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells is promoted by arrestin binding. To determine whether receptor phosphorylation or arrestin binding is required to promote FPR-mediated degranulation, we used RBL-2H3 cells stably transfected with either the wild-type FPR or a mutant form, DeltaST, which is incapable of undergoing ligand-stimulated phosphorylation. We observed that stimulation of wild-type FPR resulted in very low levels of degranulation compared with that mediated by cross-linking of the Fc(epsilon)RI receptor. Stimulation of the DeltaST mutant, however, resulted in levels of degranulation comparable to those of the Fc(epsilon)RI receptor, demonstrating that neither receptor phosphorylation nor arrestin binding was necessary to initiate FPR-mediated degranulation. Degranulation initiated by the DeltaST mutant was proportional to the level of active cell surface receptor, suggesting that either receptor internalization or desensitization may be responsible for terminating degranulation of the wild-type FPR. To distinguish between these possibilities, we used a partially phosphorylation-deficient mutant of the FPR that can undergo internalization, but not desensitization. Degranulation by this mutant FPR was indistinguishable from that of the DeltaST mutant, indicating that FPR phosphorylation or binding of arrestin but not internalization terminates the degranulation response.

  13. Peptide-mediated vectorization of metal complexes: conjugation strategies and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marta; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel

    2016-08-16

    The rich chemical and structural versatility of transition metal complexes provides numerous novel paths to be pursued in the design of molecules that exert particular chemical or physicochemical effects that could operate over specific biological targets. However, the poor cell permeability of metallodrugs represents an important barrier for their therapeutic use. The conjugation between metal complexes and a functional peptide vector can be regarded as a versatile and potential strategy to improve their bioavailability and accumulation inside cells, and the site selectivity of their effect. This perspective lies in reviewing the recent advances in the design of metallopeptide conjugates for biomedical applications. Additionally, we highlight the studies where this approach has been directed towards the incorporation of redox active metal centers into living organisms for modulating the cellular redox balance, as a tool with application in anticancer therapy.

  14. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the management of diabetes mellitus: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Mohamed; Singh, Jaipaul; Rashed, Hameed; Tariq, Saeed; Zilahi, Erika; Adeghate, Ernest

    2014-11-01

    Incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP)-1, have been shown to elevate plasma insulin concentration. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of the beneficial effects of GLP-1. Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats were treated with GLP-1 (50 ng/kg body weight) for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, pancreatic tissues were taken for immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction studies. Samples of blood were retrieved from the animals for the measurement of enzymes and insulin. The results show that treatment of diabetic rats with GLP-1 caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in body weight gain and blood glucose level. GLP-1 (10(-12)-10(-6) M) induced significant (P < 0.01) dose-dependent increases in insulin release from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats compared to basal. Diabetes-induced abnormal liver (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and kidney (blood urea nitrogen and uric acid) parameters were corrected in GLP-1-treated rats compared to controls. GLP-1 treatment induced significant (P < 0.05) elevation in the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, heat shock protein-70, glutathione peroxidase, insulin receptor and GLP-1-receptor genes in diabetic animals compared to controls. GLP-1 is present in pancreatic beta cells and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the number of insulin-, glutathione reductase- and catalase-immunoreactive islet cells. The results of this study show that GLP-1 is co-localized with insulin and seems to exert its beneficial effects by increasing cellular concentrations of endogenous antioxidant genes and other genes involved in the maintenance of pancreatic beta cell structure and function.

  15. Peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically mediated energy delivery to lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Anastasia K; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, we examine the effects of internalized peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their ability to locally convert alternating magnetic field (AMF) energy into other forms of energy (e.g., heat and rotational work). Materials & methods: Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were functionalized with a cell penetrating peptide and after internalization by A549 and H358 cells were activated by an AMF. Results: TAT-functionalized nanoparticles and AMF exposure increased reactive oxygen species generation compared with the nanoparticle system alone. The TAT-functionalized nanoparticles induced lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, but these effects were not further enhanced by AMF treatment. Although not statistically significant, there are trends suggesting an increase in apoptosis via the Caspase 3/7 pathways when cells are exposed to TAT-functionalized nanoparticles combined with AMF. Conclusion: Our results indicate that internalized TAT-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles activated by an AMF elicit cellular responses without a measurable temperature rise. PMID:27388639

  16. Kinetics of Surface-Mediated Fibrillization of Amyloid-β (12-28) Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chih; Li, Chen; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2018-04-17

    Surfaces or interfaces are considered to be key factors in facilitating the formation of amyloid fibrils under physiological conditions. In this report, we study the kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization (SMF) of an amyloid-β fragment (Aβ 12-28 ) on mica. We employ a spin-coating-based drying procedure to control the exposure time of the substrate to a low-concentration peptide solution and then monitor the fibril growth as a function of time via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface-mediated fibril growth is quantitatively characterized in terms of the length histogram of imaged fibrils and their surface concentration. A two-dimensional (2D) kinetic model is proposed to numerically simulate the length evolution of surface-mediated fibrils by assuming a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) process along with size-dependent rate constants. We find that both monomer and fibril diffusion on the surface are required to obtain length histograms as a function of time that resemble those observed in experiments. The best-fit simulated data can accurately describe the key features of experimental length histograms and suggests that the mobility of loosely bound amyloid species is crucial in regulating the kinetics of SMF. We determine that the mobility exponent for the size dependence of the DLA rate constants is α = 0.55 ± 0.05, which suggests that the diffusion of loosely bound surface fibrils roughly depends on the inverse of the square root of their size. These studies elucidate the influence of deposition rate and surface diffusion on the formation of amyloid fibrils through SMF. The method used here can be broadly adopted to study the diffusion and aggregation of peptides or proteins on various surfaces to investigate the role of chemical interactions in two-dimensional fibril formation and diffusion.

  17. Utilization of the cellular stress response to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Siegelin, Markus David

    2012-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising death ligand who has received significant attention due to its specific anti-cancer activity. Recently, a number of clinical trials involving either recombinant soluble TRAIL or agonistic death receptor (DR) antibodies have even been initiated. One major caveat in TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies is that a considerable number of cancer cells are notorious resistant to apoptosis induction by TRAIL. Overcoming this primary or secondary evolved resistance is an utmost important goal of present cancer research. The current literature suggests that TRAIL resistance is mediated by a number of endogenous factors. According to recent research, stress-related transcription factors have acquired a pivotal role in the sensitization of highly resistant cancer cells, for example, pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma cells, to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Out of this transcription factor family, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) is linked to the control of DR-mediated apoptosis by modulation of several apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors. Stress responses in certain organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, are potent inductors of CHOP expression. This report focuses on the influence of stress responses on endogenous or acquired resistance to extrinsic apoptosis in tumor cells and summarizes recent findings and results. The Medline and ClinicalTrials database with key words were used for this review. A potential novel treatment strategy for highly treatment-resistant tumors is the induction of a cellular stress response in cancer cells. The induction of an organelle-related stress response, such as nuclear, ER and mitochondrial stress, leads to a dramatic sensitization of a broad variety of cancer cells of different tumor entities to the apoptotic ligand, TRAIL. Importantly, non-neoplastic cells are not sensitized to TRAIL-mediated cell death through the unfolded protein response in

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Her2-NLP peptide conjugates targeting circulating breast cancer cells: cellular uptake and localization by fluorescent microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huawei; Singh, Ajay N; Sun, Xiankai; Peng, Fangyu

    2015-01-01

    To synthesize a fluorescent Her2-NLP peptide conjugate consisting of Her2/neu targeting peptide and nuclear localization sequence peptide (NLP) and assess its cellular uptake and intracellular localization for radionuclide cancer therapy targeting Her2/neu-positive circulating breast cancer cells (CBCC). Fluorescent Cy5.5 Her2-NLP peptide conjugate was synthesized by coupling a bivalent peptide sequence, which consisted of a Her2-binding peptide (NH2-GSGKCCYSL) and an NLP peptide (CGYGPKKKRKVGG) linked by a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain with 6 repeating units, with an activated Cy5.5 ester. The conjugate was separated and purified by HPLC and then characterized by Maldi-MS. The intracellular localization of fluorescent Cy5.5 Her2-NLP peptide conjugate was assessed by fluorescent microscopic imaging using a confocal microscope after incubation of Cy5.5-Her2-NLP with Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells and Her2/neu negative control breast cancer cells, respectively. Fluorescent signals were detected in cytoplasm of Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells (SKBR-3 and BT474 cell lines), but not or little in cytoplasm of Her2/neu negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), after incubation of the breast cancer cells with Cy5.5-Her2-NLP conjugates in vitro. No fluorescent signals were detected within the nuclei of Her2/neu positive SKBR-3 and BT474 breast cancer cells, neither Her2/neu negative MDA-MB-231 cells, incubated with the Cy5.5-Her2-NLP peptide conjugates, suggesting poor nuclear localization of the Cy5.5-Her2-NLP conjugates localized within the cytoplasm after their cellular uptake and internalization by the Her2/neu positive breast cancer cells. Her2-binding peptide (KCCYSL) is a promising agent for radionuclide therapy of Her2/neu positive breast cancer using a β(-) or α emitting radionuclide, but poor nuclear localization of the Her2-NLP peptide conjugates may limit its use for eradication of Her2/neu-positive CBCC using I-125 or other Auger electron

  19. Structure-based analysis of CysZ-mediated cellular uptake of sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Assur Sanghai, Zahra; Liu, Qun; Clarke, Oliver B; Belcher-Dufrisne, Meagan; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Giese, M Hunter; Leal-Pinto, Edgar; Kloss, Brian; Tabuso, Shantelle; Love, James; Punta, Marco; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Rost, Burkhard; Logothetis, Diomedes; Quick, Matthias; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO42-), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO42- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO42- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO42- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO42- across membranes. CysZ structures from three different bacterial species display a hitherto unknown fold and have subunits organized with inverted transmembrane topology. CysZ from Pseudomonas denitrificans assembles as a trimer of antiparallel dimers and the CysZ structures from two other species recapitulate dimers from this assembly. Mutational studies highlight the functional relevance of conserved CysZ residues. PMID:29792261

  20. DNA-controlled dynamic colloidal nanoparticle systems for mediating cellular interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Seiichi; Glancy, Dylan; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-02-01

    Precise control of biosystems requires development of materials that can dynamically change physicochemical properties. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate function, we explored the use of DNA as molecular keys to assemble and transform colloidal nanoparticle systems. The systems consist of a core nanoparticle surrounded by small satellites, the conformation of which can be transformed in response to DNA via a toe-hold displacement mechanism. The conformational changes can alter the optical properties and biological interactions of the assembled nanosystem. Photoluminescent signal is altered by changes in fluorophore-modified particle distance, whereas cellular targeting efficiency is increased 2.5 times by changing the surface display of targeting ligands. These concepts provide strategies for engineering dynamic nanotechnology systems for navigating complex biological environments.

  1. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B.; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3− concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3− concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. PMID:26243620

  2. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; ...

    2015-09-28

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO 2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO 2 signal in guard cells. But, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO 2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. We express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutantmore » plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO 2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO 2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO 2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO 3 - concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Therefore, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO 3 - concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO 2 -regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified.« less

  3. A novel model for studies of blood-mediated long-term responses to cellular transplants

    PubMed Central

    Lindblom, Susanne; Hong, Jaan; Nilsson, Bo; Korsgren, Olle; Ronquist, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interaction between blood and bio-surfaces is important in many medical fields. With the aim of studying blood-mediated reactions to cellular transplants, we developed a whole-blood model for incubation of small volumes for up to 48 h. Methods Heparinized polyvinyl chloride tubing was cut in suitable lengths and sealed to create small bags. Multiple bags, with fresh venous blood, were incubated attached to a rotating wheel at 37°C. Physiological variables in blood were monitored: glucose, blood gases, mono- and divalent cations and chloride ions, osmolality, coagulation (platelet consumption, thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT)), and complement activation (C3a and SC5b-9), haemolysis, and leukocyte viability. Results Basic glucose consumption was high. Glucose depletion resulted in successive elevation of extracellular potassium, while sodium and calcium ions decreased due to inhibition of energy-requiring ion pumps. Addition of glucose improved ion balance but led to metabolic acidosis. To maintain a balanced physiological environment beyond 6 h, glucose and sodium hydrogen carbonate were added regularly based on analyses of glucose, pH, ions, and osmotic pressure. With these additives haemolysis was prevented for up to 72 h and leukocyte viability better preserved. Despite using non-heparinized blood, coagulation and complement activation were lower during long-term incubations compared with addition of thromboplastin and collagen. Conclusion A novel whole-blood model for studies of blood-mediated responses to a cellular transplant is presented allowing extended observations for up to 48 h and highlights the importance of stringent evaluations and adjustment of physiological conditions. PMID:25322825

  4. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debasree; Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Abhirupa; Saha, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs), often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME) were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs). These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI modulators.

  5. Distinct molecular and cellular contributions to stabilizing selectin-mediated rolling under flow

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Leppänen, Anne; Qiu, Haiying; Marcus, Warren D.; Nollert, Matthias U.; Zhu, Cheng; Cummings, Richard D.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes roll on selectins at nearly constant velocities over a wide range of wall shear stresses. Ligand-coupled microspheres roll faster on selectins and detach quickly as wall shear stress is increased. To examine whether the superior performance of leukocytes reflects molecular features of native ligands or cellular properties that favor selectin-mediated rolling, we coupled structurally defined selectin ligands to microspheres or K562 cells and compared their rolling on P-selectin. Microspheres bearing soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (sPSGL)-1 or 2-glycosulfopeptide (GSP)-6, a GSP modeled after the NH2-terminal P-selectin–binding region of PSGL-1, rolled equivalently but unstably on P-selectin. K562 cells displaying randomly coupled 2-GSP-6 also rolled unstably. In contrast, K562 cells bearing randomly coupled sPSGL-1 or 2-GSP-6 targeted to a membrane-distal region of the presumed glycocalyx rolled more like leukocytes: rolling steps were more uniform and shear resistant, and rolling velocities tended to plateau as wall shear stress was increased. K562 cells treated with paraformaldehyde or methyl-β-cyclodextrin before ligand coupling were less deformable and rolled unstably like microspheres. Cells treated with cytochalasin D were more deformable, further resisted detachment, and rolled slowly despite increases in wall shear stress. Thus, stable, shear-resistant rolling requires cellular properties that optimize selectin–ligand interactions. PMID:12177042

  6. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Rydengård, Victoria; Malmsten, Martin; Albiger, Barbara; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  7. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.

  8. Intracellular localisation of proteins to specific cellular areas by nanocapsule mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huabin; Chen, Ligang; Sun, Xianchao; Fu, Ailing

    2017-09-01

    Nanocapsules are promising carriers with great potential for intracellular protein transport. Although many studies have intended to improve cell uptake efficacy, there is an increasing interest in understanding of subcellular distribution of cargoes inside cells, which is essential for purposeful delivery of biomolecules into specific sites within cells. Herein, we interrogate the intracellular localisation of exogenous proteins, including fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), mediated by specially designed nanocapsules. The results show that the designed nanocapsules can deliver the two types of fluorescent proteins into different cellular destinations (cytosol, nucleus or the whole cell), depending on the composition of nanocapsules. Meanwhile, several impact factors that influence the distribution of proteins in cells have also been investigated, and the results suggest that the localisation of capsule-mediated proteins in cells is strongly affected by the surface properties of nanocapsules, the types of stabilisers and proteins, and environmental temperatures. The rational control of intracellular localised delivery of exogenous proteins as we demonstrated in this study might open new avenues to obtain desired magnitude of drug effects for modulating cell activity.

  9. Puerarin promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and decreases cellular lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Hui; Gong, Duo; Chen, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Min; Xia, Xiao-Dan; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Huang, Chong; Zhao, Zhen-Wang; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Xiao-Er; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2017-09-15

    It was reported that puerarin decreases the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to determine whether puerarin decreased lipid accumulation via up-regulation of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Our results showed that puerarin significantly promoted the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA and protein via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α) pathway and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. The miR-7 directly targeted 3' untranslated region of STK11 (Serine/Threonine Kinase 11), which activated the AMPK pathway. Transfection with miR-7 mimic significantly reduced STK11 expression in puerarin-treated macrophages, decreased the phosphorylation of AMPK, down-regulated the expression of the PPARγ-LXR-α-ABCA1 expression. Additionally, treatment with miR-7 decreased cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol levels in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Our study demonstrates that puerarin promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and decreases intracellular cholesterol levels through the pathway involving miR-7, STK11, and the AMPK-PPARγ-LXR-α-ABCA1 cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A gene delivery system for insect cells mediated by arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Jen; Liu, Betty Revon; Dai, Yun-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Huey-Jenn; Lee, Han-Jung

    2012-02-10

    Most bioactive macromolecules, such as protein, DNA and RNA, basically cannot permeate into cells freely from outside the plasma membrane. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of short peptides that possess the ability to traverse the cell membrane and have been considered as candidates for mediating gene and drug delivery into living cells. In this study, we demonstrate that three arginine-rich CPPs (SR9, HR9 and PR9) are able to form stable complexes with plasmid DNA and deliver DNA into insect Sf9 cells in a noncovalent manner. The transferred plasmid DNA containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) coding regions could be expressed in cells functionally assayed at both the protein and RNA levels. Furthermore, treatment of cells with CPPs and CPP/DNA complexes resulted in a viability of 84-93% indicating these CPPs are not cytotoxic. These results suggest that arginine-rich CPPs appear to be a promising tool for insect transgenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cafestol, a coffee-specific diterpene, induces peripheral antinociception mediated by endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Luciana S; Perez, Andrea C; Romero, Thiago Rl; Azevedo, Adolfo O; Duarte, Igor Dg

    2012-05-01

    The opioid peptides have been implicated in peripheral antinociception induced by non-opioidergic compounds, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and α(2) -adrenoceptor agonists. The aims of the present study were to investigate the possible peripheral antinociceptive effect of cafestol, a diterpene present in the oil derived from coffee beans, and to evaluate the involvement of opioid peptides in its effect. The rat paw pressure test was used to assess antinocipeptive effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2) (2 μg/paw). All drugs were locally administered into the hind-paws of male Wistar rats. Intraplantar injection of cafestol (20, 40 and 80 μg) induced peripheral antinociception. The antinociceptive effect of cafestol was due to a local action because the higher dose (80 μg/paw) did not produce any effect in the contralateral paw. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (25, 50 and 100 μg/paw) prevented the action of cafestol (80 μg/paw), whereas the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin (400 μg/paw) potentiated the antinociceptive effect of cafestol (40 μg/paw). The results of the present study provide evidence that cafestol treatment has a peripheral antinociceptive effect and suggest that this effect is mediated by the release of endogenous opioids. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) mediate diverse aspects of cell-cell communication in plant reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Eleanor; Costa, Liliana M; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2011-03-01

    Cell-cell communication in plants is essential for the correct co-ordination of reproduction, growth, and development. Studies to dissect this mode of communication have previously focussed primarily on the action of plant hormones as mediators of intercellular signalling. In animals, peptide signalling is a well-documented intercellular communication system, however, relatively little is known about this system in plants. In recent years, numerous reports have emerged about small, secreted peptides controlling different aspects of plant reproduction. Interestingly, most of these peptides are cysteine-rich, and there is convincing evidence suggesting multiple roles for related cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) as signalling factors in developmental patterning as well as during plant pathogen responses and symbiosis. In this review, we discuss how CRPs are emerging as key signalling factors in regulating multiple aspects of vegetative growth and reproductive development in plants.

  13. Design, synthesis of allosteric peptide activator for human SIRT1 and its biological evaluation in cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Nigam, Lokesh; Singh, Amrendra Pratap; Singh, Kusum; Subbarao, Naidu; Dey, Sharmistha

    2017-02-15

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is one of the member of the mammalian proteins of the Sirtuin family of NAD + dependent deacetylases, has recently been shown to attenuate amyloidogenic processing of amyloid protein precursor (APP) in in-vitro cell culture studies and transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). SIRT1 has been shown to have a protective role against (AD). It has been reported earlier that increasing SIRT1 activity can prevent AD in mice model. Tripeptide as an activator of SIRT1 were screened on the basis of structural information by molecular docking and synthesized by solid phase method. The enhancement of biochemical activity of pure recombinant SIRT1 as well as SIRT1 in serum of AD patients in presence of tripeptide was done by Fluorescent Activity Assay. The activity of SIRT1 by peptide was assessed in IMR-32 cell line by measuring acetylated p53 level. Further the protective effect of SIRT1 activator in cellular model of AD was analyzed by MTT assay. We find CWR tripeptide as a SIRT1 activator by molecular docking, enhanced the activity of SIRT1 protein by lowering the Michaelis constant, Km by allosteric mechanism. The activity of serum SIRT1 of AD was also increases by CWR. It also decreased the acetylation of p53 in IMR32 neuroblastoma cells and protected the cell death caused by Aβ amyloid fragments in cell line model of AD. Thus, it can be concluded that CWR may serve as platform to elucidate further small molecule activator as a therapeutic agent for AD targeting SIRT1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Neutrophil Peptides Mediate Endothelial-Monocyte Interaction, Foam Cell Formation, and Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kieran L.; Henriques, Melanie; Tabuchi, Arata; Han, Bing; Yang, Hong; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Tole, Soumitra; Yu, Hanpo; Luo, Alice; Charbonney, Emmanuel; Tullis, Elizabeth; Lazarus, Alan; Robinson, Lisa A.; Ni, Heyu; Peterson, Blake R.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neutrophils are involved in the inflammatory responses during atherosclerosis. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) released from activated neutrophils exert immune modulating properties. We hypothesized that HNPs play an important role in neutrophil-mediated inflammatory cardiovascular responses in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We examined the role of HNPs in endothelial-leukocyte interaction, platelet activation, and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that stimulation of human coronary artery endothelial cells with clinically relevant concentrations of HNPs resulted in monocyte adhesion and transmigration; induction of oxidative stress in human macrophages, which accelerates foam cell formation; and activation and aggregation of human platelets. The administration of superoxide dismutase or anti-CD36 antibody reduced foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux. Mice deficient in double genes of low-density lipoprotein receptor and low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein (LRP), and mice deficient in a single gene of LRP8, the only LRP phenotype expressed in platelets, showed reduced leukocyte rolling and decreased platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in response to HNP stimulation. Conclusion HNPs exert proatherosclerotic properties that appear to be mediated through LRP8 signaling pathways, suggesting an important role for HNPs in the development of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21817096

  15. Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART) peptide attenuates dopamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity in both male and female rats: lack of sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Job, Martin O.; Perry, JoAnna; Shen, Li L.; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript peptide (CART peptide) is known for having an inhibitory effect on dopamine (DA)- and cocaine-mediated actions and is postulated to be a homeostatic, regulatory factor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Some sex differences in cocaine-mediated LMA and in the expression and function of CART peptide have been reported. However, it is not known if the inhibitory effect of CART peptide on cocaine-mediated locomotor activity (LMA) is sexually dimorphic. In this study, the effect of CART 55-102 on LMA due to intra-NAc DA and i.p. cocaine were determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results show that CART 55-102 blunted or reduced both the DA- and cocaine-induced LMA in both males and females. In conclusion, CART peptide is effective in blunting DA- and cocaine-mediated LMA in both males and females. PMID:24630272

  16. FLIM reveals alternative EV-mediated cellular up-take pathways of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Saari, H; Lisitsyna, E; Rautaniemi, K; Rojalin, T; Niemi, L; Nivaro, O; Laaksonen, T; Yliperttula, M; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, E

    2018-06-15

    In response to physiological and artificial stimuli, cells generate nano-scale extracellular vesicles (EVs) by encapsulating biomolecules in plasma membrane-derived phospholipid envelopes. These vesicles are released to bodily fluids, hence acting as powerful endogenous mediators in intercellular signaling. EVs provide a compelling alternative for biomarker discovery and targeted drug delivery, but their kinetics and dynamics while interacting with living cells are poorly understood. Here we introduce a novel method, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate these interaction attributes. By FLIM, we show distinct cellular uptake mechanisms of different EV subtypes, exosomes and microvesicles, loaded with anti-cancer agent, paclitaxel. We demonstrate differences in intracellular behavior and drug release profiles of paclitaxel-containing EVs. Exosomes seem to deliver the drug mostly by endocytosis while microvesicles enter the cells by both endocytosis and fusion with cell membrane. This research offers a new real-time method to investigate EV kinetics with living cells, and it is a potential advancement to complement the existing techniques. The findings of this study improve the current knowledge in exploiting EVs as next-generation targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-based analysis of CysZ-mediated cellular uptake of sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Assur Sanghai, Zahra; Liu, Qun; Clarke, Oliver B.

    Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO42-), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO42- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO42- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO42- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO42- across membranes. CysZ structures from three different bacterial species display a hitherto unknown fold and have subunits organized withmore » inverted transmembrane topology. CysZ from Pseudomonas denitrificans assembles as a trimer of antiparallel dimers and the CysZ structures from two other species recapitulate dimers from this assembly. Mutational studies highlight the functional relevance of conserved CysZ residues.« less

  18. Structure-based analysis of CysZ-mediated cellular uptake of sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Assur Sanghai, Zahra; Liu, Qun; Clarke, Oliver B.

    Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO 4 2-), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO 4 2- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO 4 2- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO 4 2- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO 4 2- across membranes. CysZ structures from three different bacterial speciesmore » display a hitherto unknown fold and have subunits organized with inverted transmembrane topology. CysZ from Pseudomonas denitrificans assembles as a trimer of antiparallel dimers and the CysZ structures from two other species recapitulate dimers from this assembly. In conclusion, mutational studies highlight the functional relevance of conserved CysZ residues.« less

  19. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  20. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (<0.5 μg/mL) and GO (<20 μg/mL) did not decrease cell viability, generate reactive oxygen species, or disrupt mitochondrial function. However, graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  1. Multivalent ligand-receptor-mediated interaction of small filled vesicles with a cellular membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-07-01

    The ligand-receptor-mediated contacts of small sub-100-nm-sized lipid vesicles (or nanoparticles) with the cellular membrane are of interest in the contexts of cell-to-cell communication, endocytosis of membrane-coated virions, and drug (RNA) delivery. In all these cases, the interior of vesicles is filled by biologically relevant content. Despite the diversity of such systems, the corresponding ligand-receptor interaction possesses universal features. One of them is that the vesicle-membrane contacts can be accompanied by the redistribution of ligands and receptors between the contact and contact-free regions. In particular, the concentrations of ligands and receptors may become appreciably higher in the contact regions and their composition may there be different compared to that in the suspended state in the solution. A statistical model presented herein describes the corresponding distribution of various ligands and receptors and allows one to calculate the related change of the free energy with variation of the vesicle-engulfment extent. The results obtained are used to clarify the necessary conditions for the vesicle-assisted pathway of drug delivery.

  2. Lipolysis - a highly regulated multi-enzyme complex mediates the catabolism of cellular fat stores.

    PubMed

    Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert; Oberer, Monika; Zechner, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in cellular lipid droplets. The hydrolytic cleavage of TAG generates non-esterified fatty acids, which are subsequently used as energy substrates, essential precursors for lipid and membrane synthesis, or mediators in cell signaling processes. Consistent with its central importance in lipid and energy homeostasis, lipolysis occurs in essentially all tissues and cell types, it is most abundant, however, in white and brown adipose tissue. Over the last 5years, important enzymes and regulatory protein factors involved in lipolysis have been identified. These include an essential TAG hydrolase named adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) [annotated as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein A2], the ATGL activator comparative gene identification-58 [annotated as α/β hydrolase containing protein 5], and the ATGL inhibitor G0/G1 switch gene 2. Together with the established hormone-sensitive lipase [annotated as lipase E] and monoglyceride lipase, these proteins constitute the basic "lipolytic machinery". Additionally, a large number of hormonal signaling pathways and lipid droplet-associated protein factors regulate substrate access and the activity of the "lipolysome". This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the enzymes and regulatory processes governing lipolysis of fat stores in adipose and non-adipose tissues. Special emphasis will be given to ATGL, its regulation, and physiological function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure-based analysis of CysZ-mediated cellular uptake of sulfate

    DOE PAGES

    Assur Sanghai, Zahra; Liu, Qun; Clarke, Oliver B.; ...

    2018-05-24

    Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO 4 2-), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO 4 2- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO 4 2- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO 4 2- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO 4 2- across membranes. CysZ structures from three different bacterial speciesmore » display a hitherto unknown fold and have subunits organized with inverted transmembrane topology. CysZ from Pseudomonas denitrificans assembles as a trimer of antiparallel dimers and the CysZ structures from two other species recapitulate dimers from this assembly. In conclusion, mutational studies highlight the functional relevance of conserved CysZ residues.« less

  4. Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Tumor Immunotherapy with Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Ursula J. E.; Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several therapeutic antibodies have been Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved. Although their mechanisms of action in vivo is not fully elucidated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is presumed to be a key effector function. A substantial role of ADCC has been demonstrated in vitro and in mouse tumor models. However, a direct in vivo effect of ADCC in tumor reactivity in humans remains to be shown. Several studies revealed a predictive value of FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism in monoclonal antibody treatment, indicating a potential effect of ADCC on outcome for certain indications. Furthermore, the use of therapeutic antibodies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an interesting option. Studying the role of the FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism and the influence of Killer-cell Immunoglobuline-like Receptor (KIR) receptor ligand incompatibility on ADCC in this approach may contribute to future transplantation strategies. Despite the success of approved second-generation antibodies in the treatment of several malignancies, efforts are made to further augment ADCC in vivo by antibody engineering. Here, we review currently used therapeutic antibodies for which ADCC has been suggested as effector function. PMID:23543707

  5. Mitochondria-acting hexokinase II peptides carried by short-length carbon nanotubes with increased cellular uptake, endosomal evasion, and enhanced bioactivity against cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Lau, Wei Liang; Liu, Ang Yu; Prendergast, D'arcy; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor Chun Kong; Lee, Chengkuo; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-08-01

    Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to effectively deliver HKII(pep) across cellular barriers without compromising their bioactivity. The peptide was conjugated on either oxidized MWCNTs or 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized MWCNTs, yielding MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep), respectively. Both conjugates were shown to be internalized by breast cancer MCF-7 cells using confocal microscopy. Moreover, these nanoconjugates seemed to have escaped from endosomes and be in the vicinity of mitochondria. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay conducted on MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells revealed that MWCNT-peptide conjugates were significantly more effective in curbing cancer cell growth compared to a commercially available cell permeable HKII fusion peptide. In addition, both nanoconjugates displayed an enhanced ability in eliciting apoptosis and depleting the ATP level in HCT116 cells compared to the mere HKII peptide. Importantly, hexokinase II release from mitochondria was demonstrated in MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep) treated cells, highlighting that the structure and bioactivity of HKII(pep) were not compromised after covalent conjugation to MWCNTs.Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study

  6. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-12-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer.

  7. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-01-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 691-696] PMID:24602611

  8. Intracellular pathways and nuclear localization signal peptide-mediated gene transfection by cationic polymeric nanovectors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglian; Wang, Jinlei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Min; Jin, Xue; Tang, Guping; Chu, Paul K

    2012-02-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) - based polymers are promising cationic nanovectors. A good understanding of the mechanism by which cationic polymers/DNA complexes are internalized and delivered to nuclei helps to identify which transport steps may be manipulated in order to improve the transfection efficiency. In this work, cell internalization and trafficking of PEI-CyD (PC) composed of β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD) and polyethylenimine (PEI, Mw 600) are studied. The results show that the PC transfected DNA is internalized by binding membrane-associated proteoglycans. The endocytic pathway of the PC particles is caveolae- and clathrin-dependent with both pathways converging to the lysosome. The intracellular fate of the PC provides visual evidence that it can escape from the lysosome. Lysosomal inhibition with chloroquine has no effect on PC mediated transfection implying that blocking the lysosomal traffic does not improve transfection. To improve the nuclear delivery of PC transfected DNA, nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides are chosen to conjugate and combine with the PC. Compared to PC/pDNA, PC-NLS/pDNA, and PC/pDNA/NLS can effectively improve gene transfection in dividing and non-dividing cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide: a possible mediator involved in dexamethasone's inhibition of cell proliferation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiang-Hua; Chang, Yu-Sui

    2012-08-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been recognized for several decades for its role of regulating blood pressure. Recently, cumulating evidences show that ANP plays an anticancer role in various solid tumors via blocking the kinase cascade of Ras-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 with the result of inhibition of DNA synthesis. ANP, as well as its receptors (NPR-A and NPR-C) has been identified present in the embryonic stem cell and a wide range of cancer cells. Various lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, have been detected the presence of ANP. Multiple myeloma (MM), though the therapies have evolved significantly, is still an incurable disease as B lymphocyte cell neoplasm. Dexamethasone is the cornerstone in treatment of MM via inactivation of Ras-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade reaction. Coincidently, dexamethasone can increase the expression of ANP markedly. Nevertheless, the role of ANP in MM is unclear. Based on these results above, we raise the hypothesis that ANP is involved in mediating dexamethasone's inhibition of proliferation in MM cells, which suggests that ANP may be a potential agent to treat MM. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An effector Peptide family required for Drosophila toll-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Alexa W; Lindsay, Scott A; Wasserman, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, recognition of an invading pathogen activates the Toll or Imd signaling pathway, triggering robust upregulation of innate immune effectors. Although the mechanisms of pathogen recognition and signaling are now well understood, the functions of the immune-induced transcriptome and proteome remain much less well characterized. Through bioinformatic analysis of effector gene sequences, we have defined a family of twelve genes - the Bomanins (Boms) - that are specifically induced by Toll and that encode small, secreted peptides of unknown biochemical activity. Using targeted genome engineering, we have deleted ten of the twelve Bom genes. Remarkably, inactivating these ten genes decreases survival upon microbial infection to the same extent, and with the same specificity, as does eliminating Toll pathway function. Toll signaling, however, appears unaffected. Assaying bacterial load post-infection in wild-type and mutant flies, we provide evidence that the Boms are required for resistance to, rather than tolerance of, infection. In addition, by generating and assaying a deletion of a smaller subset of the Bom genes, we find that there is overlap in Bom activity toward particular pathogens. Together, these studies deepen our understanding of Toll-mediated immunity and provide a new in vivo model for exploration of the innate immune effector repertoire.

  11. Role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit in peptide-mediated transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changli; Ruan, Renquan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Jun; Ding, Weiping; Wen, Longping

    2015-04-06

    In this work, we discovered that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit (ATP1B1) on epidermal cells plays a key role in the peptide-mediated transdermal delivery of macromolecular drugs. First, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we screened candidate proteins that have specific affinity for the short peptide TD1 (ACSSSPSKHCG) identified in our previous work. Then, we verified the specific binding of TD1 to ATP1B1 in yeast and mammalian cells by a pull-down ELISA and an immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, we confirmed that TD1 mainly interacted with the C-terminus of ATP1B1. Our results showed that the interaction between TD1 and ATP1B1 affected not only the expression and localization of ATP1B1, but also the epidermal structure. In addition, this interaction could be antagonized by the exogenous competitor ATP1B1 or be inhibited by ouabain, which results in the decreased delivery of macromolecular drugs across the skin. The discovery of a critical role of ATP1B1 in the peptide-mediated transdermal drug delivery is of great significance for the future development of new transdermal peptide enhancers.

  12. Effect of lycopene and {beta}-carotene on peroxynitrite-mediated cellular modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.

    2006-09-15

    Peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide is a highly reactive species with a role in various pathological processes such as cancer, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. In the present study, the effect of the carotenoids, lycopene and {beta}-carotene, on peroxynitrite-mediated modifications in plasmid DNA as well as cellular DNA and proteins were investigated. In pUC18 plasmid DNA, these carotenoids strongly inhibited DNA strand breaks caused by peroxynitrite generated from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). SIN-1 was also used to determine effects on DNA damage and protein tyrosine nitration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. SIN-1 dose-dependently increased nitrationmore » of proteins in cells above basal levels as determined by Western blotting. This nitration was inhibited in the presence of the uric acid as well as lycopene. Physiological concentrations (0.31-10 {mu}M) of lycopene and {beta}-carotene also had protective effects on DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay. Lycopene significantly reduced DNA damage particularly, in the median range of concentrations (2.5 {mu}M). The protective effects of lycopene and {beta}-carotene could be due to their scavenging of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or nitrogen species (RNS) as they reduce the amount of intracellular ROS/RNS produced following treatment with SIN-1 by as much as 47.5% and 42.4%, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that carotenoids may alleviate some of the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite and possibly other reactive nitrogen species as well in vivo.« less

  13. Nitric oxide-mediated modulation of iron regulatory proteins: implication for cellular iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2002-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) that are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO(.), a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels and a decrease in ferritin synthesis. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO(+) (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and a dramatic increase in ferritin synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and an increase in ferritin synthesis in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO(+)-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  14. Poly(ethylene glycol)-Mediated Collagen Gel Mechanics Regulates Cellular Phenotypes in a Microchanneled Matrix.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Ballance, William C; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2017-08-14

    For the past few decades, efforts have been extensively made to reproduce tissue of interests for various uses including fundamental bioscience studies, clinical treatments, and even soft robotic systems. In these studies, cells are often cultured in micropores introduced in a provisional matrix despite that bulk rigidity may negatively affect cellular differentiation involved in tissue formation. To this end, we hypothesized that suspending cells within a soft fibrous matrix that is encapsulated within the microchannels of a provisional matrix would allow us to mediate effects of the matrix rigidity on cells and, in turn, to increase the cell differentiation level. We examined this hypothesis by filling microchannels interpenetrating alginate matrices with collagen gels of controlled elastic moduli (i.e., 125 to 1 Pa). Myoblasts used as a model predifferentiated cell were suspended within the collagen gels. The elastic modulus of the collagen gels was decreased through the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) during the gel preparation. Myoblasts loaded in the collagen gel exhibited a higher myogenic differentiation level than those adhered to the collagen-coated microchannel wall. Furthermore, the collagen gel softened by poly(ethylene glycol) further increased the volume of the multinucleated myofibers. The role of collagen gel softness on cell differentiation became more significant when the bulk elastic modulus of the alginate matrix was tuned to be close to that of muscle tissue (i.e., 11 kPa). We believe that the results of this study would be useful to understanding phenotypic activities of a wide array of cells involved in tissue development and regeneration.

  15. Negative regulation of STAT3 protein-mediated cellular respiration by SIRT1 protein.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Song, Shaoming; He, Hua-Jun; Armour, Sean M; Hubbard, Basil P; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Wang, Lili; Zong, Yaping; Sinclair, David A; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-06-03

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this study, Sirt1 gene knock-out murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to delineate the role of SIRT1 in the regulation of STAT3 mitochondrial function. Here, we show that STAT3 mRNA and protein levels and the accumulation of serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria were increased significantly in Sirt1-KO cells as compared with wild-type MEFs. Various mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, such as the oxygen consumption rate in cell cultures, enzyme activities of the electron transport chain complexes in isolated mitochondria, and production of ATP and lactate, indicated that Sirt1-KO cells exhibited higher mitochondrial respiration as compared with wild-type MEFs. Two independent approaches, including ectopic expression of SIRT1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3, led to reduction in intracellular ATP levels and increased lactate production in Sirt1-KO cells that were approaching those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1 appears to be a functional regulator of NF-κB-dependent STAT3 expression that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. These results have implications for understanding the interplay between STAT3 and SIRT1 in pro-inflammatory conditions.

  16. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Song, Shaoming; He, Hua-Jun; Armour, Sean M.; Hubbard, Basil P.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Wang, Lili; Zong, Yaping; Sinclair, David A.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this study, Sirt1 gene knock-out murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to delineate the role of SIRT1 in the regulation of STAT3 mitochondrial function. Here, we show that STAT3 mRNA and protein levels and the accumulation of serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria were increased significantly in Sirt1-KO cells as compared with wild-type MEFs. Various mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, such as the oxygen consumption rate in cell cultures, enzyme activities of the electron transport chain complexes in isolated mitochondria, and production of ATP and lactate, indicated that Sirt1-KO cells exhibited higher mitochondrial respiration as compared with wild-type MEFs. Two independent approaches, including ectopic expression of SIRT1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3, led to reduction in intracellular ATP levels and increased lactate production in Sirt1-KO cells that were approaching those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1 appears to be a functional regulator of NF-κB-dependent STAT3 expression that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. These results have implications for understanding the interplay between STAT3 and SIRT1 in pro-inflammatory conditions. PMID:21467030

  17. A silencing-mediated enhancement of osteogenic differentiation by supramolecular ternary siRNA polyplexes comprising biocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes and anionic fusogenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Inada, Takasuke; Tamura, Atsushi; Terauchi, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yui, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-30

    Gene silencing of noggin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects, because noggin deactivates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and suppresses osteogenic differentiation. Here, we demonstrated the silencing of the noggin gene by siRNA polyplexes composed of noggin-targeted siRNA and biocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes (DMAE-SS-PRX). To improve the endosomal escape efficiencies of the DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA polyplexes, anionic and fusogenic GALA peptides were integrated onto the DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA polyplexes via simple electrostatic interactions. The formation of ternary complexes was confirmed by gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential measurements. Although the association of GALA peptides with the DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA polyplexes did not remarkably affect the cellular uptake efficiency of siRNA, the endosomal escape efficiency was remarkably increased for GALA/DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA ternary polyplexes because of the endosomal and lysosomal membrane destabilization by GALA peptides. Consequently, GALA/DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA ternary polyplexes showed significantly higher gene silencing efficiency against noggin and enhanced the BMP-2-mediated osteogenic differentiation efficiency. Therefore, we concluded that GALA/DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA ternary polyplexes can be effective siRNA carriers for suppressing the expression of specific endogenous genes. Consequently, we believe that a more practical approach in vivo will be the combined use of BMP-2 and GALA/DMAE-SS-PRX/siRNA ternary polyplexes, because it will improve the efficacy of bone regeneration therapy.

  18. Purification and in vitro antioxidative effects of giant squid muscle peptides on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Mendis, Eresha; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2005-09-01

    Low molecular weight peptides obtained from ultrafiltration (UF) of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle protein were studied for their antioxidative effects in different in vitro oxidative systems. The most potent two peptides, Asn-Ala-Asp-Phe-Gly-Leu-Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Ala (1307 Da) and Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Lys (747 Da), exhibited their antioxidant potential to act as chain-breaking antioxidants by inhibiting radical-mediated peroxidation of linoleic acid, and their activities were closer to highly active synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. Addition of these peptides could enhance the viability of cytotoxic embryonic lung fibroblasts significantly (P<.05) at a low concentration of 50 microg/ml, and it was presumed due to the suppression of radical-induced oxidation of membrane lipids. Electron spin trapping studies revealed that the peptides were potent scavengers of free radicals in the order of carbon-centered (IC(50) 396.04 and 304.67 microM), hydroxyl (IC(50) 497.32 and 428.54 microM) and superoxide radicals (IC(50) 669.34 and 573.83 microM). Even though the exact molecular mechanism for scavenging of free radicals was unclear, unusually high hydrophobic amino acid composition (more than 75%) of giant squid muscle peptides was presumed to be involved in the observed activities.

  19. The extent of sequence complementarity correlates with the potency of cellular miRNA-mediated restriction of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Houzet, Laurent; Klase, Zachary; Yeung, Man Lung; Wu, Annie; Le, Shu-Yun; Quiñones, Mariam; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 22-nt non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of cellular gene expression and potential cellular defense against viral infection. Using in silico analyses, we predicted target sites for 22 human miRNAs in the HIV genome. Transfection experiments using synthetic miRNAs showed that five of these miRNAs capably decreased HIV replication. Using one of these five miRNAs, human miR-326 as an example, we demonstrated that the degree of complementarity between the predicted viral sequence and cellular miR-326 correlates, in a Dicer-dependent manner, with the potency of miRNA-mediated restriction of viral replication. Antagomirs to miR-326 that knocked down this cell endogenous miRNA increased HIV-1 replication in cells, suggesting that miR-326 is physiologically functional in moderating HIV-1 replication in human cells. PMID:23042677

  20. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxue; Chen, Mingshui; Kaushal, Sharmeela; McElroy, Michele; Zhang, Yu; Ozkan, Cengiz; Bouvet, Michael; Kruse, Carol; Grotjahn, Douglas; Ichim, Thomas; Minev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96(®) Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor CTL

  1. Enhancing the efficiency of sortase-mediated ligations through nickel-peptide complex formation.

    PubMed

    David Row, R; Roark, Travis J; Philip, Marina C; Perkins, Lorena L; Antos, John M

    2015-08-14

    A modified sortase A recognition motif containing a masked Ni(2+)-binding peptide was employed to boost the efficiency of sortase-catalyzed ligation reactions. Deactivation of the Ni(2+)-binding peptide using a Ni(2+) additive improved reaction performance at low to equimolar ratios of the glycine amine nucleophile and sortase substrate. The success of this approach was demonstrated with both peptide and protein substrates.

  2. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  3. Why cellular communication during plant reproduction is particularly mediated by CRP signalling.

    PubMed

    Bircheneder, Susanne; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Secreted cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) represent one of the main classes of signalling peptides in plants. Whereas post-translationally modified small non-CRP peptides (psNCRPs) are mostly involved in signalling events during vegetative development and interactions with the environment, CRPs are overrepresented in reproductive processes including pollen germination and growth, self-incompatibility, gamete activation and fusion as well as seed development. In this opinion paper we compare the involvement of both types of peptides in vegetative and reproductive phases of the plant lifecycle. Besides their conserved cysteine pattern defining structural features, CRPs exhibit hypervariable primary sequences and a rapid evolution rate. As a result, CRPs represent a pool of highly polymorphic signalling peptides involved in species-specific functions during reproduction and thus likely represent key players to trigger speciation in plants by supporting reproductive isolation. In contrast, precursers of psNCRPs are proteolytically processed into small functional domains with high sequence conservation and act in more general processes. We discuss parallels in downstream processes of CRP signalling in both reproduction and defence against pathogenic fungi and alien pollen tubes, with special emphasis on the role of ROS and ion channels. In conclusion we suggest that CRP signalling during reproduction in plants has evolved from ancient defence mechanisms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cellular uptake mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor facilitates the intracellular activity of phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyu; Allen, Nickolas; Vickers, Timothy A; Revenko, Alexey S; Sun, Hong; Liang, Xue-hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages have been extensively studied as research and therapeutic agents. PS-ASOs can enter the cell and trigger cleavage of complementary RNA by RNase H1 even in the absence of transfection reagent. A number of cell surface proteins have been identified that bind PS-ASOs and mediate their cellular uptake; however, the mechanisms that lead to productive internalization of PS-ASOs are not well understood. Here, we characterized the interaction between PS-ASOs and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that PS-ASOs trafficked together with EGF and EGFR into clathrin-coated pit structures. Their co-localization was also observed at early endosomes and inside enlarged late endosomes. Reduction of EGFR decreased PS-ASO activity without affecting EGF-mediated signaling pathways and overexpression of EGFR increased PS-ASO activity in cells. Furthermore, reduction of EGFR delays PS-ASO trafficking from early to late endosomes. Thus, EGFR binds to PS-ASOs at the cell surface and mediates essential steps for active (productive) cellular uptake of PS-ASOs through its cargo-dependent trafficking processes which migrate PS-ASOs from early to late endosomes. This EGFR-mediated process can also serve as an additional model to better understand the mechanism of intracellular uptake and endosomal release of PS-ASOs. PMID:29514240

  5. A nonribosomal peptide synthetase mediates siderophore production and virulence in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hung; Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-06-01

    Alternaria species produce and excrete dimethyl coprogen siderophores to acquire iron. The Alternaria alternata gene AaNPS6, encoding a polypeptide analogous to fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was found to be required for the production of siderophores and virulence on citrus. Siderophores purified from culture filtrates of the wild-type strain did not induce any phytotoxicity on the leaves of citrus. Fungal strains lacking AaNPS6 produced little or no detectable extracellular siderophores and displayed an increased sensitivity to H₂O₂, superoxide-generating compounds (KO₂ and menadione) and iron depletion. Δnps6 mutants were also defective for the production of melanin and conidia. The introduction of a wild-type AaNPS6 under the control of its endogenous promoter to a Δnps6 null mutant at least partially restored siderophore production and virulence to citrus, demonstrating a functional link between iron uptake and fungal pathogenesis. Elevated sensitivity to H₂O₂, seen for the Δnps6 null strain could be relieved by exogenous application of ferric iron. The expression of the AaNPS6 gene was highly up-regulated under low-iron conditions and apparently controlled by the redox-responsive yeast transcriptional regulator YAP1. Hence, the maintenance of iron homeostasis via siderophore-mediated iron uptake also plays an important role in resistance to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results demonstrate further the critical role of ROS detoxification for the pathogenicity of A. alternata in citrus. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. The hemoglobin derived peptide LVV-hemorphin-7 evokes behavioral effects mediated by oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Turones, Larissa Córdova; Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Galdino, Pablinny; Rodrigues-Silva, Christielly; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Costa, Elson Alves; Ghedini, Paulo Cesar; Ianzer, Danielle; Xavier, Carlos Henrique

    2017-12-01

    LVV-hemorphin-7 (LVV-h7) is bioactive peptide resulting from degradation of hemoglobin β-globin chain. LVV-h7 is a specific agonist of angiotensin IV receptor. This receptor belongs to the class of insulin-regulated aminopeptidases (IRAP), which displays oxytocinase activity. Herein, our aims were to assess whether: i) LVV-h7 modifies centrally organized behavior and cardiovascular responses to stress and ii) mechanisms underlying LVV-h7 effects involve activation of oxytocin (OT) receptors, probably as result of reduction of IRAP proteolytic activity upon OT. Adult male Wistar rats (270-370g) received (i.p.) injections of LVV-h7 (153nmol/kg), or vehicle (0.1ml). Different protocols were used: i) open field (OP) test for locomotor/exploratory activities; ii) Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior; iii) forced swimming test (FST) test for depression-like behavior and iv) air jet for cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress exposure. Diazepam (2mg/kg) and imipramine (15mg/kg) were used as positive control for EPM and FST, respectively. The antagonist of OT receptors (OTr), atosiban (1 and 0,1mg/kg), was used to determine the involvement of oxytocinergic paths. We found that LVV-h7: i) increased the number of entries and the time spent in open arms of the maze, an indicative of anxiolysis; ii) provoked antidepressant effect in the FS test; and iii) increased the exploration and locomotion; iv) did not change the cardiovascular reactivity and neuroendocrine responses to acute stress. Also, increases in locomotion and the antidepressant effects evoked by LVV-h7 were reverted by OTr antagonist. We conclude that LVV-h7 modulates behavior, displays antidepressant and anxiolytic effects that are mediated in part by oxytocin receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. (R-X-R)4 -Motif Peptides Containing Conformationally Constrained Cyclohexane-Derived Spacers: Effect on Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Govind S; Fernandes, Moneesha

    2017-11-08

    Arginine-rich peptides having the (R-X-R) n motif are among the most effective cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Herein we report a several-fold increase in the efficacy of such CPPs if the linear flexible spacer (-X-) in the (R-X-R) motif is replaced by constrained cyclic 1,4-substituted-cyclohexane-derived spacers. Internalization of these oligomers in mammalian cell lines was found to be an energy-dependent process. Incorporation of these constrained, non-proteinogenic amino acid spacers in the CPPs is shown to enhance their proteolytic stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Anorexia Induction by the Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) Is Mediated by the Release of the Gut Satiety Hormone Peptide YY

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin’s anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15–120min and lasted up to 120min (CCK) and 240min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression. PMID:22903826

  10. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  11. Relevance of biophysical interactions of nanoparticles with a model membrane in predicting cellular uptake: study with TAT peptide-conjugated nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Rao, Kavitha S.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the biophysical interactions of the trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) with a model cell membrane could predict the cellular uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic agent. To test the above hypothesis, the biophysical interactions of ritonavir-loaded poly (L-lactide) nanoparticles (RNPs), either conjugated to a TAT peptide (TAT-RNPs) or scrambled TAT peptide (sc-TAT-RNPs), were studied with an endothelial cell model membrane (EMM) using a Langmuir film balance, and the corresponding human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic. Biophysical interactions were determined from the changes in surface pressure (SP) of the EMM as a function of time following interaction with NPs, and the compression isotherm (π–A) of the EMM lipid mixture in the presence of NPs. In addition, the EMMs were transferred onto a silicon substrate following interactions with NPs using the Langmuir–Schaeffer (LS) technique. The transferred LS films were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the changes in lipid morphology and to characterize the NP–membrane interactions. TAT-RNPs showed an increase in SP of the EMM, which was dependent upon the amount of the peptide bound to NPs and the concentration of NPs, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change in SP. The isotherm experiment showed a shift towards higher mean molecular area (mmA) in the presence of TAT-RNPs, indicating their interactions with the lipids of the EMM, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change. The AFM images showed condensation of the lipids following interaction with TAT-RNPs, indicating their penetration into the EMM, whereas RNPs did not cause any change. Surface analysis and 3-D AFM images of the EMM further confirmed penetration of TAT-RNPs into the EMM whereas RNPs were seen anchored loosely to the

  12. Platinum nanozymes recover cellular ROS homeostasis in an oxidative stress-mediated disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglianetti, Mauro; de Luca, Elisa; Pedone, Deborah; Marotta, Roberto; Catelani, Tiziano; Sartori, Barbara; Amenitsch, Heinz; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes, with similar or even superior performance than natural enzymes, along with higher adaptability to the changes in environmental conditions. We then exploited their potent activity as radical scavenging materials in a cellular model of an oxidative stress-related disorder, namely human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) disease, which is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Noteworthily, we found that Pt nanozymes can efficiently reduce ROS levels, completely restoring the cellular physiological homeostasis.In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide

  13. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxue; Chen, Mingshui; Kaushal, Sharmeela; McElroy, Michele; Zhang, Yu; Ozkan, Cengiz; Bouvet, Michael; Kruse, Carol; Grotjahn, Douglas; Ichim, Thomas; Minev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of −15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor

  14. The protein and peptide mediated syntheses of non-biologically-produced oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Matthew B.

    Numerous examples exist in nature of organisms which have evolved the ability to produce sophisticated structures composed of inorganic minerals. Studies of such biomineralizing organisms have suggested that specialized biomolecules are, in part, responsible for the controlled formation of these structures. The research detailed in this dissertation is focused on the use of biomolecules (i.e., peptides and proteins) to form non-biologically produced materials under mild reaction conditions (i.e., neutral pH, aqueous solutions, and room temperature). The peptides utilized in the studies detailed in this dissertation were identified through the screening of single crystal rutile TiO2 substrates or Ge powder with a phagedisplayed peptide library. Twenty-one peptides were identified which possessed an affinity for Ge. Three of these twenty one peptides were tested for germania precipitation activity. Those peptides possessing a basic isoelectric point as well as hydroxyl- and imidazole-containing amino acid residues were found to be the most effective in precipitating amorphous germania from an alkoxide precursor. The phage-displayed peptide library screening of TiO2 substrates yielded twenty peptides. Four of these peptides, which were heavily enriched in histidine and/or basic amino acid residues, were found to possess signficant titania precipitation activity. The activity of these peptides was found to correlate with the number of positive charges they carried. The sequence of the most active of the library-identified peptides was modified to yield two additional peptides. The titania precipitation activity of these designed peptides was higher than the parent peptide, with reduced pH dependence. The titania materials generated by the library-identified and designed peptides were found to be composed of amorphous titania as well as <10 nm anatase and/or monoclinic TiO2 crystallites. The production of titania and zirconia resulting from the interaction of the

  15. Reappraisal of xenobiotic-induced, oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury in chronic pancreatitis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To reappraise the hypothesis of xenobiotic induced, cytochrome P450-mediated, micronutrient-deficient oxidative injury in chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Individual searches of the Medline and Embase databases were conducted for each component of the theory of oxidative-stress mediated cellular injury for the period from 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2012 using appropriate medical subject headings. Boolean operators were used. The individual components were drawn from a recent update on theory of oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury in chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: In relation to the association between exposure to volatile hydrocarbons and chronic pancreatitis the studies fail to adequately control for alcohol intake. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction occurs as a diffuse hepatic and extra-hepatic response to xenobiotic exposure rather than an acinar cell-specific process. GSH depletion is not consistently confirmed. There is good evidence of superoxide dismutase depletion in acute phases of injury but less to support a chronic intra-acinar depletion. Although the liver is the principal site of CYP induction there is no evidence to suggest that oxidative by-products are carried in bile and reflux into the pancreatic duct to cause injury. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic acinar cell injury due to short-lived oxygen free radicals (generated by injury mediated by prematurely activated intra-acinar trypsin) is an important mechanism of cell damage in chronic pancreatitis. However, in contemporary paradigms of chronic pancreatitis this should be seen as one of a series of cell-injury mechanisms rather than a sole mediator. PMID:24659895

  16. Peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells and its effectiveness in cell-adhesive peptide design.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Kaga, Chiaki; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    Peptide array, the designable peptide library covalently synthesized on cellulose support, was applied to assay peptide-cell interaction, between solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells, to study objective peptide design. As a model case, cell-adhesive peptides that could enhance cell growth as tissue engineering scaffold material, was studied. On the peptide array, the relative cell-adhesion ratio of NIH/3T3 cells was 2.5-fold higher on the RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide spot as compared to the spot with no peptide, thus indicating integrin-mediated peptide-cell interaction. Such strong cell adhesion mediated by the RGDS peptide was easily disrupted by single residue substitution on the peptide array, thus indicating that the sequence recognition accuracy of cells was strictly conserved in our optimized scheme. The observed cellular morphological extension with active actin stress-fiber on the RGD motif-containing peptide supported our strategy that peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptide and anchorage-dependant cells (PIASPAC) could provide quantitative data on biological peptide-cell interaction. The analysis of 180 peptides obtained from fibronectin type III domain (no. 1447-1629) yielded 18 novel cell-adhesive peptides without the RGD motif. Taken together with the novel candidates, representative rules of ineffective amino acid usage were obtained from non-effective candidate sequences for the effective designing of cell-adhesive peptides. On comparing the amino acid usage of the top 20 and last 20 peptides from the 180 peptides, the following four brief design rules were indicated: (i) Arg or Lys of positively charged amino acids (except His) could enhance cell adhesion, (ii) small hydrophilic amino acids are favored in cell-adhesion peptides, (iii) negatively charged amino acids and small amino acids (except Gly) could reduce cell adhesion, and (iv) Cys and Met could be excluded from the sequence combination since they have

  17. Efficient peptide ligation between allyl-protected Asp and Cys followed by palladium-mediated deprotection.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Naoki; Hayashi, Gosuke; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2018-04-24

    An efficient method for peptide ligation between C-terminal Asp(OAllyl) and N-terminal Cys has been developed. Peptide ligation and removal of the allyl group at the Asp carboxylate side chain proceeded in one pot by adding a small amount of Pd/TPPTS complex. Based on this efficient synthetic method, PEP-19 (61 amino acids), which is highly expressed in Purkinje cells, was synthesized.

  18. C-peptide inhibitors of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cell entry: effects of conjugation to cholesterol and side chain-side chain crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Chelsea D; Koellhoffer, Jayne F; Chandran, Kartik; Lai, Jonathan R

    2013-10-01

    We previously described potent inhibition of Ebola virus entry by a 'C-peptide' based on the GP2 C-heptad repeat region (CHR) targeted to endosomes ('Tat-Ebo'). Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of C-peptides conjugated to cholesterol, and Tat-Ebo analogs containing covalent side chain-side chain crosslinks to promote α-helical conformation. We found that the cholesterol-conjugated C-peptides were potent inhibitors of Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP)-mediated cell entry (~10(3)-fold reduction in infection at 40 μM). However, this mechanism of inhibition is somewhat non-specific because the cholesterol-conjugated peptides also inhibited cell entry mediated by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. One side chain-side chain crosslinked peptide had moderately higher activity than the parent compound Tat-Ebo. Circular dichroism revealed that the cholesterol-conjugated peptides unexpectedly formed a strong α-helical conformation that was independent of concentration. Side chain-side chain crosslinking enhanced α-helical stability of the Tat-Ebo variants, but only at neutral pH. These result provide insight into mechanisms of C-peptide inhibiton of Ebola virus GP-mediated cell entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cationic peptide exposure enhances pulsed-electric-field-mediated membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephen M; Aiken, Erik J; Beres, Kaytlyn A; Hahn, Adam R; Kamin, Samantha J; Hagness, Susan C; Booske, John H; Murphy, William L

    2014-01-01

    The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF's ability to disrupt plasma membranes. We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI), in real time. Based on an individual cell's PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1-2 kV/cm, exposure to >50 μg/ml of polyarginine resulted in immediate and high levels of PI uptake, indicating severe membrane disruption, whereas in the absence of peptide, cells predominantly exhibited signatures indicative of no membrane disruption. Additionally, PI entered cells through the anode-facing membrane when exposed to cationic peptide, which was theoretically expected. Exposure to cationic peptides reduced the PEF intensity required to induce rapid and irreversible membrane disruption. Critically, peptide exposure reduced the PEF intensities required to elicit irreversible membrane disruption at normally sub-electroporation intensities. We believe that these cationic peptides, when coupled with current advancements in cell targeting techniques will be useful tools in

  20. Cationic Peptide Exposure Enhances Pulsed-Electric-Field-Mediated Membrane Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Stephen M.; Aiken, Erik J.; Beres, Kaytlyn A.; Hahn, Adam R.; Kamin, Samantha J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Booske, John H.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF’s ability to disrupt plasma membranes. Methodology/Principal Findings We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI), in real time. Based on an individual cell’s PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1–2 kV/cm, exposure to >50 μg/ml of polyarginine resulted in immediate and high levels of PI uptake, indicating severe membrane disruption, whereas in the absence of peptide, cells predominantly exhibited signatures indicative of no membrane disruption. Additionally, PI entered cells through the anode-facing membrane when exposed to cationic peptide, which was theoretically expected. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to cationic peptides reduced the PEF intensity required to induce rapid and irreversible membrane disruption. Critically, peptide exposure reduced the PEF intensities required to elicit irreversible membrane disruption at normally sub-electroporation intensities. We believe that these cationic peptides, when coupled with

  1. The Na+/K+-ATPase and the amyloid-beta peptide aβ1-40 control the cellular distribution, abundance and activity of TRPC6 channels.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Boonen, Marielle; Chevallet, Mireille; Jarvis, Louis; Abebe, Addis; Benharouga, Mohamed; Faller, Peter; Jadot, Michel; Bouron, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase interacts with the non-selective cation channels TRPC6 but the functional consequences of this association are unknown. Experiments performed with HEK cells over-expressing TRPC6 channels showed that inhibiting the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with ouabain reduced the amount of TRPC6 proteins and depressed Ca(2+) entry through TRPC6. This effect, not mimicked by membrane depolarization with KCl, was abolished by sucrose and bafilomycin-A, and was partially sensitive to the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA/AM. Biotinylation and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that ouabain caused a multifaceted redistribution of TRPC6 to the plasma membrane and to an endo/lysosomal compartment where they were degraded. The amyloid beta peptide Aβ(1-40), another inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, but not the shorter peptide Aβ1-16, reduced TRPC6 protein levels and depressed TRPC6-mediated responses. In cortical neurons from embryonic mice, ouabain, veratridine (an opener of voltage-gated Na(+) channel), and Aβ(1-40) reduced TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) responses whereas Aβ(1-16) was ineffective. Furthermore, when Aβ(1-40) was co-added together with zinc acetate it could no longer control TRPC6 activity. Altogether, this work shows the existence of a functional coupling between the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and TRPC6. It also suggests that the abundance, distribution and activity of TRPC6 can be regulated by cardiotonic steroids like ouabain and the naturally occurring peptide Aβ(1-40) which underlines the pathophysiological significance of these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The α5β1 Integrin Mediates Elimination of Amyloid-β Peptide and Protects Against Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Michelle L.; Zhang, Zhuohua; Nordstedt, Christer; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    1998-01-01

    The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) can mediate cell attachment by binding to β1 integrins through an arg-his-asp sequence. We show here that the α5β1 integrin, a fibronectin receptor, is an efficient binder of Aβ, and mediates cell attachment to nonfibrillar Aβ. Cells engineered to express α5β1 internalized and degraded more added Aβ1-40 than did α5β1-negative control cells. Deposition of an insoluble Aβ1-40 matrix around the α5β1-expressing cells was reduced, and the cells showed less apoptosis than the control cells. Thus, the α5β1 integrin may protect against Aβ deposition and toxicity, which is a course of Alzheimer's disease lesions. PMID:9585419

  3. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation andmore » invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.« less

  4. Recent advances in topical delivery of proteins and peptides mediated by soft matter nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Witting, Madeleine; Obst, Katja; Friess, Wolfgang; Hedtrich, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and peptides are increasingly important therapeutics for the treatment of severe and complex diseases like cancer or autoimmune diseases due to their high specificity and potency. Their unique structure and labile physicochemical properties, however, require special attention in the production and formulation process as well as during administration. Aside from conventional systemic injections, the topical application of proteins and peptides is an appealing alternative due to its non-invasive nature and thus high acceptance by patients. For this approach, soft matter nanocarriers are interesting delivery systems which offer beneficial properties such as high biocompatibility, easiness of modifications, as well as targeted drug delivery and release. This review aims to highlight and discuss technological developments in the field of soft matter nanocarriers for the delivery of proteins and peptides via the skin, the eye, the nose, and the lung, and to provide insights in advantages, limitations, and practicability of recent advances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Peptide-Lipid Interactions: Experiments and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Cantisani, Marco; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between peptides and lipids are of fundamental importance in the functioning of numerous membrane-mediated cellular processes including antimicrobial peptide action, hormone-receptor interactions, drug bioavailability across the blood-brain barrier and viral fusion processes. Moreover, a major goal of modern biotechnology is obtaining new potent pharmaceutical agents whose biological action is dependent on the binding of peptides to lipid-bilayers. Several issues need to be addressed such as secondary structure, orientation, oligomerization and localization inside the membrane. At the same time, the structural effects which the peptides cause on the lipid bilayer are important for the interactions and need to be elucidated. The structural characterization of membrane active peptides in membranes is a harsh experimental challenge. It is in fact accepted that no single experimental technique can give a complete structural picture of the interaction, but rather a combination of different techniques is necessary. PMID:24036440

  6. Peptide-based Antibodies against Glutathione-binding Domains Suppress Superoxide Production Mediated by Mitochondrial Complex I*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Rawale, Sharad; Chen, Chun-An; Zweier, Jay L.; Kaumaya, Pravin T. P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2010-01-01

    Complex I (NQR) is a critical site of superoxide () production and the major host of redox protein thiols in mitochondria. In response to oxidative stress, NQR-derived protein thiols at the 51- and 75-kDa subunits are known to be reversibly S-glutathionylated. Although several glutathionylated domains from NQR 51 and 75 kDa have been identified, their roles in the regulatory functions remain to be explored. To gain further insights into protein S-glutathionylation of complex I, we used two peptides of S-glutathionylated domain (200GAGAYICGEETALIESIEGK219 of 51-kDa protein and 361VDSDTLCTEEVFPTAGAGTDLR382 of 75-kDa protein) as chimeric epitopes incorporating a “promiscuous” T-cell epitope to generate two polyclonal antibodies, AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367. Binding of AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 37 and 57%, as measured by EPR spin-trapping. To further provide an appropriate control, two peptides of non-glutathionylated domain (21SGDTTAPKKTSFGSLKDFDR40 of 51-kDa peptide and 100WNILTNSEKTKKAREGVMEFL120 of 75-kDa peptide) were synthesized as chimeric epitopes to generate two polyclonal antibodies, Ab51 and Ab75. Binding of A51 did not affect NQR-mediated generation to a significant level. However, binding of Ab75 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 35%. None of AbGSCA206, AbGSCB367, Ab51, or Ab75 showed an inhibitory effect on the electron transfer activity of NQR, suggesting that antibody binding to the glutathione-binding domain decreased electron leakage from the hydrophilic domain of NQR. When heart tissue homogenates were immunoprecipitated with Ab51 or Ab75 and probed with an antibody against glutathione, protein S-glutathionylation was enhanced in post-ischemic myocardium at the NQR 51-kDa subunit, but not at the 75-kDa subunit, indicating that the 51-kDa subunit of flavin subcomplex is more sensitive to oxidative stress resulting from myocardial infarction. PMID:19940158

  7. RGD peptide-mediated chitosan-based polymeric micelles targeting delivery for integrin-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Li; Liu, Ping; Li, Xi; Huang, Xuan; Ye, Yi-Qing; Chen, Feng-Ying; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Du, Yong-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Solid tumors need new blood vessels to feed and nourish them as well as to allow tumor cells to escape into the circulation and lodge in other organs, which is termed "angiogenesis." Some tumor cells within solid tumors can overexpress integrins α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5), which can specifically recognize the peptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Thus, the targeting of RGD-modified micelles to tumor vasculature is a promising strategy for tumor-targeting treatment. RGD peptide (GSSSGRGDSPA) was coupled to poly(ethylene glycol)-modified stearic acid-grafted chitosan (PEG-CS-SA) micelles via chemical reaction in the presence of N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate. The critical micelle concentration of the polymeric micelles was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity of pyrene as a fluorescent probe. The micelle size, size distribution, and zeta potential were measured by light scattering and electrophoretic mobility. Doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen as a model anticancer drug to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug-release profile, and in vitro antitumor activities of drug-loaded RGD-PEG-CS-SA micelles in cells that overexpress integrins (α(ν)β(3) and α(ν)β(5)) and integrin-deficient cells. Using DOX as a model drug, the drug encapsulation efficiency could reach 90%, and the in vitro drug-release profiles suggested that the micelles could be used as a controlled-release carrier for the hydrophobic drug. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular uptake indicated that RGD-modified micelles could significantly increase the DOX concentration in integrin-overexpressing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (BEL-7402), but not in human epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hela). The competitive cellular-uptake test showed that the cellular uptake of RGD-modified micelles in BEL-7402 cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of excess free RGD peptides. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrated DOX-loaded RGD-modified micelles could

  8. Small interfering RNA mediated knockdown of irisin suppresses food intake and modulates appetite regulatory peptides in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Lakshminarasimhan; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-10-01

    Irisin is a myokine encoded in fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). FNDC5 forms an integral part of the muscle post-exercise, and causes an increase in energy expenditure in mammals. Irisin is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and is secreted upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). Irisin regulates feeding behaviour and cardiovascular function in mammals. More recently, irisin has gained importance as a potential biomarker for myocardial infarction due to its abundance in cardiac muscle. The goal of this research was to determine whether irisin influences feeding, and regulates appetite regulatory peptides in zebrafish. Intraperitoneal injection of irisin [0.1, 1, 10 and 100ng/g body weight (BW)] did not affect feeding, but its knockdown using siRNA (10ng/g BW) caused a significant reduction in food intake. Knockdown of irisin reduced ghrelin and orexin-A mRNA expression, and increased cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript mRNA expression in zebrafish brain and gut. siRNA mediated knockdown of irisin also downregulated brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in zebrafish. The role of endogenous irisin on food intake is likely mediated by its actions on other metabolic peptides. Collectively, these results indicate that unaltered endogenous irisin is required to maintain food intake in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of Peroxinectin in PGE2-mediated cellular immunity in Spodoptera exigua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prostaglandins (PGs) mediate insect immune responses to infections and invasions. Although the presence of PGs has been confirmed in several insect species, their biosynthesis in insects remains a conundrum because orthologs of the mammalian cyclooxygenases (COXs) have not been found in the known in...

  10. Proteomic Analyses of Cellular Events Mediating/Inhibiting Chemical-Induced Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    cells in patients with sarcoidosis , an innammatory disease which is onen located in the lungs [27,28J. Cell signaling in the NRF-2 Mediated Oxidative...bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis . J Clin Invest 2007, 117:3576-3582. 28. Yang Y, Fujita J, Bandoh 5, Ohtsuki Y, Yamadori I, Yoshinouchi T

  11. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility.

    PubMed

    Price, Paul A; Tanner, Houston R; Dillon, Brett A; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C; Griffitts, Joel S

    2015-12-08

    Legume-rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes.

  12. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Tanner, Houston R.; Dillon, Brett A.; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C.; Griffitts, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Legume–rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes. PMID:26401024

  13. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1997-01-01

    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  14. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Lomnicki, Slawo; McAvey, Kevin M; Cole, Richard B; Dellinger, Barry; Cormier, Stephania A

    2009-01-01

    Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs). Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230) as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(II)O surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx). The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine particles and the

  15. Role of Passive Diffusion, Transporters, and Membrane Trafficking-Mediated Processes in Cellular Drug Transport.

    PubMed

    Cocucci, E; Kim, J Y; Bai, Y; Pabla, N

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular drug accumulation is thought to be dictated by two major processes, passive diffusion through the lipid membrane or membrane transporters. The relative role played by these distinct processes remains actively debated. Moreover, the role of membrane-trafficking in drug transport remains underappreciated and unexplored. Here we discuss the distinct processes involved in cellular drug distribution and propose that better experimental models are required to elucidate the differential contributions of various processes in intracellular drug accumulation. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Tat peptide and hexadecylphosphocholine introduction into pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: An in vitro and in vivo study on drug cellular delivery, release, biodistribution and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Teymouri, Manouchehr; Badiee, Ali; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Sadri, Kayvan; Akhtari, Javad; Mellat, Mostafa; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-09-10

    We have investigated the co-addition of hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) and a Tat derived peptide (Tat), coupled to Maleimide-PEG2000-DSPE pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in many respects, including drug and liposome cellular delivery, drug release, biodistribution, in vivo cell delivery and antitumor activity. The liposomes were HePC-free and -containing liposomes, from which liposomes with 25, 50, 100 and 200 numbers of Tat/liposome were prepared. Similarly, DiI-C18 (3)-model liposomes (DiI-L and DiI-HePC-L) were prepared. HePC and Tat increased cellular delivery of Dox and cytotoxicity in B16F0 melanoma and C26 colon carcinoma cells. Tat enhanced liposome-cell interaction and caused Dox burst release. HePC and Tat reduced the serum retention time of liposomal Dox, slightly and dramatically, respectively. In comparison, Tat-liposomes enhanced Dox delivery to liver and spleen cells 3h post-injection. Likewise, Dox content of these tissues and tumor was lower at 24h. The naïve liposomes retarded tumor growth more effectively and their related median survival time of the treated C26 bearing BALB/c mice was longer than those of Tat-liposomes (MST>45days versus MST<38days). Overall liposomes exhibiting sustained drug release and negligible cell interaction were more suitable delivery systems in targeting cancerous tumors and suppressing their growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PEGylation rate influences peptide-based nanoparticles mediated siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Gudrun; Vaissière, Anaïs; Konate, Karidia; Seisel, Quentin; Vivès, Eric; Fernandez, Frédéric; Viguier, Véronique; Genevois, Coralie; Couillaud, Franck; Démèné, Héléne; Aggad, Dina; Covinhes, Aurélie; Barrère-Lemaire, Stéphanie; Deshayes, Sébastien; Boisguerin, Prisca

    2017-06-28

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) present a strong therapeutic potential because of their ability to inhibit the expression of any desired protein. Recently, we developed the retro-inverso amphipathic RICK peptide as novel non-covalent siRNA carrier. This peptide is able to form nanoparticles (NPs) by self-assembling with the siRNA resulting in the fully siRNA protection based on its protease resistant peptide sequence. With regard to an in vivo application, we investigated here the influence of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting to RICK NPs on their in vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery properties. A detailed structural study shows that PEGylation did not alter the NP formation (only decrease in zeta potential) regardless of the used PEGylation rates. Compared to the native RICK:siRNA NPs, low PEGylation rates (≤20%) of the NPs did not influence their cellular internalization capacity as well as their knock-down specificity (over-expressed or endogenous system) in vitro. Because the behavior of PEGylated NPs could differ in their in vivo application, we analyzed the repartition of fluorescent labeled NPs injected at the one-cell stage in zebrafish embryos as well as their pharmacokinetic (PK) profile after administration to mice. After an intra-cardiac injection of the PEGylated NPs, we could clearly determine that 20% PEG-RICK NPs reduce significantly liver and kidney accumulation. NPs with 20% PEGylation constitutes a modular, easy-to-handle drug delivery system which could be adapted to other types of functional moieties to develop safe and biocompatible delivery systems for the clinical application of RNAi-based cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammation and cellular stress: a mechanistic link between immune-mediated and metabolically driven pathologies.

    PubMed

    Rath, Eva; Haller, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    Multiple cellular stress responses have been implicated in chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Even though phenotypically different, chronic diseases share cellular stress signaling pathways, in particular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). The purpose of the ER UPR is to restore ER homeostasis after challenges of the ER function. Among the triggers of ER UPR are changes in the redox status, elevated protein synthesis, accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, energy deficiency and glucose deprivation, cholesterol depletion, and microbial signals. Numerous mouse models have been used to characterize the contribution of ER UPR to several pathologies, and ER UPR-associated signaling has also been demonstrated to be relevant in humans. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that the ER UPR is interrelated with metabolic and inflammatory pathways, autophagy, apoptosis, and mitochondrial stress signaling. Furthermore, microbial as well as nutrient sensing is integrated into the ER-associated signaling network. The data discussed in the present review highlight the interaction of ER UPR with inflammatory pathways, metabolic processes and mitochondrial function, and their interrelation in the context of chronic diseases.

  19. Mosquito Cellular Factors and Functions in Mediating the Infectious entry of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Hussain, Khairunnisa' Mohamed; Chen, Huixin; Low, Swee Ling; Ng, Lee Ching; Lin, Raymond; Ng, Mary Mah-Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus responsible for recent epidemics in the Asia Pacific regions. A customized gene expression microarray of 18,760 transcripts known to target Aedes mosquito genome was used to identify host genes that are differentially regulated during the infectious entry process of CHIKV infection on C6/36 mosquito cells. Several genes such as epsin I (EPN1), epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15 (EPS15) and Huntingtin interacting protein I (HIP1) were identified to be differentially expressed during CHIKV infection and known to be involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Transmission electron microscopy analyses further revealed the presence of CHIKV particles within invaginations of the plasma membrane, resembling clathrin-coated pits. Characterization of vesicles involved in the endocytic trafficking processes of CHIKV revealed the translocation of the virus particles to the early endosomes and subsequently to the late endosomes and lysosomes. Treatment with receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine and clathrin-associated drug inhibitors, chlorpromazine and dynasore inhibited CHIKV entry, whereas no inhibition was observed with caveolin-related drug inhibitors. Inhibition of CHIKV entry upon treatment with low-endosomal pH inhibitors indicated that low pH is essential for viral entry processes. CHIKV entry by clathrin-mediated endocytosis was validated via overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Eps15, in which infectious entry was reduced, while siRNA-based knockdown of genes associated with CME, low endosomal pH and RAB trafficking proteins exhibited significant levels of CHIKV inhibition. This study revealed, for the first time, that the infectious entry of CHIKV into mosquito cells is mediated by the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. PMID:23409203

  20. Specific material recognition by small peptides mediated by the interfacial solvent structure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julian; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi

    2012-02-01

    We present evidence that specific material recognition by small peptides is governed by local solvent density variations at solid/liquid interfaces, sensed by the side-chain residues with atomic-scale precision. In particular, we unveil the origin of the selectivity of the binding motif RKLPDA for Ti over Si using a combination of metadynamics and steered molecular dynamics simulations, obtaining adsorption free energies and adhesion forces in quantitative agreement with corresponding experiments. For an accurate description, we employ realistic models of the natively oxidized surfaces which go beyond the commonly used perfect crystal surfaces. These results have profound implications for nanotechnology and materials science applications, offering a previously missing structure-function relationship for the rational design of materials-selective peptide sequences. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Further studies on the structural requirements for mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide-mediated histamine release.

    PubMed

    Buku, A; Price, J A

    2001-12-01

    Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide was modified in its two disulfide bridges and in the two arginine residues in order to measure the ability of these analogs to induce histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Analogs prepared were [Ala(3,15)]MCD, [Ala(5,19)]MCD, [Orn(16)]MCD, and [Orn(7,16)]MCD. Their histamine-releasing activity was determined spectrofluorometrically with peritoneal mast cells. The monocyclic analogs in which the cysteine residues were replaced pairwise with alanine residues showed three-to ten-fold diminished histamine-releasing activity respectively, compared with the parent MCD peptide. Substantial increases in activity were observed where arginine residues were replaced by ornithines. The ornithine-mono substituted analog showed an almost six-fold increase and the ornithine-doubly substituted analog three-fold increase in histamine-releasing activity compared with the parent MCD peptide. The structural changes associated with these activities were followed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Changes in the shape and ellipticity of the CD spectra reflected a role for the disulfide bonds and the two arginine residues in the overall conformation and biological activity of the molecule.

  2. A peptide of heparin cofactor II inhibits endotoxin-mediated shock and invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain important medical problems with high mortality rates. Today's treatment is based mainly on using antibiotics to target the bacteria, without addressing the systemic inflammatory response, which is a major contributor to mortality in sepsis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed to counteract these complex sepsis pathologies. Heparin cofactor II (HCII) has recently been shown to be protective against Gram-negative infections. The antimicrobial effects were mapped to helices A and D of the molecule. Here we show that KYE28, a 28 amino acid long peptide representing helix D of HCII, is antimicrobial against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Moreover, KYE28 binds to LPS and thereby reduces LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing NF-κB/AP-1 activation in vitro. In mouse models of LPS-induced shock, KYE28 significantly enhanced survival by dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Finally, in an invasive Pseudomonas infection model, the peptide inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the pro-inflammatory response, which lead to a significant reduction of mortality. In summary, the peptide KYE28, by simultaneously targeting bacteria and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses represents a novel therapeutic candidate for invasive infections.

  3. A Peptide of Heparin Cofactor II Inhibits Endotoxin-Mediated Shock and Invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain important medical problems with high mortality rates. Today's treatment is based mainly on using antibiotics to target the bacteria, without addressing the systemic inflammatory response, which is a major contributor to mortality in sepsis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed to counteract these complex sepsis pathologies. Heparin cofactor II (HCII) has recently been shown to be protective against Gram-negative infections. The antimicrobial effects were mapped to helices A and D of the molecule. Here we show that KYE28, a 28 amino acid long peptide representing helix D of HCII, is antimicrobial against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Moreover, KYE28 binds to LPS and thereby reduces LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing NF-κB/AP-1 activation in vitro. In mouse models of LPS-induced shock, KYE28 significantly enhanced survival by dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Finally, in an invasive Pseudomonas infection model, the peptide inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the pro-inflammatory response, which lead to a significant reduction of mortality. In summary, the peptide KYE28, by simultaneously targeting bacteria and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses represents a novel therapeutic candidate for invasive infections. PMID:25047075

  4. A 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase mediates non-ribosomal peptide synthetase activation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Neville, Claire; Murphy, Alan; Kavanagh, Kevin; Doyle, Sean

    2005-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a significant human pathogen. Non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) synthesis is thought to be responsible for a significant proportion of toxin and siderophore production in the organism. Furthermore, it has been shown that 4'-phosphopantetheinylation is required for the activation of key enzymes involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis in other species. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression and functional characterisation of a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase from A. fumigatus and the identification of an atypical NRP synthetase (Afpes1), spanning 14.3 kb. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the NRP synthetase exhibits greatest identity to NRP synthetases from Metarhizium anisolpiae (PesA) and Alternaria brassicae (AbrePsy1). Northern hybridisation and RT-PCR analysis have confirmed that both genes are expressed in A. fumigatus. A 120 kDa fragment of the A. fumigatus NRP synthetase, containing a putative thiolation domain, was cloned and expressed in the baculovirus expression system. Detection of a 4'-phosphopantetheinylated peptide (SFSAMK) from this protein, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis after coincubation of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase with the recombinant NRP synthetase fragment and acetyl CoA, confirms that it is competent to play a role in NRP synthetase activation in A. fumigatus. The 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase also activates, by 4'-phosphopantetheinylation, recombinant alpha-aminoadipate reductase (Lys2p) from Candida albicans, a key enzyme involved in lysine biosynthesis.

  5. Chimeric peptide-mediated siRNA transduction to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Mehla, Rajeev; Chauhan, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Persistent human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection provokes immune activation and depletes CD4 +  lymphocytes, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Uninterrupted administration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients suppresses viral replication to below the detectable level and partially restores the immune system. However, cART-unresponsive residual HIV-1 infection and elusive transcriptionally silent but reactivatable viral reservoirs maintain a permanent viral DNA blue print. The virus rebounds within a few weeks after interruption of suppressive therapy. Adjunct gene therapy to control viral replication by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing strategy that could suppress residual HIV-1 burden and overcome viral resistance. Small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) are efficient transcriptional inhibitors, but need delivery systems to reach inside target cells. We investigated the potential of chimeric peptide (FP-PTD) to deliver specific siRNAs to HIV-1-susceptible and permissive cells. Chimeric FP-PTD peptide was designed with an RNA binding domain (PTD) to bind siRNA and a cell fusion peptide domain (FP) to enter cells. FP-PTD-siRNA complex entered and inhibited HIV-1 replication in susceptible cells, and could be a candidate for in vivo testing.

  6. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    SciTech Connect

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlyingmore » the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of

  7. Reversal of in vitro cellular MRP1 and MRP2 mediated vincristine resistance by the flavonoid myricetin.

    PubMed

    van Zanden, Jelmer J; de Mul, Anika; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Usta, Mustafa; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Cnubben, Nicole H P

    2005-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of myricetin on either MRP1 or MRP2 mediated vincristine resistance in transfected MDCKII cells were examined. The results obtained show that myricetin can inhibit both MRP1 and MRP2 mediated vincristine efflux in a concentration dependent manner. The IC50 values for cellular vincristine transport inhibition by myricetin were 30.5+/-1.7 microM for MRP1 and 24.6+/-1.3 microM for MRP2 containing MDCKII cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed that the MDCKII control cells are very sensitive towards vincristine toxicity with an IC50 value of 1.1+/-0.1 microM. The MDCKII MRP1 and MRP2 cells are less sensitive towards vincristine toxicity with IC50 values of 33.1+/-1.9 and 22.2+/-1.4 microM, respectively. In both the MRP1 and MRP2 cells, exposure to 25 microM myricetin enhances the sensitivity of the cells towards vincristine toxicity to IC50 values of 7.6+/-0.5 and 5.8+/-0.5 microM, respectively. The increase of sensitivity represents a reversal of the resistance towards vincristine as a result of MRP1 and MRP2 inhibition. Thus, the present study demonstrates the ability of the flavonoid myricetin to modulate MRP1 and MRP2 mediated resistance to the anticancer drug vincristine in transfected cells, indicating that flavonoids might be a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy to block MRP mediated resistance.

  8. PTEN-mediated ERK1/2 inhibition and paradoxical cellular proliferation following Pnck overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Tushar B; Barndt, Robert J; Zuo, Annie H; Sengupta, Surojeet; Coticchia, Christine M; Johnson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy upregulated non-ubiquitous calmodulin kinase (Pnck), a novel calmodulin kinase, is significantly overexpressed in breast and renal cancers. We present evidence that at high cell density, overexpression of Pnck in HEK 293 cells inhibits serum-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/ERK2) activation. ERK1/2 inhibition is calcium-dependent and Pnck kinase activity is required for ERK1/2 inhibition, since expression of a kinase-dead (K44A) and a catalytic loop phosphorylation mutant (T171A) Pnck protein is unable to inhibit ERK 1/2 activity. Ras is constitutively active at high cell density, and Pnck does not alter Ras activation, suggesting that Pnck inhibition of ERK1/2 activity is independent of Ras activity. Pnck inhibition of serum-induced ERK1/2 activity is lost in cells in which phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is suppressed, suggesting that Pnck inhibition of ERK1/2 activity is mediated by PTEN. Overexpression of protein phosphatase-active but lipid phosphatase-dead PTEN protein inhibits ERK1/2 activity in control cells and enhances Pnck-mediated ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that Pnck increases availability of protein phosphatase active PTEN for ERK1/2 inhibition. Pnck is a stress-responsive kinase; however, serum-induced p38 MAP kinase activity is also downregulated by Pnck in a Pnck kinase- and PTEN-dependent manner, similar to ERK1/2 inhibition. Pnck overexpression increases proliferation, which is inhibited by PTEN knockdown, implying that PTEN acts as a paradoxical promoter of proliferation in ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation-inhibited, Pnck-overexpressing cells. Overall, these data reveal a novel function of Pnck in the regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase activity and cell proliferation, which is mediated by paradoxical PTEN functions. The possible biological implications of these data are discussed. PMID:24552815

  9. Defects in optineurin- and myosin VI-mediated cellular trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Walker, Adam K; Tan, Vanessa; Fifita, Jennifer A; Mccann, Emily P; Williams, Kelly L; Blair, Ian P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting motor neurons. Mutations in optineurin cause a small proportion of familial ALS cases, and wild-type (WT) optineurin is misfolded and forms inclusions in sporadic ALS patient motor neurons. However, it is unknown how optineurin mutation or misfolding leads to ALS. Optineurin acts an adaptor protein connecting the molecular motor myosin VI to secretory vesicles and autophagosomes. Here, we demonstrate that ALS-linked mutations p.Q398X and p.E478G disrupt the association of optineurin with myosin VI, leading to an abnormal diffuse cytoplasmic distribution, inhibition of secretory protein trafficking, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Golgi fragmentation in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells. We also provide further insight into the role of optineurin as an autophagy receptor. WT optineurin associated with lysosomes and promoted autophagosome fusion to lysosomes in neuronal cells, implying that it mediates trafficking of lysosomes during autophagy in association with myosin VI. However, either expression of ALS mutant optineurin or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous optineurin blocked lysosome fusion to autophagosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation. Together these results indicate that ALS-linked mutations in optineurin disrupt myosin VI-mediated intracellular trafficking processes. In addition, in control human patient tissues, optineurin displayed its normal vesicular localization, but in sporadic ALS patient tissues, vesicles were present in a significantly decreased proportion of motor neurons. Optineurin binding to myosin VI was also decreased in tissue lysates from sporadic ALS spinal cords. This study therefore links several previously described pathological mechanisms in ALS, including defects in autophagy, fragmentation of the Golgi and induction of ER stress, to disruption of optineurin function. These findings also indicate that

  10. Fluorophore labeling of a cell-penetrating peptide induces differential effects on its cellular distribution and affects cell viability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ditlev; Christensen, Malene Vinther; Staerk, Dan; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2017-12-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides constitute efficient delivery vectors, and studies of their uptake and mechanism of translocation typically involve fluorophore-labeled conjugates. In the present study, the influence of a number of specific fluorophores on the physico-chemical properties and uptake-related characteristics of penetratin were studied. An array of seven fluorophores belonging to distinct structural classes was examined, and the impact of fluorophore labeling on intracellular distribution and cytotoxicity was correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. Exposure of several mammalian cell types to fluorophore-penetratin conjugates revealed a strong structure-dependent reduction in viability (1.5- to 20-fold lower IC 50 values as compared to those of non-labeled penetratin). Also, the degree of less severe effects on membrane integrity, as well as intracellular distribution patterns differed among the conjugates. Overall, neutral hydrophobic fluorophores or negatively charged fluorophores conferred less cytotoxicity as compared to the effect exerted by positively charged, hydrophobic fluorophores. The latter conjugates, however, exhibited less membrane association and more clearly defined intracellular distribution patterns. Thus, selection of the appropriate flurophore is critical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluorous Peptide Nucleic Acids: PNA Analogues with Fluorine in Backbone (γ-CF2-apg-PNA) Enhance Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ellipilli, Satheesh; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2015-09-18

    Fluorous PNA analogues possessing fluorine as inherent part of aminopropylglycine (apg) backbone (γ-CF2-apg PNA) have been synthesized and evaluated for biophysical and cell penetrating properties. These form duplexes of higher thermal stability with cRNA than cDNA, although destabilized compared to duplexes of standard aeg-PNA. Cellular uptake of the fluorinated γ-CF2-apg PNAs in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells was 2-3-fold higher compared to that of nonfluorinated apg PNA, with NIH 3T3 cells showing better permeability compared to HeLa cells. The backbone fluorinated PNAs, which are first in this class, when combined with other chemical modifications may have potential for future PNA-based antisense agents.

  12. Detection and Analysis of Cell Cycle-Associated APC/C-Mediated Cellular Ubiquitylation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cedeño, Cesyen; La Monaca, Esther; Esposito, Mara; Gutierrez, Gustavo J

    2016-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is one of the major orchestrators of the cell division cycle in mammalian cells. The APC/C acts as a ubiquitin ligase that triggers sequential ubiquitylation of a significant number of substrates which will be eventually degraded by proteasomes during major transitions of the cell cycle. In this chapter, we present accessible methodologies to assess both in in vitro conditions and in cellular systems ubiquitylation reactions mediated by the APC/C. In addition, we also describe techniques to evidence the changes in protein stability provoked by modulation of the activity of the APC/C. Finally, specific methods to analyze interactors or posttranslational modifications of particular APC/C subunits are also discussed. Given the crucial role played by the APC/C in the regulation of the cell cycle, this review only focuses on its action and effects in actively proliferating cells.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake via p38alpha MAP kinase-mediated, nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhashyam, Siva; Fields, Anjali V; Patterson, Brandy; Testani, Jeffrey M; Chen, Li; Shen, You-Tang; Shannon, Richard P

    2010-07-01

    We have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1[7-36] amide) stimulates myocardial glucose uptake in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) independent of an insulinotropic effect. The cellular mechanisms of GLP-1-induced myocardial glucose uptake are unknown. Myocardial substrates and glucoregulatory hormones were measured in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs at control (n=6), DCM (n=9) and DCM after treatment with a 48-hour infusion of GLP-1 (7-36) amide (n=9) or vehicle (n=6). GLP-1 receptors and cellular pathways implicated in myocardial glucose uptake were measured in sarcolemmal membranes harvested from the 4 groups. GLP-1 stimulated myocardial glucose uptake (DCM: 20+/-7 nmol/min/g; DCM+GLP-1: 61+/-12 nmol/min/g; P=0.001) independent of increased plasma insulin levels. The GLP-1 receptors were upregulated in the sarcolemmal membranes (control: 98+/-2 density units; DCM: 256+/-58 density units; P=0.046) and were expressed in their activated (65 kDa) form in DCM. The GLP-1-induced increases in myocardial glucose uptake did not involve adenylyl cyclase or Akt activation but was associated with marked increases in p38alpha MAP kinase activity (DCM+vehicle: 97+/-22 pmol ATP/mg/min; DCM+GLP-1: 170+/-36 pmol ATP/mg/min; P=0.051), induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 (DCM+vehicle: 151+/-13 density units; DCM+GLP-1: 306+/-12 density units; P=0.001), and GLUT-1 translocation (DCM+vehicle: 21+/-3% membrane bound; DCM+GLP-1: 39+/-3% membrane bound; P=0.005). The effects of GLP-1 on myocardial glucose uptake were blocked by pretreatment with the p38alpha MAP kinase inhibitor or the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine. GLP-1 stimulates myocardial glucose uptake through a non-Akt-1-dependent mechanism by activating cellular pathways that have been identified in mediating chronic hibernation and the late phase of ischemic preconditioning.

  14. Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor induce hyperalgesia via inflammatory mediator release in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siu-Lung; Yeung, John H K

    2006-04-18

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, has been widely used as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy and as an immuno-stimulator in China. In this study, the anti-nociceptive effects of PSP were investigated in two different pain models in the mouse. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, initial studies showed that PSP decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhing by 92.9%, which, by definition, would constitute an analgesic effect. However, further studies showed that PSP itself induced a dose-dependent writhing response. Studies on inflammatory mediator release showed that PSP increased the release of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and histamine in mouse peritoneal macrophages and mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. The role of inflammatory mediator release in PSP-induced writhing was confirmed when diclofenac and dexamethasone decreased the number of writhing responses by 54% and 58.5%, respectively. Diphenhydramine totally inhibited the PSP-induced writhing. In the hot-plate test, PSP dose-dependently shortened the hind paw withdrawal latency, indicative of a hyperalgesic effect. The hyperalgesic effect was reduced by pretreatment with the anti-inflammatory drugs. In conclusion, the PSP-induced hyperalgesia was related to activation of peritoneal resident cells and an increase in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  15. Intracellular signals mediating the food intake suppressive effects of hindbrain glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew R.; Leichner, Theresa M.; Zhao, Shiru; Lee, Grace S.; Chowansky, Amy; Zimmer, Derek; De Jonghe, Bart C.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Grill, Harvey J.; Bence, Kendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. Here, hindbrain (4th icv) GLP-1R activation by Exendin-4 increased PKA and MAPK activity and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in NTS. PKA and MAPK signaling contribute to food intake and BW suppression by Exendin-4, as inhibitors RpcAMP and U0126 (4th icv), respectively, attenuated Exendin-4's effects. Hindbrain GLP-1R activation inhibited feeding by reducing meal number, not meal size. This effect was attenuated with stimulation of AMPK activity by AICAR (4th icv). The PKA, MAPK and AMPK signaling responses by Ex-4 were present in immortalized GLP-1R-expressing neurons (GT1-7). In conclusion, hindbrain GLP-1R activation suppresses food intake and BW through coordinated PKA-mediated suppression of AMPK and activation of MAPK. Pharmacotherapies targeting these signaling pathways, which mediate intake-suppressive effects of CNS GLP-1R activation, may prove efficacious in treating obesity. PMID:21356521

  16. HDAC4 preserves skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation by mediating distinct cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Pigna, Eva; Renzini, Alessandra; Greco, Emanuela; Simonazzi, Elena; Fulle, Stefania; Mancinelli, Rosa; Moresi, Viviana; Adamo, Sergio

    2018-02-24

    Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet. To further study HDAC4 functions in response to denervation, we analyzed mutant mice in which HDAC4 is specifically deleted in skeletal muscle. After an initial phase of resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy, skeletal muscle with a deletion of HDAC4 lost structural integrity after 4 weeks of denervation. Deletion of HDAC4 impaired the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, delayed the autophagic response, and dampened the OS response in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system or the autophagic response, if on the one hand, conferred resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy; on the other hand, induced loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, treatment with the antioxidant drug Trolox prevented loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle, despite the resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy. These results reveal new functions of HDAC4 in mediating skeletal muscle response to denervation and lead us to propose the combined use of HDAC inhibitors and antioxidant drugs to treat neurogenic muscle atrophy.

  17. Induction of a Cellular DNA Damage Response by Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Facilitates Viral Replication and Mediates Apoptotic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; Yan, Xu; Li, Zixue; Hou, Lei; Wang, Naidong; Yang, Yi; Jiang, Haijun; Liu, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Cellular DNA damage response (DDR) triggered by infection of DNA viruses mediate cell cycle checkpoint activation, DNA repair, or apoptosis induction. In the present study, infection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which serves as a major etiological agent of PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD), was found to elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) as observed by the phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA32 following infection. The response requires active viral replication, and all the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase), ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related kinase), and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) are the transducers of the DDR signaling events in the PCV2-infected cells as demonstrated by the phosphorylation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK signalings as well as reductions in their activations after treatment with specific kinase inhibitors. Inhibitions of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK activations block viral replication and prevent apoptotic responses as observed by decreases in cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 as well as fragmented DNA following PCV2 infection. These results reveal that PCV2 is able to exploit the cellular DNA damage response machinery for its own efficient replication and for apoptosis induction, further extending our understanding for the molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection. PMID:27982097

  18. Fully Synthetic Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enabled by Isonitrile-Mediated Coupling of Large, Side-Chain-Unprotected Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrew G.; Johnston, Eric V.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Sondey, Joseph P.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an endogenous glycoprotein involved in hematopoiesis. Natively glycosylated and nonglycosylated recombinant forms, lenograstim and filgrastim, respectively, are used clinically to manage neutropenia in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. Despite their comparable therapeutic potential, the purpose of O-linked glycosylation at Thr133 remains a subject of controversy. In light of this, we have developed a synthetic platform to prepare G-CSF aglycone with the goal of enabling access to native and designed glycoforms with site-selectivity and glycan homogeneity. To address the synthesis of a relatively large, aggregation-prone sequence, we advanced an isonitrile-mediated ligation method. The chemoselective activation and coupling of C-terminal peptidyl Gly thioacids with the N-terminus of an unprotected peptide provide ligated peptides directly in a manner complementary to that with conventional native chemical ligation–desulfurization strategies. Herein, we describe the details and application of this method as it enabled the convergent total synthesis of G-CSF aglycone. PMID:26401918

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a local mediator in a gut-brain neural axis activating intestinal gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Vadder, F; Plessier, F; Gautier-Stein, A; Mithieux, G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) promotes metabolic benefits through activation of a gut-brain neural axis. However, the local mediator activating gluconeogenic genes in the enterocytes remains unknown. We show that (i) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling through VPAC1 receptor activates the intestinal glucose-6-phosphatase gene in vivo, (ii) the activation of IGN by propionate is counteracted by VPAC1 antagonism, and (iii) VIP-positive intrinsic neurons in the submucosal plexus are increased under the action of propionate. These data support the role of VIP as a local neuromodulator released by intrinsic enteric neurons and responsible for the induction of IGN through a VPAC1 receptor-dependent mechanism in enterocytes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. HIV Nef-mediated cellular phenotypes are differentially expressed as a function of intracellular Nef concentrations.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Schrager, J A; Lange, G D; Marsh, J W

    2001-08-31

    Nef is a regulatory protein encoded by the genome of both human and simian immunodeficiency virus. Its expression in T cells leads to CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I modulation and either enhancement or suppression of T cell activation. How this viral protein achieves multiple and at times opposing activities has been unclear. Through direct measurements of Nef and the Nef-GFP fusion protein, we find that these events are mediated by different Nef concentrations. Relative to the intracellular concentration that down-modulates surface CD4, an order of magnitude increase in Nef-GFP expression is required for a comparable modulation of major histocompatibility complex class I, and a further 3-fold increase is necessary to suppress T cell activation.

  1. Cellular Signaling Pathways and Posttranslational Modifications Mediated by Nematode Effector Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-10-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst and root-knot nematodes synthesize and secrete a suite of effector proteins into infected host cells and tissues. These effectors are the major virulence determinants mediating the transformation of normal root cells into specialized feeding structures. Compelling evidence indicates that these effectors directly hijack or manipulate refined host physiological processes to promote the successful parasitism of host plants. Here, we provide an update on recent progress in elucidating the molecular functions of nematode effectors. In particular, we emphasize how nematode effectors modify plant cell wall structure, mimic the activity of host proteins, alter auxin signaling, and subvert defense signaling and immune responses. In addition, we discuss the emerging evidence suggesting that nematode effectors target and recruit various components of host posttranslational machinery in order to perturb the host signaling networks required for immunity and to regulate their own activity and subcellular localization. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Essential role of FBXL5-mediated cellular iron homeostasis in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Yoshiharu; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Nita, Akihiro; Moroishi, Toshiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a hypoxic niche to limit oxidative stress. Although iron elicits oxidative stress, the importance of iron homeostasis in HSCs has been unknown. Here we show that iron regulation by the F-box protein FBXL5 is required for HSC self-renewal. Conditional deletion of Fbxl5 in mouse HSCs results in cellular iron overload and a reduced cell number. Bone marrow transplantation reveals that FBXL5-deficient HSCs are unable to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of irradiated recipients as a result of stem cell exhaustion. Transcriptomic analysis shows abnormal activation of oxidative stress responses and the cell cycle in FBXL5-deficient mouse HSCs as well as downregulation of FBXL5 expression in HSCs of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Suppression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) accumulation in FBXL5-deficient mouse HSCs restores stem cell function, implicating IRP2 as a potential therapeutic target for human hematopoietic diseases associated with FBXL5 downregulation. PMID:28714470

  3. 3C Protease of Enterovirus D68 Inhibits Cellular Defense Mediated by Interferon Regulatory Factor 7

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Zichun; Liu, Lulu; Lei, Xiaobo; Zhou, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) is a member of the EV-D species, which belongs to the EV genus of the Picornaviridae family. Over the past several years, clusters of EV-D68 infections have occurred worldwide. A recent outbreak in the United States is the largest one associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complication. Although clinical symptoms are recognized, the virus remains poorly understood. Here we report that EV-D68 inhibits innate antiviral immunity by downregulation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), an immune factor with a pivotal role in viral pathogenesis. This process depends on 3Cpro, an EV-D68-encoded protease, to mediate IRF7 cleavage. When expressed in host cells, 3Cpro targets Q167 and Q189 within the constitutive activation domain, resulting in cleavage of IRF7. Accordingly, wild-type IRF7 is fully active. However, IRF7 cleavage abrogated its capacity to activate type I interferon expression and limit replication of EV-D68. Notably, IRF7 cleavage strictly requires the protease activity of 3Cpro. Together, these results suggest that a dynamic interplay between 3Cpro and IRF7 may determine the outcome of EV-D68 infection. IMPORTANCE EV-D68 is a globally emerging pathogen, but the molecular basis of EV-D68 pathogenesis is unclear. Here we report that EV-D68 inhibits innate immune responses by targeting an immune factor, IRF7. This involves the 3C protease encoded by EV-D68, which mediates the cleavage of IRF7. These observations suggest that the 3Cpro-IRF7 interaction may represent an interface that dictates EV-D68 infection. PMID:26608321

  4. EZH2 mediates lidamycin-induced cellular senescence through regulating p21 expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Yi; Dong, Tian-Geng; Niu, Wei-Xin; Jia, Li-Jun; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Lidamycin (LDM) is a novel member of the enediyne antibiotics identified in China with potent antitumor activity. However, it remains unclear whether LDM has potential molecular targets that may affect its antitumor activity. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) functions as a histone lysine methyltransferase and mediates trimethylation on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). High EZH2 level is found to be positively correlated with the aggressiveness, metastasis and poor prognosis of cancer. Here, we aim to study the role of EZH2 in LDM-induced senescence, as well as in the cytotoxicity of LDM in human colon cancer cells. LDM is found to be relatively more potent in inhibiting the colon cancer cells harboring high EZH2 level and induces irreversible cellular senescence at IC50 dose range, as evidenced by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, cell cycle arrest and molecular changes of senescence regulators including p21 in HCT116 and SW620 cells. More importantly, LDM is found to markedly inhibit EZH2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels upon the induction of p21 and cellular senescence. LDM also selectively inhibits EZH2 expression as compared with other histone lysine methyltransferases. Knockdown of p21 with siRNAs abolishes LDM-induced senescence, whereas EZH2 knockdown markedly increases p21 expression and causes senescent phenotype. Enrichment of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in the p21 promoter region is reduced by LDM. Moreover, EZH2 overexpression reduces cellular senescence, p21 expression and DNA damage response upon LDM exposure. LDM also demonstrates potent antitumor efficacy in xenografted animal models. Collectively, our work provides first demonstration that EZH2 may mediate, at least partially, the senescence-inducing effects of LDM by regulating p21 expression and DNA damage effect. Thus, EZH2 may serve as a potential target and biomarker to indicate the clinical efficacy of the potent enediyne antitumor drug. PMID:27882937

  5. An improved, non-functionalized route to plasmonic nanoparticle based cellular probing through osmolyte mediation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddhanta, Soumik; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    Engineering nanostructured probes for ultra-sensitive detection of specific molecular species, our research seeks to capture the complex changes in cells and tissues that can predict disease progression in an individual. While such nanoparticle-based platforms are rapidly gaining a foothold in cancer diagnostics, one of the most concerning factors is the vulnerability of cells to the interaction with functional nanoparticles thereby raising the specter of systemic toxicity. The nanoparticles end up damaging the cells and disrupting cellular functions thereby impeding their imaging aim. Furthermore, PEGylation, and similar routes, force a tradeoff between desired nanoparticle properties (recognition, uptake, and reduced toxicity) and sensitivity of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic sensing methods, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) where the proximal presence of noble metal NP and the organic molecule of interest is key. In this work, we report a trehalose-mediated, non-surface functionalized route for cell-nanoparticle interactions that maintains cell viability while allowing selective interaction of the nanoparticle with the cell surface receptors and subsequent internalization. Through careful electron microscopy of nanoparticle-prostate cancer cells interactions, we elucidated that there exists a dynamic equilibrium between "free" cytosolic diffusion of the nanoparticles and endocytosis through vesicle formation - and trehalose tilts the scale in favor of the latter to mask the toxic effects of the nanoparticles. The precise molecular interpretation of this behavior was further probed through SERS, which directly points towards the protein stabilization properties of trehalose mediation during interaction of the nanoparticles with the plasma membrane components.

  6. Epitranscriptomic profiling across cell types reveals associations between APOBEC1-mediated RNA editing, gene expression outcomes, and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Harjanto, Dewi; Hamilton, Claire E; Berchiche, Yamina A; Gantman, Emily Conn; Sakmar, Thomas P; Bulloch, Karen; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Harroch, Sheila; McEwen, Bruce S; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2017-12-12

    Epitranscriptomics refers to posttranscriptional alterations on an mRNA sequence that are dynamic and reproducible, and affect gene expression in a similar way to epigenetic modifications. However, the functional relevance of those modifications for the transcript, the cell, and the organism remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on RNA editing and show that Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1), together with its cofactor RBM47, mediates robust editing in different tissues. The majority of editing events alter the sequence of the 3'UTR of targeted transcripts, and we focus on one cell type (monocytes) and on a small set of highly edited transcripts within it to show that editing alters gene expression by modulating translation (but not RNA stability or localization). We further show that specific cellular processes (phagocytosis and transendothelial migration) are enriched for transcripts that are targets of editing and that editing alters their function. Finally, we survey bone marrow progenitors and demonstrate that common monocyte progenitor cells express high levels of APOBEC1 and are susceptible to loss of the editing enzyme. Overall, APOBEC1-mediated transcriptome diversification is required for the fine-tuning of protein expression in monocytes, suggesting an epitranscriptomic mechanism for the proper maintenance of homeostasis in innate immune cells. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Kap121p-Mediated Nuclear Import Is Required for Mating and Cellular Differentiation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Deena M.; Grill, Brock; Rout, Michael P.; Wozniak, Richard W.; Aitchison, John D.

    2002-01-01

    To further our understanding of how the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery interfaces with its cargoes and how this affects cellular physiology, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of phenotypes associated with mutations in karyopherin Kap121p. Two previously unreported phenotypes of kap121 cells were observed: defects in mating and in the transition from the normal yeast form to the pseudohyphal, invasive form. In parallel, we searched for Kap121p cargoes by using Kap121p as a probe in overlay assays of yeast nuclear proteins. One of the major interacting proteins identified by this procedure was Ste12p, a transcription factor central to both the mating response and the pseudohyphal transition. We therefore investigated whether defects in these differentiation processes were due to an inability to import Ste12p. Both immunopurification and in vitro binding studies demonstrated that Ste12p interacted specifically with Kap121p in a Ran-GTP-sensitive manner and that Ste12p was mislocalized to the cytoplasm by inactivation of Kap121p in a temperature-sensitive mutant. The Kap121p-specific nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Ste12p was determined to reside within a C-terminal region of Ste12p. Furthermore, by overexpression of STE12 or expression of a STE12-cNLS fusion in kap121 cells, the invasive-growth defect and the mating defect were both suppressed. Together these data demonstrate that Ste12p is imported into nuclei by Kap121p and that mating and differentiation defects associated with kap121 mutants are primarily attributable to the mislocalization of Ste12p. PMID:11909949

  8. Streptococcus mutans Adherence: Presumptive Evidence for Protein-Mediated Attachment Followed by Glucan-Dependent Cellular Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Staat, Robert H.; Langley, Sharon D.; Doyle, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to smooth surfaces has been attributed to the production of sucrose-derived d-glucans. However, several studies indicate that the bacterium will adhere in the absence of sucrose. The present data confirmed that S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads in the absence of sucrose is described by the Langmuir equation. The nature of the sucrose-independent adherence was studied with the Persea americana agglutinin as a selective adherence inhibitor. Pretreatment of the bacterium with P. americana agglutinin caused a 10-fold reduction in adherence, and the inhibition was not reversed with the addition of sucrose. Pretreatment of S. mutans with proteases also reduced adherence, regardless of the sucrose content, whereas periodate oxidation and glucanohydrolase treatment of the bacteria reduced sucrose-mediated adherence to the levels found for sucrose-independent adherence. The P. americana agglutinin, glucanohydrolase, and pepsin pretreatment of the cells did not eliminate sucrose-induced agglutination. Scanning electron microscopy showed that short streptococcal chains were bound to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite crystals in the sucrose-independent system, whereas the presence of sucrose caused larger bacterial clumps to be found. A two-reaction model of S. mutans adherence was developed from these data. It is proposed that one reaction is attachment to the tooth pellicle which is mediated by cell-surface proteins rather than glucans or teichoic acids. The other reaction is cellular accumulation mediated by sucrose-derived d-glucans and cell surface lectins. A series of sequential adherence experiments with P. americana agglutinin as a selective inhibitor provided presumptive evidence for the validity of our model of S. mutans adherence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7380545

  9. Studying of cellular interaction of hairpin-like peptide EcAMP1 from barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) seeds with plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani using microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Yuryev, Mikhail; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Yu; Zavriev, Sergey K; Feofanov, Alexey V; Grishin, Eugene V; Rogozhin, Eugene A

    2016-11-01

    An interaction of recombinant hairpin-like cationic peptide EcAMP1 with conidia of plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani at the cellular level was studied by a combination of microscopic methods. EcAMP1 is from barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli system. As a result, a direct relationship between hyphal growth inhibition and increasing active peptide concentration, time of incubation and fungal physiological condition has been determined. Dynamics of accumulation and redistribution of the peptide studied on fungal cellular cover and inside the conidia cells has been shown. The dynamics are dependent on time of coupling, as well as, a dissimilarity of EcAMP1 binding with cover of fungal conidia and its stepwise accumulation and diffuse localization in the cytoplasm. Correlation between structural disruption of fungal conidia and the presence of morphological changes has also been found. The correlation was found under the influence of peptide high concentrations at concentrations above 32 μM. The results indicate the presence of a binding of EcAMP1 with the surface of fungal conidia, thus, demonstrating a main specificity for its antifungal action at the cellular level. These results, however, cannot exclude the existence of attendant EcAMP1 action based on its intracellular localization on some specific targets. SCANNING 38:591-598, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Systemic peptide-mediated oligonucleotide therapy improves long-term survival in spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hazell, Gareth; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Saleh, Amer F.; Bowerman, Melissa; Meijboom, Katharina E.; Zhou, Haiyan; Muntoni, Francesco; Talbot, Kevin; Gait, Michael J.; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of antisense oligonucleotide therapy is an important advance in the identification of corrective therapy for neuromuscular diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of difficulties of delivering single-stranded oligonucleotides to the CNS, current approaches have been restricted to using invasive intrathecal single-stranded oligonucleotide delivery. Here, we report an advanced peptide-oligonucleotide, Pip6a-morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (PMO), which demonstrates potent efficacy in both the CNS and peripheral tissues in severe SMA mice following systemic administration. SMA results from reduced levels of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein because of loss-of-function mutations in the SMN1 gene. Therapeutic splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) modulate exon 7 splicing of the nearly identical SMN2 gene to generate functional SMN protein. Pip6a-PMO yields SMN expression at high efficiency in peripheral and CNS tissues, resulting in profound phenotypic correction at doses an order-of-magnitude lower than required by standard naked SSOs. Survival is dramatically extended from 12 d to a mean of 456 d, with improvement in neuromuscular junction morphology, down-regulation of transcripts related to programmed cell death in the spinal cord, and normalization of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. The potent systemic efficacy of Pip6a-PMO, targeting both peripheral as well as CNS tissues, demonstrates the high clinical potential of peptide-PMO therapy for SMA. PMID:27621445

  11. Transition metal ions mediated tyrosine based short peptide amphiphile nanostructures inhibit bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Khashti Ballabh; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Narendra Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Vinayak, Vandana

    2018-05-17

    We report the design and synthesis of biocompatible small peptide based molecule for the controlled and targeted delivery of the encapsulated bioactive metal ions via transforming their internal nanostructures. Tyrosine based short peptide amphiphile (sPA) was synthesized which self-assembled into β-sheet like secondary structures. The self assembly of the designed sPA was modulated by using different bioactive transition metal ions which is confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. These bioactive metal ions conjugated sPA hybrid structures are further used to develop antibacterial materials. It is due to the excellent antibacterial activity of zinc ions that the growth of clinically relevant bacteria such as E. Coli was inhibited in the presence of zinc-sPA conjugate. The bacterial test demonstrated that owing to high biocompatibility with bacterial cell, the designed sPA worked as metal ions delivery agent and therefore it can show great potential in locally addressing bacterial infections. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. In Vitro Cellular Gene Delivery Employing a Novel Composite Material of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Associated With Designed Peptides With Pegylation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takahisa; Hashida, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Yuriko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2017-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) attract great interest in biomedical fields including application for drug delivery system. In this study, we developed a novel gene delivery system employing SWCNTs associated with polycationic and amphiphilic H-(-Lys-Trp-Lys-Gly-) 7 -OH [(KWKG) 7 ] peptides having pegylation. SWCNTs wrapped with (KWKG) 7 formed a complex with plasmid DNA (pDNA) in aqueous solution based on polyionic interaction but later underwent aggregation. On the other hand, a complex of pDNA and SWCNT-(KWKG) 7 modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains of 12 units [SWCNT-(KWKG) 7 -(PEG) 12 ] afforded good dispersion stability for 24 h even in a cell culture medium. The in vitro cellular uptake of SWCNT-(KWKG) 7 -(PEG) 12 /pDNA complex prepared with fluorescence-labeled pDNA was evaluated with fluorescent microscopic observation and flow cytometry. The uptake by A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells increased along with the extent of pegylation, suggesting the importance of dispersion stability in addition to the cationic charge which facilitates ionic cellular interaction. The expression of pDNA encoding the monomeric Kusabira-Orange 2 fluorescent protein in the form of the SWCNT-(KWKG) 7 -(PEG) 12 /pDNA complex demonstrated remarkable enhancement of transfection depending also on the extent of pegylation and the N/P ratio. The potential of the SWCNT composite wrapped with polycationic and amphiphilic (KWKG) 7 with pegylation as a carrier for gene delivery was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atorvastatin Downregulates In Vitro Methyl Methanesulfonate and Cyclophosphamide Alkylation-Mediated Cellular and DNA Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Christoni, Larissa S. A.; Justo, Graça; Soeiro, Maria N. C.

    2018-01-01

    Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, and this class of drugs has been studied as protective agents against DNA damages. Alkylating agents (AAs) are able to induce alkylation in macromolecules, causing DNA damage, as DNA methylation. Our objective was to evaluate atorvastatin (AVA) antimutagenic, cytoprotective, and antigenotoxic potentials against DNA lesions caused by AA. AVA chemopreventive ability was evaluated using antimutagenicity assays (Salmonella/microsome assay), cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and genotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells. The cells were cotreated with AVA and the AA methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or cyclophosphamide (CPA). Our datum showed that AVA reduces the alkylation-mediated DNA damage in different in vitro experimental models. Cytoprotection of AVA at low doses (0.1–1.0 μM) was observed after 24 h of cotreatment with MMS or CPA at their LC50, causing an increase in HepG2 survival rates. After all, AVA at 10 μM and 25 μM had decreased effect in micronucleus formation in HepG2 cells and restored cell cycle alterations induced by MMS and CPA. This study supports the hypothesis that statins can be chemopreventive agents, acting as antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, and cytoprotective components, specifically against alkylating agents of DNA. PMID:29849914

  14. Nanoparticle-allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Radauer-Preiml, Isabella; Andosch, Ancuela; Hawranek, Thomas; Luetz-Meindl, Ursula; Wiederstein, Markus; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Himly, Martin; Boyles, Matthew; Duschl, Albert

    2016-01-16

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule 'corona'. Hence, the 'corona' defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I allergy, a possible modulation of allergen effects by binding to ENMs is highly relevant with respect to work place and consumer safety. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to gain an insight into the interactions of gold nanoparticles with different seasonally and perennially occurring outdoor and indoor allergens. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5) and house dust mite (Der p 1). The AuNP-allergen conjugates were characterized by means of TEM negative staining, dynamic light scattering (DLS), z-potential measurements and hyperspectral imaging. Furthermore, 3D models were constructed, based on the characterization data, to visualize the interaction between the allergens and the AuNPs surface. Differences in the activation of human basophil cells derived from birch/grass pollen- and house dust mite-allergic patients in response to free allergen and AuNP-allergen conjugates were determined using the basophil activation assay (BAT). Potential allergen corona replacement during BAT was controlled for using Western blotting. The protease activity of AuNP-Der p 1 conjugates compared to free Der p 1 was assessed, by an enzymatic activity assay and a cellular assay pertaining to lung type II alveolar epithelial cell tight junction integrity. The formation of a stable corona was found for all three allergens used. Our data suggest, that depending on the allergen, different effects are observed after binding to ENMs, including enhanced allergic responses against Der p 1 and also, for some patients, against Bet v 1. Moreover elevated

  15. Multiscale modeling of bacterial colonies: how pili mediate the dynamics of single cells and cellular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pönisch, Wolfram; Weber, Christoph A.; Juckeland, Guido; Biais, Nicolas; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, gonorrhea. Over the past two decades there has been an alarming increase of reported gonorrhea cases where the bacteria were resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics thus prompting for alternative antimicrobial treatment strategies. The crucial step in this and many other bacterial infections is the formation of microcolonies, agglomerates consisting of up to several thousands of cells. The attachment and motility of cells on solid substrates as well as the cell-cell interactions are primarily mediated by type IV pili, long polymeric filaments protruding from the surface of cells. While the crucial role of pili in the assembly of microcolonies has been well recognized, the exact mechanisms of how they govern the formation and dynamics of microcolonies are still poorly understood. Here, we present a computational model of individual cells with explicit pili dynamics, force generation and pili-pili interactions. We employ the model to study a wide range of biological processes, such as the motility of individual cells on a surface, the heterogeneous cell motility within the large cell aggregates, and the merging dynamics and the self-assembly of microcolonies. The results of numerical simulations highlight the central role of pili generated forces in the formation of bacterial colonies and are in agreement with the available experimental observations. The model can quantify the behavior of multicellular bacterial colonies on biologically relevant temporal and spatial scales and can be easily adjusted to include the geometry and pili characteristics of various bacterial species. Ultimately, the combination of the microbiological experimental approach with the in silico model of bacterial colonies might provide new qualitative and quantitative insights on the development of bacterial infections and thus pave the way to new antimicrobial treatments.

  16. Asynchronous inflammation and myogenic cell migration limit muscle tissue regeneration mediated by a cellular scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Koyal; Ward, Catherine L.; Corona, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) following orthopaedic trauma results in chronic loss of strength and can contribute to disability. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to regenerate the lost skeletal muscle and improve functional outcomes are currently under development. At the forefront of these efforts, decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs) have reached clinical testing and provide the foundation for other approaches that include stem/progenitor cell delivery. ECMs have been demonstrated to possess many qualities to initiate regeneration, to include stem cell chemotaxis and pro-regenerative macrophage polarization. However, the majority of observations indicate that ECM-repair of VML does not promote appreciable muscle fiber regeneration. In a recent study, ECM-repair of VML was compared to classical muscle fiber regeneration (Garg et al., 2014, Cell & Tissue Research) mediated by autologous minced grafts. The most salient findings of this study were: 1) Satellite cells did not migrate into the scaffold beyond ~0.5 mm from the remaining host tissue, although other migratory stem cells (Sca-1+) were observed throughout the scaffold;2) Macrophage migration to the scaffold was over two-times that observed with muscle grafts, but they appeared to be less active, as gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10, VEGF, and TGF-β1) was significantly reduced in scaffold-repaired muscles; And, 3) scaffolds did not promote appreciable muscle fiber regeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that the events following ECM transplantation in VML are either incongruous or asynchronous with classical muscle fiber regeneration. PMID:26949720

  17. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mediate complementary functions of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure in leptin receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary; Chua, Streamson

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency.

  19. Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Peptide Mediate Complementary Functions of Hyperphagia and Reduced Energy Expenditure in Leptin Receptor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency. PMID:21285324

  20. An intracellular protein that binds amyloid-β peptide and mediates neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Yan, Shi; Fu, Jin; Soto, Claudio; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Huaijie; Al-Mohanna, Futwan; Collison, Kate; Zhu, Aiping; Stern, Eric; Saido, Takaomi; Tohyama, Masaya; Ogawa, Satoshi; Roher, Alex; Stern, David

    1997-10-01

    Amyloid-β is a neurotoxic peptide which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. It binds an intracellular polypeptide known as ERAB, thought to be a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is expressed in normal tissues, but is overexpressed in neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease. ERAB immunoprecipitates with amyloid-β, and when cell cultures are exposed to amyloid-β, ERAB inside the cell is rapidly redistributed to the plasma membrane. The toxic effect of amyloid-β on these cells is prevented by blocking ERAB and is enhanced by overexpression of ERAB. By interacting with intracellular amyloid-β, ERAB may therefore contribute to the neuronal dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Imaginal discs secrete insulin-like peptide 8 to mediate plasticity of growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Garelli, Andres; Gontijo, Alisson M; Miguela, Veronica; Caparros, Esther; Dominguez, Maria

    2012-05-04

    Developing animals frequently adjust their growth programs and/or their maturation or metamorphosis to compensate for growth disturbances (such as injury or tumor) and ensure normal adult size. Such plasticity entails tissue and organ communication to preserve their proportions and symmetry. Here, we show that imaginal discs autonomously activate DILP8, a Drosophila insulin-like peptide, to communicate abnormal growth and postpone maturation. DILP8 delays metamorphosis by inhibiting ecdysone biosynthesis, slowing growth in the imaginal discs, and generating normal-sized animals. Loss of dilp8 yields asymmetric individuals with an unusually large variation in size and a more varied time of maturation. Thus, DILP8 is a fundamental element of the hitherto ill-defined machinery governing the plasticity that ensures developmental stability and robustness.

  2. A novel chimeric peptide with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar; Ozkirimli, Elif

    2015-04-01

    Beta-lactamase-mediated bacterial drug resistance exacerbates the prognosis of infectious diseases, which are sometimes treated with co-administration of beta-lactam type antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors. Antimicrobial peptides are promising broad-spectrum alternatives to conventional antibiotics in this era of evolving bacterial resistance. Peptides based on the Ala46-Tyr51 beta-hairpin loop of beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) have been previously shown to inhibit beta-lactamase. Here, our goal was to modify this peptide for improved beta-lactamase inhibition and cellular uptake. Motivated by the cell-penetrating pVEC sequence, which includes a hydrophobic stretch at its N-terminus, our approach involved the addition of LLIIL residues to the inhibitory peptide N-terminus to facilitate uptake. Activity measurements of the peptide based on the 45-53 loop of BLIP for enhanced inhibition verified that the peptide was a competitive beta-lactamase inhibitor with a K(i) value of 58 μM. Incubation of beta-lactam-resistant cells with peptide decreased the number of viable cells, while it had no effect on beta-lactamase-free cells, indicating that this peptide had antimicrobial activity via beta-lactamase inhibition. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which this peptide moves across the membrane, steered molecular dynamics simulations were carried out. We propose that addition of hydrophobic residues to the N-terminus of the peptide affords a promising strategy in the design of novel antimicrobial peptides not only against beta-lactamase but also for other intracellular targets. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Vaccination with a feline immunodeficiency virus multiepitopic peptide induces cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cats, but does not confer protection.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, J N; Cannon, C A; Neil, J C; Jarrett, O

    1997-01-01

    Cats were immunized with a 46-residue multiepitopic synthetic peptide of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) comprising immunodominant epitopes present in the third variable domain of the envelope glycoprotein, transmembrane glycoprotein (TM), and p24 Gag core protein, using Quil A as an adjuvant. All vaccinated cats developed a humoral response which recognized the synthetic peptide immunogen and the intact viral core and envelope proteins. A FIV Gag- and Env-specific effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response was also detected in the peripheral blood of vaccinated cats, which peaked at week 30. This response appeared to be major histocompatibility complex restricted. Epitope mapping studies revealed that both the cellular and humoral immune responses were directed principally to a peptide within the TM glycoprotein, CNQNQFFCK. However, vaccination did not confer protection when cats were challenged with the Petaluma isolate of FIV at week 35. PMID:9311839

  4. Flagellin and GroEL mediates in vitro binding of an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to cellular fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia T P; Polatto, Juliana M; Rossato, Sarita S; Izquierdo, Mariana; Munhoz, Danielle D; Martins, Fernando H; Pimenta, Daniel C; Farfan, Mauricio J; Elias, Waldir P; Barbosa, Ângela S; Piazza, Roxane M F

    2015-12-18

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is distinguished mainly by the presence of EPEC adherence factor plasmid (pEAF) in typical EPEC (tEPEC) and its absence in atypical EPEC (aEPEC). The initial adherence to the intestinal mucosa is complex and mediated by adhesins other than bundle-forming pilus, which is not produced by aEPEC. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of eukaryotic cells are commonly recognized by bacterial adhesins. Therefore, binding to ECM proteins may facilitate colonization, invasion and/or signaling by intestinal pathogens. Previous studies from our group demonstrated that aEPEC O26:H11 (strain BA2103) showed high binding activity to fibronectin, not shared by its counterpart, aEPEC O26:HNM. In the present study, using mass spectrometry after fibronectin-associated immunoprecipitation, two proteins, flagellin (50 kDa) and GroEL (52 kDa), were identified and BA2103 binding ability to fibronectin was inhibited in the presence of anti-H11 and anti-GroEL sera, but not by either naïve rabbit or other unrelated sera. It was also observed that the presence of purified flagellin inhibits adhesion of BA2103 to cellular fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, BA2103 GroEL is similar to the same protein of uropathogenic E. coli. Our results suggest that flagellin may play a role in the in vitro interaction of BA2103 with cellular fibronectin, and GroEL can be an accessory protein in this process.

  5. EFFECT OF FREE RADICALS ON CALCITONIN-GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE MEDIATED VASODILATION.

    PubMed

    Dekanosidze, M; Saganelidze, K; Mitagvaria, N

    2018-01-01

    It is known that in some pathological conditions, due to the formation of a large number of free oxygen radicals, the cardiovascular system is severely affected. However, the effect of free radicals on CGRP-mediated vasodilation remains unclear. The aim of this work was to study the effect of free radicals on CGRP-mediated neurogenic vasodilation on preparations of an isolated rabbit lingual artery. The experiments were performed on the lingual artery preparations of 6 rabbits of the Chinchilla breed of both sexes. The contractile-relaxation activity of isolated preparations, both with intact endothelial layer and deendotelized, were studied in isometric mode on a strain-gauge unit using mechanotrons of the 6 MX1C type. Our experiments showed that free radicals can disrupt the reactivity of the vascular wall both in the presence and in the absence of endothelium-dependent relaxation factors and that is might be considered as a main conclusion of this study.

  6. Homology-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for antinociceptive specificity of collapsin response mediator protein 2-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Moutal, Aubin; Li, Wennan; Wang, Yue; Ju, Weina; Luo, Shizhen; Cai, Song; François-Moutal, Liberty; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Hu, Jackie; Dustrude, Erik T; Vanderah, Todd W; Gokhale, Vijay; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh

    2017-02-05

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca v 2.2) channels are critical determinants of increased neuronal excitability and neurotransmission accompanying persistent neuropathic pain. Although Ca v 2.2 channel antagonists are recommended as first-line treatment for neuropathic pain, calcium-current blocking gabapentinoids inadequately alleviate chronic pain symptoms and often exhibit numerous side effects. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) targets Ca v 2.2 channels to the sensory neuron membrane and allosterically modulates their function. A 15-amino-acid peptide (CBD3), derived from CRMP2, disrupts the functional protein-protein interaction between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels to inhibit calcium influx, transmitter release and acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we have mapped the minimal domain of CBD3 necessary for its antinociceptive potential. Truncated as well as homology-guided mutant versions of CBD3 were generated and assessed using depolarization-evoked calcium influx in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, binding between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels, whole-cell voltage clamp electrophysiology and behavioural effects in two models of experimental pain: post-surgical pain and HIV-induced sensory neuropathy induced by the viral glycoprotein 120. The first six amino acids within CBD3 accounted for all in vitro activity and antinociception. Spinal administration of a prototypical peptide (TAT-CBD3-L5M) reversed pain behaviours. Homology-guided mutational analyses of these six amino acids identified at least two residues, Ala1 and Arg4, as being critical for antinociception in two pain models. These results identify an antinociceptive scaffold core in CBD3 that can be used for development of low MW mimetics of CBD3. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Antibacterial Effect of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Mediated in Part from Secretion of the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    PubMed Central

    Krasnodembskaya, Anna; Song, Yuanlin; Fang, Xiaohui; Gupta, Naveen; Serikov, Vladimir; Lee, Jae-Woo; Matthay, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent in vivo studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have beneficial effects in the treatment of sepsis induced by bacterial infection. Administration of MSCs in these studies improved survival and enhanced bacterial clearance. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that human MSCs possessed intrinsic antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of human MSCs derived from bone marrow on the bacterial growth of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. MSCs as well as their conditioned medium (CM) demonstrated marked inhibition of bacterial growth in comparison with control medium or normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). Analysis of expression of major antimicrobial peptides indicated that one of the factors responsible for the antimicrobial activity of MSC CM against Gram-negative bacteria was the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, hCAP-18/LL-37. Both m-RNA and protein expression data showed that the expression of LL-37 in MSCs increased after bacterial challenge. Using an in vivo mouse model of E. coli pneumonia, intratracheal administration of MSCs reduced bacterial growth (in colony-forming unit) in the lung homogenates and in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and administration of MSCs simultaneously with a neutralizing antibody to LL-37 resulted in a decrease in bacterial clearance. In addition, the BAL itself from MSC-treated mice had a greater antimicrobial activity in comparison with the BAL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs possess direct antimicrobial activity, which is mediated in part by the secretion of human cathelicidin hCAP-18/LL-37. PMID:20945332

  8. The GraS Sensor in Staphylococcus aureus Mediates Resistance to Host Defense Peptides Differing in Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Chaili, Siyang; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bayer, Arnold S; Xiong, Yan Q; Waring, Alan J; Memmi, Guido; Donegan, Niles; Yang, Soo-Jin; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the two-component regulatory system GraRS to sense and respond to host defense peptides (HDPs). However, the mechanistic impact of GraS or its extracellular sensing loop (EL) on HDP resistance is essentially unexplored. Strains with null mutations in the GraS holoprotein (ΔgraS) or its EL (ΔEL) were compared for mechanisms of resistance to HDPs of relevant immune sources: neutrophil α-defensin (human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]), cutaneous β-defensin (human β-defensin 2 [hBD-2]), or the platelet kinocidin congener RP-1. Actions studied by flow cytometry included energetics (ENR); membrane permeabilization (PRM); annexin V binding (ANX), and cell death protease activation (CDP). Assay conditions simulated bloodstream (pH 7.5) or phagolysosomal (pH 5.5) pH contexts. S. aureus strains were more susceptible to HDPs at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5, and each HDP exerted a distinct effect signature. The impacts of ΔgraS and ΔΕL on HDP resistance were peptide and pH dependent. Both mutants exhibited defects in ANX response to hNP-1 or hBD-2 at pH 7.5, but only hNP-1 did so at pH 5.5. Both mutants exhibited hyper-PRM, -ANX, and -CDP responses to RP-1 at both pHs and hypo-ENR at pH 5.5. The actions correlated with ΔgraS or ΔΕL hypersusceptibility to hNP-1 or RP-1 (but not hBD-2) at pH 7.5 and to all study HDPs at pH 5.5. An exogenous EL mimic protected mutant strains from hNP-1 and hBD-2 but not RP-1, indicating that GraS and its EL play nonredundant roles in S. aureus survival responses to specific HDPs. These findings suggest that GraS mediates specific resistance countermeasures to HDPs in immune contexts that are highly relevant to S. aureus pathogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Euphorbia factor L1 inhibits osteoclastogenesis by regulating cellular redox status and induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in osteoclast.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Eun; Lee, Jiae; Seo, Dong-Hyun; In Lee, Hye; Ri Park, Doo; Lee, Gong-Rak; Jo, You-Jin; Kim, Narae; Kwon, Minjung; Shon, Hansem; Kyoung Seo, Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Young Lee, Soo; Jeong, Woojin

    2017-11-01

    Excessive bone resorption caused by increased osteoclast number or activity leads to a variety of bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Thus, the therapeutic strategy for these diseases has been focused primarily on the inhibition of osteoclast formation and function. This study shows that euphorbia factor L1 (EFL1), a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibited osteoclastogenesis and induced osteoclast apoptosis. EFL1 suppressed osteoclast formation and bone resorption at both initial and terminal differentiation stages. EFL1 inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced NFATc1 induction with attenuated NF-κB activation and c-Fos expression. EFL1 decreased the level of reactive oxygen species by scavenging them or activating Nrf2, and inhibited PGC-1β that regulates mitochondria biogenesis. In addition, EFL1 induced apoptosis in differentiated osteoclasts by increasing Fas ligand expression followed by caspase activation. Moreover, EFL1 inhibited inflammation-induced bone erosion and ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. These findings suggest that EFL1 inhibits osteoclast differentiation by regulating cellular redox status and induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in osteoclast, and may provide therapeutic potential for preventing or treating bone-related diseases caused by excessive osteoclast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Brass, Abraham L; Huang, I-Chueh; Benita, Yair; John, Sinu P; Krishnan, Manoj N; Feeley, Eric M; Ryan, Bethany J; Weyer, Jessica L; van der Weyden, Louise; Fikrig, Erol; Adams, David J; Xavier, Ramnik J; Farzan, Michael; Elledge, Stephen J

    2009-12-24

    Influenza viruses exploit host cell machinery to replicate, resulting in epidemics of respiratory illness. In turn, the host expresses antiviral restriction factors to defend against infection. To find host cell modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors with roles in endosomal acidification, vesicular trafficking, mitochondrial metabolism, and RNA splicing. We discovered that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM1, 2, and 3 restrict an early step in influenza A viral replication. The IFITM proteins confer basal resistance to influenza A virus but are also inducible by interferons type I and II and are critical for interferon's virustatic actions. Further characterization revealed that the IFITM proteins inhibit the early replication of flaviviruses, including dengue virus and West Nile virus. Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate immunity to at least three major human pathogens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of paracrine signaling by CD9 positive small extracellular vesicles mediates cellular growth of androgen deprived prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soekmadji, Carolina; Riches, James D.; Russell, Pamela J.; Ruelcke, Jayde E.; McPherson, Stephen; Wang, Chenwei; Hovens, Chris M.; Corcoran, Niall M.; Hill, Michelle M.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Proliferation and maintenance of both normal and prostate cancer (PCa) cells is highly regulated by steroid hormones, particularly androgens, and the extracellular environment. Herein, we identify the secretion of CD9 positive extracellular vesicles (EV) by LNCaP and DUCaP PCa cells in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and use nano-LC–MS/MS to identify the proteins present in these EV. Subsequent bioinformatic and pathway analyses of the mass spectrometry data identified pathologically relevant pathways that may be altered by EV contents. Western blot and CD9 EV TR-FIA assay confirmed a specific increase in the amount of CD9 positive EV in DHT-treated LNCaP and DUCaP cells and treatment of cells with EV enriched with CD9 after DHT exposure can induce proliferation in androgen-deprived conditions. siRNA knockdown of endogenous CD9 in LNCaPs reduced cellular proliferation and expression of AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) however knockdown of AR did not alter CD9 expression, also implicating CD9 as an upstream regulator of AR. Moreover CD9 positive EV were also found to be significantly higher in plasma from prostate cancer patients in comparison with benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. We conclude that CD9 positive EV are involved in mediating paracrine signalling and contributing toward prostate cancer progression. PMID:28881726

  12. The potential of cellular technology to mediate social networks for support of chronic disease self-management.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Douglas W

    2011-01-01

    Productive interactions among patients, friends/family, and health care providers, as outlined by the Chronic Care Model, are important for promoting adherence to recommended care and good health outcomes among adults with a chronic illness. Characteristics of these interactions--active participation, collaboration, and data sharing among constituents--are the same as those of social networks organized around Web 2.0 principles and technology. Thus, the Web 2.0 framework can be used to configure social networks without the inherent spatiotemporal constraints of face-to-face interactions that remain prevalent in health care delivery. In this article, the author outlines various design principles and decisions for a pilot study in which cellular technology was used to mediate interactions between adults with Type 2 diabetes and supporters (i.e., family members or friends selected by the patients who agree provide support) to motivate regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (among the diabetes participants). Participants generally found the network to be relatively easy to use. Some diabetes patients reported improved attention to self-monitoring; and, patient-selected supporters indicated improvements in emotional and instrumental support that should benefit diabetes patients' lifestyle and health.

  13. Stabilization of exosome-targeting peptides via engineered glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-03-27

    Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles that mediate intercellular transfer of cellular contents and are attractive vehicles for therapeutic delivery of bimolecular cargo such as nucleic acids, proteins, and even drugs. Efficient exosome-mediated delivery in vivo requires targeting vesicles for uptake by specific recipient cells. Although exosomes have been successfully targeted to several cellular receptors by displaying peptides on the surface of the exosomes, identifying effective exosome-targeting peptides for other receptors has proven challenging. Furthermore, the biophysical rules governing targeting peptide success remain poorly understood. To evaluate one factor potentially limiting exosome delivery, we investigated whether peptides displayed on the exosome surface are degraded during exosome biogenesis, for example by endosomal proteases. Indeed, peptides fused to the N terminus of exosome-associated transmembrane protein Lamp2b were cleaved in samples derived from both cells and exosomes. To suppress peptide loss, we engineered targeting peptide-Lamp2b fusion proteins to include a glycosylation motif at various positions. Introduction of this glycosylation motif both protected the peptide from degradation and led to an increase in overall Lamp2b fusion protein expression in both cells and exosomes. Moreover, glycosylation-stabilized peptides enhanced targeted delivery of exosomes to neuroblastoma cells, demonstrating that such glycosylation does not ablate peptide-target interactions. Thus, we have identified a strategy for achieving robust display of targeting peptides on the surface of exosomes, which should facilitate the evaluation and development of new exosome-based therapeutics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15–30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3–36 (30–60min) and 5-HT (60min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis, whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON’s emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3–36-induced emesis, suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3–36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis. PMID:23457120

  15. Glycation and transglutaminase mediated glycosylation of fish gelatin peptides with glucosamine enhance bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pui Khoon; Gottardi, Davide; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Betti, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of novel glycopeptides from glycosylation between cold water fish skin gelatin hydrolysates and glucosamine (GlcN) via transglutaminase (TGase), as well as glycation between fish gelatin hydrolysate and GlcN were identified by their pattern of molecular distribution using MALDI-TOF-MS. Glycated/glycosylated hydrolysates showed superior bioactivity to their original hydrolysates. Alcalase-derived fish skin gelatin hydrolysate glycosylated with GlcN in the presence of TGase at 25°C (FAT25) possessed antioxidant activity when tested in a linoleic acid oxidation system, when measured according to its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and when tested at the cellular level with human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells as target cells. In addition, Alcalase-derived glycosylated hydrolysates showed specificity toward the inhibition of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Flavourzyme-derived glycopeptides prepared at 37°C (FFC37 and FFT37) showed better DPPH scavenging activity than their native hydrolysates. The glycated Flavourzyme-derived hydrolysates were found to act as potential antimicrobial agents when incubated with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fusogenic-Oligoarginine Peptide-Mediated Delivery of siRNAs Targeting the CIP2A Oncogene into Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cantini, Liliana; Attaway, Christopher C.; Butler, Betsy; Andino, Lourdes M.; Sokolosky, Melissa L.; Jakymiw, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Despite a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral cancer, its treatment outcome remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of this disease. RNA interference (RNAi) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of many diseases, including oral cancer. However, an obstacle for RNAi-mediated therapies has been delivery, in particular, the retention of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in endosomes and their subsequent degradation in lysosomes, resulting in inefficient gene silencing. Thus, the current study examined the feasibility of designing and utilizing a peptide, termed 599, consisting of a synthetic influenza virus-derived endosome-disruptive fusogenic peptide sequence and a stretch of cationic cell-penetrating nona(D-arginine) residues, to deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the therapeutic target, CIP2A, an oncoprotein overexpressed in various human malignancies including oral cancer. Increasing the 599 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio demonstrated a higher binding capacity for siRNA molecules and enhanced siRNA delivery into the cytoplasm of oral cancer cells. In fact, quantitative measurements of siRNA delivery into cells demonstrated that a 50∶1 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio could deliver 18-fold higher amounts of siRNAs compared to cells treated with siRNA alone with no significant long-term cytotoxic effects. Most importantly, the 599 peptide-mediated siRNA delivery promoted significant CIP2A mRNA and protein silencing which resulted in decreased oral cancer cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth. Together, these data demonstrate that a chimeric peptide consisting of a fusogenic sequence, in combination with cell-penetrating residues, can be used to effectively deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce the silencing of its target gene, potentially offering a new therapeutic strategy in combating oral cancer. PMID:24019920

  17. Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin mediates fibroblast growth factor 2 stimulatory effects on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hatziapostolou, Maria; Polytarchou, Christos; Katsoris, Panagiotis; Courty, Jose; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2006-10-27

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic growth factor that has been implicated in prostate cancer formation and progression. In the present study we found that exogenous FGF2 significantly increased human prostate cancer LNCaP cell proliferation and migration. Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be an important mediator of FGF2 stimulatory effects, since the latter had no effect on stably transfected LNCaP cells that did not express HARP. Moreover, FGF2, through FGF receptors (FGFRs), significantly induced HARP expression and secretion by LNCaP cells and increased luciferase activity of a reporter gene vector carrying the full-length promoter of HARP gene. Using a combination of Western blot analyses, as well as genetic and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that activation of FGFR by FGF2 in LNCaP cells leads to NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, activation of AP-1, increased expression and secretion of HARP, and, finally, increased cell proliferation and migration. These results establish the role and the mode of activity of FGF2 in LNCaP cells and support an interventional role of HARP in FGF2 effects, providing new insights on the interplay among growth factor pathways within prostate cancer cells.

  18. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-12-01

    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Silver Nanoparticle/Chitosan Oligosaccharide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanofiber-Mediated Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Zi-Wei, Li; Li, Chen-Wen; Wang, Qing; Shi, San-Jun; Hu, Min; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Huan-Huan; Sun, Jian-Bin; Zhou, Min; Wu, Guo-Lin; Dang, Ji-Zheng; Lu, Lai-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs frequently in everyday pathology and remains a challenge during the treatment of trauma. Previously, we prepared silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA/COS-AgNP) nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. These nanofibers promoted the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and the expression of transforming growth factor TGF-β1 in the early stage of wound repair, although the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, considering that TGF-β1 has emerged as a major modulator of wound healing, the objective of this study was to further understand whether the molecular mechanisms responsible for PVA/COS-AgNP nanofiber-mediated wound healing include the TGF-β1/Smad signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PVA/COSAgNP nanofiber-mediated wound healing. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments, immunofluorescence staining, hydroxyproline content measurements, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the wound healing mechanisms of human skin fibroblasts treated with various concentrations of PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers and the combined application of silver nanofibers and SB431542 (an inhibitor of the TGF-β1 receptor kinase). Our study showed that PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers markedly promoted fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and cell adherence. We also found that treating fibroblasts with PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers stimulated cell cycle progression from G1 into the S and G2 phases, reducing the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and inducing S and G2/M arrest. Importantly, the cell factors associated with the TGF-β1/Smad signal transduction pathway, such as TGF-β1, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, pSmad2, pSmad3, collagen I, collagen III, and fibronectin were also up-regulated. Moreover, this

  20. ADAR1-mediated 3' UTR editing and expression control of antiapoptosis genes fine-tunes cellular apoptosis response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Ching; Chen, Yi-Tung; Chang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Hsuan; Kuo, Yu-Ping; Shih, Chieh-Tien; Liao, Wei-Chao; Chen, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming

    2017-05-25

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing constitutes a crucial component of the cellular transcriptome and critically underpins organism survival and development. While recent high-throughput approaches have provided comprehensive documentation of the RNA editome, its functional output remains mostly unresolved, particularly for events in the non-coding regions. Gene ontology analysis of the known RNA editing targets unveiled a preponderance of genes related to apoptosis regulation, among which proto-oncogenes XIAP and MDM2 encode two the most abundantly edited transcripts. To further decode this potential functional connection, here we showed that the main RNA editor ADAR1 directly targets this 3' UTR editing of XIAP and MDM2, and further exerts a negative regulation on the expression of their protein products. This post-transcriptional silencing role was mediated via the inverted Alu elements in the 3' UTR but independent of alteration in transcript stability or miRNA targeting. Rather, we discovered that ADAR1 competes transcript occupancy with the RNA shuttling factor STAU1 to facilitate nuclear retention of the XIAP and MDM2 mRNAs. As a consequence, ADAR1 may acquire functionality in part by conferring spatial distribution and translation efficiency of the target transcripts. Finally, abrogation of ADAR1 expression or catalytic activity elicited a XIAP-dependent suppression of apoptotic response, whereas ectopic expression reversed this protective effect on cell death. Together, our results extended the known functions of ADAR1 and RNA editing to the critical fine-tuning of the intracellular apoptotic signaling and also provided mechanistic explanation for ADAR1's roles in development and tumorigenesis.

  1. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haifang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2013-09-24

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e124; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013

  2. A+-Helix of Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is a Cell-penetrating Peptide That Mediates Cell Membrane Permeation of PCI*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hanjiang; Wahlmüller, Felix Christof; Sarg, Bettina; Furtmüller, Margareta; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids that can modulate its inhibitory activity. PCI can penetrate through cellular membranes via binding to phosphatidylethanolamine. The exact mechanism of PCI internalization and the intracellular role of the serpin are not well understood. Here we showed that testisin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, cleaved human PCI and mouse PCI (mPCI) at their reactive sites as well as at sites close to their N terminus. This cleavage was observed not only with testisin in solution but also with cell membrane-anchored testisin on U937 cells. The cleavage close to the N terminus released peptides rich in basic amino acids. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the released peptides of human PCI (His1–Arg11) and mPCI (Arg1–Ala18) functioned as cell-penetrating peptides. Because intact mPCI but not testisin-cleaved mPCI was internalized by Jurkat T cells, a truncated mPCI mimicking testisin-cleaved mPCI was created. The truncated mPCI lacking 18 amino acids at the N terminus was not taken up by Jurkat T cells. Therefore our model suggests that testisin or other proteases could regulate the internalization of PCI by removing its N terminus. This may represent one of the mechanisms regulating the intracellular functions of PCI. PMID:25488662

  3. HAVCR1 (CD365) and Its Mouse Ortholog Are Functional Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Cellular Receptors That Mediate HAV Infection.

    PubMed

    Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2018-05-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), classified as CD365, was initially discovered as an HAV cellular receptor using an expression cloning strategy. Due to the lack of HAV receptor-negative replication-competent cells, it was not possible to fully prove that HAVCR1 was a functional HAV receptor. However, biochemistry, classical virology, and epidemiology studies further supported the functional role of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Here, we show that an anti-HAVCR1 monoclonal antibody that protected African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells against HAV infection only partially protected monkey Vero E6 cells and human hepatoma Huh7 cells, indicating that these two cell lines express alternative yet unidentified HAV receptors. Therefore, we focused our work on AGMK cells to further characterize the function of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology allowed us to knock out the monkey ortholog of HAVCR1 in AGMK cells. The resulting AGMK HAVCR1 knockout (KO) cells lost susceptibility to HAV infection, including HAV-free viral particles (vpHAV) and exosomes purified from HAV-infected cells (exo-HAV). Transfection of HAVCR1 cDNA into AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells restored susceptibility to vpHAV and exo-HAV infection. Furthermore, transfection of the mouse ortholog of HAVCR1, mHavcr1, also restored the susceptibility of AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells to HAV infection. Taken together, our data clearly show that HAVCR1 and mHavcr1 are functional HAV receptors that mediate HAV infection. This work paves the way for the identification of alternative HAV receptors to gain a complete understanding of their interplay with HAVCR1 in the cell entry and pathogenic processes of HAV. IMPORTANCE HAVCR1, an HAV receptor, is expressed in different cell types, including regulatory immune cells and antigen-presenting cells. How HAV evades the immune response during a long incubation period of up to 4 weeks and the

  4. The calcitonin/calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha gene is not required for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Becklund, Bryan R; James, Bradley J; Gagel, Robert F; DeLuca, Hector F

    2009-08-15

    The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), can suppress disease in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. Calcium appears to be a critical component of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated suppression of EAE, as complete disease prevention only occurs with a concomitant increase in serum calcium levels. Calcitonin (CT) is a peptide hormone released in response to acute increases in serum calcium, which led us to explore its importance in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated suppression of EAE. Previously, we discovered that co-administration of pharmacological doses of CT enhanced the suppressive effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on EAE, suggesting CT may play a role in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated suppression of EAE. To determine the importance of CT in EAE we have utilized a mouse strain in which the gene encoding CT and its alternative splice product, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha (CGRP), have been deleted. Deletion of the CT/CGRP gene had no effect on EAE progression. Furthermore, treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) suppressed EAE in CT/CGRP knock-out mice equal to that in wild type mice. Therefore, we conclude that CT is not necessary for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated suppression of EAE.

  5. Combining peptide recognition specificity and context information for the prediction of the 14-3-3-mediated interactome in S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens.

    PubMed

    Panni, Simona; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Kiemer, Lars; Cabibbo, Andrea; Paoluzi, Serena; Santonico, Elena; Landgraf, Christiane; Volkmer-Engert, Rudolf; Bachi, Angela; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale interaction studies contribute the largest fraction of protein interactions information in databases. However, co-purification of non-specific or indirect ligands, often results in data sets that are affected by a considerable number of false positives. For the fraction of interactions mediated by short linear peptides, we present here a combined experimental and computational strategy for ranking the reliability of the inferred partners. We apply this strategy to the family of 14-3-3 domains. We have first characterized the recognition specificity of this domain family, largely confirming the results of previous analyses, while revealing new features of the preferred sequence context of 14-3-3 phospho-peptide partners. Notably, a proline next to the carboxy side of the phospho-amino acid functions as a potent inhibitor of 14-3-3 binding. The position-specific information about residue preference was encoded in a scoring matrix and two regular expressions. The integration of these three features in a single predictive model outperforms publicly available prediction tools. Next we have combined, by a naïve Bayesian approach, these "peptide features" with "protein features", such as protein co-expression and co-localization. Our approach provides an orthogonal reliability assessment and maps with high confidence the 14-3-3 peptide target on the partner proteins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Molecular basis of intramolecular electron transfer in proteins during radical-mediated oxidations: Computer simulation studies in model tyrosine-cysteine peptides in solution

    PubMed Central

    Petruk, Ariel A.; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Trujillo, Madia; Estrin, Darío A.; Murgida, Daniel; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Marti, Marcelo A.; Radi, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies in hemeproteins and model Tyr/Cys-containing peptides exposed to oxidizing and nitrating species suggest that intramolecular electron transfer (IET) between tyrosyl radicals (Tyr-O●) and Cys residues controls oxidative modification yields. The molecular basis of this IET process is not sufficiently understood with structural atomic detail. Herein, we analyzed using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based computational calculations, mechanistic possibilities for the radical transfer reaction in Tyr/Cys-containing peptides in solution and correlated them with existing experimental data. Our results support that Tyr-O● to Cys radical transfer is mediated by an acid/base equilibrium that involves deprotonation of Cys to form the thiolate, followed by a likely rate-limiting transfer process to yield cysteinyl radical and a Tyr phenolate; proton uptake by Tyr completes the reaction. Both, the pKa values of the Tyr phenol and Cys thiol groups and the energetic and kinetics of the reversible IET are revealed as key physico-chemical factors. The proposed mechanism constitutes a case of sequential, acid/base equilibrium-dependent and solvent-mediated, proton-coupled electron transfer and explains the dependency of oxidative yields in Tyr/Cys peptides as a function of the number of alanine spacers. These findings contribute to explain oxidative modifications in proteins that contain sequence and/or spatially close Tyr-Cys residues. PMID:22640642

  7. The cellular localization of the neuropeptides substance P, neurokinin A, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in guinea-pig vestibular sensory organs: a high-resolution confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, E; Ulfendahl, M; Lundeberg, T

    1996-11-01

    Four neuropeptides, substance P, neurokinin A, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y, were detected by radioimmunoassay in guinea-pig vestibular end-organs. High-resolution confocal microscopy visualization of immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the cellular localization of these peptides. Substance P- and neurokinin A-like immunoreactivities were found to co-exist in afferent fibers innervating the peripheral regions of both the utricular and ampullar sensory organs. The immunoreactivity was more concentrated in the distal ends of the calyceal-shaped nerve endings that innervate type I sensory cells. While in the guinea-pig, nerve calyces and type I cells are distributed in both the central and peripheral regions of the sensory epithelia, immunoreactive calyces were found only in the peripheral regions. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity was localized in small bouton endings situated at the level of the base of the hair cells. These boutons were in a position to make axosomatic contacts with type II sensory cells and axodendritic contacts with afferent nerve endings. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity co-existed with choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity. The localization and shape of these boutons identified them as the axonal endings of efferent vestibular fibers. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity was not observed in the actual sensory epithelium but in the underlying connective tissue, where it was located in varicose fibers along blood vessels. The synaptic position of the tachykinins is clearly distinct from that of calcitonin gene-related peptide. This segregation distinguishes the vestibular end-organs from most peripheral tissues where these peptides are co-localized. The tachykinin-immunoreactive afferent fibers are postsynaptic to the hair cells. If, as in somatic sensory endings, these fibers can be triggered to release the neuropeptides by an axon reflex type of activation, then the

  8. ATM Is Required for the Prolactin-Induced HSP90-Mediated Increase in Cellular Viability and Clonogenic Growth After DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Karayazi Atici, Ödül; Urbanska, Anna; Gopinathan, Sesha Gopal; Boutillon, Florence; Goffin, Vincent; Shemanko, Carrie S

    2018-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) acts as a survival factor for breast cancer cells, but the PRL signaling pathway and the mechanism are unknown. Previously, we identified the master chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) α, as a prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) target gene involved in survival, and here we investigated the role of HSP90 in the mechanism of PRL-induced viability in response to DNA damage. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) protein plays a critical role in the cellular response to double-strand DNA damage. We observed that PRL increased viability of breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin or etoposide. The increase in cellular resistance is specific to the PRL receptor, because the PRL receptor antagonist, Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, prevented the increase in viability. Two different HSP90 inhibitors, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and BIIB021, reduced the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of doxorubicin-treated cells and led to a decrease in JAK2, ATM, and phosphorylated ATM protein levels. Inhibitors of JAK2 (G6) and ATM (KU55933) abolished the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of DNA-damaged cells, supporting the involvement of each, as well as the crosstalk of ATM with the PRL pathway in the context of DNA damage. Drug synergism was detected between the ATM inhibitor (KU55933) and doxorubicin and between the HSP90 inhibitor (BIIB021) and doxorubicin. Short interfering RNA directed against ATM prevented the PRL-mediated increase in cell survival in two-dimensional cell culture, three-dimensional collagen gel cultures, and clonogenic cell survival, after doxorubicin treatment. Our results indicate that ATM contributes to the PRL-JAK2-STAT5-HSP90 pathway in mediating cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  9. HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy functions in a cell-autonomous manner for epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against bacterial pore-forming toxin in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Da; Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Bang-Yu; Huang, Shin-Whei; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Ruan, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Cheng-Rung; Chen, Yu-Hung; Wang, Horng-Dar; Aroian, Raffi V; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular system that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading and recycling damaged cellular components. The transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy has been reported to regulate tolerance to bacterial infection, but less is known about the bona fide bacterial effector that activates HLH-30 and autophagy. Here, we reveal that bacterial membrane pore-forming toxin (PFT) induces autophagy in an HLH-30-dependent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, autophagy controls the susceptibility of animals to PFT toxicity through xenophagic degradation of PFT and repair of membrane-pore cell-autonomously in the PFT-targeted intestinal cells in C. elegans. These results demonstrate that autophagic pathways and autophagy are induced partly at the transcriptional level through HLH-30 activation and are required to protect metazoan upon PFT intoxication. Together, our data show a new and powerful connection between HLH-30-mediated autophagy and epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against the single most common mode of bacterial attack in vivo.

  10. A Viral Protein Mediates Superinfection Exclusion at the Whole-Organism Level but Is Not Required for Exclusion at the Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Bergua, María; Zwart, Mark P.; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Shilts, Turksen; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Superinfection exclusion (SIE), the ability of an established virus infection to interfere with a secondary infection by the same or a closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA virus, represents a valuable model system for studying SIE due to the existence of several phylogenetically distinct strains. Furthermore, CTV allows SIE to be examined at the whole-organism level. Previously, we demonstrated that SIE by CTV is a virus-controlled function that requires the viral protein p33. In this study, we show that p33 mediates SIE at the whole-organism level, while it is not required for exclusion at the cellular level. Primary infection of a host with a fluorescent protein-tagged CTV variant lacking p33 did not interfere with the establishment of a secondary infection by the same virus labeled with a different fluorescent protein. However, cellular coinfection by both viruses was rare. The obtained observations, along with estimates of the cellular multiplicity of infection (MOI) and MOI model selection, suggested that low levels of cellular coinfection appear to be best explained by exclusion at the cellular level. Based on these results, we propose that SIE by CTV is operated at two levels—the cellular and the whole-organism levels—by two distinct mechanisms that could function independently. This novel aspect of viral SIE highlights the intriguing complexity of this phenomenon, further understanding of which may open up new avenues to manage virus diseases. IMPORTANCE Many viruses exhibit superinfection exclusion (SIE), the ability of an established virus infection to interfere with a secondary infection by related viruses. SIE plays an important role in the pathogenesis and evolution of virus populations. The observations described here suggest that SIE could be controlled independently at different levels of the host

  11. miR-143 or miR-145 overexpression increases cetuximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Sofia E.; Simões, André E. S.; Pereira, Diane M.; Castro, Rui E.; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Borralho, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    miR-143 and miR-145 are downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we tested the effect of restoring these miRNAs on sensitization to cetuximab in mutant KRAS (HCT116 and SW480) and wild-type KRAS (SW48) colon cancer cells. We evaluated cetuximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and the modulation of signaling pathways involved in immune effector cell-mediated elimination of cancer cells. Stable miR-143 or miR-145 overexpression increased cell sensitivity to cetuximab, resulting in a significant increase of cetuximab-mediated ADCC independently of KRAS status. Importantly, HCT116 cells overexpressing these miRNAs triggered apoptosis in result of cetuximab-mediated ADCC, effected by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p < 0.01). This was associated with increased apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activity, and reduced Bcl-2 protein expression (p < 0.01). In addition, caspase inhibition abrogated cetuximab-mediated ADCC in HCT116 cells overexpressing either miR-143 or miR-145 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, Bcl-2 silencing led to high level of cetuximab-mediated ADCC, compared to control siRNA (p < 0.05). Importantly, granzyme B inhibition, abrogated cetuximab-mediated ADCC, reducing caspase-3/7 activity (p < 0.01). Collectively, our data suggests that re-introduction of miR-143 or miR-145 may provide a new approach for development of therapeutic strategies to re-sensitize colon cancer cells to cetuximab by stimulating cetuximab-dependent ADCC to induce cell death. PMID:26824186

  12. Secretion modification region-derived peptide blocks exosome release and mediates cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Bo; Gonzalez, Ruben R; Lillard, James; Bond, Vincent C

    2017-02-14

    Discovery and development of a novel anticancer PEG-SMR-Clu peptide to prevent breast cancer metastasis. How breast cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells interact and communicate with each other to promote tumorigenesis and how to prevent tumor metastasis has long been a concern of researchers. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing proteins and RNA. These factors can influence tumor development by directly targeting cancer cells and tumor stroma. In this study, we determined the effects of a peptide as an inhibitor of exosome secretion on breast tumors. We developed a peptide derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of HIV-1 Nef protein that was modified with PEG on the N-terminus and with a Clusterin (Clu)-binding peptide on the C-terminus. Attachment of PEG to the SMR peptide, termed PEGylation, offers improved water solubility and stability as well as reduced clearance through the kidneys, leading to a longer circulation time. The 12-mer Clu-binding peptide plays multiple roles in tumor development and metastasis. The Clu peptide can be detected by antibody in vivo, thus it has the potential to be used to monitor tumor status and treatment efficacy in animal studies and eventually in cancer patients. PEG-SMRwt-Clu and PEG-SMRwt peptides inhibited the growth of both of MCF-7 (estrogen responsive, ER+) and MDA-MD-231 (estrogen non-responsive, ER-) human breast cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner, without inducing cytotoxic effects. The SMRwt peptide, combined with paclitaxel, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells but did not promote apoptosis. PEG-SMRwt-Clu peptide treatment blocked exosome release from both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was blocked by knockdown of the chaperone protein mortalin by either antibody or siRNA. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells were treated with PEG-SMR-Clu peptide alone and in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin. Cell proliferation and viabilty

  13. Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides: Principles, Practice, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein structure underlies essential biological processes and provides a blueprint for molecular mimicry that drives drug discovery. Although small molecules represent the lion’s share of agents that target proteins for therapeutic benefit, there remains no substitute for the natural properties of proteins and their peptide subunits in the majority of biological contexts. The peptide α-helix represents a common structural motif that mediates communication between signaling proteins. Because peptides can lose their shape when taken out of context, developing chemical interventions to stabilize their bioactive structure remains an active area of research. The all-hydrocarbon staple has emerged as one such solution, conferring α-helical structure, protease resistance, cellular penetrance, and biological activity upon successful incorporation of a series of design and application principles. Here, we describe our more than decade-long experience in developing stapled peptides as biomedical research tools and prototype therapeutics, highlighting lessons learned, pitfalls to avoid, and keys to success. PMID:24601557

  14. LX4211 increases serum glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels by reducing sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated absorption of intestinal glucose.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Harris, Angela; Zhao, Sharon; DaCosta, Christopher; Mseeh, Faika; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    LX4211 [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(methylthio)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol], a dual sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 inhibitor, is thought to decrease both renal glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT2 and intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1. In clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), LX4211 treatment improved glycemic control while increasing circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). To better understand how LX4211 increases GLP-1 and PYY levels, we challenged SGLT1 knockout (-/-) mice, SGLT2-/- mice, and LX4211-treated mice with oral glucose. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice had increased levels of plasma GLP-1, plasma PYY, and intestinal glucose during the 6 hours after a glucose-containing meal, as reflected by area under the curve (AUC) values, whereas SGLT2-/- mice showed no response. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice also had increased GLP-1 AUC values, decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC values, and decreased blood glucose excursions during the 6 hours after a challenge with oral glucose alone. However, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not increased in LX4211-treated mice and were decreased in SGLT1-/- mice, 5 minutes after oral glucose, consistent with studies linking decreased intestinal SGLT1 activity with reduced GLP-1 and GIP levels 5 minutes after oral glucose. These data suggest that LX4211 reduces intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1, resulting in net increases in GLP-1 and PYY release and decreases in GIP release and blood glucose excursions. The ability to inhibit both intestinal SGLT1 and renal SGLT2 provides LX4211 with a novel dual mechanism of action for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  15. A common structural motif in immunopotentiating peptides with sequences present in human autoantigens. Elicitation of a response mediated by monocytes and Th1 cells.

    PubMed

    López-Moratalla, N; Ruíz, E; López-Zabalza, M J; Santiago, E

    1996-12-16

    We have found a common structural motif in human autoantigens, heat shock proteins and viral proteins. Peptides modelled after sequences present in those molecules were synthesized and immunomodulating properties tested. They share a core of 15 amino acid residues and a common pattern ('2-6-11' motif) characterized by requirements at fixed positions with respect to a Pro (position 6); an apolar residue or a Lys at position 2; and a Glu, Asp or Lys at position 11. Any of these peptides, when added to cultures of lymphomononuclear cells, caused the activation of monocytes manifested by a release of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. A release of INF gamma and IL-2 took also place; this release was abolished by anti-DR antibodies. Neither IL-4 nor IL-5 could be detected. This suggests a presentation by APCs and the appearance of cells with a Th1 phenotype. Monocytes and Th1 cells freshly obtained from 12 patients of Graves' disease, 8 of Hashimoto's disease and 8 of primary biliary cirrhosis exhibited activation features similar to those found in cells from healthy subjects incubated in the presence of peptides with a "2-6-11' motif and representing fragments of autoantigens. Their immunopotentiating properties suggest their involvement in the initiation or progression of the autoimmune response mediated by activated monocytes and Th1 cells.

  16. ABCA1 agonist peptides for the treatment of disease

    DOE PAGES

    Bielicki, John K.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose of review The review summarizes information pertaining to the preclinical development of new apolipoprotein (apo) E mimetic peptides that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. Recent findings Small α-helical peptides based on the C-terminal domain of apoE have been developed for therapeutic applications. These peptides stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) with high potency, like native apolipoproteins on a molar basis. This potent activity has been related to the unique ability of these peptides to maintain α-helix structure upon dilution. Recent structure-activity studies improving the safety features of these mimetic peptides have greatly improved their potentialmore » for clinical use. Structural features of the class A α-helix motif that induce muscle toxicity and hypertriglyceridemia have been identified. These may have implications for the design of other HDL mimetic peptides. Summary ABCA1 is an integral membrane protein that plays a central role in biology. Its principal function is to mediate the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid from cells to extracellular apo, preventing a build-up of excess cholesterol in membranes. This process generates HDL particles that perform a variety of functions to protect against disease. A number of these functions can be viewed as directly or indirectly supporting ABCA1 activity, thus constituting a positive feedback system to optimize cellular lipid efflux responses and disease prevention. Consequently, therapeutic approaches that mimic the activities of apos may prove highly effective to combat disease. One such approach involves the use of peptides. The broad biological relevance of ABCA1 suggests these apo mimetic peptides may be useful for the treatment of a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.« less

  17. ABCA1 agonist peptides for the treatment of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bielicki, John K.

    Purpose of review The review summarizes information pertaining to the preclinical development of new apolipoprotein (apo) E mimetic peptides that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. Recent findings Small α-helical peptides based on the C-terminal domain of apoE have been developed for therapeutic applications. These peptides stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) with high potency, like native apolipoproteins on a molar basis. This potent activity has been related to the unique ability of these peptides to maintain α-helix structure upon dilution. Recent structure-activity studies improving the safety features of these mimetic peptides have greatly improved their potentialmore » for clinical use. Structural features of the class A α-helix motif that induce muscle toxicity and hypertriglyceridemia have been identified. These may have implications for the design of other HDL mimetic peptides. Summary ABCA1 is an integral membrane protein that plays a central role in biology. Its principal function is to mediate the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid from cells to extracellular apo, preventing a build-up of excess cholesterol in membranes. This process generates HDL particles that perform a variety of functions to protect against disease. A number of these functions can be viewed as directly or indirectly supporting ABCA1 activity, thus constituting a positive feedback system to optimize cellular lipid efflux responses and disease prevention. Consequently, therapeutic approaches that mimic the activities of apos may prove highly effective to combat disease. One such approach involves the use of peptides. The broad biological relevance of ABCA1 suggests these apo mimetic peptides may be useful for the treatment of a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.« less

  18. Relative Contribution of Cellular Complement Inhibitors CD59, CD46, and CD55 to Parainfluenza Virus 5 Inhibition of Complement-Mediated Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujia; Parks, Griffith D.

    2018-01-01

    The complement system is a part of the innate immune system that viruses need to face during infections. Many viruses incorporate cellular regulators of complement activation (RCA) to block complement pathways and our prior work has shown that Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) incorporates CD55 and CD46 to delay complement-mediated neutralization. In this paper, we tested the role of a third individual RCA inhibitor CD59 in PIV5 interactions with complement pathways. Using a cell line engineered to express CD59, we show that small levels of functional CD59 are associated with progeny PIV5, which is capable of blocking assembly of the C5b-C9 membrane attack complex (MAC). PIV5 containing CD59 (PIV5-CD59) showed increased resistance to complement-mediated neutralization in vitro comparing to PIV5 lacking regulators. Infection of A549 cells with PIV5 and RSV upregulated CD59 expression. TGF-beta treatment of PIV5-infected cells also increased cell surface CD59 expression and progeny virions were more resistant to complement-mediated neutralization. A comparison of individual viruses containing only CD55, CD46, or CD59 showed a potency of inhibiting complement-mediated neutralization, which followed a pattern of CD55 > CD46 > CD59. PMID:29693588

  19. Heat shock protein 90-mediated peptide-selective presentation of cytosolic tumor antigen for direct recognition of tumors by CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takemasa; Matsuzaki, Junko; Caballero, Otavia L; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Odunsi, Kunle; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2012-04-15

    Tumor Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells play important functions in tumor immunosurveillance, and in certain cases they can directly recognize HLA class II-expressing tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanism of intracellular Ag presentation to CD4(+) T cells by tumor cells has not yet been well characterized. We analyzed two naturally occurring human CD4(+) T cell lines specific for different peptides from cytosolic tumor Ag NY-ESO-1. Whereas both lines had the same HLA restriction and a similar ability to recognize exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein, only one CD4(+) T cell line recognized NY-ESO-1(+) HLA class II-expressing melanoma cells. Modulation of Ag processing in melanoma cells using specific molecular inhibitors and small interfering RNA revealed a previously undescribed peptide-selective Ag-presentation pathway by HLA class II(+) melanoma cells. The presentation required both proteasome and endosomal protease-dependent processing mechanisms, as well as cytosolic heat shock protein 90-mediated chaperoning. Such tumor-specific pathway of endogenous HLA class II Ag presentation is expected to play an important role in immunosurveillance or immunosuppression mediated by various subsets of CD4(+) T cells at the tumor local site. Furthermore, targeted activation of tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells by vaccination or adoptive transfer could be a suitable strategy for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  20. Endogenous opioid peptide-mediated neurotransmission in central and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus recruits μ1-opioid receptor to modulate post-ictal antinociception.

    PubMed

    Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of the μ1-endogenous opioid peptide receptor-mediated system in post-ictal antinociception. Antinociceptive responses were determined by the tail-flick test after pre-treatment with the selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine, peripherally or centrally administered at different doses. Peripheral subchronic (24 h) pre-treatment with naloxonazine antagonised the antinociception elicited by tonic-clonic seizures. Acute (10 min) pre-treatment, however, did not have the same effect. In addition, microinjections of naloxonazine into the central, dorsal cortical and external cortical nuclei of the inferior colliculus antagonised tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception. Neither acute (10-min) peripheral pre-treatment with naloxonazine nor subchronic intramesencephalic blockade of μ1-opioid receptors resulted in consistent statistically significant differences in the severity of tonic-clonic seizures shown by Racine's index (1972), although the intracollicular specific antagonism of μ1-opioid receptor decreased the duration of seizures. μ1-Opioid receptors and the inferior colliculus have been implicated in several endogenous opioid peptide-mediated responses such as antinociception and convulsion. The present findings suggest the involvement of μ1-opiate receptors of central and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus in the modulation of tonic-clonic seizures and in the organisation of post-ictal antinociception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AAV-Mediated Administration of Myostatin Pro-Peptide Mutant in Adult Ldlr Null Mice Reduces Diet-Induced Hepatosteatosis and Arteriosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disruption of myostatin or its related signaling is known to cause strong protection against diet-induced metabolic disorders. The translational value of these prior findings, however, is dependent on whether such metabolically favorable phenotype can be reproduced when myostatin blockade begins at an adult age. Here, we reported that AAV-mediated delivery of a myostatin pro-peptide D76A mutant in adult mice attenuates the development of hepatic steatosis and arteriosclerosis, two common diet-induced metabolic diseases. A single dose of AAV-D76A in adult Ldlr null mice resulted in sustained expression of myostatin pro-peptide in the liver. Compared to vehicle-treated mice, D76A-treated mice gained similar amount of lean and fat mass when fed a high fat diet. However, D76A-treated mice displayed significantly reduced aortic lesions and liver fat, in association with a reduction in hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and improvement in liver insulin sensitivity. This suggests that muscle and fat may not be the primary targets of treatment under our experimental condition. In support to this argument, we show that myostatin directly up-regulated lipogenic genes and increased fat accumulation in cultured liver cells. We also show that both myostatin and its receptor were abundantly expressed in mouse aorta. Cultured aortic endothelial cells responded to myostatin with a reduction in eNOS phosphorylation and an increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Conclusions: AAV-mediated expression of myostatin pro-peptide D76A mutant in adult Ldlr null mice sustained metabolic protection without remarkable impacts on body lean and fat mass. Further investigations are needed to determine whether direct impact of myostatin on liver and aortic endothelium may contribute to the related metabolic phenotypes. PMID:23936482

  2. Curcumin exhibits anti-tumor effect and attenuates cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Popli, Pooja; Sankhwar, Pushplata; Kaushal, Jyoti Bala; Gupta, Kanchan; Manohar, Murli; Dwivedi, Anila

    2017-06-01

    Although curcumin shows anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in various cancers, the effect of curcumin on cellular migration in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells remains to be understood. The current investigation was aimed to explore the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of curcumin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Our in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies showed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells and suppressed the tumor growth in Ishikawa xenograft mouse model. Curcumin induced ROS-mediated apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Curcumin suppressed the migration rate of Ishikawa and Hec-1B cells as analyzed by scratch wound assay. In transwell migration studies, knock down of Slit-2 reversed the anti-migratory effect of curcumin in these cell lines. Curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of Slit-2 in Ishikawa, Hec-1B and primary endometrial cancer cells while it down-regulated the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 which in turn, suppressed the expression of matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) 2 and 9, thus attenuating the migration of endometrial cancer cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that curcumin has inhibitory effect on cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of CXCR4, SDF-1, and MMP2/MMP9 in endometrial carcinoma cells. These findings helped explore the role of Slit-2 in endometrial cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes in Histone H2B Variants as Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation*

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Matthew; Jiang, Tingting; Eleazer, Rebekah; Eckstein, Meredith; Marshall, Alan G.; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental toxic metalloid, leads to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism is unknown. Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic exposure alters specific gene expression patterns, possibly through alterations in chromatin structure. While most studies on understanding the mechanism of chromatin-mediated gene regulation have focused on histone post-translational modifications, the role of histone variants remains largely unknown. Incorporation of histone variants alters the functional properties of chromatin. To understand the global dynamics of chromatin structure and function in arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis, analysis of the histone variants incorporated into the nucleosome and their covalent modifications is required. Here we report the first global mass spectrometric analysis of histone H2B variants as cells undergo arsenic-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We used electron capture dissociation-based top-down tandem mass spectrometry analysis validated with quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction to identify changes in the expression levels of H2B variants in inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We identified changes in the expression levels of specific histone H2B variants in two cell types, which are dependent on dose and length of exposure of inorganic arsenic. In particular, we found increases in H2B variants H2B1H/1K/1C/1J/1O and H2B2E/2F, and significant decreases in H2B1N/1D/1B as cells undergo inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The analysis of these histone variants provides a first step toward an understanding of the functional significance of the diversity of histone structures, especially in inorganic arsenic-mediated gene expression and carcinogenesis. PMID:27169413

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mediated cellular and subcellular targeted delivery of Iron oxide core-Titanium dioxide shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye

    TiO2 nanomaterials can carry a multitude of therapeutic and diagnostic agents and the semiconductor properties of TiO2 allow for the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species following photoactivation. However, the delivery of these nanomaterials to specific cancer cells and specific subcellular organelles within these cells can have a substantial impact on the efficacy and safety of TiO2 nanoparticle therapeutics. Targeting cell surface receptors that are overexpressed by cancer cells is one strategy to improve the specificity of nanoparticle delivery. Therefore we decided to target the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) because ligand- binding induces rapid receptor endocytosis and ligand-bound EGFR can translocate to the nucleus of cancer cells. To create NPs that can bind EGFR, we identified a peptide derived from the B-loop of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) that has been shown to bind and activate EGFR and conjugated it to the surface of Fe3O4 core-TiO2 shell NPs to produce B-loop NCs. We then devised a pulldown assay to show that B-loop NCs, but not bare NPs or NCs carrying a scrambled B-loop peptide, can bind and extract EGFR from HeLa cell protein extracts. Interestingly, B-loop NCs can also pulldown importin-beta, a protein that can transport EGFR to the nucleus. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry and fluorescently labeled NPs to show that B-loop peptides can significantly improve the internalization of NPs by EGFR-expressing HeLa cells. We determined that B-loop NCs can bind EGFR on the membrane of HeLa cells and that these NCs can be transported to the nucleus, by using a combination of confocal microscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) to indirectly and directly track the subcellular distribution of NCs. Finally, we demonstrate how the Bionanoprobe, a novel high-resolution XFM apparatus that can scan whole-mounted, frozen-hydrated cells at multiple angles can be used to verify the subcellular distribution of B-loop NCs.

  5. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Cholesterol-directed nanoparticle assemblies based on single amino acid peptide mutations activate cellular uptake and decrease tumor volume† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02616a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang; Zou, Rongfeng; Tu, Yaoquan

    2017-01-01

    Peptide drugs have been difficult to translate into effective therapies due to their low in vivo stability. Here, we report a strategy to develop peptide-based therapeutic nanoparticles by screening a peptide library differing by single-site amino acid mutations of lysine-modified cholesterol. Certain cholesterol-modified peptides are found to promote and stabilize peptide α-helix formation, resulting in selectively cell-permeable peptides. One cholesterol-modified peptide self-assembles into stable nanoparticles with considerable α-helix propensity stabilized by intermolecular van der Waals interactions between inter-peptide cholesterol molecules, and shows 68.3% stability after incubation with serum for 16 h. The nanoparticles in turn interact with cell membrane cholesterols that are disproportionately present in cancer cell membranes, inducing lipid raft-mediated endocytosis and cancer cell death. Our results introduce a strategy to identify peptide nanoparticles that can effectively reduce tumor volumes when administered to in in vivo mice models. Our results also provide a simple platform for developing peptide-based anticancer drugs. PMID:29163910

  7. Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone at the ER-Mitochondrion Interface Mediates the Mitochondrion-ER-Nucleus Signaling for Cellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus. PMID:24204710

  8. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  9. RGD Peptide Cell-Surface Display Enhances the Targeting and Therapeutic Efficacy of Attenuated Salmonella-mediated Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Hwan; Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Szardenings, Michael; Min, Jung Hyun; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3, but weakly bound to αvβ3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvβ3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect.

  10. Role of Nectin-1 and Herpesvirus Entry Mediator as Cellular Receptors for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 on Primary Murine Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Philipp; Rahn, Elena; Thier, Katharina; Hsu, Mei-Ju; Rixon, Frazer J; Kopp, Sarah J; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2015-09-01

    The cellular proteins nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) can both mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We have recently shown how these receptors contribute to infection of skin by investigating HSV-1 entry into murine epidermis. Ex vivo infection studies reveal nectin-1 as the primary receptor in epidermis, whereas HVEM has a more limited role. Although the epidermis represents the outermost layer of skin, the contribution of nectin-1 and HVEM in the underlying dermis is still open. Here, we analyzed the role of each receptor during HSV-1 entry in murine dermal fibroblasts that were deficient in expression of either nectin-1 or HVEM or both receptors. Because infection was not prevented by the absence of either nectin-1 or HVEM, we conclude that they can act as alternative receptors. Although HVEM was found to be highly expressed on fibroblasts, entry was delayed in nectin-1-deficient cells, suggesting that nectin-1 acts as the more efficient receptor. In the absence of both receptors, entry was strongly delayed leading to a much reduced viral spread and virus production. These results suggest an unidentified cellular component that acts as alternate but inefficient receptor for HSV-1 on dermal fibroblasts. Characterization of the cellular entry mechanism suggests that HSV-1 can enter dermal fibroblasts both by direct fusion with the plasma membrane and via endocytic vesicles and that this is not dependent on the presence or absence of nectin-1. Entry was also shown to require dynamin and cholesterol, suggesting comparable entry pathways in keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a human pathogen which infects its host via mucosal surfaces or abraded skin. To understand how HSV-1 overcomes the protective barrier of mucosa or skin and reaches its receptors in tissue, it is essential to know which receptors contribute to the entry into individual skin cells. Previously, we have explored the contribution of

  11. Inhibition of agouti-related peptide expression by glucose in a clonal hypothalamic neuronal cell line is mediated by glycolysis, not oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui; Isoda, Fumiko; Belsham, Denise D; Mobbs, Charles V

    2008-02-01

    The regulation of neuroendocrine electrical activity and gene expression by glucose is mediated through several distinct metabolic pathways. Many studies have implicated AMP and ATP as key metabolites mediating neuroendocrine responses to glucose, especially through their effects on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but other studies have suggested that glycolysis, and in particular the cytoplasmic conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to reduced NAD (NADH), may play a more important role than oxidative phosphorylation for some effects of glucose. To address these molecular mechanisms further, we have examined the regulation of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in a clonal hypothalamic cell line, N-38. AgRP expression was induced monotonically as glucose concentrations decreased from 10 to 0.5 mm glucose and with increasing concentrations of glycolytic inhibitors. However, neither pyruvate nor 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate mimicked the effect of glucose to reduce AgRP mRNA, but on the contrary, produced the opposite effect of glucose and actually increased AgRP mRNA. Nevertheless, 3beta-hydroxybutyrate mimicked the effect of glucose to increase ATP and to decrease AMPK phosphorylation. Similarly, inhibition of AMPK by RNA interference increased, and activation of AMPK decreased, AgRP mRNA. Additional studies demonstrated that neither the hexosamine nor the pentose/carbohydrate response element-binding protein pathways mediate the effects of glucose on AgRP expression. These studies do not support that either ATP or AMPK mediate effects of glucose on AgRP in this hypothalamic cell line but support a role for glycolysis and, in particular, NADH. These studies support that cytoplasmic or nuclear NADH, uniquely produced by glucose metabolism, mediates effects of glucose on AgRP expression.

  12. SH3-binding Protein 5 Mediates the Neuroprotective Effect of the Secreted Bioactive Peptide Humanin by Inhibiting c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Yuji; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Nawa, Mikiro; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Humanin is a secreted bioactive peptide that suppresses cell toxicity caused by a variety of insults. The neuroprotective effect of Humanin against Alzheimer disease (AD)-related death is mediated by the binding of Humanin to its heterotrimeric Humanin receptor composed of ciliary neurotrophic receptor α, WSX-1, and gp130, as well as the activation of intracellular signaling pathways including a JAK2 and STAT3 signaling axis. Despite the elucidation of the signaling pathways by which Humanin mediates its neuroprotection, the transcriptional targets of Humanin that behaves as effectors of Humanin remains undefined. In the present study, Humanin increased the mRNA and protein expression of SH3 domain-binding protein 5 (SH3BP5), which has been known to be a JNK interactor, in neuronal cells. Similar to Humanin treatment, overexpression of SH3BP5 inhibited AD-related neuronal death, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous SH3BP5 expression attenuated the neuroprotective effect of Humanin. These results indicate that SH3BP5 is a downstream effector of Humanin. Furthermore, biochemical analysis has revealed that SH3BP5 binds to JNK and directly inhibits JNK through its two putative mitogen-activated protein kinase interaction motifs (KIMs). PMID:23861391

  13. SAD-A potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as a mediator of glucagon-like peptide 1 response in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Lilley, Brendan N; Pan, Y Albert; Faruque, Omar; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Weiping; Sanes, Joshua R; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2013-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β cells, which can be restored by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 affects glucose responsiveness in islet β cells remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, in regulating GSIS in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. We show that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretin's effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. Conversely, overexpression of SAD-A significantly enhanced GSIS and further potentiated GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. In support of SAD-A as a mediator of incretin response, SAD-A is expressed exclusively in pancreas and brain, the primary targeting tissues of GLP-1 action. Additionally, SAD-A kinase is activated in response to stimulation by GLP-1 through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways in islet β cells. Furthermore, we identified Thr443 as a key autoinhibitory phosphorylation site which mediates SAD-A's effect on incretin response in islet β cells. Consequently, ablation of Thr443 significantly enhanced GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. Together, these findings identified SAD-A kinase as a pancreas-specific mediator of incretin response in islet β cells.

  14. SAD-A Potentiates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion as a Mediator of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Response in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jia; Lilley, Brendan N.; Pan, Y. Albert; Faruque, Omar; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Weiping; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β cells, which can be restored by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone commonly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 affects glucose responsiveness in islet β cells remain poorly understood. Here we investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, in regulating GSIS in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. We show that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretin's effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. Conversely, overexpression of SAD-A significantly enhanced GSIS and further potentiated GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. In support of SAD-A as a mediator of incretin response, SAD-A is expressed exclusively in pancreas and brain, the primary targeting tissues of GLP-1 action. Additionally, SAD-A kinase is activated in response to stimulation by GLP-1 through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways in islet β cells. Furthermore, we identified Thr443 as a key autoinhibitory phosphorylation site which mediates SAD-A's effect on incretin response in islet β cells. Consequently, ablation of Thr443 significantly enhanced GLP-1's effect on GSIS from isolated mouse islets. Together, these findings identified SAD-A kinase as a pancreas-specific mediator of incretin response in islet β cells. PMID:23629625

  15. Natriuretic peptide receptor A inhibition suppresses gastric cancer development through reactive oxygen species-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Ji-Wei; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qun; Li, Bo-Wen; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Tang, Jie; Wei, Song; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dian-Cai; Yang, Li; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), the major receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), has been implicated in tumorigenesis; however, the role of ANP-NPRA signaling in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NPRA expression was positively associated with gastric tumor size and cancer stage. NPRA inhibition by shRNA induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, cell death, and autophagy in gastric cancer cells, due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy led to caspase-dependent cell death. Therefore, autophagy induced by NPRA silencing may represent a cytoprotective mechanism. ROS accumulation activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ROS-mediated activation of JNK inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing cell cycle and decreased cell viability. In addition, AMPK activation promoted autophagy in NPRA-downregulated cancer cells. Overall, our results indicate that the inhibition of NPRA suppresses gastric cancer development and targeting NPRA may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mediating Effects of Patients' Stigma and Self-Efficacy on Relationships Between Doctors' Empathy Abilities and Patients' Cellular Immunity in Male Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ningxi; Cao, Yingnan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong; Geng, Qingshan

    2018-06-12

    BACKGROUND Doctors' empathy is closely related to patients' health. This study aimed to examine whether patients' stigma and self-efficacy play a mediating role in the relationship between doctors' empathy abilities and patients' cellular immunity in male patients with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Doctors' empathy scores and patients' demographic data, disease condition, stigma, and self-efficacy were measured. Patient T cell subset was tested at admission and 3 months after the operation and was compared by paired t test. The multivariate linear regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the immune index. Pearson correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were applied to explore the relationships among patients' stigma, self-efficacy, and cellular immunity and doctors' empathy abilities. RESULTS At the 2 time points, only the change in NK subset was statistically significant, while the changes in percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and B cells were not statistically significant. The doctors' empathy abilities were negatively correlated with patients' stigma and were positively related to patients' self-efficacy. Patients' stigma was negatively related to NK subset, while self-efficacy was positively associated with NK subset. Patients' stigma and self-efficacy played a mediating role in the relationship between doctors' empathy abilities and patients' NK subset, and stigma had a stronger effect than self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS Doctors' empathy abilities affected breast cancer patients' NK subset through their stigma and self-efficacy. The mental health of male breast cancer patients need more attention and empathy education needs to be improved.

  17. siRNA - Mediated LRP/LR knock-down reduces cellular viability of malignant melanoma cells through the activation of apoptotic caspases.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Thalia M; Vania, Leila; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2018-07-01

    The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. HBV core promoter mutations promote cellular proliferation through E2F1-mediated upregulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuehua; Tai, Andrew W; Tong, Shuping; Lok, Anna S F

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter (CP) mutations have been associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical studies. We previously reported that a combination of CP mutations seen in HCC patients, expressed in HBx gene, increased SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) expression, thereby promoting cellular proliferation. Here, we investigate the possible mechanisms by which CP mutations upregulate SKP2. We used immunoblotting and ATPlite assay to validate the effect of CP mutations in full-length HBV genome on cell cycle regulator levels and cell proliferation. Activation of SKP2 mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HCC cell lines. Effect of CP mutations on SKP2 promoter activity was determined by luciferase assay. Target regulation of E2F1 on SKP2 was analyzed by siRNAs. CP mutations in full-length HBV genome upregulated SKP2 expression, thereby downregulating cell cycle inhibitors and accelerating cellular proliferation. CP mutations enhanced SKP2 promoter activity but had no effect on SKP2 protein stability. Mapping of the SKP2 promoter identified a region necessary for activation by CP mutations that contains an E2F1 response element. Knocking down E2F1 reduced the effects of CP mutations on SKP2 and cellular proliferation. The effect of CP mutations on E2F1 might be mediated through hyperphosphorylation of RB. HBV CP mutations enhance SKP2 transcription by activating the E2F1 transcription factor and in turn downregulate cell cycle inhibitors, thus providing a potential mechanism for an association between CP mutations and HCC. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dexamethasone alone and in combination with desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid or levetiracetam interferes with 5-ALA-mediated PpIX production and cellular retention in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Johnathan E; Steele, Christopher J; Rovin, Richard A; Belton, Robert J; Winn, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Extent of resection of glioblastoma (GBM) correlates with overall survival. Fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) can improve the extent of resection. Unfortunately not all patients given 5-ALA accumulate sufficient quantities of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for successful FGR. In this study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone, desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid, and levetiracetam on the production and accumulation of PpIX in U87MG cells. All of these drugs, except levetiracetam, reduce the total amount of PpIX produced by GBM cells (p < 0.05). When dexamethasone is mixed with another drug (desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid or levetiracetam) the amount of PpIX produced is further decreased (p < 0.01). However, when cells are analyzed for PpIX cellular retention, dexamethasone accumulated significantly more PpIX than the vehicle control (p < 0.05). Cellular retention of PpIX was not different from controls in cells treated with dexamethasone plus desipramine, valproic acid or levetiracetam, but was significantly less for dexamethasone plus phenytoin (p < 0.01). These data suggest that medications given before and during surgery may interfere with PpIX accumulation in malignant cells. At this time, levetiracetam appears to be the best medication in its class (anticonvulsants) for patients undergoing 5-ALA-mediated FGR.

  20. Role of B-type natriuretic peptide in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-mediated improved post-ischaemic recovery of heart contractile function

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Ketul R.; Batchu, Sri Nagarjun; Das, Dipankar; Suresh, Mavanur R.; Falck, John R.; Graves, Joan P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Seubert, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This study examined the functional role of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated cardioprotection in mice with targeted disruption of the sEH or Ephx2 gene (sEH null). Methods and results Isolated mouse hearts were perfused in the Langendorff mode and subjected to global no-flow ischaemia followed by reperfusion. Hearts were analysed for recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), mRNA levels, and protein expression. Naïve hearts from sEH null mice had similar expression of preproBNP (Nppb) mRNA compared with wild-type (WT) hearts. However, significant increases in Nppb mRNA and BNP protein expression occurred during post-ischaemic reperfusion and correlated with improved post-ischaemic recovery of LVDP. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid prior to ischaemia reduced the preproBNP mRNA in sEH null hearts. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that perfusion with the natriuretic peptide receptor type-A (NPR-A) antagonist, A71915, limited the improved recovery in recombinant full-length mouse BNP (rBNP)- and 11,12-EET-perfused hearts as well as in sEH null mice. Increased expression of phosphorylated protein kinase C ε and Akt were found in WT hearts perfused with either 11,12-EET or rBNP, while mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3β was significantly lower in the same samples. Furthermore, treatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin abolished improved LVDP recovery in 11,12-EET-treated hearts but not did significantly inhibit recovery of rBNP-treated hearts. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that EET-mediated cardioprotection involves BNP and PI3K signalling events. PMID:19401302

  1. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage.

    PubMed

    Istrati, D; Lacatusu, I; Bordei, N; Badea, G; Oprea, O; Stefan, L M; Stan, R; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to -45mV) and displayed average sizes of 70nm to 140nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract-bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunostimulatory properties and enhanced TNF- α mediated cellular immunity for tumor therapy by C60(OH)20 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Jiao, Fang; Qiu, Yang; Li, Wei; Qu, Ying; Tian, Chixia; Li, Yufeng; Bai, Ru; Lao, Fang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying

    2009-10-01

    Publications concerning the mechanism of biological activity, especially the immunological mechanism of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles, are relatively limited. However, the structure and characteristics of this carbon allotrope have been widely investigated. In this paper, we have demonstrated that water-soluble C60(OH)20 nanoparticles have an efficient anti-tumor activity in vivo, and show specific immunomodulatory effects to the immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, both in vivo and in vitro. For example, C60(OH)20 nanoparticles can increase the production of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokines (IL-2, IFN- γ and TNF-α), and decrease the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6) in serum samples. On the other hand, C60(OH)20 nanoparticles show almost no adverse effect to the viability of immune cells in vitro but stimulate the immune cells to release more cytokines, in particular TNF- α, which plays a key role in the cellular immune process to help eliminate abnormal cells. TNF- α production increased almost three-fold in treated T lymphocytes and macrophages. Accordingly, we conclude that C60(OH)20 nanoparticles have an efficient anti-tumor activity and this effect is associated with an increased CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio and the enhancement of TNF- α production. The data suggest that C60(OH)20 nanoparticles can improve the immune response to help to scavenge and kill tumor cells.

  3. Bioprocessing development: Immune/cellular applications: Anti-Ig autoantibody and complement-mediated destruction of neoplastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twomey, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    This space bioprocessing contract effort was comprised of four general objectives. These were: (1) the evaluation of current separation processes, (2) the identification of problems relevant to the separation of important biologicals, (3) the identification of ground-based assay methods needed for pre- and postflight analysis of space bioprocessing separation technology; and (4) the establishment of methods to determine the efficiency of space bioprocessing separation procedures. Immunology was deemed advantageous to study the diversity of cells and cell products involved and the extensive interest being given to their separation. Upon recognition of a cellular or molecular agent as foreign to the body, the immune system becomes activated to produce cells whose function is to destroy that agent and cell products whose function is to inactivate the agent and assist in its destruction. Long after the agent is removed from the body, some cells remain in a state of readiness to continue these destructive actions specifically against that agent should further exposure to it occur. This is the basis of acquired immunity to disease.

  4. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression.

  5. Biodistribution of small interfering RNA at the organ and cellular levels after lipid nanoparticle-mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Keough, Ed; Matter, Andrea; Leander, Karen; Young, Stephanie; Carlini, Ed; Sachs, Alan B; Tao, Weikang; Abrams, Marc; Howell, Bonnie; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Chemically stabilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be delivered systemically by intravenous injection of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in rodents and primates. The biodistribution and kinetics of LNP-siRNA delivery in mice at organ and cellular resolution have been studied using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At 0.5 and 2 hr post tail vein injection of Cy5-labeled siRNA encapsulated in LNP, the organ rank-order of siRNA levels is liver > spleen > kidney, with only negligible accumulation in duodenum, lung, heart, and brain. Similar conclusions were drawn by using qPCR to measure tissue siRNA levels as a secondary end point. siRNA levels in these tissues decreased by more than 10-fold after 24 hr. Within the liver, LNPs delivered siRNA to hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids in a time-dependent manner, as revealed by IF staining and signal quantitation methods established using OPERA/Columbus software. siRNA first accumulated in liver sinusoids and trafficked to hepatocytes by 2 hr post dose, corresponding to the onset of target mRNA silencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization methods were used to detect both strands of siRNA in fixed tissues. Collectively, the authors have implemented a platform to evaluate biodistribution of siRNA across cell types and across tissues in vivo, with the objective of elucidating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship to guide optimization of delivery vehicles. © The Author(s) 2011

  6. Biodistribution of Small Interfering RNA at the Organ and Cellular Levels after Lipid Nanoparticle-mediated Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Keough, Ed; Matter, Andrea; Leander, Karen; Young, Stephanie; Carlini, Ed; Sachs, Alan B.; Tao, Weikang; Abrams, Marc; Howell, Bonnie; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Chemically stabilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be delivered systemically by intravenous injection of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in rodents and primates. The biodistribution and kinetics of LNP–siRNA delivery in mice at organ and cellular resolution have been studied using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At 0.5 and 2 hr post tail vein injection of Cy5-labeled siRNA encapsulated in LNP, the organ rank-order of siRNA levels is liver > spleen > kidney, with only negligible accumulation in duodenum, lung, heart, and brain. Similar conclusions were drawn by using qPCR to measure tissue siRNA levels as a secondary end point. siRNA levels in these tissues decreased by more than 10-fold after 24 hr. Within the liver, LNPs delivered siRNA to hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids in a time-dependent manner, as revealed by IF staining and signal quantitation methods established using OPERA/Columbus software. siRNA first accumulated in liver sinusoids and trafficked to hepatocytes by 2 hr post dose, corresponding to the onset of target mRNA silencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization methods were used to detect both strands of siRNA in fixed tissues. Collectively, the authors have implemented a platform to evaluate biodistribution of siRNA across cell types and across tissues in vivo, with the objective of elucidating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship to guide optimization of delivery vehicles. PMID:21804077

  7. Calcium-mediated oxidative stress: a common mechanism in tight junction disruption by different types of cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Ruchika; Meena, Avtar S; Shukla, Pradeep K; Nagaraja, Archana S; Dorniak, Piotr L; Pallikuth, Sandeep; Waters, Christopher M; Sood, Anil; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2017-02-20

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction (TJ) disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ by 1,2-bis-( o -aminophenoxy)ethane- N , N , N ', N '-tetraacetic acid. Knockdown of Ca V 1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated TJ disruption and barrier dysfunction. N -Acetyl l-cysteine (NAC) and l- N G -Nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) blocked stress-induced TJ disruption and barrier dysfunction. NAC and l-NAME also blocked stress-induced activation of c-Jun N -terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Src. ROS was colocalized with the mitochondrial marker in stressed cells. Cyclosporin A blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production, barrier dysfunction, TJ disruption and JNK activation. Mitochondria-targeted Mito-TEMPO blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced barrier dysfunction and TJ disruption. Chronic restraint stress in mice resulted in the elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ , activation of JNK and c-Src, and disruption of TJ in the colonic epithelium. Furthermore, corticosterone administration induced JNK and c-Src activation, TJ disruption and protein thiol oxidation in colonic mucosa. The present study demonstrates that oxidative stress is a common signal in the mechanism of TJ disruption in the intestinal epithelium by different types of cellular stress in vitro and bio behavioral stress in vivo . © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Calcium-Mediated Oxidative Stress: a Common Mechanism in Tight Junction Disruption by Different Types of Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Ruchika; Meena, Avtar S.; Shukla, Pradeep K.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Pallikuth, Sandeep; Waters, Christopher M.; Sood, Anil; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2017-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro, and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo. Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA. Knockdown of CaV1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) blocked stress-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. NAC and L-NAME also blocked stress-induced activation of JNK and c-Src. ROS was co-localized with the mitochondrial marker in stressed cells. Cyclosporin A blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production, barrier dysfunction, tight junction disruption and JNK activation. Mitochondria-targeted Mito-TEMPO blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. Chronic restraint stress in mice resulted in the elevation of intracellular Ca2+, activation of JNK and c-Src, and disruption of tight junction in the colonic epithelium. Furthermore, corticosterone administration induced JNK and c-Src activation, tight junction disruption and protein thiol oxidation in colonic mucosa. This study demonstrates that oxidative stress is a common signal in the mechanism of tight junction disruption in the intestinal epithelium by different types of cellular stress in vitro and bio behavioral stress in vivo. PMID:28057718

  9. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-07-01

    Intrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. In human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF 2α . This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased. Collectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. TCF7L2 mediates the cellular and behavioral response to chronic lithium treatment in animal models.

    PubMed

    Misztal, Katarzyna; Brozko, Nikola; Nagalski, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Lukasz M; Krolak, Marta; Brzozowska, Katarzyna; Kuznicki, Jacek; Wisniewska, Marta B

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of lithium's therapeutic action remains obscure, hindering the discovery of safer treatments for bipolar disorder. Lithium can act as an inhibitor of the kinase GSK3α/β, which in turn negatively regulates β-catenin, a co-activator of LEF1/TCF transcription factors. However, unclear is whether therapeutic levels of lithium activate β-catenin in the brain, and whether this activation could have a therapeutic significance. To address this issue we chronically treated mice with lithium. Although the level of non-phospho-β-catenin increased in all of the brain areas examined, β-catenin translocated into cellular nuclei only in the thalamus. Similar results were obtained when thalamic and cortical neurons were treated with a therapeutically relevant concentration of lithium in vitro. We tested if TCF7L2, a member of LEF1/TCF family that is highly expressed in the thalamus, facilitated the activation of β-catenin. Silencing of Tcf7l2 in thalamic neurons prevented β-catenin from entering the nucleus, even when the cells were treated with lithium. Conversely, when Tcf7l2 was ectopically expressed in cortical neurons, β-catenin shifted to the nucleus, and lithium augmented this process. Lastly, we silenced tcf7l2 in zebrafish and exposed them to lithium for 3 days, to evaluate whether TCF7L2 is involved in the behavioral response. Lithium decreased the dark-induced activity of control zebrafish, whereas the activity of zebrafish with tcf7l2 knockdown was unaltered. We conclude that therapeutic levels of lithium activate β-catenin selectively in thalamic neurons. This effect is determined by the presence of TCF7L2, and potentially contributes to the therapeutic response. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of humoral and cellular-mediated immune response in chickens treated with tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin at the time of Newcastle disease vaccination.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, M S; Amawi, M M; Abu-Basha, E A; Yonis, I Bani

    2009-10-01

    The effect of tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin on humoral and cell-mediated immune response induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination was evaluated in 20-wk-old specific-pathogen-free layer chickens. Humoral immunity was measured by detection of ND virus (NDV) antibody titer and anti-NDV IgG response using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA, respectively, whereas cell-mediated immunity was evaluated by measurement of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) produced in splenocytes cell culture stimulated with concanavalin A, inactivated NDV antigen, or live attenuated La Sota strain using ELISA. Florfenicol hampered the ND antibody production measured by both HI and ELISA. Tilmicosin and enrofloxacin reduced the production of ND antibody in the first 3 wk after the last ND vaccination measured by HI test, which suggests that these antibiotics exert their effect mainly on the IgM isotype. The ND-vaccinated, but not treated group, showed an increase in ChIFN-gamma production after NDV antigen-specific stimulation above the nonstimulated cell culture, whereas this effect was masked in all the antibiotic-treated groups due to the stronger ChIFN-gamma production background value reported in the nonstimulated cell culture. In conclusion, our results showed, for the first time, that tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin reduced the humoral immune response and had beneficial effects on the cell-mediated immune response. In addition, we demonstrated that the combination of both inactivated and attenuated ND vaccine gave a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular level.

  12. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Patheja, Pooja, E-mail: pooja.patheja8@gmail.com; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra; Sahu, Khageswar

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the releasemore » of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.« less

  13. Reduced cellular redox status induces 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated caspase 3 activation leading to erythrocyte death during chronic arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli, E-mail: tulibiswas@iicb.res.i

    2010-05-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in rats led to gradual accumulation of the toxicant in erythrocytes causing oxidative stress in these cells. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a major aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation, contributed significantly to the cytopathological events observed during oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of exposed rats. 4-HNE triggered death signal cascade that was initiated with the formation of HNE-protein adducts in cytosol. HNE-protein adduct formation resulted in depletion of cytosolic antioxidants followed by increased generation of ROS. Results showed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) from the early stages of arsenic exposure, while superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup c}entre dot{sup -})more » and hydroxyl radical ({sup c}entre dotOH) also contributed to the oxidative stress during longer period of exposure. Suppression of antioxidant system coupled with increased generation of ROS eventually led to activation of caspase 3 during arsenic exposure. Attenuation of HNE-mediated activation of caspase 3 in presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) indicated the involvement of GSH in the process. Prevention of HNE-mediated degradation of membrane proteins in presence of Z-DEVD-FMK identified caspase 3 as the principal mediator of HNE-induced cellular damage during arsenic exposure. Degradation of band 3 followed by its aggregation on the red cell surface promoted immunologic recognition of redistributed band 3 by autologous IgG with subsequent attachment of C3b. Finally, the formation of C3b-IgG-band 3 immune complex accelerated the elimination of affected cells from circulation and led to the decline of erythrocyte life span during chronic arsenic toxicity.« less

  14. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments.

    PubMed

    Patheja, Pooja; Sahu, Khageswar

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MɸCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MɸCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal actions of atrial natriuretic peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of nitric oxide as a key mediator.

    PubMed

    Elesgaray, Rosana; Caniffi, Carolina; Savignano, Lucía; Romero, Mariana; Mac Laughlin, Myriam; Arranz, Cristina; Costa, María A

    2012-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an important regulator of blood pressure (BP). One of the mechanisms whereby ANP impacts BP is by stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production in different tissues involved in BP control. We hypothesized that ANP-stimulated NO is impaired in the kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and this contributes to the development and/or maintenance of high levels of BP. We investigated the effects of ANP on the NO system in SHR, studying the changes in renal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and expression in response to peptide infusion, the signaling pathways implicated in the signaling cascade that activates NOS, and identifying the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR), guanylyl cyclase receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B) and/or NPR-C, and NOS isoforms involved. In vivo, SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were infused with saline (0.05 ml/min) or ANP (0.2 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)). NOS activity and endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and inducible (iNOS) NOS expression were measured in the renal cortex and medulla. In vitro, ANP-induced renal NOS activity was determined in the presence of iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, NPR-A/B blockers, guanine nucleotide-regulatory (G(i)) protein, and calmodulin inhibitors. Renal NOS activity was higher in SHR than in WKY. ANP increased NOS activity, but activation was lower in SHR than in WKY. ANP had no effect on expression of NOS isoforms. ANP-induced NOS activity was not modified by iNOS and nNOS inhibitors. NPR-A/B blockade blunted NOS stimulation via ANP in kidney. The renal NOS response to ANP was reduced by G(i) protein and calmodulin inhibitors. We conclude that ANP interacts with NPR-C, activating Ca-calmodulin eNOS through G(i) protein. NOS activation also involves NPR-A/B. The NOS response to ANP was diminished in kidneys of SHR. The impaired NO system response to ANP in SHR participates in the maintenance of high blood pressure.

  16. A Novel Role for Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells (OPCs) and Sox10 in Mediating Cellular and Behavioral Responses to Heroin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer A; Caccamise, Aaron; Werner, Craig T; Viswanathan, Rathipriya; Polanco, Jessie J; Stewart, Andrew F; Thomas, Shruthi A; Sim, Fraser J; Dietz, David M

    2018-05-01

    Opiate abuse and addiction have become a worldwide epidemic with great societal and financial burdens, highlighting a critical need to understand the neurobiology of opiate addiction. Although several studies have focused on drug-dependent changes in neurons, the role of glia in opiate addiction remains largely unstudied. RNA sequencing pathway analysis from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male rats revealed changes in several genes associated with oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation following heroin self-administration. Among these genes changed was Sox10, which is regulated, in part, by the chromatin remodeler BRG1/SMARCA4. To directly test the functional role of Sox10 in mediating heroin-induced behavioral plasticity, we selectively overexpressed Sox10 and BRG1 in the PFC. Overexpression of either Sox10 or BRG1 decreased the motivation to obtain heroin infusions in a progressive ratio test without altering the acquisition or maintenance of heroin self-administration. These data demonstrate a critical, and perhaps compensatory, role of Sox10 and BRG1 in oligodendrocytes in regulating the motivation for heroin.

  17. CRMP-2 peptide mediated decrease of high and low voltage-activated calcium channels, attenuation of nociceptor excitability, and anti-nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ubiquity of protein-protein interactions in biological signaling offers ample opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified a peptide, designated CBD3, that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic behavioral hypersensitivity in rodents by inhibiting the ability of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) to bind to N-type voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV2.2) [Brittain et al. Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011)]. Results and discussion Here, we utilized SPOTScan analysis to identify an optimized variation of the CBD3 peptide (CBD3A6K) that bound with greater affinity to Ca2+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the CBD3A6K peptide was more stable and less prone to the unfolding observed with the parent CBD3 peptide. This mutant peptide, conjugated to the cell penetrating motif of the HIV transduction domain protein TAT, exhibited greater anti-nociception in a rodent model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared to the parent TAT-CBD3 peptide. Remarkably, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-CBD3A6K produced none of the minor side effects (i.e. tail kinking, body contortion) observed with the parent peptide. Interestingly, excitability of dissociated small diameter sensory neurons isolated from rats was also reduced by TAT-CBD3A6K peptide suggesting that suppression of excitability may be due to inhibition of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels. TAT-CBD3A6K had no effect on depolarization-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release compared to vehicle control. Conclusions Collectively, these results establish TAT-CBD3A6K as a peptide therapeutic with greater efficacy in an AIDS therapy-induced model of peripheral neuropathy than its parent peptide, TAT-CBD3. Structural modifications of the CBD3 scaffold peptide may result in peptides with selectivity against a particular subset of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in a multipharmacology of action on the target. PMID

  18. Enhanced AMPA receptor trafficking mediates the anorexigenic effect of endogenous glucagon like peptide-1 in the paraventricular hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji; Conde, Kristie; Zhang, Peng; Lilascharoen, Varoth; Xu, Zihui; Lim, Byung Kook; Seeley, Randy J.; Zhu, Julius J.; Scott, Michael M.; Pang, Zhiping P.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA) dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane. Finally, we show that postnatal depletion of GLP-1R in the PVN increases food intake and causes obesity. This study provides a comprehensive multi-level (circuit, synaptic, and molecular) explanation of how food intake behavior and body weight are regulated by endogenous central GLP-1. PMID:29056294

  19. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  20. High level of C-type natriuretic peptide induced by hyperandrogen-mediated anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huarong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Chen, Zijiang; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

    2018-04-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, is a complex endocrinopathy that affects the fertility of 9-18% of reproductive-aged women. However, the exact mechanism of PCOS, especially hyperandrogen-induced anovulation, is largely unknown to date. Physiologically, the natriuretic peptide type C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (CNP/NPR2) system is essential for sustaining oocyte meiotic arrest until the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We therefore hypothesized that the CNP/NPR2 system is also involved in PCOS and contributes to arresting oocyte meiosis and ovulation. Here, based on a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS-like mouse model, persistent high levels of CNP/NPR2 were detected in anovulation ovaries. Meanwhile, oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle stage correlated with persistent high levels of androgen and estrogen. We further showed that ovulation failure in these mice could be a result of elevated Nppc/Npr2 gene transcription that was directly increased by androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptor signaling. Consistent with this, anovulation was alleviated by administration of either exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or inhibitors of AR or ER to reduce the level of CNP/NPR2. Additionally, the CNP/NPR2 expression pattern in the anovulated follicles was, to some extent, consistent with the clinical expression in PCOS patients. Therefore, our study highlights the important role an overactive CNP/NPR2 system caused by hyperandrogenism in preventing oocytes from maturation and ovulation in PCOS mice. Our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms responsible for infertility in women with PCOS. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Evidence for a role of regulatory T cells in mediating the atheroprotective effect of apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wigren, M; Kolbus, D; Dunér, P; Ljungcrantz, I; Söderberg, I; Björkbacka, H; Fredrikson, G N; Nilsson, J

    2011-05-01

    Autoimmune responses against oxidized low-density lipoprotein are considered to play an important pro-inflammatory role in atherosclerosis and to promote disease progression. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive cells that have an important part in maintaining self-tolerance and protection against autoimmunity. We investigated whether aBp210, a prototype atherosclerosis vaccine based on a peptide sequence derived from apolipoprotein B, inhibits atherosclerosis through the activation of Tregs. Six-week-old Apoe(-/-) mice were immunized with aBp210 and received booster immunizations 3 and 5 weeks later, as well as 1 week before being killed at 25 weeks of age. At 12 weeks, immunized mice had increased expression of the Treg marker CD25 on circulating CD4 cells, and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 release from splenocytes was markedly depressed. At 25 weeks, there was a fivefold expansion of splenic CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3 Tregs, a 65% decrease in Con A-induced splenic T-cell proliferation and a 37% reduction in the development of atherosclerosis in immunized mice. Administration of blocking antibodies against CD25 neutralized aBp210-induced Treg activation as well as the reduction of atherosclerosis. The present findings demonstrate that immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice with the apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine aBp210 is associated with activation of Tregs. Administration of antibodies against CD25 results in depletion of Tregs and blocking of the atheroprotective effect of the vaccine. Modulation in atherosclerosis-related autoimmunity by antigen-specific activation of Tregs represents a novel approach for treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  3. TGF-β1-Mediated Differentiation of Fibroblasts Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial Content and Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Godic, Zarko; Rizvi, Farhan; Emelyanova, Larisa; Ross, Gracious; Richards, John; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Jahangir, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objectivs Cytokine-dependent activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a key event in fibrosis, is accompanied by phenotypic changes with increased secretory and contractile properties dependent on increased energy utilization, yet changes in the energetic profile of these cells are not fully described. We hypothesize that the TGF-β1-mediated transformation of myofibroblasts is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and function when compared to naive fibroblasts. Methods Cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1, a profibrotic cytokine, or vehicle were assessed for transformation to myofibroblasts (appearance of α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] stress fibers) and associated changes in mitochondrial content and functions using laser confocal microscopy, Seahorse respirometry, multi-well plate reader and biochemical protocols. Expression of mitochondrial-specific proteins was determined using western blotting, and the mitochondrial DNA quantified using Mitochondrial DNA isolation kit. Results Treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) induced transformation of naive fibroblasts into myofibroblasts with a threefold increase in the expression of α-SMA (6.85 ± 0.27 RU) compared to cells not treated with TGF-β1 (2.52 ± 0.11 RU). TGF-β1 exposure increased the number of mitochondria in the cells, as monitored by membrane potential sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine, and expression of mitochondria-specific proteins; voltage-dependent anion channels (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 RU) and adenine nucleotide transporter (0.61 ± 0.11 vs. 0.22 ± 0.05 RU), as well as mitochondrial DNA content (530 ± 12 μg DNA/106 cells vs. 307 ± 9 μg DNA/106 cells in control). TGF-β1 treatment was associated with an increase in mitochondrial function with a twofold increase in baseline oxygen consumption rate (2.25 ± 0.03 vs. 1.13 ± 0.1 nmol O2/min/106 cells) and FCCP-induced mitochondrial respiration (2.87 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.15 nmol O2/min/106 cells

  4. Ripk3 regulates cardiac microvascular reperfusion injury: The role of IP3R-dependent calcium overload, XO-mediated oxidative stress and F-action/filopodia-based cellular migration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Pingjun; Hu, Shunying; Ren, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Ripk3-mediated cellular apoptosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms by which Ripk3 influences microvascular homeostasis and endothelial apoptosis are not completely understood. In this study, loss of Ripk3 inhibited endothelial apoptosis, alleviated luminal swelling, maintained microvasculature patency, reduced the expression of adhesion molecules and limited the myocardial inflammatory response. In vitro, Ripk3 deficiency protected endothelial cells from apoptosis and migratory arrest induced by HR injury. Mechanistically, Ripk3 had the ability to migrate onto the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER damage, as evidenced by increased IP3R and XO expression. The higher IP3R content was associated with cellular calcium overload, and increased XO expression was involved in cellular oxidative injury. Furthermore, IP3R-mediated calcium overload and XO-dependent oxidative damage were able to initiate cellular apoptosis. More importantly, IP3R and XO also caused F-actin degradation into G-actin via post-transcriptional modification of cofilin, impairing the formation of the filopodia and limiting the migratory response of endothelial cells. Altogether, our data confirmed that Ripk3 was involved in microvascular IR injury via regulation of IP3R-mediated calcium overload, XO-dependent oxidative damage and filopodia-related cellular migration, ultimately leading to endothelial apoptosis and migratory inhibition. These findings provide a potential target for treating cardiac microcirculatory IR injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CgA1AR-1 acts as an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediating both cellular and humoral immune response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-11-01

    We have now cloned an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (A1AR) from the cDNA library of oyster Crassostrea gigas, designating as CgA1AR-1. The full length of CgA1AR-1 was 1149 bp and it encodes a protein of 382 amino acids containing a 7 transmembrane domain, whose putative topology was similar to the A1ARs in higher organisms and shared similarity of 19% with mammalian A1ARs according to the phylogenic analysis. After cell transfection of CgA1AR-1 into HEK293T cells and the incubation with its specific agonist norepinephrine (NE), the concentration of second messenger Ca 2+ increased significantly (p < 0.05). But, this increasing of Ca 2+ could be inhibited by adding A1AR antagonist DOX. Tissue distribution assays using qRT-PCR suggested that CgA1AR-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the major tissues of oyster. LPS stimulation could induce the up-regulation of CgA1AR-1 mRNA in haemocytes from 12 h to 24 h post stimulation. Moreover, the blocking of CgA1AR-1 by DOX before LPS stimulation affected the mRNA expression of oyster TNF (CGI_10005109 and CGI_10006440) in haemocytes, resulting in the rise of haemocyte phagocytic rate and apoptosis index. In addition to cellular immunity, CgA1AR-1 was also involved in humoral immunity of oyster. Inhibition of CgA1AR-1 with DOX could repress the up-regulation of LZY and SOD activities caused by LPS stimulation. These results suggested that CgA1AR-1 acted as an α-1 adrenergic receptor in cetacholaminergic neuroendocrine-immune network mediating both cellular and humoral immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  7. F5-peptide induces aspermatogenesis by disrupting organization of actin- and microtubule-based cytoskeletons in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lui, Wing-yee; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    During the release of sperm at spermiation, a biologically active F5-peptide, which can disrupt the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier, is produced at the site of the degenerating apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization). This peptide coordinates the events of spermiation and blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, creating a local apical ES-BTB axis to coordinate cellular events across the epithelium. The mechanism(s) by which F5-peptide perturbs BTB restructuring, and its involvement in apical ES dynamics remain unknown. F5-peptide, besides perturbing BTB integrity, was shown to induce germ cell release from the epithelium following its efficient in vivo overexpression in the testis. Overexpression of F5-peptide caused disorganization of actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons, mediated by altering the spatiotemporal expression of actin binding/regulatory proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. F5-peptide perturbed the ability of actin microfilaments and/or MTs from converting between their bundled and unbundled/defragmented configuration, thereby perturbing adhesion between spermatids and Sertoli cells. Since apical ES and basal ES/BTB are interconnected through the underlying cytoskeletal networks, this thus provides an efficient and novel mechanism to coordinate different cellular events across the epithelium during spermatogenesis through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments and MTs. These findings also illustrate the potential of F5-peptide being a male contraceptive peptide for men. PMID:27611949

  8. Human Platelet-Rich Plasma- and Extracellular Matrix-Derived Peptides Promote Impaired Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Wolf, Lindsey; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has described several pro-angiogenic short peptides derived from endothelial extracellular matrices degraded by bacterial collagenase. Here we tested whether these peptides could stimulate wound healing in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that a peptide created as combination of fragments of tenascin X and fibrillin 1 (comb1) applied into cranial dermal wounds created in mice treated with cyclophosphamide to impair wound healing, can improve the rate of wound closure. Furthermore, we identify and characterize a novel peptide (UN3) created and modified from two naturally-occurring peptides, which are present in human platelet-rich plasma. In vitro testing of UN3 demonstrates that it causes a 50% increase in endothelial proliferation, 250% increase in angiogenic response and a tripling of epithelial cell migration in response to injury. Results of in vivo experiments where comb1 and UN3 peptides were added together to cranial wounds in cyclophosphamide-treated mice leads to improvement of wound vascularization as shown by an increase of the number of blood vessels present in the wound beds. Application of the peptides markedly promotes cellular responses to injury and essentially restores wound healing dynamics to those of normal, acute wounds in the absence of cyclophosphamide impairment. Our current work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effects of these peptides as well as identification of the cellular receptors mediating these effects. PMID:22384158

  9. Using peptide array to identify binding motifs and interaction networks for modular domains.

    PubMed

    Li, Shawn S-C; Wu, Chenggang

    2009-01-01

    Specific protein-protein interactions underlie all essential biological processes and form the basis of cellular signal transduction. The recognition of a short, linear peptide sequence in one protein by a modular domain in another represents a common theme of macromolecular recognition in cells, and the importance of this mode of protein-protein interaction is highlighted by the large number of peptide-binding domains encoded by the human genome. This phenomenon also provides a unique opportunity to identify protein-protein binding events using peptide arrays and complementary biochemical assays. Accordingly, high-density peptide array has emerged as a useful tool by which to map domain-mediated protein-protein interaction networks at the proteome level. Using the Src-homology 2 (SH2) and 3 (SH3) domains as examples, we describe the application of oriented peptide array libraries in uncovering specific motifs recognized by an SH2 domain and the use of high-density peptide arrays in identifying interaction networks mediated by the SH3 domain. Methods reviewed here could also be applied to other modular domains, including catalytic domains, that recognize linear peptide sequences.

  10. Whey Peptide-Based Formulas With ω-3 Fatty Acids Are Protective in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Horikawa, Yousuke T; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kasai, Asuka; Kadota, Takako; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2015-07-01

    Sepsis and septic shock syndrome are among the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released by bacteria within the colon may translocate across a compromised epithelium, leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, sepsis, and eventually death. We examined the effects of a whey-based enteral formula high in cysteine (antioxidant precursor) and the addition of ω-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), against a mouse model of LPS-induced sepsis. Mice were fed either a whey-based diet with EPA-DHA (PAF), a whey-based diet without EPA-DHA (PSTD), or a casein-based control diet (CONT). Mice fed PAF or PSTD were protected against LPS-induced weight loss. Whey-based diets suppressed inflammatory cytokine release and oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, PAF and PSTD were able to inhibit autophagy, a mechanism in which the cell recycles damaged organelles. These anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of PSTD and PAF resulted in decreased liver inflammation and intestinal damage and promoted protective microbiota within the intestines. These data suggest a clinical role for whey peptide-based diets in promoting healing and recovery in critically ill patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Trafficking Mediates the Anorexigenic Effect of Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Conde, Kristie; Zhang, Peng; Lilascharoen, Varoth; Xu, Zihui; Lim, Byung Kook; Seeley, Randy J; Zhu, J Julius; Scott, Michael M; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-11-15

    Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane. Finally, we show that postnatal depletion of GLP-1R in the PVN increases food intake and causes obesity. This study provides a comprehensive multi-level (circuit, synaptic, and molecular) explanation of how food intake behavior and body weight are regulated by endogenous central GLP-1. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular Location of Thermobifida fusca Cutinase Expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) without Mediation of a Signal Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingqia; Woodard, Ronald W.; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Cutinase is a multifunctional esterase with potential industrial applications. In the present study, a truncated version of the extracellular Thermobifida fusca cutinase without a signal peptide (referred to as cutinaseNS) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The results showed that the majority of the cutinase activity was located in the culture medium. In a 3-liter fermentor, the cutinase activity in the culture medium reached 1,063.5 U/ml (2,380.8 mg/liter), and the productivity was 40.9 U/ml/h. Biochemical characterization of the purified cutinaseNS showed that it has enzymatic properties similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. In addition, E. coli cells producing inactive cutinaseNSS130A were constructed, and it was found that the majority of the inactive enzyme was located in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, T. fusca cutinase was confirmed to have hydrolytic activity toward phospholipids, an important component of the cell membrane. Compared to the cells expressing the inactive cutinaseNSS130A, the cells expressing cutinaseNS showed increased membrane permeability and irregular morphology. Based on these results, a hypothesis of “cell leakage induced by the limited phospholipid hydrolysis of cutinaseNS” was proposed to explain the underlying mechanism for the extracellular release of cutinaseNS. PMID:23603671

  13. Defeating Leishmania resistance to miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine) by peptide-mediated drug smuggling: a proof of mechanism for trypanosomatid chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Hornillos, Valentín; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Rueda, Cristina; Navarro, Miguel; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; Acuña, A Ulises; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luis

    2012-08-10

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine, HePC), the first orally active drug successful against leishmaniasis, is especially active on the visceral form of the disease. Resistance mechanisms are almost exclusively associated to dysfunction in HePC uptake systems. In order to evade the requirements of its cognate receptor/translocator, HePC-resistant Leishmania donovani parasites (R40 strain) were challenged with constructs consisting of an ω-thiol-functionalized HePC analogue conjugated to the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Tat(48-60), either through a disulfide or a thioether bond. The conjugates enter and kill both promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of the R40 strain. Intracellular release of HePC by reduction of the disulfide-based conjugate was confirmed by means of double tagging at both the CPP (Quasar 670) and HePC (BODIPY) moieties. Scission of the conjugate, however, is not mandatory, as the metabolically more stable thioether conjugate retained substantial activity. The disulfide conjugate is highly active on the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma b. brucei, naturally resistant to HePC. Our results provide proof-of-mechanism for the use of CPP conjugates to avert drug resistance by faulty drug accumulation in parasites, as well as the possibility to extend chemotherapy into other parasites intrinsically devoid of membrane translocation systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolactin-releasing peptide is a potent mediator of the innate immune response in leukocytes from Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alex; Manríquez, René; Alvarez, Claudio; Gajardo, Cristina; Vásquez, Jorge; Kausel, Gudrun; Monrás, Mónica; Olavarría, Víctor H; Yáñez, Alejandro; Enríquez, Ricardo; Figueroa, Jaime

    2012-06-30

    Prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a strong candidate stimulator of pituitary PRL transcription and secretion in teleosts. However, the role in control of extrapituitary PRL expression or its effects on innate immunity are unclear even in mammals. To study the possible presence of PrRP in peripheral organs, PrRP expression patterns and their effect on innate immunity were characterised in SHK-1 cells and head kidney (HK) leukocytes purified from the salmonid, Salmo salar. We detected immunoreactive cells in leukocytes from blood and HK of S. salar and found that PrRP mRNA was abundantly expressed in these cells. We have recently reported that physiological concentrations of native PRL, downstream of neuropeptide PrRP were able to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HK leukocytes and macrophages from S. salar and Sparus aurata. It is of interest to note that in this work we have revealed that synthetic PrRP was able to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and PRL. We also show here that PrRP increased both (ROS) production and phagocytosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that PrRP may be a local modulator of innate immune responses in leukocytes from S. salar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes impairs the atrial natriuretic peptide relaxant action mediated by potassium channels and prostacyclin in the rabbit renal artery.

    PubMed

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Centeno, José M; Miranda, Ignacio; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Burguete, María C; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Salom, Juan B; Torregrosa, Germán; Miranda, Francisco J; Alborch, Enrique

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important role in cardiovascular pathophysiology and is claimed to have cardioprotective and renoprotective effect in diabetic patients. The working hypothesis was that alloxan-induced diabetes might modify the vascular effects of ANP in isolated rabbit renal arteries and the mechanisms involved in such actions. Plasma ANP levels were higher in diabetic rabbits than in control rabbits. ANP (10(-12)-10(-7)M) induced a relaxation of precontracted renal arteries, which was lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. In arteries from both groups of animals, endothelium removal decreased the ANP-induced relaxation but inhibition of NO-synthesis did not modify ANP-induced relaxations. In KCl-depolarised arteries, relaxation to ANP was almost abolished both in control and diabetic rabbits. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) partly inhibited the relaxation to ANP in control rabbits but did not modify it in diabetic rabbits. Glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine inhibited the relaxation to ANP, and these inhibitions were lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. Indomethacin potentiated the relaxation to ANP, more in control than in diabetic rabbits. In the presence of ANP the renal artery released thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin, and the release of prostacyclin resulted decreased in diabetic rabbits. The present results suggest that diabetes produces hyporeactivity of the rabbit renal artery to ANP by mechanisms that at least include the reduced modulation by prostacyclin and a lower participation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)), voltage-sensitive K(+) channels (K(V)) and TEA-sensitive K(+) channels (K(Ca)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peptide micelle-mediated delivery of tissue-specific suicide gene and combined therapy with avastin in a glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Binna; Han, Jaesik; Choi, Eunji; Tan, Xiaonan; Lee, Minhyung

    2015-04-01

    Bevacizumab (Avastin) is an angiogenesis inhibitor used as a treatment for various cancers. In this study, the combination therapy of Avastin and glioblastoma-specific thymidine kinase gene [pEpo-NI2-SV-herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase(HSVtk)] was evaluated in a glioblastoma animal model. The R7L10 peptide was used as a gene carrier of pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk. Gel retardation assays confirmed that R7L10 formed stable complexes with pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk. R7L10 protected DNA from nuclease digestion. R7L10 had lower transfection efficiency than polyethylenimine (PEI; 25 kDa). However, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays showed that R7L10 had lower cytotoxicity than PEI, suggesting that R7L10 is safer than PEI. For the combination therapy, Avastin was injected intravenously and the pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk/R7L10 complexes were injected intratumorally in the glioblastoma animal model. Tumor growth was most effectively inhibited by the combination therapy of Avastin and the gene. The immunostaining results confirmed that the HSVtk genes were expressed in the groups with the pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk/R7L10 complex. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed a higher level of apoptotic cells in the combination group than the pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk/R7L10 complex or Avastin group. In conclusion, the combination of Avastin and the glioblastoma-specific HSVtk gene has a higher antitumor effect than single therapy of Avastin or HSVtk after intratumoral administration in glioblastoma animal model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Amyloid-β peptide on sialyl-Lewis(X)-selectin-mediated membrane tether mechanics at the cerebral endothelial cell surface.

    PubMed

    Askarova, Sholpan; Sun, Zhe; Sun, Grace Y; Meininger, Gerald A; Lee, James C-M

    2013-01-01

    Increased deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) at the cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) surface has been implicated in enhancement of transmigration of monocytes across the brain blood barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy (QIM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with cantilevers biofunctionalized by sialyl-Lewis(x) (sLe(x)) were employed to investigate Aβ-altered mechanics of membrane tethers formed by bonding between sLe(x) and p-selectin at the CEC surface, the initial mechanical step governing the transmigration of monocytes. QIM results indicated the ability for Aβ to increase p-selectin expression at the cell surface and promote actin polymerization in both bEND3 cells (immortalized mouse CECs) and human primary CECs. AFM data also showed the ability for Aβ to increase cell stiffness and adhesion probability in bEND3 cells. On the contrary, Aβ lowered the overall force of membrane tether formation (Fmtf ), and produced a bimodal population of Fmtf , suggesting subcellular mechanical alterations in membrane tethering. The lower Fmtf population was similar to the results obtained from cells treated with an F-actin-disrupting drug, latrunculin A. Indeed, AFM results also showed that both Aβ and latrunculin A decreased membrane stiffness, suggesting a lower membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, a factor resulting in lower Fmtf . In addition, these cerebral endothelial alterations induced by Aβ were abrogated by lovastatin, consistent with its anti-inflammatory effects. In sum, these results demonstrated the ability for Aβ to enhance p-selectin expression at the CEC surface and induce cytoskeleton reorganization, which in turn, resulted in changes in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion and membrane tethering, mechanical factors important in transmigration of monocytes through the BBB.

  18. Amyloid-β Peptide on Sialyl-LewisX-Selectin-Mediated Membrane Tether Mechanics at the Cerebral Endothelial Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Askarova, Sholpan; Sun, Zhe; Sun, Grace Y.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Lee, James C-M.

    2013-01-01

    Increased deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) at the cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) surface has been implicated in enhancement of transmigration of monocytes across the brain blood barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy (QIM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with cantilevers biofunctionalized by sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) were employed to investigate Aβ-altered mechanics of membrane tethers formed by bonding between sLex and p-selectin at the CEC surface, the initial mechanical step governing the transmigration of monocytes. QIM results indicated the ability for Aβ to increase p-selectin expression at the cell surface and promote actin polymerization in both bEND3 cells (immortalized mouse CECs) and human primary CECs. AFM data also showed the ability for Aβ to increase cell stiffness and adhesion probability in bEND3 cells. On the contrary, Aβ lowered the overall force of membrane tether formation (Fmtf), and produced a bimodal population of Fmtf, suggesting subcellular mechanical alterations in membrane tethering. The lower Fmtf population was similar to the results obtained from cells treated with an F-actin-disrupting drug, latrunculin A. Indeed, AFM results also showed that both Aβ and latrunculin A decreased membrane stiffness, suggesting a lower membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, a factor resulting in lower Fmtf. In addition, these cerebral endothelial alterations induced by Aβ were abrogated by lovastatin, consistent with its anti-inflammatory effects. In sum, these results demonstrated the ability for Aβ to enhance p-selectin expression at the CEC surface and induce cytoskeleton reorganization, which in turn, resulted in changes in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion and membrane tethering, mechanical factors important in transmigration of monocytes through the BBB. PMID:23593361

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cellular Stress Response and Lipid Accumulation in Oleaginous Microorganisms: The State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kun; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Tian-Qiong; Song, Ping; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He; Ji, Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils, which are mainly extracted from yeasts, molds, and algae, have been of considerable interest as food additives and biofuel resources due to their high lipid content. While these oleaginous microorganisms generally produce only small amounts of lipids under optimal growth conditions, their lipid accumulation machinery can be induced by environmental stresses, such as nutrient limitation and an inhospitable physical environmental. As common second messengers of many stress factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a regulator of cellular responses to extracellular environmental signaling. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicates that ROS may act as a mediator of lipid accumulation, which is associated with dramatic changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. However, the specific mechanisms of ROS involvement in the crosstalk between extracellular stress signaling and intracellular lipid synthesis require further investigation. Here, we summarize current knowledge on stress-induced lipid biosynthesis and the putative role of ROS in the control of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Understanding such links may provide guidance for the development of stress-based strategies to enhance microbial lipid production. PMID:28507542

  20. Efficacious cellular codelivery of doxorubicin and EGFP siRNA mediated by the composition of PLGA and PEI protected gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Vulugundam, Gururaja; Jaiswal, Pradeep Kumar; Shyamlal, Bharti Rajesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Sandeep

    2017-09-15

    This study reports the simultaneous delivery of EGFP siRNA and the chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin by means of the composition that results from the electrostatic interaction between positively charged siRNA-complexes of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with PEI, 25kDa (P25-AuNPs) and negatively charged carboxymethyl cellulose formulated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin. The nanoparticles and their facile interaction were studied by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements. The flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analysis evidenced the simultaneous internalization of both labelled siRNA and doxorubin into around 55% of the HeLa cancer cell population. Fluorescence microscopic studies enabled the visual analysis of EGFP expressing HeLa cells which suggested that the composition mediated codelivery resulted in a substantial downregulation of EGFP expression and intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Interestingly, codelivery treatment resulted in an increased cellular delivery of doxorubicin when compared to PLGA-DOX alone treatment. On the other hand, the activity of siRNA complexes of PEI-AuNPs was completely retained even when they were part of composition. The results suggest that this formulation can serve as promising tool for delivery applications in combinatorial anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient blockade of Delta-like Notch ligands prevents allograft rejection mediated by cellular and humoral mechanisms in a mouse model of heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sherri; Feng, Jiane; Chung, Jooho; Radojcic, Vedran; Sandy, Ashley R.; Friedman, Ann; Shelton, Amy; Yan, Minhong; Siebel, Christian W.; Bishop, D. Keith; Maillard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Rejection remains a major clinical challenge limiting allograft survival after solid organ transplantation. Both cellular and humoral immunity contribute to this complication, with increased recognition of antibody-mediated damage during acute and chronic rejection. Using a mouse model of MHC-mismatched heart transplantation, we report markedly protective effects of Notch inhibition, dampening both T cell and antibody-driven rejection. T cell-specific pan-Notch blockade prolonged heart allograft survival and decreased IFNγ and IL-4 production by alloreactive T cells, especially when combined with depletion of recipient CD8+ T cells. These effects were associated with decreased infiltration by conventional T cells and an increased proportion of regulatory T cells in the graft. Transient administration of neutralizing antibodies specific for Delta-like1/4 (Dll1/4) Notch ligands in the peri-transplant period led to prolonged acceptance of allogeneic hearts, with superior outcome over Notch inhibition only in T cells. Systemic Dll1/4 inhibition decreased T cell cytokines and graft infiltration, but also germinal center B cell and plasmablast numbers as well as production of donor-specific alloantibodies and complement deposition in the transplanted hearts. Dll1 or Dll4 inhibition alone provided partial protection. Thus, pathogenic signals delivered by Dll1/4 Notch ligands early after transplantation promote organ rejection through several complementary mechanisms. Transient interruption of theses signals represents a new attractive therapeutic strategy to enhance long-term allograft survival. PMID:25687759

  2. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  3. Differential activation of natriuretic peptide receptors modulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during development

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jason R.; Chatterjee, Sneha; Robinson, Tamara Y.; Bennett, Jeffrey S.; Panáková, Daniela; Galindo, Cristi L.; Zhong, Lin; Shin, Jordan T.; Coy, Shannon M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Roden, Dan M.; Lim, Chee Chew; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Organ development is a highly regulated process involving the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of diverse cellular populations. The pathways regulating cell proliferation and their effects on organ growth are complex and for many organs incompletely understood. In all vertebrate species, the cardiac natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) are produced by cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. However, their role during cardiogenesis is not defined. Using the embryonic zebrafish and neonatal mammalian cardiomyocytes we explored the natriuretic peptide signaling network during myocardial development. We observed that the cardiac natriuretic peptides ANP and BNP and the guanylate cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors Npr1 and Npr2 are functionally redundant during early cardiovascular development. In addition, we demonstrate that low levels of the natriuretic peptides preferentially activate Npr3, a receptor with Gi activator sequences, and increase cardiomyocyte proliferation through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Conversely, high concentrations of natriuretic peptides reduce cardiomyocyte proliferation through activation of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors Npr1 and Npr2, and activation of protein kinase G. These data link the cardiac natriuretic peptides in a complex hierarchy modulating cardiomyocyte numbers during development through opposing effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation mediated through distinct cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways. PMID:24353062

  4. Recognition of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E Complexed with HLA Class I Signal Sequence–derived Peptides by CD94/NKG2 Confers Protection from Natural Killer Cell–mediated Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Francisco; Ulbrecht, Matthias; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Coligan, John E.; Brooks, Andrew G.

    1998-01-01

    Human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule, the gene for which is transcribed in most tissues. It has recently been reported that this molecule binds peptides derived from the signal sequence of HLA class I proteins; however, no function for HLA-E has yet been described. We show that natural killer (NK) cells can recognize target cells expressing HLA-E molecules on the cell surface and this interaction results in inhibition of the lytic process. Furthermore, HLA-E recognition is mediated primarily through the CD94/NKG2-A heterodimer, as CD94-specific, but not killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR)–specific mAbs block HLA-E–mediated protection of target cells. Cell surface HLA-E could be increased by incubation with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 3–11 from the signal sequences of a number of HLA class I molecules; however, only peptides which contained a Met at position 2 were capable of conferring resistance to NK-mediated lysis, whereas those having Thr at position 2 had no effect. Interestingly, HLA class I molecules previously correlated with CD94/NKG2 recognition all have Met at residue 4 of the signal sequence (position 2 of the HLA-E binding peptide), whereas those which have been reported not to interact with CD94/NKG2 have Thr at this position. Thus, these data show a function for HLA-E and suggest an alternative explanation for the apparent broad reactivity of CD94/NKG2 with HLA class I molecules; that CD94/NKG2 interacts with HLA-E complexed with signal sequence peptides derived from “protective” HLA class I alleles rather than directly interacting with classical HLA class I proteins. PMID:9480992

  5. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Mediates Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Amyloid β-Peptide and the Membrane Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sung-Chun; Lathia, Justin D.; Selvaraj, Pradeep K.; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cheng, Aiwu; Siler, Dominic A.; Markesbery, William R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Mattson, Mark. P.

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and tissue injury through Toll-like receptors (TLR), a mechanism thought to be limited to immune cells. We recently found that neurons express several TLRs, and that the levels of TLR2 and TLR4 are increased in neurons in response to energy deprivation. Here we report that TLR4 expression increases in neurons when exposed to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1-42) or the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Neuronal apoptosis triggered by Aβ and HNE was mediated by jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); neurons from TLR4 mutant mice exhibited reduced JNK and caspase-3 activation and were protected against apoptosis induced by Aβ and HNE. Levels of TLR4 were decreased in inferior parietal cortex tissue specimens from end-stage AD patients compared to aged-matched control subjects, possibly as the result of loss of neurons expressing TLR4. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling increases the vulnerability of neurons to Aβ and oxidative stress in AD, and identify TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for AD. PMID:18586243

  6. Intestinal absorption and activation of decitabine amino acid ester prodrugs mediated by peptide transporter PEPT1 and enterocyte enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenhui; Zhao, Dongyang; Sun, Mengchi; Wang, Ziyu; Lin, Bin; Bao, Yu; Li, Yingying; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Jin

    2018-04-25

    Decitabine (DAC), a potent DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, has a limited oral bioavailability. Its 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs could improve its oral delivery but the specific absorption mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this present study was to investigate the in vivo absorption and activation mechanism of these prodrugs using in situ intestinal perfusion and pharmacokinetics studies in rats. Although PEPT1 transporter is pH dependent, there appeared to be no proton cotransport in the perfusion experiment with a preferable transport at pH 7.4 rather than pH 6.5. This suggested that the transport was mostly dependent on the dissociated state of the prodrugs and the proton gradient might play only a limited role. In pH 7.4 HEPES buffer, an increase in P eff was observed for L-val-DAC, D-val-DAC, L-phe-DAC and L-trp-DAC (2.89-fold, 1.2-fold, 2.73-fold, and 1.90-fold, respectively), compared with the parent drug. When co-perfusing the prodrug with Glysar, a known substrate of PEPT1, the permeabilities of the prodrugs were significantly inhibited compared with the control. To further investigate the absorption of the prodrugs, L-val-DAC was selected and found to be concentration-dependent and saturable, suggesting a carrier-mediated process (intrinsic K m : 7.80 ± 2.61 mM) along with passive transport. Determination of drug in intestinal homogenate after perfusion further confirmed that the metabolic activation mainly involved an intestinal first-pass effect. In a pharmacokinetic evaluation, the oral bioavailability of L-val-DAC, L-phe-DAC and L-trp-DAC were nearly 1.74-fold, 1.69-fold and 1.49-fold greater than that of DAC. The differences in membrane permeability and oral bioavailability might be due to the different stability in the intestinal lumen and the distinct PEPT1 affinity which is mainly caused by the stereochemistry, hydrophobicity and steric hindrance of the side chains. In summary, the detailed investigation of the

  7. RAGE is a key cellular target for Aβ-induced perturbation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Chen, Doris; Yan, Shiqian; Guo, Lan; Chen, John Xi

    2013-01-01

    RAGE, a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, is an immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor that is often described as a pattern recognition receptor due to the structural heterogeneity of its ligand. RAGE is an important cellular cofactor for amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-mediated cellular perturbation relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The interaction of RAGE with Aβ in neurons, microglia, and vascular cells accelerates and amplifies deleterious effects on neuronal and synaptic function. RAGE-dependent signaling contributes to Aβ-mediated amyloid pathology and cognitive dysfunction observed in the AD mouse model. Blockade of RAGE significantly attenuates neuronal and synaptic injury. In this review, we summarize the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of AD, specifically in Aβ-induced cellular perturbation. PMID:22202057

  8. Synergistic gene and drug tumor therapy using a chimeric peptide.

    PubMed

    Han, Kai; Chen, Si; Chen, Wei-Hai; Lei, Qi; Liu, Yun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-06-01

    Co-delivery of gene and drug for synergistic therapy has provided a promising strategy to cure devastating diseases. Here, an amphiphilic chimeric peptide (Fmoc)2KH7-TAT with pH-responsibility for gene and drug delivery was designed and fabricated. As a drug carrier, the micelles self-assembled from the peptide exhibited a much faster doxorubicin (DOX) release rate at pH 5.0 than that at pH 7.4. As a non-viral gene vector, (Fmoc)(2)KH(7)-TAT peptide could satisfactorily mediate transfection of pGL-3 reporter plasmid with or without the existence of serum in both 293T and HeLa cell-lines. Besides, the endosome escape capability of peptide/DNA complexes was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). To evaluate the co-delivery efficiency and the synergistic anti-tumor effect of gene and drug, p53 plasmid and DOX were simultaneously loaded in the peptide micelles to form micelleplexes during the self-assembly of the peptide. Cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of gene and drug were studied by CLSM and flow cytometry respectively. And p53 protein expression was determined via Western blot analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor inhibition effect were also studied. Results suggest that the co-delivery of gene and drug from peptide micelles resulted in effective cell growth inhibition in vitro and significant tumor growth restraining in vivo. The chimeric peptide-based gene and drug co-delivery system will find great potential for tumor therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved methods of AAV-mediated gene targeting for human cell lines using ribosome-skipping 2A peptide

    PubMed Central

    Karnan, Sivasundaram; Ota, Akinobu; Konishi, Yuko; Wahiduzzaman, Md; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based targeting vector has been one of the tools commonly used for genome modification in human cell lines. It allows for relatively efficient gene targeting associated with 1–4-log higher ratios of homologous-to-random integration of targeting vectors (H/R ratios) than plasmid-based targeting vectors, without actively introducing DNA double-strand breaks. In this study, we sought to improve the efficiency of AAV-mediated gene targeting by introducing a 2A-based promoter-trap system into targeting constructs. We generated three distinct AAV-based targeting vectors carrying 2A for promoter trapping, each targeting a GFP-based reporter module incorporated into the genome, PIGA exon 6 or PIGA intron 5. The absolute gene targeting efficiencies and H/R ratios attained using these vectors were assessed in multiple human cell lines and compared with those attained using targeting vectors carrying internal ribosome entry site (IRES) for promoter trapping. We found that the use of 2A for promoter trapping increased absolute gene targeting efficiencies by 3.4–28-fold and H/R ratios by 2–5-fold compared to values obtained with IRES. In CRISPR-Cas9-assisted gene targeting using plasmid-based targeting vectors, the use of 2A did not enhance the H/R ratios but did upregulate the absolute gene targeting efficiencies compared to the use of IRES. PMID:26657635

  10. Calcitonin gene related family peptides: importance in normal placental and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Yallampalli, Chandra; Chauhan, Madhu; Endsley, Janice; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized molecular and cellular events occur between the uterus and the implanting embryo to facilitate successful pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, the molecular signaling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization, placentation and fetal growth are not well understood. The discovery of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptides (CT/CGRP) highlighted new signaling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that CGRP family peptides including CGRP, adrenomedulin and intermedin play regulatory functions during implantation, trophoblast proliferation and invasion, and fetal organogenesis. In addition, all the CGRP family peptides and their receptor components are found to be expressed in decidual, placental and fetal tissues. Additionally, plasma levels of peptides of the CGRP family were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce placental cellular differentiation, proliferation, and critical hormone signaling. Moreover, aberrant signaling of these CGRP family peptides during gestation has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the CGRP family peptides in these critical processes is explored and discussed.

  11. EGF-like peptide-enhanced cell motility in Dictyostelium functions independently of the cAMP-mediated pathway and requires active Ca2+/calmodulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-04-01

    Current knowledge suggests that cell movement in the eukaryotic slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is mediated by different signaling pathways involving a number of redundant components. Our previous research has identified a specific motility-enhancing function for epidermal growth factor-like (EGFL) repeats in Dictyostelium, specifically for the EGFL repeats of cyrA, a matricellular, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein in Dictyostelium. Using mutants of cAMP signaling (carA(-), carC(-), gpaB(-), gpbA(-)), the endogenous calcium (Ca(2+)) release inhibitor TMB-8, the CaM antagonist W-7, and a radial motility bioassay, we show that DdEGFL1, a synthetic peptide whose sequence is obtained from the first EGFL repeat of cyrA, functions independently of the cAMP-mediated signaling pathways to enhance cell motility through a mechanism involving Ca(2+) signaling, CaM, and RasG. We show that DdEGFL1 increases the amounts of polymeric myosin II heavy chain and actin in the cytoskeleton by 24.1±10.7% and 25.9±2.1% respectively and demonstrate a link between Ca(2+)/CaM signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, our findings suggest that carA and carC mediate a brake mechanism during chemotaxis since DdEGFL1 enhanced the movement of carA(-)/carC(-) cells by 844±136% compared to only 106±6% for parental DH1 cells. Based on our data, this signaling pathway also appears to involve the G-protein β subunit, RasC, RasGEFA, and protein kinase B. Together, our research provides insight into the functionality of EGFL repeats in Dictyostelium and the signaling pathways regulating cell movement in this model organism. It also identifies several mechanistic components of DdEGFL1-enhanced cell movement, which may ultimately provide a model system for understanding EGFL repeat function in higher organisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protection of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Caspase Substrate-Binding Peptide IQACRG from N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor-Mediated Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Masaaki; Soussou, Walid; Manabe, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated whether the enzymatically inactive caspase mimetic IQACRG protects rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from excitotoxic insults. Minimally invasive delivery of the peptide to the retina was explored, and the mechanisms of neuroprotection were elucidated. Methods. IQACRG was linked to penetratin (P-IQACRG) to facilitate cellular uptake. RGC labeling by biotinylated-P-IQACRG delivered via intravitreal or subconjunctival injection was demonstrated by avidin-biotin chemistry. The authors used histologic and electrophysiological measures to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of P-IQACRG against RGC death induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in vitro and in vivo. In addition, they monitored activity of an enzyme that is downstream of caspase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and protein levels of the caspase-3/7 substrate, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), to determine the effectiveness of IQACRG in blocking excessive caspase activity. Results. IQACRG significantly reduced NMDA-induced RGC death in culture and in vivo. Ex vivo electrophysiological recording of the retina on multielectrode arrays demonstrated functional rescue of RGCs by IQACRG. The authors also found that delivery of IQACRG to the retina inhibited NMDA-triggered MMP-9 activity and prevented cleavage of MEF2C protein that would otherwise have been engendered by caspase activation preceding RGC death. Strikingly, subconjunctival injection of P-IQACRG was very effective in preventing NMDA-induced RGC death in vivo. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that IQACRG protects RGCs from excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The positive results with subconjunctival administration of P-IQACRG suggest that in the future this treatment may be useful clinically in diseases such as glaucoma and retinal ischemia. PMID:19815732

  13. Oxysterols decrease apical-to-basolateral transport of Aß peptides via an ABCB1-mediated process in an in vitro Blood-brain barrier model constituted of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pol, Julien; Candela, Pietra; Boucau, Marie-Christine; Fenart, Laurence; Gosselet, Fabien

    2013-06-23

    It is known that activation of the liver X receptors (LXRs) by natural or synthetic agonists decreases the amyloid burden and enhances cognitive function in transgenic murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that LXR activation may affect the transport of amyloid ß (Aß) peptides across the blood-brain barrier (the BBB, which isolates the brain from the peripheral circulation). By using a well-characterized in vitro BBB model, we demonstrated that LXR agonists (24S-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and T0901317) modulated the expression of target genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis (such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1)) and promoted cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoproteins. Interestingly, we also observed a decrease in Aß peptide influx across brain capillary endothelial cells, although ABCA1 did not appear to be directly involved in this process. By focusing on others receptors and transporters that are thought to have major roles in Aß peptide entry into the brain, we then demonstrated that LXR stimulation provoked an increase in expression of the ABCB1 transporter (also named P-glycoprotein (P-gp)). Further investigations confirmed ABCB1's involvement in the restriction of Aß peptide influx. Taken as a whole, our results not only reinforce the BBB's key role in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis but also demonstrate the importance of the LXR/ABCB1 axis in Aß peptide influx-highlighting an attractive new therapeutic approach whereby the brain could be protected from peripheral Aß peptide entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Entry mechanisms of herpes simplex virus 1 into murine epidermis: involvement of nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator as cellular receptors.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Philipp; Thier, Katharina; Rahn, Elena; Rixon, Frazer J; Bloch, Wilhelm; Özcelik, Semra; Krummenacher, Claude; Barron, Martin J; Dixon, Michael J; Scheu, Stefanie; Pfeffer, Klaus; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Skin keratinocytes represent a primary entry site for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in vivo. The cellular proteins nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) act as efficient receptors for both serotypes of HSV and are sufficient for disease development mediated by HSV-2 in mice. How HSV-1 enters skin and whether both nectin-1 and HVEM are involved are not known. We addressed the impact of nectin-1 during entry of HSV-1 into murine epidermis and investigated the putative contribution of HVEM. Using ex vivo infection of murine epidermis, we showed that HSV-1 entered the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis very efficiently. In nectin-1-deficient epidermis, entry was strongly reduced. Almost no entry was observed, however, in nectin-1-deficient keratinocytes grown in culture. This observation correlated with the presence of HVEM on the keratinocyte surface in epidermis and with the lack of HVEM expression in nectin-1-deficient primary keratinocytes. Our results suggest that nectin-1 is the primary receptor in epidermis, while HVEM has a more limited role. For primary murine keratinocytes, on which nectin-1 acts as a single receptor, electron microscopy suggested that HSV-1 can enter both by direct fusion with the plasma membrane and via endocytic vesicles. Thus, we concluded that nectin-1 directs internalization into keratinocytes via alternative pathways. In summary, HSV-1 entry into epidermis was shown to strongly depend on the presence of nectin-1, but the restricted presence of HVEM can potentially replace nectin-1 as a receptor, illustrating the flexibility employed by HSV-1 to efficiently invade tissue in vivo. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause a range of diseases in humans, from uncomplicated mucocutaneous lesions to life-threatening infections. The skin is one target tissue of HSV, and the question of how the virus overcomes the protective skin barrier and penetrates into the tissue to reach its receptors is still open. Previous studies analyzing

  15. Hyperthermia enhances mapatumumab-induced apoptotic death through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular FLIP(long) in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, X; Kim, S-Y; Zhou, Z; Lagasse, E; Kwon, Y T; Lee, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIPL), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIPL in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIPL protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIPL was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIPL. These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIPL ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIPL lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIPL by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases. PMID:23559011

  16. Hyperthermia enhances mapatumumab-induced apoptotic death through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular FLIP(long) in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, X; Kim, S-Y; Zhou, Z; Lagasse, E; Kwon, Y T; Lee, Y J

    2013-04-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIP(L)), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIP(L) in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIP(L) protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIP(L) was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIP(L). These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIP(L) ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIP(L) lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIP(L) by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases.

  17. Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cavin, C; Marin-Kuan, M; Langouët, S; Bezençon, C; Guignard, G; Verguet, C; Piguet, D; Holzhäuser, D; Cornaz, R; Schilter, B

    2008-04-01

    Coffee consumption has been associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing chronic diseases such as Parkinson disease, diabetes type-2 and several types of cancers (e.g. colon, liver). In the present study, a coffee-dependent induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes was observed in rat liver and primary hepatocytes. In addition, coffee was found to induce the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defenses. These inductions were correlated with the activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor as shown using an ARE-reporter luciferase assay. The induction of detoxifying enzymes GSTs and AKR is compatible with a protection against both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This hypothesis was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo test systems, where coffee reduced both AFB1-DNA and protein adducts. Interestingly, coffee was also found to inhibit cytochrome CYP1A1/2, indicating that other mechanisms different from a stimulation of detoxification may also play a significant role in the chemoprotective effects of coffee. Further investigations in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes indicated that the chemoprotective effects of coffee against AFB1 genotoxicity are likely to be of relevance for humans. These data strongly suggest that coffee may protect against the adverse effects of AFB1. In addition, the coffee-mediated stimulation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulting in increased endogenous defense mechanisms against electrophilic but also oxidative insults further support that coffee may be associated with a protection against various types of chemical stresses.

  18. Cellular Response to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells is Dependent on Endocytosis-Associated Structures and Mediated by EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Kristin; Schrader, Katrin; Klempt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most applied nanomaterials and widely used in food and non-food industries as an additive or coating material (E171). It has been shown that E171 contains up to 37% particles which are smaller than 100 nm and that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induce cytotoxicity and inflammation. Using a nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) reporter cell line (Caco-2nfkb-RE), Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inhibition of dynamin and clathrin, it was shown that cellular responses induced by 5 nm and 10 nm TiO2 NPs (nominal size) depends on endocytic processes. As endocytosis is often dependent on the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), further investigations focused on the involvement of EGFR in the uptake of TiO2 NPs: (1) inhibition of EGFR reduced inflammatory markers of the cell (i.e., nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, mRNA of IL8, CCL20, and CXCL10); and (2) exposure of Caco-2 cells to TiO2 NPs activated the intracellular EGFR cascade beginning with EGFR-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and including transcription factor ELK1. This was followed by the expression of ERK1/2 target genes CCL2 and CXCL3. We concluded that TiO2 NPs enter the cell via EGFR-associated endocytosis, followed by activation of the EGFR/ERK/ELK signaling pathway, which finally induces NF-κB. No changes in inflammatory response are observed in Caco-2 cells exposed to 32 nm and 490 nm TiO2 particles. PMID:28387727

  19. Cellular corepressor TLE2 inhibits replication-and-transcription- activator-mediated transactivation and lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiheng; Liu, Yunhua; Liang, Deguang; Wang, Zhuo; Robertson, Erle S; Lan, Ke

    2010-02-01

    Replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is essential and sufficient to initiate lytic reactivation. RTA activates its target genes through direct binding with high affinity to its responsive elements or by interaction with cellular factors, such as RBP-Jkappa, Ap-1, C/EBP-alpha, and Oct-1. In this study, we identified transducin-like enhancer of split 2 (TLE2) as a novel RTA binding protein by using yeast two-hybrid screening of a human spleen cDNA library. The interaction between TLE2 and RTA was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) binding and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that TLE2 and RTA were colocalized in the same nuclear compartment in KSHV-infected cells. This interaction recruited TLE2 to RTA bound to its recognition sites on DNA and repressed RTA auto-activation and transactivation activity. Moreover, TLE2 also inhibited the induction of lytic replication and virion production driven by RTA. We further showed that the Q (Gln-rich), SP (Ser-Pro-rich), and WDR (Trp-Asp repeat) domains of TLE2 and the Pro-rich domain of RTA were essential for this interaction. RBP-Jkappa has been shown previously to bind to the same Pro-rich domain of RTA, and this binding can be subject to competition by TLE2. In addition, TLE2 can form a complex with RTA to access the cognate DNA sequence of the RTA-responsive element at different promoters. Intriguingly, the transcription level of TLE2 could be upregulated by RTA during the lytic reactivation process. In conclusion, we identified a new RTA binding protein, TLE2, and demonstrated that TLE2 inhibited replication and transactivation mediated by RTA. This provides another potentially important mechanism for maintenance of KSHV viral latency through interaction with a host protein.

  20. Immunization with Clinical HIV-1 Env Proteins Induces Broad Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in a Rabbit Vaccination Model.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2017-11-17

    The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient antibody response, rabbits were immunized with selected antigens using different prime-boost strategies. We immunized 35 different groups of rabbits with Env antigens from clinical HIV-1 subtypes A and B, including immunization with DNA alone, protein alone, and DNA prime with protein boost. The rabbit sera were screened for ADCC activity using a GranToxiLux-based assay with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells and CEM.NKR CCR5 cells coated with HIV-1 envelope as target cells. The groups with the highest ADCC activity were further characterized for cross-reactivity between HIV-1 subtypes. The immunogen inducing the most potent and broadest ADCC response was a trimeric gp140. The ADCC activity was highest against the HIV-1 subtype corresponding to the immunogen. The ADCC activity did not necessarily reflect neutralizing activity in the pseudovirus-TZMbl assay, but there was an overall correlation between the two antiviral activities. We present a rabbit vaccination model and an assay suitable for screening HIV-1 vaccine candidates for the induction of ADCC-mediating antibodies in addition to neutralizing antibodies. The antigens and/or immunization strategies capable of inducing antibodies with ADCC activity did not necessarily induce neutralizing activity and vice versa. Nevertheless, we identified vaccine candidates that were able to concurrently induce both types of responses and that had ADCC activity that was cross-reactive between different subtypes. When searching for an effective vaccine candidate, it is important to evaluate the antibody response using a model and an assay measuring the desired function.

  1. Cellular Response to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells is Dependent on Endocytosis-Associated Structures and Mediated by EGFR.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Kristin; Schrader, Katrin; Klempt, Martin

    2017-04-07

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is one of the most applied nanomaterials and widely used in food and non-food industries as an additive or coating material (E171). It has been shown that E171 contains up to 37% particles which are smaller than 100 nm and that TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) induce cytotoxicity and inflammation. Using a nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) reporter cell line (Caco-2 nfkb-RE ), Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inhibition of dynamin and clathrin, it was shown that cellular responses induced by 5 nm and 10 nm TiO₂ NPs (nominal size) depends on endocytic processes. As endocytosis is often dependent on the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), further investigations focused on the involvement of EGFR in the uptake of TiO₂ NPs: (1) inhibition of EGFR reduced inflammatory markers of the cell (i.e., nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, mRNA of IL8, CCL20, and CXCL10); and (2) exposure of Caco-2 cells to TiO₂ NPs activated the intracellular EGFR cascade beginning with EGFR-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and including transcription factor ELK1. This was followed by the expression of ERK1/2 target genes CCL2 and CXCL3. We concluded that TiO₂ NPs enter the cell via EGFR-associated endocytosis, followed by activation of the EGFR/ERK/ELK signaling pathway, which finally induces NF-κB. No changes in inflammatory response are observed in Caco-2 cells exposed to 32 nm and 490 nm TiO₂ particles.

  2. A Peptide Filtering Relation Quantifies MHC Class I Peptide Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Leonard D.; Howarth, Mark; Cardelli, Luca; Emmott, Stephen; Elliott, Tim; Werner, Joern M.

    2011-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules enable cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells, thereby preventing disease progression. MHC class I molecules provide a snapshot of the contents of a cell by binding to protein fragments arising from intracellular protein turnover and presenting these fragments at the cell surface. Competing fragments (peptides) are selected for cell-surface presentation on the basis of their ability to form a stable complex with MHC class I, by a process known as peptide optimization. A better understanding of the optimization process is important for our understanding of immunodominance, the predominance of some T lymphocyte specificities over others, which can determine the efficacy of an immune response, the danger of immune evasion, and the success of vaccination strategies. In this paper we present a dynamical systems model of peptide optimization by MHC class I. We incorporate the chaperone molecule tapasin, which has been shown to enhance peptide optimization to different extents for different MHC class I alleles. Using a combination of published and novel experimental data to parameterize the model, we arrive at a relation of peptide filtering, which quantifies peptide optimization as a function of peptide supply and peptide unbinding rates. From this relation, we find that tapasin enhances peptide unbinding to improve peptide optimization without significantly delaying the transit of MHC to the cell surface, and differences in peptide optimization across MHC class I alleles can be explained by allele-specific differences in peptide binding. Importantly, our filtering relation may be used to dynamically predict the cell surface abundance of any number of competing peptides by MHC class I alleles, providing a quantitative basis to investigate viral infection or disease at the cellular level. We exemplify this by simulating optimization of the distribution of peptides derived from Human

  3. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin,more » respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong

  4. Gαs regulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-mediated cyclic AMP generation at Rab5 endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Bele, Shilpak; Zhu, Zhimeng; Chakravarthi, N R; DiMarchi, Richard D; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2017-10-01

    Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined. Cyclic AMP generation from internalized Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) has previously been reported from our laboratory. This study aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanism by which internalized GLP-R supports sustained cyclic AMP generation upon receptor activation in pancreatic beta cells. We studied the time course of cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation with particular emphasis on defining the location where cyclic AMP is generated. Detection involved a novel GLP-1 conjugate coupled with immunofluorescence using specific endosomal markers. Finally, we employed co-immunoprecipitation as well as immunofluorescence to assess the protein-protein interactions that regulate GLP-1R mediated cyclic AMP generation at endosomes. Our data reveal that prolonged association of G protein α subunit Gαs with activated GLP-1R contributed to sustained cyclic AMP generation at Rab 5 endosomal compartment. The findings provide the mechanism of endosomal cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation. We identified the specific compartment that serves as an organizing center to generate endosomal cyclic AMP by internalized activated receptor complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitive and specific detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation-phage assay.

    PubMed

    Foddai, A C G; Grant, I R

    2017-05-01

    To validate an optimized peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay for detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk. Inclusivity, specificity and limit of detection 50% (LOD 50 ) of the optimized PMS-phage assay were assessed. Plaques were obtained for all 43 MAP strains tested. Of 12 other Mycobacterium sp. tested, only Mycobacterium bovis BCG produced small numbers of plaques. LOD 50 of the PMS-phage assay was 0·93 MAP cells per 50 ml milk, which was better than both PMS-qPCR and PMS-culture. When individual milks (n = 146) and bulk tank milk (BTM, n = 22) obtained from Johne's affected herds were tested by the PMS-phage assay, viable MAP were detected in 31 (21·2%) of 146 individual milks and 13 (59·1%) of 22 BTM, with MAP numbers detected ranging from 6-948 plaque-forming-units per 50 ml milk. PMS-qPCR and PMS-MGIT culture proved to be less sensitive tests than the PMS-phage assay. The optimized PMS-phage assay is the most sensitive and specific method available for the detection of viable MAP in milk. Further work is needed to streamline the PMS-phage assay, because the assay's multistep format currently makes it unsuitable for adoption by the dairy industry as a screening test. The inclusivity (ability to detect all MAP strains), specificity (ability to detect only MAP) and detection sensitivity (ability to detect low numbers of MAP) of the optimized PMS-phage assay have been comprehensively demonstrated for the first time. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Rationally designed chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFa-[D-Ala2,p-Cl-Phe4]YFa induce multiple opioid receptors mediated antinociception and up-regulate their expression.

    PubMed

    Vats, Ishwar Dutt; Chaudhary, Snehlata; Sharma, Ahuti; Nath, Mahendra; Pasha, Santosh

    2010-07-25

    The physiological role of NPFF/FMRFa family of peptides appears to be complex and exact mechanism of action of these peptides is not yet completely understood. In same line of scrutiny, another analog of YGGFMKKKFMRFamide (YFa), a chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFamide, was rationally designed and synthesized which contain D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at 2nd and 4th positions, respectively i.e., Y-(D-Ala)-G-(p-Cl-Phe)-MKKKFMRFamide ([D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa) in order to achieve improved bioavailability and blood brain barrier penetration. Therefore, present study investigates the possible antinociceptive effect of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa on intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration using tail-flick test in rats followed by its opioid receptor(s) specificity using mu, delta and kappa receptor antagonists. Further, its antinociceptive effect was examined during 6 days of chronic i.p. treatment and assessed effect of this treatment on differential expression of opioid receptors. [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa in comparison to parent peptide YFa, induce significantly higher dose dependent antinociception in rats which was mediated by all three opioid receptors (mu, delta and kappa). Importantly, it induced comparable antinociception in rats throughout the chronic i.p. treatment and significantly up-regulated the overall expression (mRNA and protein) of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. Therefore, pharmacological and molecular behavior of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa demonstrate that incorporation of D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at appropriate positions in chimeric peptide leads to altered opioid receptor selectivity and enhanced antinociceptive potency, relative to parent peptide. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and identification of a plasmatocyte-spreading peptide from the hemolymph of the lepidopteran insect Pseudoplusia includens.

    PubMed

    Clark, K D; Pech, L L; Strand, M R

    1997-09-12

    Insect blood cells (hemocytes) play an essential role in defense against parasites and other pathogenic organisms that infect insects. A key class of hemocytes involved in insect cellular immunity is plasmatocytes. Here we describe the isolation and identification of a peptide from the moth Pseudoplusia includens that mediates the spreading of plasmatocytes to foreign surfaces. This peptide, designated plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP1), contains 23 amino acid residues in the following sequence: H-ENFNGGCLAGYMRTADGRCKPTF-OH. In vitro assays using the synthetic peptide at concentrations >/=2 nM induced plasmatocytes from P. includens to spread on the surface of culture dishes. Injection of this peptide into P. includens larvae caused a transient depletion of plasmatocytes from circulation. Labeling studies indicated that this peptide induced 75% of plasmatocytes that were double-labeled by the monoclonal antibodies 49G3A3 and 43E9A8 to spread, whereas plasma induced significantly more plasmatocytes to spread. This suggests that only a certain subpopulation of plasmatocytes responds to the peptide and that other peptidyl factors mediate plasmatocyte adhesion responses.

  8. Immobilization of Cell-Adhesive Laminin Peptides in Degradable PEGDA Hydrogels Influences Endothelial Cell Tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saniya; Saik, Jennifer E.; Gould, Dan J.; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Attachment, spreading, and organization of endothelial cells into tubule networks are mediated by interactions between cells in the extracellular microenvironment. Laminins are key extracellular matrix components and regulators of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. In this study, laminin-derived peptides were conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) monoacrylate and covalently incorporated into degradable PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels to investigate the influence of these peptides on endothelial cellular adhesion and function in organizing into tubule networks. Degradable PEGDA hydrogels were synthesized by incorporating a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)–sensitive peptide, GGGPQGIWGQGK (abbreviated PQ), into the polymer backbone. The secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by endothelial cells promotes polymer degradation and consequently cell migration. We demonstrate the formation of extensive networks of tubule-like structures by encapsulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in hydrogels with immobilized synthetic peptides. The resulting structures were stabilized by pericyte precursor cells (10T1/2s) in vitro. During tubule formation and stabilization, extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen IV and laminin were deposited. Tubules formed in the matrix of metalloproteinase sensitive hydrogels were visualized from 7 days to 4 weeks in response to different combination of peptides. Moreover, hydrogels functionalized with laminin peptides and transplanted in a mouse cornea supported the ingrowth and attachment of endothelial cells to the hydrogel during angiogenesis. Results of this study illustrate the use of laminin-derived peptides as potential candidates for modification of biomaterials to support angiogenesis. PMID:23914330

  9. Elucidation of the binding preferences of peptide recognition modules: SH3 and PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Teyra, Joan; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Kim, Philip M

    2012-08-14

    Peptide-binding domains play a critical role in regulation of cellular processes by mediating protein interactions involved in signalling. In recent years, the development of large-scale technologies has enabled exhaustive studies on the peptide recognition preferences for a number of peptide-binding domain families. These efforts have provided significant insights into the binding specificities of these modular domains. Many research groups have taken advantage of this unprecedented volume of specificity data and have developed a variety of new algorithms for the prediction of binding specificities of peptide-binding domains and for the prediction of their natural binding targets. This knowledge has also been applied to the design of synthetic peptide-binding domains in order to rewire protein-protein interaction networks. Here, we describe how these experimental technologies have impacted on our understanding of peptide-binding domain specificities and on the elucidation of their natural ligands. We discuss SH3 and PDZ domains as well characterized examples, and we explore the feasibility of expanding high-throughput experiments to other peptide-binding domains. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  11. Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowitz, Howard

    1991-08-01

    Cellular automata, dynamic systems in which space and time are discrete, are yielding interesting applications in both the physical and natural sciences. The thirty four contributions in this book cover many aspects of contemporary studies on cellular automata and include reviews, research reports, and guides to recent literature and available software. Chapters cover mathematical analysis, the structure of the space of cellular automata, learning rules with specified properties: cellular automata in biology, physics, chemistry, and computation theory; and generalizations of cellular automata in neural nets, Boolean nets, and coupled map lattices. Current work on cellular automata may be viewed as revolving around two central and closely related problems: the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem concerns the description of properties of given cellular automata. Properties considered include reversibility, invariants, criticality, fractal dimension, and computational power. The role of cellular automata in computation theory is seen as a particularly exciting venue for exploring parallel computers as theoretical and practical tools in mathematical physics. The inverse problem, an area of study gaining prominence particularly in the natural sciences, involves designing rules that possess specified properties or perform specified task. A long-term goal is to develop a set of techniques that can find a rule or set of rules that can reproduce quantitative observations of a physical system. Studies of the inverse problem take up the organization and structure of the set of automata, in particular the parameterization of the space of cellular automata. Optimization and learning techniques, like the genetic algorithm and adaptive stochastic cellular automata are applied to find cellular automaton rules that model such physical phenomena as crystal growth or perform such adaptive-learning tasks as balancing an inverted pole. Howard Gutowitz is

  12. Preliminary study on the inhibition of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by conjugation with a receptor-specific peptide and fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Liang, Kexiang; Ye, Yunpeng; Tetteh, Elizabeth; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that basic Tat peptide (48-57) internalized non-specifically in cells and localized in the nucleus. However, localization of imaging agents in cellular nucleus is not desirable because of the potential mutagenesis. When conjugated to the peptides that undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis, Tat peptide could target specific cells or pathologic tissue. We tested this hypothesis by incorporating a somatostatin receptor-avid peptide (octreotate, Oct) and two different fluorescent dyes, Cypate 2 (Cy2) and fluorescein 5'-carboxlic acid (5-FAM), into the Tat-peptide sequence. In addition to the Cy2 or 5-FAM-labeled Oct conjugated to Tat peptide (Tat) to produce Tat-Oct-Cypate2 or Tat-Oct-5-FAM, we also labeled the Tat the Tat peptide with these dyes (Tat-Cy2 and Tat-5-FAM) to serve as positive control. A somatostatin receptor-positive pancreatic tumor cell line, AR42J, was used to assess cell internalization. The results show that Tat-5-FAM and Tat-Cypate2 localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. In contrast to Tat-Oct-Cypate2, which localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, Tat-Oct-5-FAM internalized in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus of AR42J cells. The internalizations were inhibited by adding non-labeled corresponding peptides, suggesting that the endocytoses of each group of labeled and the corresponding unlabeled compounds occurred through a common pathway. Thus, fluorescent probes and endocytosis complex between octreotate and somatostatin receptors in cytoplasm could control nuclear internalization of Tat peptides.

  13. PDZ1 inhibitor peptide protects neurons against ischemia via inhibiting GluK2-PSD-95-module-mediated Fas signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Yang, Guo; Chen, Li; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xi-Ping; Wu, Shi-Liang; Hou, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, GuangYi

    2016-04-15

    Respecting the selective inhibition of peptides on protein-protein interactions, they might become potent methods in ischemic stroke therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide on ischemic neuron apoptosis and the relative mechanism. Results showed that PDZ1 inhibitor peptide, which significantly disrupted GluK2-PSD-95 interaction, efficiently protected neuron from ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Further, PDZ1 inhibited FasL expression, DISC assembly and activation of Caspase 8, Bid, Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 after global brain ischemia. Based on our previous report that GluK2-PSD-95 pathway increased FasL expression after global brain ischemia, the neuron protection effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide was considered to be achieved by disrupting GluK2-PSD-95 interaction and subsequently inhibiting FasL expression and Fas apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Active peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin diminish angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and intracellular free radical-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-15

    Skin gelatin of skate (Okamejei kenojei) was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, flavourzyme, Neutrase and protamex. It was found that the Alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Then, Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed with protease and separated by an ultrafiltration membrane system. Finally, two peptides responsible for ACE inhibitory activity were identified to be MVGSAPGVL (829Da) and LGPLGHQ (720Da), with IC50 values of 3.09 and 4.22μM, respectively. Moreover, the free radical-scavenging activity of the purified peptides was determined in human endothelial cells. In addition, the antioxidative mechanism of the purified peptides was evaluated by protein and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes. The current study demonstrated that the peptides derived from skate skin gelatin could be used in the food industry as functional ingredients with potent antihypertensive and antioxidant benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High colloidal stability of gold nanorods coated with a peptide-ethylene glycol: Analysis by cyanide-mediated etching and nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Free, Paul; Conger, Gao; Siji, Wu; Zhang, Jing Bo; Fernig, David G

    2016-10-01

    The stability of gold nanorods was assessed following coating with various charged or uncharged ligands, mostly peptides. Highly stable monodispersed gold nanorods were obtained by coating CTAB-stabilized gold nanorods with a pentapeptide with C-terminal ethylene glycol units (peptide-EG). UV-vis spectroscopy of these nanorods suspended in saline solutions indicated no signs of aggregation, and they were easily purified using size-exclusion chromatography. A more stringent measure of nanorod stability involved observing changes in the UV-vis absorbance of gold nanorods subjected to etching with cyanide. The λmax absorbance of peptide-EG coated nanorods red-shifted in etchant solution. The hypothesis that changes in the nanorod aspect ratio led to this red-shift was confirmed by TEM analysis, which showed pit formation along the transverse axis. The etching process was followed in solution using nanoparticle tracking analysis. The red-shift was shown to occur while the particles remained mono-dispersed, and so was not due to aggregation. Adding both etchant solution and peptide-EG to the nanorods was further shown to allow modulation of the Δλmax red-shift and increase the etchant resistance of peptide-EG nanorods. Thus, very stable gold nanorods can be produced using the peptide-EG coating approach and their optical properties modulated with etchant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Jeffrey M.; Ripoll, Daniel R.; Spik, Kristin W.; Taylor, Shannon L.; Badger, Catherine V.; Grant, Rebecca J.; Ogg, Monica M.; Wallqvist, Anders; Guttieri, Mary C.; Garry, Robert F.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein) mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors. PMID:24069485

  17. RNA-Binding Protein FXR1 Regulates p21 and TERC RNA to Bypass p53-Mediated Cellular Senescence in OSCC

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Mrinmoyee; House, Reniqua; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Qie, Shuo; Day, Terrence A.; Neskey, David; Diehl, J. Alan

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) regulate numerous aspects of co- and post-transcriptional gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that RBP, fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), plays an essential role in cellular senescence by utilizing mRNA turnover pathway. We report that overexpressed FXR1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma targets (G-quadruplex (G4) RNA structure within) both mRNA encoding p21 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, Cip1) and the non-coding RNA Telomerase RNA Component (TERC), and regulates their turnover to avoid senescence. Silencing of FXR1 in cancer cells triggers the activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, p53, increases DNA damage, and ultimately, cellular senescence. Overexpressed FXR1 binds and destabilizes p21 mRNA, subsequently reduces p21 protein expression in oral cancer cells. In addition, FXR1 also binds and stabilizes TERC RNA and suppresses the cellular senescence possibly through telomerase activity. Finally, we report that FXR1-regulated senescence is irreversible and FXR1-depleted cells fail to form colonies to re-enter cellular proliferation. Collectively, FXR1 displays a novel mechanism of controlling the expression of p21 through p53-dependent manner to bypass cellular senescence in oral cancer cells. PMID:27606879

  18. Template-constrained macrocyclic peptides prepared from native, unprotected precursors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Kenneth V.; Rose, Tristan E.; Harran, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide–protein interactions are important mediators of cellular-signaling events. Consensus binding motifs (also known as short linear motifs) within these contacts underpin molecular recognition, yet have poor pharmacological properties as discrete species. Here, we present methods to transform intact peptides into stable, templated macrocycles. Two simple steps install the template. The key reaction is a palladium-catalyzed macrocyclization. The catalysis has broad scope and efficiently forms large rings by engaging native peptide functionality including phenols, imidazoles, amines, and carboxylic acids without the necessity of protecting groups. The tunable reactivity of the template gives the process special utility. Defined changes in reaction conditions markedly alter chemoselectivity. In all cases examined, cyclization occurs rapidly and in high yield at room temperature, regardless of peptide composition or chain length. We show that conformational restraints imparted by the template stabilize secondary structure and enhance proteolytic stability in vitro. Palladium-catalyzed internal cinnamylation is a strong complement to existing methods for peptide modification. PMID:24043790

  19. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-Aminobenzoic Acid as New MALDI Matrices Inducing Radical Mediated In-Source Decay of Peptides and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; de Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  20. 2-Aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as new MALDI matrices inducing radical mediated in-source decay of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    One of the mechanisms leading to MALDI in-source decay (MALDI ISD) is the transfer of hydrogen radicals to analytes upon laser irradiation. Analytes such as peptides or proteins may undergo ISD and this method can therefore be exploited for top-down sequencing. When performed on peptides, radical-induced ISD results in production of c- and z-ions, as also found in ETD and ECD activation. Here, we describe two new compounds which, when used as MALDI matrices, are able to efficiently induce ISD of peptides and proteins: 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid. In-source reduction of the disulfide bridge containing peptide Calcitonin further confirmed the radicalar mechanism of the ISD process. ISD of peptides led, in addition to c- and z-ions, to the generation of a-, x-, and y-ions both in positive and in negative ion modes. Finally, good sequence coverage was obtained for the sequencing of myoglobin (17 kDa protein), confirming the effectiveness of both 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid as MALDI ISD matrices.

  1. An Internal Signal Sequence Directs Intramembrane Proteolysis of a Cellular Immunoglobulin Domain Protein*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Thalia; Bak, Beata; Lin, Shu-huei; Bernard, Daniel J.; Scheiffele, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Precursor proteolysis is a crucial mechanism for regulating protein structure and function. Signal peptidase (SP) is an enzyme with a well defined role in cleaving N-terminal signal sequences but no demonstrated function in the proteolysis of cellular precursor proteins. We provide evidence that SP mediates intraprotein cleavage of IgSF1, a large cellular Ig domain protein that is processed into two separate Ig domain proteins. In addition, our results suggest the involvement of signal peptide peptidase (SPP), an intramembrane protease, which acts on substrates that have been previously cleaved by SP. We show that IgSF1 is processed through sequential proteolysis by SP and SPP. Cleavage is directed by an internal signal sequence and generates two separate Ig domain proteins from a polytopic precursor. Our findings suggest that SP and SPP function are not restricted to N-terminal signal sequence cleavage but also contribute to the processing of cellular transmembrane proteins. PMID:18981173

  2. Designer interface peptide grafts target estrogen receptor alpha dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Asare, B.K.; Biswas, P.K., E-mail: pbiswas@tougaloo.edu

    The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), triggered by its cognate ligand estrogen, regulates a variety of cellular signaling events. ERα is expressed in 70% of breast cancers and is a widely validated target for anti-breast cancer drug discovery. Administration of anti-estrogen to block estrogen receptor activation is still a viable anti-breast cancer treatment option but anti-estrogen resistance has been a significant bottle-neck. Dimerization of estrogen receptor is required for ER activation. Blocking ERα dimerization is therefore a complementary and alternative strategy to combat anti-estrogen resistance. Dimer interface peptide “I-box” derived from ER residues 503–518 specifically blocks ER dimerization.more » Recently using a comprehensive molecular simulation we studied the interaction dynamics of ERα LBDs in a homo-dimer. Based on this study, we identified three interface recognition peptide motifs LDKITDT (ERα residues 479–485), LQQQHQRLAQ (residues 497–506), and LSHIRHMSNK (residues 511–520) and reported the suitability of using LQQQHQRLAQ (ER 497–506) as a template to design inhibitors of ERα dimerization. Stability and self-aggregation of peptide based therapeutics poses a significant bottle-neck to proceed further. In this study utilizing peptide grafted to preserve their pharmacophoric recognition motif and assessed their stability and potential to block ERα mediated activity in silico and in vitro. The Grafted peptides blocked ERα mediated cell proliferation and viability of breast cancer cells but did not alter their apoptotic fate. We believe the structural clues identified in this study can be used to identify novel peptidometics and small molecules that specifically target ER dimer interface generating a new breed of anti-cancer agents. - Highlights: • Designer peptide grafts retain core molecular recognition motif during MD simulations. • Designer peptide grafts with Poly-ALA helix form stable

  3. Identification of tissue-specific targeting peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Daejin; Park, Kisoo; Choi, Kihang; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Using phage display technique, we identified tissue-targeting peptide sets that recognize specific tissues (bone-marrow dendritic cell, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and visceral adipose tissue). In order to rapidly evaluate tissue-specific targeting peptides, we performed machine learning studies for predicting the tissue-specific targeting activity of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information using four machine learning models and isolated the groups of peptides capable of mediating selective targeting to specific tissues. As a representative liver-specific targeting sequence, the peptide "DKNLQLH" was selected by the sequence similarity analysis. This peptide has a high degree of homology with protein ligands which can interact with corresponding membrane counterparts. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the prediction of tissue-specific targeting peptides which can recognize the endothelial markers of target tissues.

  4. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIV{sub KU2} infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Hill, Lori

    2008-01-05

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-{gamma}-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activitymore » against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIV{sub KU2}. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-{gamma} production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-{gamma} producing CD4{sup +} cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies.« less

  5. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed procedures and results for all reported experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc05151d

    PubMed Central

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I.; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi

    2018-01-01

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides. PMID:29675232

  6. Development and validation of novel AAV2 random libraries displaying peptides of diverse lengths and at diverse capsid positions.

    PubMed

    Naumer, Matthias; Ying, Ying; Michelfelder, Stefan; Reuter, Antje; Trepel, Martin; Müller, Oliver J; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2012-05-01

    Libraries based on the insertion of random peptide ligands into the capsid of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) have been widely used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of the AAV vector system. However, so far only libraries of 7-mer peptide ligands have been inserted at one well-characterized capsid position. Here, we expanded the combinatorial AAV2 display system to a panel of novel AAV libraries, displaying peptides of 5, 7, 12, 19, or 26 amino acids in length at capsid position 588 or displaying 7-mer peptides at position 453, the most prominently exposed region of the viral capsid. Library selections on two unrelated cell types-human coronary artery endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts-revealed the isolation of cell type-characteristic peptides of different lengths mediating strongly improved target-cell transduction, except for the 26-mer peptide ligands. Characterization of vector selectivity by transduction of nontarget cells and comparative gene-transduction analysis using a panel of 44 human tumor cell lines revealed that insertion of different-length peptides allows targeting of distinct cellular receptors for cell entry with similar efficiency, but with different selectivity. The application of such novel AAV2 libraries broadens the spectrum of targetable receptors by capsid-modified AAV vectors and provides the opportunity to choose the best suited targeting ligand for a certain application from a number of different candidates.

  7. HTLV-1 Tax protects against CD95-mediated apoptosis by induction of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP).

    PubMed

    Krueger, Andreas; Fas, Stefanie C; Giaisi, Marco; Bleumink, Marc; Merling, Anette; Stumpf, Christine; Baumann, Sven; Holtkotte, Denise; Bosch, Valerie; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min

    2006-05-15

    The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax is essential for malignant transformation of CD4 T cells, ultimately leading to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Malignant transformation may involve development of apoptosis resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which HTLV-1 Tax confers resistance toward CD95-mediated apoptosis. We show that Tax-expressing T-cell lines derived from HTLV-1-infected patients express elevated levels of c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S). The levels of c-FLIP correlated with resistance toward CD95-mediated apoptosis. Using an inducible system we demonstrated that both resistance toward CD95-mediated apoptosis and induction of c-FLIP are dependent on Tax. In addition, analysis of early cleavage of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid, a direct caspase-8 substrate, revealed that apoptosis is inhibited at a CD95 death receptor proximal level in Tax-expressing cells. Finally, using siRNA we directly showed that c-FLIP confers Tax-mediated resistance toward CD95-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, our data suggest an important mechanism by which expression of HTLV-1 Tax may lead to immune escape of infected T cells and, thus, to persistent infection and transformation.

  8. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  9. Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha variant for local induction of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2006-02-21

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1alpha functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1alpha gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1alpha, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1alpha deltaODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1alpha deltaODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1alpha deltaODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis.

  10. Cotransporting Ion is a Trigger for Cellular Endocytosis of Transporter-Targeting Nanoparticles: A Case Study of High-Efficiency SLC22A5 (OCTN2)-Mediated Carnitine-Conjugated Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Therapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Longfa; Yao, Qing; Sun, Mengchi; Wu, Chunnuan; Wang, Jia; Luo, Qiuhua; Wang, Gang; Du, Yuqian; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jian; He, Zhonggui; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Sun, Jin

    2017-09-01

    OCTN2 (SLC22A5) is a Na + -coupled absorption transporter for l-carnitine in small intestine. This study tests the potential of this transporter for oral delivery of therapeutic drugs encapsulated in l-carnitine-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (LC-PLGA NPs) and discloses the molecular mechanism for cellular endocytosis of transporter-targeting nanoparticles. Conjugation of l-carnitine to a surface of PLGA-NPs enhances the cellular uptake and intestinal absorption of encapsulated drug. In both cases, the uptake process is dependent on cotransporting ion Na + . Computational OCTN2 docking analysis shows that the presence of Na + is important for the formation of the energetically stable intermediate complex of transporter-Na + -LC-PLGA NPs, which is also the first step in cellular endocytosis of nanoparticles. The transporter-mediated intestinal absorption of LC-PLGA NPs occurs via endocytosis/transcytosis rather than via the traditional transmembrane transport. The portal blood versus the lymphatic route is evaluated by the plasma appearance of the drug in the control and lymph duct-ligated rats. Absorption via the lymphatic system is the predominant route in the oral delivery of the NPs. In summary, LC-PLGA NPs can effectively target OCTN2 on the enterocytes for enhancing oral delivery of drugs and the critical role of cotransporting ions should be noticed in designing transporter-targeting nanoparticles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  12. Bombyx mori E26 transformation-specific 2 (BmEts2), an Ets family protein, represses Bombyx mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Sagisaka, A; Suzuki, N; Yamakawa, M

    2016-10-01

    E26 transformation-specific (Ets) family transcription factors are known to play roles in various biological phenomena, including immunity, in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which Ets proteins contribute to immunity in invertebrates remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding BmEts2, which is a putative orthologue of Drosophila Yan and human translocation-ets-leukemia/Ets-variant gene 6, from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Expression of the BmEts2 gene was significantly increased in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae in response to injection with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BmEts2 overexpression dramatically repressed B. mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in silkworm cells. Conversely, gene knockdown of BmEts2 significantly enhanced BmRels activity. In addition, two κB sites located on the 5' upstream region of cecropin B1 were found to be involved in the repression of BmRels-mediated promoter activation. Protein-competition analysis further demonstrated that BmEts2 competitively inhibited binding of BmRels to κB sites. Overall, BmEts2 acts as a repressor of BmRels-mediated transactivation of antimicrobial protein genes by inhibiting the binding of BmRels to κB sites. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. A peptide derived from laminin-γ3 reversibly impairs spermatogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lie, Pearl P.Y.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cellular events that occur across the seminiferous epithelium of the mammalian testis during spermatogenesis are tightly coordinated by biologically active peptides released from laminin chains. Laminin-γ3 domain IV (Lam γ3 DIV) is released at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) during spermiation and mediates restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), which facilitates the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes. Here we determine the biologically active domain in Lam γ3 DIV, which we designate F5-peptide, and show that overexpression of this domain, or the use of a synthetic F5-peptide, in Sertoli cells with an established functional BTB reversibly perturbs BTB integrity in vitro and in rat testis in vivo. This effect is mediated via changes in protein distribution at the Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell-cell interface and by phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at Tyr407. The consequences are perturbed organization of actin filaments in Sertoli cells, disruption of the BTB and spermatid loss. The impairment of spermatogenesis suggests that this laminin peptide fragment may serve as a contraceptive in male rats. PMID:23149730

  14. Signature motif-guided identification of receptors for peptide hormones essential for root meristem growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Liu, Li; Wang, Jizong; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Heqiao; Tang, Jiao; Lin, Guangzhong; Wang, Yichuan; Wen, Xing; Li, Wenyang; Han, Zhifu; Guo, Hongwei; Chai, Jijie

    2016-06-01

    Peptide-mediated cell-to-cell signaling has crucial roles in coordination and definition of cellular functions in plants. Peptide-receptor matching is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying peptide-mediated signaling. Here we report the structure-guided identification of root meristem growth factor (RGF) receptors important for plant development. An assay based on a signature ligand recognition motif (Arg-x-Arg) conserved in a subfamily of leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) identified the functionally uncharacterized LRR-RK At4g26540 as a receptor of RGF1 (RGFR1). We further solved the crystal structure of RGF1 in complex with the LRR domain of RGFR1 at a resolution of 2.6 Å, which reveals that the Arg-x-Gly-Gly (RxGG) motif is responsible for specific recognition of the sulfate group of RGF1 by RGFR1. Based on the RxGG motif, we identified additional four RGFRs. Participation of the five RGFRs in RGF-induced signaling is supported by biochemical and genetic data. We also offer evidence showing that SERKs function as co-receptors for RGFs. Taken together, our study identifies RGF receptors and co-receptors that can link RGF signals with their downstream components and provides a proof of principle for structure-based matching of LRR-RKs with their peptide ligands.

  15. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  17. Inhibition of microtubules and dynein rescues human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from owl monkey TRIMCyp-mediated restriction in a cellular context-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Pawlica, Paulina; Dufour, Caroline; Berthoux, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    IFN-induced restriction factors can significantly affect the replicative capacity of retroviruses in mammals. TRIM5α (tripartite motif protein 5, isoform α) is a restriction factor that acts at early stages of the virus life cycle by intercepting and destabilizing incoming retroviral cores. Sensitivity to TRIM5α maps to the N-terminal domain of the retroviral capsid proteins. In several New World and Old World monkey species, independent events of retrotransposon-mediated insertion of the cyclophilin A (CypA)-coding sequence in the trim5 gene have given rise to TRIMCyp (also called TRIM5-CypA), a hybrid protein that is active against some lentiviruses in a species-specific fashion. In particular, TRIMCyp from the owl monkey (omkTRIMCyp) very efficiently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Previously, we showed that disrupting the integrity of microtubules (MTs) and of cytoplasmic dynein complexes partially rescued replication of retroviruses, including HIV-1, from restriction mediated by TRIM5α. Here, we showed that efficient restriction of HIV-1 by omkTRIMCyp was similarly dependent on the MT network and on dynein complexes, but in a context-dependent fashion. When omkTRIMCyp was expressed in human HeLa cells, restriction was partially counteracted by pharmacological agents targeting MTs or by small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of dynein. The same drugs (nocodazole and paclitaxel) also rescued HIV-1 from restriction in cat CRFK cells, although to a lesser extent. Strikingly, neither nocodazole, paclitaxel nor depletion of the dynein heavy chain had a significant effect on the restriction of HIV-1 in an owl monkey cell line. These results suggested the existence of cell-specific functional interactions between MTs/dynein and TRIMCyp. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Big dynorphin, a prodynorphin-derived peptide produces NMDA receptor-mediated effects on memory, anxiolytic-like and locomotor behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Alexander; Madjid, Nather; Terenius, Lars; Ogren, Sven Ove; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2006-09-01

    Effects of big dynorphin (Big Dyn), a prodynorphin-derived peptide consisting of dynorphin A (Dyn A) and dynorphin B (Dyn B) on memory function, anxiety, and locomotor activity were studied in mice and compared to those of Dyn A and Dyn B. All peptides administered i.c.v. increased step-through latency in the passive avoidance test with the maximum effective doses of 2.5, 0.005, and 0.7 nmol/animal, respectively. Effects of Big Dyn were inhibited by MK 801 (0.1 mg/kg), an NMDA ion-channel blocker whereas those of dynorphins A and B were blocked by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (6 mg/kg). Big Dyn (2.5 nmol) enhanced locomotor activity in the open field test and induced anxiolytic-like behavior both effects blocked by MK 801. No changes in locomotor activity and no signs of anxiolytic-like behavior were produced by dynorphins A and B. Big Dyn (2.5 nmol) increased time spent in the open branches of the elevated plus maze apparatus with no changes in general locomotion. Whereas dynorphins A and B (i.c.v., 0.05 and 7 nmol/animal, respectively) produced analgesia in the hot-plate test Big Dyn did not. Thus, Big Dyn differs from its fragments dynorphins A and B in its unique pattern of memory enhancing, locomotor- and anxiolytic-like effects that are sensitive to the NMDA receptor blockade. The findings suggest that Big Dyn has its own function in the brain different from those of the prodynorphin-derived peptides acting through kappa-opioid receptors.

  19. Carboxypeptidase-mediated metabolism of calcitonin gene-related peptide in human gingival crevicular fluid--a rôle in periodontal inflammation?

    PubMed

    Lundy, F T; Salmon, A L; Lamey, P J; Shaw, C; Linden, G J

    2000-07-01

    Metabolism by peptidases plays an important rôle in modulating the levels of biologically-active neuropeptides. The metabolism of the anti-inflammatory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (GCRP), but not the pro-inflammatory neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) by components of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), could potentiate the inflammatory process in periodontitis. To characterise the extracellular hydrolysis of CGRP as a mechanism for the selective inactivation of this neuropeptide in GCF from periodontitis sites. Samples of GCF from periodontitis patients and periodontally-healthy subjects were incubated with synthetic human SP, NKA or CGRP. Reaction between the GCF constituents and synthetic peptides was allowed to progress from 0-180 min. Results of neuropeptide metabolism at each time were analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry. There was no evidence of metabolism of SP, NKA or CGRP by constituents of healthy GCF. Metabolism of synthetic SP and NKA was minimal even after extensive incubation with periodontitis GCF. However, loss of carboxy-terminal amino acids was evident after only 1 min incubation with periodontitis GCF. The pattern of CGRP metabolism, which proceeded from the C-terminus, indicated that the neuropeptide was degraded by a carboxypeptidase. After 180 min, there was extensive carboxypeptidase degradation of CGRP to an 11 amino acid peptide. It is concluded that carboxypeptidase activity in GCF from periodontitis patients is responsible for rapid breakdown of CGRP but not SP or NKA. The rapid action of this carboxypeptidase on the anti-inflammatory neuropeptide CGRP is suggestive of a pathophysiological rôle for the enzyme in selectively degrading CGRP, thereby potentiating periodontal inflammation.

  20. Toll immune signal activates cellular immune response via eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Shafeeq, Tahir; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kim, Yonggyun

    2018-07-01

    Upon immune challenge, insects recognize nonself. The recognition signal will propagate to nearby immune effectors. It is well-known that Toll signal pathway induces antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating the recognition signal to immune effectors by enhancing humoral immune response through activation of AMP synthesis as well as cellular immune responses, suggesting a functional cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals. This study tested a cross-talk between these two signals. Two signal transducing factors (MyD88 and Pelle) of Toll immune pathway were identified in Spodoptera exigua. RNA interference (RNAi) of either SeMyD88 or SePelle expression interfered with the expression of AMP genes under Toll signal pathway. Bacterial challenge induced PLA 2 enzyme activity. However, RNAi of these two immune factors significantly suppressed the induction of PLA 2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, RNAi treatment prevented gene expression of cellular PLA 2 . Inhibition of PLA 2 activity reduced phenoloxidase activity and subsequent suppression in cellular immune response measured by hemocyte nodule formation. However, immunosuppression induced by RNAi of Toll signal molecules was significantly reversed by addition of arachidonic acid (AA), a catalytic product of PLA 2 . The addition also significantly reduced the enhanced fungal susceptibility of S. exigua treated by RNAi against two Toll signal molecules. These results indicate that there is a cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals in insect immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial transmembrane ion channels from self-assembling peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, M. Reza; Granja, Juan R.; Buehler, Lukas K.

    1994-05-01

    NATURALLY occurring membrane channels and pores are formed from a large family of diverse proteins, peptides and organic secon-dary metabolites whose vital biological functions include control of ion flow, signal transduction, molecular transport and produc-tion of cellular toxins. But despite the availability of a large amount of biochemical information about these molecules1, the design and synthesis of artificial systems that can mimic the bio-logical function of natural compounds remains a formidable task2-12. Here we present a simple strategy for the design of artifi-cial membrane ion channels based on a self-assembled cylindrical β-sheet peptide architecture13. Our systems-essentially stacks of peptide rings-display good channel-mediated ion-transport activ-ity with rates exceeding 107 ions s-1, rivalling the performance of many naturally occurring counterparts. Such molecular assemblies should find use in the design of novel cytotoxic agents, membrane transport vehicles and drug-delivery systems.

  2. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH.

    PubMed

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189-201 and LLO91-99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1-22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1-22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91-99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1-22-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4(+) and CD8(+) epitopes.

  3. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L.; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189−201 and LLO91−99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1−22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1−22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91−99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1−22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes. PMID:24600592

  4. Enzastaurin inhibits ABCB1-mediated drug efflux independently of effects on protein kinase C signalling and the cellular p53 status.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Sharifi, Mohsen; Ghafourian, Taravat; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-07-10

    The PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin was tested in parental neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, their vincristine-resistant sub-lines, primary neuroblastoma cells, ABCB1-transduced, ABCG2-transduced, and p53-depleted cells. Enzastaurin IC50s ranged from 3.3 to 9.5 μM in cell lines and primary cells independently of the ABCB1, ABCG2, or p53 status. Enzastaurin 0.3125 μM interfered with ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PKCα and PKCβ may phosphorylate and activate ABCB1 under the control of p53. However, enzastaurin exerted similar effects on ABCB1 in the presence or absence of functional p53. Also, enzastaurin inhibited PKC signalling only in concentrations ≥ 1.25 μM. The investigated cell lines did not express PKCβ. PKCα depletion reduced PKC signalling but did not affect ABCB1 activity. Intracellular levels of the fluorescent ABCB1 substrate rhodamine 123 rapidly decreased after wash-out of extracellular enzastaurin, and enzastaurin induced ABCB1 ATPase activity resembling the ABCB1 substrate verapamil. Computational docking experiments detected a direct interaction of enzastaurin and ABCB1. These data suggest that enzastaurin directly interferes with ABCB1 function. Enzastaurin further inhibited ABCG2-mediated drug transport but by a different mechanism since it reduced ABCG2 ATPase activity. These findings are important for the further development of therapies combining enzastaurin with ABC transporter substrates.

  5. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of PD-1 on human T cells for adoptive cellular therapies of EBV positive gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu; Zou, Zhengyun; Chen, Fangjun; Ding, Naiqing; Du, Juan; Shao, Jie; Li, Lin; Fu, Yao; Hu, Bian; Yang, Yang; Sha, Huizi; Meng, Fanyan; Wei, Jia; Huang, Xingxu; Liu, Baorui

    2017-01-01

    The successful use of immune cell checkpoint inhibitors PD-1 and PD-L1, over the past 5 y has raised the concern of using immunotherapy to treat various cancers. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) exhibits high infiltration of lymphocytes and high amplification of immune-related genes including PD-L1 as distinguished from Epstein-Barr virus-non-associated gastric cancer (EBVnGC). Here, we presume that this PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may hinder the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy toward EBVaGC. These studies reveal possibility of generating PD-1-disrupted CTL by CRISPR-Cas9 system and demonstrate enhanced immune response of these PD-1-disrupted CTLs to the EBV-LMP2A antigen and superior cytotoxicity to the EBV-positive gastric cancer cell. In addition, when combined with low-dose radiotherapy, these PD-1-disrupted CTLs mediated an impressive antitumor effect in a xenograft mouse model of EBVaGC. Taken together, these studies illustrate PD-1/PD-L1-mediated immune tolerance of EBVaGC and provide a new strategy for targeting immune checkpoints to break the tolerance for the T cell-based adoptive therapy.

  6. Characterization of a novel androgen receptor (AR) coregulator RIPK1 and related chemicals that suppress AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide and chemical screening.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Li-Yu; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2017-09-19

    Using bicalutamide-androgen receptor (AR) DNA binding domain-ligand binding domain as bait, we observed enrichment of FxxFY motif-containing peptides. Protein database searches revealed the presence of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) harboring one FxxFY motif. RIPK1 interacted directly with AR and suppressed AR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Domain mapping experiments showed that the FxxFY motif in RIPK1 is critical for interactions with AR and the death domain of RIPK1 plays a crucial role in its inhibitory effect on transactivation. In terms of tissue expression, RIPK1 levels were markedly higher in benign prostate hyperplasia and non-cancerous tissue regions relative to the tumor area. With the aid of computer modeling for screening of chemicals targeting activation function 2 (AF-2) of AR, we identified oxadiazole derivatives as good candidates and subsequently generated a small library of these compounds. A number of candidates could effectively suppress AR transactivation and AR-related functions in vitro and in vivo with tolerable toxicity via inhibiting AR-peptide, AR-coregulator and AR N-C interactions. Combination of these chemicals with antiandrogen had an additive suppressive effect on AR transcriptional activity. Our collective findings may pave the way in creating new strategies for the development and design of anti-AR drugs.

  7. Solid-phase-assisted synthesis of targeting peptide-PEG-oligo(ethane amino)amides for receptor-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Irene; Dohmen, Christian; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Troiber, Christina; Kos, Petra; Schaffert, David; Lächelt, Ulrich; Teixidó, Meritxell; Günther, Michael; Kessler, Horst; Giralt, Ernest; Wagner, Ernst

    2012-04-28

    In the forthcoming era of cancer gene therapy, efforts will be devoted to the development of new efficient and non-toxic gene delivery vectors. In this regard, the use of Fmoc/Boc-protected oligo(ethane amino)acids as building blocks for solid-phase-supported assembly represents a novel promising approach towards fully controlled syntheses of effective gene vectors. Here we report on the synthesis of defined polymers containing the following: (i) a plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding domain of eight succinoyl-tetraethylenpentamine (Stp) units and two terminal cysteine residues; (ii) a central polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain (with twenty-four oxyethylene units) for shielding; and (iii) specific peptides for targeting towards cancer cells. Peptides B6 and c(RGDfK), which bind transferrin receptor and α(v)β(3) integrin, respectively, were chosen because of the high expression of these receptors in many tumoral cells. This study shows the feasibility of designing these kinds of fully controlled vectors and their success for targeted pDNA-based gene transfer. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. The peptide transporter PepT2 mediates the uptake of the glutathione precursor CysGly in astroglia-rich primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Dringen, R; Hamprecht, B; Bröer, S

    1998-07-01

    The intracellular content of glutathione in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from the brains of newborn rats was used as an indicator for the ability of these cultures to utilize cysteinylglycine (CysGly) for glutathione synthesis. After a 24-h starvation period in the absence of glucose and amino acids, CysGly was able to substitute for cysteine plus glycine in the restoration of glutathione. Glutathione restoration from CysGly plus glutamate was only slightly affected by the dipeptides carnosine or serylglycine in a 200-fold excess. Captopril, a substrate of the peptide transporter PepT1, had almost no effect on glutathione restoration. In contrast, with increasing concentrations of alanylalanine or cefadroxil, known substrates of the peptide transporter PepT2, the amount of glutathione restored in the presence of CysGly and glutamate was strongly reduced. Cefadroxil in a 200-fold excess totally prevented the utilization of CysGly for g