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Sample records for peptide penetratin induces

  1. Selective cleavage of protonated penetratin and its substitutes under low-energy collision-induced dissociation condition.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai; Huang, Lingyun; Wang, Yaru; He, Dacheng

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the dissociation of penetratin is important for improving its metabolic stability and cargo-delivery efficiency. In this study, we describe the selective cleavage of the K15-K16 amide bond of penetratin under the low-energy collision-induced dissociation condition in mass spectrometry. A variety of penetratin substitutes have been studied in which key basic amino acids have been substituted within the sequence. The calculated structure indicates that an alpha-helix structure prevents the fragmentation of the central peptide domain and the side chain of lysine is involved in the proton translocation process.

  2. Distinct Behaviour of the Homeodomain Derived Cell Penetrating Peptide Penetratin in Interaction with Different Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Maniti, Ofelia; Alves, Isabel; Trugnan, Germain; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Background Penetratin is a protein transduction domain derived from the homeoprotein Antennapedia. Thereby it is currently used as a cell penetrating peptide to introduce diverse molecules into eukaryotic cells, and it could also be involved in the cellular export of transcription factors. Moreover, it has been shown that it is able to act as an antimicrobial agent. The mechanisms involved in all these processes are quite controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings In this article, we report spectroscopic, calorimetric and biochemical data on the penetratin interaction with three different phospholipids: phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to mimic respectively the outer and the inner leaflets of the eukaryotic plasma membrane and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to mimic the bacterial membrane. We demonstrate that with PC, penetratin is able to form vesicle aggregates with no major change in membrane fluidity and presents no well defined secondary structure organization. With PE, penetratin aggregates vesicles, increases membrane rigidity and acquires an α-helical structure. With PG membranes, penetratin does not aggregate vesicles but decreases membrane fluidity and acquires a structure with both α-helical and β–sheet contributions. Conclusions/Significance These data from membrane models suggest that the different penetratin actions in eukaryotic cells (membrane translocation during export and import) and on prokaryotes may result from different peptide and lipid structural arrangements. The data suggest that, for eukaryotic cell penetration, penetratin does not acquire classical secondary structure but requires a different conformation compared to that in solution. PMID:21209890

  3. Penetratin-induced transdermal delivery from H(II) mesophases of sodium diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Avrahami, Marganit; Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2012-05-10

    Penetratin, a cell penetrating peptide is embedded within a reversed hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase for improved transdermal delivery of sodium diclofenac (Na-DFC). The H(II) mesophase serves as the solubilization reservoir and gel matrix whereas penetratin is the transdermal penetration enhancer for the drug. The systems were characterized and the interactions between the components were determined by SAXS, ATR-FTIR and SD-NMR. High affinity of Na-DFC to glycerol monooleate (GMO) was revealed, associated with increasing the order within the water channels. This affinity is enhanced upon heating and seems to be associated with GMO dehydration. Penetratin (PEN) is entrapped at the hydrophilic region of the H(II) mesophase, between the GMO headgroups, reducing the order of the system and decreasing the size of the hexagonal domains. The transdermal delivery rate of Na-DFC through porcine skin, from the H(II) mesophases, was enhanced by PEN and so also the cumulative transport crossing the skin. PEN induced accelerated drug diffusion through the stratum corneum, towards the different skin layers. The transdermal delivery enhancement is explained from the results of the ATR-FTIR analysis. It seems that PEN accelerates the structural transition of skin lipids from hexagonal to liquid. The disordering results in enhanced diffusion of Na-DFC through the stratum corneum, followed by enhanced overall penetration of the drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic energy-independent mechanism of internalization for the cell penetrating peptide penetratin.

    PubMed

    Maniti, Ofelia; Blanchard, Elise; Trugnan, Germain; Lamazière, Antonin; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Cellular uptake of vector peptides used for internalization of hydrophilic molecules into cells is known to follow two different pathways: direct translocation of the plasma membrane and internalization by endocytosis followed by release into the cytosol. These pathways differ in their energy dependence. The first does not need metabolic energy while the second requires metabolic energy. Herein we used erythrocytes and plasma membrane vesicles to study membrane perturbations induced by the cell penetrating peptide penetratin. The results show that cell penetrating peptides are able to be internalized by two metabolic energy-independent pathways: direct crossing of the plasma membrane and endocytosis-like mechanisms. The last mechanism involves the induction of membrane negative curvature resulting in invaginations that mimic the endosomal uptake in the absence of ATP. This new mechanism called "physical endocytosis" or "self-induced endocytosis" might explain different data concerning the independence or dependence on metabolic energy during cellular uptake and reveals the autonomous capacity of peptides to induce their internalization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Elucidation of the Cell-Penetrating Penetratin Peptide in Model Membranes at the Atomic Level: Probing Hydrophobic Interactions in the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Bera, Swapna; Kar, Rajiv K; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-09-06

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have shown promise in nonpermeable therapeutic drug delivery, because of their ability to transport a variety of cargo molecules across the cell membranes and their noncytotoxicity. Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain-derived CPP penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), being rich in positively charged residues, has been increasingly used as a potential drug carrier for various purposes. Penetratin can breach the tight endothelial network known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permitting treatment of several neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, a detailed structural understanding of penetratin and its mechanism of action is lacking. This study defines structural features of the penetratin-derived peptide, DK17 (DRQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), in several model membranes and describes a membrane-induced conformational transition of the DK17 peptide in these environments. A series of biophysical experiments, including high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provides the three-dimensional structure of DK17 in different membranes mimicking the BBB or total brain lipid extract. Molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental results showing preferential binding of DK17 to particular lipids at atomic resolution. The peptide conserves the structure of the subdomain spanning residues Ile6-Arg11, despite considerable conformational variation in different membrane models. In vivo data suggest that the wild type, not a mutated sequence, enters the central nervous system. Together, these data highlight important structural and functional attributes of DK17 that could be utilized in drug delivery for neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Small Peptides Derived from Penetratin as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Oscar; Somlai, Csaba; Andujar, Sebastián A; Garro, Adriana D; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Tóth, Gabor; Cascales, Javier López; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of several small-size peptides acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated, the peptides Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Trp-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH2 , Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Arg-NH2 , and Arg-Gln-Ile-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-Gln-Arg-NH2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity. These were found to be very active antibacterial compounds, considering their small molecular size. In order to better understand the antibacterial activity obtained for these peptides, an exhaustive conformational analysis was performed, using both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water) were employed. The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated by experimental circular dichroism measurements. A brief discussion on the possible mechanism of action of these peptides at molecular level is also presented. Some of the peptides reported here constitute very interesting structures to be used as starting compounds for the design of new small-size peptides possessing antibacterial activity.

  7. Intracellular Toxicity of Proline-Rich Antimicrobial Peptides Shuttled into Mammalian Cells by the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Penetratin

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Schäfer, Ingo; Knappe, Daniel; Seibel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The health threat caused by multiresistant bacteria has continuously increased and recently peaked with pathogens resistant to all current drugs. This has triggered intense research efforts to develop novel compounds to overcome the resistance mechanisms. Thus, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been intensively studied, especially the family of proline-rich AMPs (PrAMPs) that was successfully tested very recently in murine infection models. PrAMPs enter bacteria and inhibit chaperone DnaK. Here, we studied the toxicity of intracellular PrAMPs in HeLa and SH-SY5Y cells. As PrAMPs cannot enter most mammalian cells, we coupled the PrAMPs with penetratin (residues 43 to 58 in the antennapedia homeodomain) via a C-terminally added cysteine utilizing a thioether bridge. The resulting construct could transport the covalently linked PrAMP into mammalian cells. Penetratin ligation reduced the MIC for Gram-negative Escherichia coli only slightly (1 to 8 μmol/liter) but increased the activity against the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus up to 32-fold (MIC ≈ 1 μmol/liter), most likely due to more effective penetration through the bacterial membrane. In contrast to native PrAMPs, the penetratin-PrAMP constructs entered the mammalian cells, aligned around the nucleus, and associated with the Golgi apparatus. At higher concentrations, the constructs reduced the cell viability (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] ≈ 40 μmol/liter) and changed the morphology of the cells. No toxic effects or morphological changes were observed at concentrations of 10 μmol/liter or below. Thus, the IC50 values were around 5 to 40 times higher than the MIC values. In conclusion, PrAMPs are in general not toxic to mammalian cells, as they do not pass through the membrane. When shuttled into mammalian cells, however, PrAMPs are only slightly cross-reactive to mammalian chaperones or other intracellular mammalian proteins, providing a second layer of safety for in vivo applications, even if they

  8. Intracellular toxicity of proline-rich antimicrobial peptides shuttled into mammalian cells by the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Schäfer, Ingo; Knappe, Daniel; Seibel, Peter; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    The health threat caused by multiresistant bacteria has continuously increased and recently peaked with pathogens resistant to all current drugs. This has triggered intense research efforts to develop novel compounds to overcome the resistance mechanisms. Thus, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been intensively studied, especially the family of proline-rich AMPs (PrAMPs) that was successfully tested very recently in murine infection models. PrAMPs enter bacteria and inhibit chaperone DnaK. Here, we studied the toxicity of intracellular PrAMPs in HeLa and SH-SY5Y cells. As PrAMPs cannot enter most mammalian cells, we coupled the PrAMPs with penetratin (residues 43 to 58 in the antennapedia homeodomain) via a C-terminally added cysteine utilizing a thioether bridge. The resulting construct could transport the covalently linked PrAMP into mammalian cells. Penetratin ligation reduced the MIC for Gram-negative Escherichia coli only slightly (1 to 8 μmol/liter) but increased the activity against the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus up to 32-fold (MIC ≈ 1 μmol/liter), most likely due to more effective penetration through the bacterial membrane. In contrast to native PrAMPs, the penetratin-PrAMP constructs entered the mammalian cells, aligned around the nucleus, and associated with the Golgi apparatus. At higher concentrations, the constructs reduced the cell viability (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ≈ 40 μmol/liter) and changed the morphology of the cells. No toxic effects or morphological changes were observed at concentrations of 10 μmol/liter or below. Thus, the IC(50) values were around 5 to 40 times higher than the MIC values. In conclusion, PrAMPs are in general not toxic to mammalian cells, as they do not pass through the membrane. When shuttled into mammalian cells, however, PrAMPs are only slightly cross-reactive to mammalian chaperones or other intracellular mammalian proteins, providing a second layer of safety for in vivo applications, even if

  9. A Critical Reassessment of Penetratin Translocation Across Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bárány-Wallje, Elsa; Keller, Sandro; Serowy, Steffen; Geibel, Sebastian; Pohl, Peter; Bienert, Michael; Dathe, Margitta

    2005-01-01

    Penetratin is a short, basic cell-penetrating peptide able to induce cellular uptake of a vast variety of large, hydrophilic cargos. We have reassessed the highly controversial issue of direct permeation of the strongly cationic peptide across negatively charged lipid membranes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on rhodamine-labeled giant vesicles incubated with carboxyfluorescein-labeled penetratin yielded no evidence of transbilayer movement, in contradiction to previously reported results. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy on black lipid membranes confirmed this finding, which was also not affected by application of a transmembrane electric potential difference. A novel dialysis assay based on tryptophan absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the permeability of small and large unilamellar vesicles to penetratin is <10−13 m/s. Taken together, the results show that penetratin is not capable of overcoming model membrane systems irrespective of the bilayer curvature or the presence of a transmembrane voltage. Thus, direct translocation across the hydrophobic core of the plasma membrane cannot account for the efficient uptake of penetratin into live cells, which is in accord with recent in vitro studies underlining the importance of endocytosis in the internalization process of cationic cell-penetrating peptides. PMID:16040762

  10. The neuroprotective efficacy of cell-penetrating peptides TAT, penetratin, Arg-9, and Pep-1 in glutamic acid, kainic acid, and in vitro ischemia injury models using primary cortical neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Bruno P; Craig, Amanda J; Milech, Nadia; Hopkins, Richard M; Watt, Paul M; Knuckey, Neville W

    2014-03-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides (typically 5-25 amino acids), which are used to facilitate the delivery of normally non-permeable cargos such as other peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, or drugs into cells. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that the TAT CPP has neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the TAT and three other CPPs (penetratin, Arg-9, Pep-1) for their neuroprotective properties in cortical neuronal cultures following exposure to glutamic acid, kainic acid, or in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation). Arg-9, penetratin, and TAT-D displayed consistent and high level neuroprotective activity in both the glutamic acid (IC50: 0.78, 3.4, 13.9 μM) and kainic acid (IC50: 0.81, 2.0, 6.2 μM) injury models, while Pep-1 was ineffective. The TAT-D isoform displayed similar efficacy to the TAT-L isoform in the glutamic acid model. Interestingly, Arg-9 was the only CPP that displayed efficacy when washed-out prior to glutamic acid exposure. Neuroprotection following in vitro ischemia was more variable with all peptides providing some level of neuroprotection (IC50; Arg-9: 6.0 μM, TAT-D: 7.1 μM, penetratin/Pep-1: >10 μM). The positive control peptides JNKI-1D-TAT (JNK inhibitory peptide) and/or PYC36L-TAT (AP-1 inhibitory peptide) were neuroprotective in all models. Finally, in a post-glutamic acid treatment experiment, Arg-9 was highly effective when added immediately after, and mildly effective when added 15 min post-insult, while the JNKI-1D-TAT control peptide was ineffective when added post-insult. These findings demonstrate that different CPPs have the ability to inhibit neurodamaging events/pathways associated with excitotoxic and ischemic injuries. More importantly, they highlight the need to interpret neuroprotection studies when using CPPs as delivery agents with caution. On a positive note, the cytoprotective properties of CPPs suggests they are ideal carrier molecules to

  11. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  12. Structure and dynamics of Penetratin's association and translocation to a lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignacio J., General; Asciutto, Eliana K.

    2017-03-01

    Penetratin belongs to the important class of small and positively charged peptides, capable of entering cells. The determination of the optimal peptidic structure for translocation is challenging; results obtained so far are varied and dependent on several factors. In this work, we review the dynamics of association of Penetratin with a modeled dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) lipid membrane using molecular dynamics simulations with last generation force fields. Penetratin's structural preferences are determined using a Markov state model. It is observed that the peptide retains a helical form in the membrane associated state, just as in water, with the exception of both termini which lose helicity, facilitating the interaction of terminal residues with the phosphate groups on the membrane's outer layer. The optimal orientation for insertion is found to be with the peptide's axis forming a small angle with the interface, and with R1 stretching toward the bilayer. The interaction between arginine side-chains and phosphate groups is found to be greater than the corresponding to lysine, mainly due to a higher number of hydrogen bonds between them. The free energy profile of translocation is qualitatively studied using Umbrella Sampling. It is found that there are different paths of penetration, that greatly differ in size of free energy barrier. The lowest path is compatible with residues R10 to K13 leading the way through the membrane and pulling the rest of the peptide. When the other side is reached, the C-terminus overtakes those residues, and finally breaks out of the membrane. The peptide's secondary structure during this traversal suffers some changes with respect to the association structure but, overall, conserves its helicity, with both termini in a more disordered state.

  13. Region-Dependent Role of Cell-Penetrating Peptides in Insulin Absorption Across the Rat Small Intestinal Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Iwamae, Ruisha; Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-11-01

    We have reported that the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin acts as a potential absorption enhancer in oral insulin delivery systems and that this action occurs through noncovalent intermolecular interactions. However, the region-dependent role of CPPs in intestinal insulin absorption has not been clarified. To identify the intestinal region where CPPs have the most effect in increasing insulin absorption, the region-dependent action of penetratin was investigated using in situ closed intestinal loops in rats. The order of the insulin area under the insulin concentration-time curve (AUC) increase effect by L-penetratin was ileum > jejunum > duodenum > colon. By contrast, the AUC order after coadministration of insulin with D-penetratin was colon > duodenum ≥ jejunum and ileum. We also compared the effects of the L- and D-forms of penetratin, R8, and PenetraMax on ileal insulin absorption. Along with the CPPs used in this study, L- and D-PenetraMax produced the largest insulin AUCs. An absorption study using ilea pretreated with CPPs showed that PenetraMax had no irreversible effect on the intestinal epithelial membrane. The degradation of insulin in the presence of CPPs was assessed in rat intestinal enzymatic fluid. The half-life (t 1/2) of insulin increased from 14.5 to 23.7 and 184.7 min in the presence of L- and D-PenetraMax, respectively. These enzymatic degradation-resistant effects might contribute partly to the increased ileal absorption of insulin induced by D-PenetraMax. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the ability of the L- and D-forms of penetratin to increase intestinal insulin absorption was maximal in the ileum and the colon, respectively, and that D-PenetraMax is a powerful but transient enhancer of oral insulin absorption.

  14. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  15. Massive glycosaminoglycan-dependent entry of Trp-containing cell-penetrating peptides induced by exogenous sphingomyelinase or cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Chérine; Pallerla, Manjula; Burlina, Fabienne; Illien, Françoise; Cribier, Sophie; Sagan, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    Among non-invasive cell delivery strategies, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) vectors represent interesting new tools. To get fundamental knowledge about the still debated internalisation mechanisms of these peptides, we modified the membrane content of cells, typically by hydrolysis of sphingomyelin or depletion of cholesterol from the membrane outer leaflet. We quantified and visualised the effect of these viable cell surface treatments on the internalisation efficiency of different CPPs, among which the most studied Tat, R9, penetratin and analogues, that all carry the N-terminal biotin-Gly4 tag cargo. Under these cell membrane treatments, only penetratin and R6W3 underwent a massive glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-dependent entry in cells. Internalisation of the other peptides was only slightly increased, similarly in the absence or the presence of GAGs for R9, and only in the presence of GAGs for Tat and R6L3. Ceramide formation (or cholesterol depletion) is known to lead to the reorganisation of membrane lipid domains into larger platforms, which can serve as a trap and cluster receptors. These results show that GAG clustering, enhanced by formation of ceramide, is efficiently exploited by penetratin and R6W3, which contains Trp residues in their sequence but not Tat, R9 and R6L3. Hence, these data shed new lights on the differences in the internalisation mechanism and pathway of these peptides that are widely used in delivery of cargo molecules.

  16. Thermally Targeted Delivery of a c-Myc Inhibitory Peptide In Vivo Using Elastin-Like Polypeptide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), bactenecin (Bac), penetratin ( Pen ), or Tat, is conjugated to the ELP to enhance delivery of the polypeptide across the...CPPs are short peptides known to enhance the cellular uptake of large cargo. The three CPPs proposed for this study are the penetratin ( Pen ...we conjugated the c-Myc inhibitory peptide and the Pen peptide to ELP for thermally targeted delivery ( Pen -ELP-H1) (1). Uptake of Pen -ELP-H1 in MCF-7

  17. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  18. Hydroxyapatite surface-induced peptide folding.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Lisa A; Beebe, Thomas P; Schneider, Joel P

    2007-04-25

    Herein, we describe the design and surface-binding characterization of a de novo designed peptide, JAK1, which undergoes surface-induced folding at the hydroxyapatite (HA)-solution interface. JAK1 is designed to be unstructured in buffered saline solution, yet undergo HA-induced folding that is largely governed by the periodic positioning of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues within the primary sequence of the peptide. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that the peptide remains unfolded and monomeric in solution under normal physiological conditions; however, CD spectroscopy indicates that in the presence of hydroxyapatite, the peptide avidly binds to the mineral surface adopting a helical structure. Adsorption isotherms indicate nearly quantitative surface coverage and Kd = 310 nM for the peptide-surface binding event. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with the adsorption isotherm data suggests that JAK1 binds to HA, forming a self-limiting monolayer. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HA surfaces to trigger the intramolecular folding of designed peptides and represents the initial stages of defining the design rules that allow HA-induced peptide folding.

  19. Novel peptides from the RAS-p21 and p53 proteins for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bowne, Wilbur B; Michl, Josef; Bluth, Martin H; Zenilman, Michael E; Pincus, Matthew R

    2007-01-01

    We have employed a novel computer-based molecular modeling method to design peptides from the ras-p21 and p53 proteins that block proliferation of cancer cells. The rationale of our approach is to identify peptide domains from each protein that alter conformation in response to oncogenic amino acid substitutions in their polypeptide chain. We accomplish this by first generating and comparing low energy average structures for oncogenic and wild-type proteins using conformational energy calculations. Peptides are then synthesized corresponding to these domains. These domains are then linked to a trans-membrane-penetrating sequence (called penetratin) and tested against cancer and untransformed cell lines. Remarkably, we have found that two ras-p21 peptides, 35-47 and 96-110, called PNC-7 and PNC-2, respectively, can induce phenotypic reversion of ras-transformed TUC-3 pancreatic cancer cells and ras-transformed HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells to their untransformed phenotypes. Moreover, both peptides were found to be cytotoxic to ras-transformed human MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells and human U-251 astrocytoma cells. Importantly, these peptides have no effect on the growth of their normal cellular counterparts. We have also synthesized peptides from the p53 protein corresponding to its hdm-2-binding domain sequences (residues 12-26), also linked to the penetratin sequence. Surprisingly, we have found that these peptides induce 100 percent tumor cell necrosis, not apoptosis, in 13 different human cancer cell lines but have no effect on normal pancreatic acinar cells, breast epithelial cells, and human stem cells. Moreover, these peptides are cytotoxic to TUC-3 pancreatic tumor cells in nude mice plus eradicate these tumor cells when administered at sites near these tumors. These novel peptides appear to hold much promise as new, non-toxic anti-cancer agents.

  20. Visualization and Quantitative Assessment of the Brain Distribution of Insulin through Nose-to-Brain Delivery Based on the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Noncovalent Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Kanayama, Yousuke; Tanaka, Misa; Zochi, Riyo; Hasegawa, Koki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-03-07

    Our recent work suggested that intranasal coadministration with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin increased the brain distribution of the peptide drug insulin. The present study aimed to distinctly certify the ability of penetratin to facilitate the nose-to-brain delivery of insulin by quantitatively evaluating the distribution characteristics in brain using radioactive (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin. Autoradiography and analysis using a gamma counter of brain areas demonstrated that the accumulation of radioactivity was greatest in the olfactory bulb, the anterior part of the brain closest to the administration site, at 15 min after intranasal administration of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with l- or d-penetratin. The brain accumulation of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with penetratin was confirmed by ELISA using unlabeled insulin in which intact insulin was delivered to the brain after intranasal coadministration with l- or d-penetratin. By contrast, quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples showed increased insulin concentration in only the anterior portion of the CSF at 15 min after intranasal coadministration with l-penetratin. This study gives the first concrete proof that penetratin can accelerate the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity to the brain parenchyma. Further optimization of intranasal administration with CPP may increase the efficacy of delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain while reducing the risk of systemic drug exposure.

  1. Electron induced dissociation of singly deprotonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Anastasia; Grigorean, Gabriela; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Dissociation of singly charged species is more challenging compared with that of multiply charged precursor ions because singly charged ions are generally more stable. In collision activated dissociation (CAD), singly charged ions also gain less kinetic energy in a fixed electric field compared with multiply charged species. Furthermore, ion-electron and ion-ion reactions that frequently provide complementary and more extensive fragmentation compared with CAD typically require multiply charged precursor ions. Here, we investigate electron induced dissociation (EID) of singly deprotonated peptides and compare the EID fragmentation patterns with those observed in negative ion mode CAD. Fragmentation induced upon electron irradiation and collisional activation is not specific and results in the formation of a wide range of product ions, including b-, y-, a-, x-, c-, and z-type ions. Characteristic amino acid side chain losses are detected in both techniques. However, differences are also observed between EID and CAD spectra of the same species, including formation of odd-electron species not seen in CAD, in EID. Furthermore, EID frequently results in more extensive fragmentation compared with CAD. For modified peptides, EID resulted in retention of sulfonation and phosphorylation, allowing localization of the modification site. The observed differences are likely due to both vibrational and electronic excitation in EID, whereas only the former process occurs in CAD.

  2. Electron Induced Dissociation of Singly Deprotonated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalli, Anastasia; Grigorean, Gabriela; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Dissociation of singly charged species is more challenging compared with that of multiply charged precursor ions because singly charged ions are generally more stable. In collision activated dissociation (CAD), singly charged ions also gain less kinetic energy in a fixed electric field compared with multiply charged species. Furthermore, ion-electron and ion-ion reactions that frequently provide complementary and more extensive fragmentation compared with CAD typically require multiply charged precursor ions. Here, we investigate electron induced dissociation (EID) of singly deprotonated peptides and compare the EID fragmentation patterns with those observed in negative ion mode CAD. Fragmentation induced upon electron irradiation and collisional activation is not specific and results in the formation of a wide range of product ions, including b-, y-, a-, x-, c-, and z-type ions. Characteristic amino acid side chain losses are detected in both techniques. However, differences are also observed between EID and CAD spectra of the same species, including formation of odd-electron species not seen in CAD, in EID. Furthermore, EID frequently results in more extensive fragmentation compared with CAD. For modified peptides, EID resulted in retention of sulfonation and phosphorylation, allowing localization of the modification site. The observed differences are likely due to both vibrational and electronic excitation in EID, whereas only the former process occurs in CAD.

  3. Multifunctional Prenylated Peptides for Live Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wollack, James W.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mullen, Daniel G.; Amundson, Gregg; Geier, Suzanne; Falkum, Stacy; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a common post-translational modification present in eukaryotic cells. Many key proteins involved in signal transduction pathways are prenylated and inhibition of prenylation can be useful as a therapeutic intervention. While significant progress has been made in understanding protein prenylation in vitro, we have been interested in studying this process in living cells, including the question of where prenylated molecules localize. Here, we describe the synthesis and live cell analysis of a series of fluorescently labeled multifunctional peptides, based on the C-terminus of the naturally prenylated protein CDC42. A synthetic route was developed that features a key Acm to Scm protecting group conversion. This strategy was compatible with acid-sensitive isoprenoid moieties, and allowed incorporation of an appropriate fluorophore as well as a cell-penetrating sequence (penetratin). These peptides are able to enter cells through different mechanisms, depending on the presence or absence of the penetratin vehicle and the nature of the prenyl group attached. Interestingly, prenylated peptides lacking penetratin are able to enter cells freely through an energy-independent process, and localize in a perinuclear fashion. This effect extends to a prenylated peptide that includes a full “CAAX box” sequence (specifically, CVLL). Hence, these peptides open the door for studies of protein prenylation in living cells, including enzymatic processing and intracellular peptide trafficking. Moreover, the synthetic strategy developed here should be useful for the assembly of other types of peptides that contain acid sensitive functionalities. PMID:19425596

  4. A novel penetratin-modified complex for noninvasive intraocular delivery of antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Tai, Lingyu; Liu, Chang; Jiang, Kuan; Chen, Xishan; Feng, Linglin; Pan, Weisan; Wei, Gang; Lu, Weiyue

    2017-08-30

    Inhibition of gene expression by nucleic acids is a promising strategy in the treatment of ocular diseases. However, intraocular delivery of nucleic acids to the posterior ocular tissues remains a great challenge due to the presence of various biological barriers. To circumvent this problem, we established a novel penetratin (P) modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (D)/hyaluronic acid (H) complex to deliver antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs, O). Complexes (D/O, HD/O and PHD/O) were easily prepared and modification layers (hyaluronic acid and penetratin) were respectively absorbed on the surface via electrostatic interaction. Complexes with different outer layers were characterized as spherical particles with reversed charges. In vitro cellular uptake of ASOs in PHD/O complex was significantly increased than those in other formulations. In vivo studies were carried out after topical instillation of the complexes in the conjunctival sac of mice. Compared with D/O and HD/O, PHD/O exhibited much more distribution in the posterior segment of the eyes and prolonged retention time of ASOs in retina for more than 8h. Taken together, these results indicated that PHD/O complex possessed substantially improved ocular permeability and distribution in the posterior ocular tissues. This work provided a promising noninvasive intraocular delivery strategy for nucleic acids via topical administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  6. Stapled peptide induces cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jo

    2004-11-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling could enable peptides from the key domains of natural proteins to be used therapeutically. Using the technique on a peptide involved in apoptosis, researchers have succeeded in destroying cancer cells in a mouse model of leukaemia.

  7. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparison to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.

  8. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; ...

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  9. Promises of apoptosis-inducing peptides in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Barras, David; Widmann, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Until recently, most research efforts aimed at developing anti-cancer tools were focusing on small molecules. Alternative compounds are now being increasingly assessed for their potential anti-cancer properties, including peptides and their derivatives. One earlier limitation to the use of peptides was their limited capacity to cross membranes but this limitation was alleviated with the characterization of cell-permeable sequences. Additionally, means are designed to target peptides to their malignant targets. Most anti-cancer peptidic compounds induce apoptosis of tumor cells by modulating the activity of Bcl-2 family members that control the release of death factors from the mitochondria or by inhibiting negative regulators of caspases, the proteases that mediate the apoptotic response in cells. Some of these peptides have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in mouse models. Hopefully, pro-apoptotic anti-tumor peptides will soon be tested for their efficacy in patients with cancers.

  10. Enhanced oral bioavailability of insulin using PLGA nanoparticles co-modified with cell-penetrating peptides and Engrailed secretion peptide (Sec).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siqi; Chen, Shuangxi; Gao, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Li, Fengying; Xie, Baogang; Zhou, Jianliang; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug carriers are an attractive strategy for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. However, their ability to cross the intestinal epithelium membrane is largely limited. Therefore, in the present study, cell-penetrating peptides (R8, Tat, penetratin) and a secretion peptide (Sec) with N-terminal stearylation were introduced to modify nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface to improve oral bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs. In vitro studies conducted in Caco-2 cells showed the value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the nanoparticles co-modified with Sec and penetratin (Sec-Pen-NPs) was about two-times greater than that of the nanoparticles modified with only penetratin (Pen-NPs), while the increase of transcellular transport of nanoparticles modified together with Sec and R8 (Sec-R8-NPs), or Sec and Tat (Sec-Tat-NPs), was not significant compared with nanoparticles modified with only R8 (R8-NPs) or Tat (Tat-NPs). Using insulin as the model drug, in vivo studies performed on rats indicated that compared to Pen-NPs, the relative bioavailability of insulin for Sec-Pen-NPs was 1.71-times increased after ileal segments administration, and stronger hypoglycemic effects was also observed. Therefore, the nanoparticles co-modified with penetratin and Sec could act as attractive carriers for oral delivery of insulin.

  11. Blood pressure modulation following activation of mast cells by cationic cell penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Maamoun; Schwalb, Herzl; Shefler, Irit; Levdansky, Lilia; Mekori, Yoseph A; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2011-12-01

    Short cell penetrating peptides (CPP) are widely used in vitro to transduce agents into cells. But their systemic effect has not been yet studied in detail. We studied the systemic effect of the cell penetrating peptides, penetratin, transportan and pro-rich, on rat hemodynamic functions. Intra-arterial monitoring of blood pressure showed that injection of the positively charged penetratin and transportan in a wide range of concentrations (2.5-320 μg/kg) caused highly significant transient decrease in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a dose dependent manner (p<0.01). Pretreatment with histamine receptors blockers or with cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, significantly attenuated this effect. Furthermore, in vitro incubation of these both peptides with mast cells line, LAD2, caused a massive mast cell degranulation. In vitro studies showed that these CPP in a wide range of concentrations were not cytotoxic without any effect on the survival of LAD2 mast cell line. In contrast, the less positively charged and proline-rich CPP, pro-rich, had no systemic effects with no effect on mast cell degranulation. Our results indicate that intravenously administrated positively charged CPP may have deleterious consequences due to their induced BP drop, mediated by mast cell activation. Therefore, the major effect of mast cell activation on BP should be considered in developing possible future drug therapies based on the injection of membrane-permeable and positively charged CPP. Nevertheless, lower levels of such CPP may be considered as a treatment of systemic high BP through moderate systemic mast cell activation.

  12. Structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shuo

    This thesis reports the studies of the structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores by antimicrobial peptide alamethicin and by a peptide named Baxalpha5, which is derived from Bax protein. Alamethicin is one of best known antimicrobial peptides, which are ubiquitous throughout the biological world. Bax-alpha5 peptide is the pore-forming domain of apoptosis regulator protein Bax, which activates pore formation on outer mitochondrial membrane to release cytochrome c to initiate programmed cell death. Both peptides as well as many other pore-forming peptides, induce pores in membrane, however the structure and mechanism of the pore formation were unknown. By utilizing grazing angle x-ray diffraction, I was able to reconstruct the electron density profile of the membrane pores induced by both peptides. The fully hydrated multiple bilayers of peptide-lipid mixture on solid substrate were prepared in the condition that pores were present, as established previously by neutron in-plane scattering and oriented circular dichroism. At dehydrated conditions, the inter bilayer distance of the sample shortened and the interactions between bilayers caused the membrane pores to become long-ranged correlated and formed a periodically ordered lattice of rhombohedral symmetry, so that x-ray diffraction can be applied. To help solving the phase problem of diffraction, a brominated lipid was used and multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction was performed below the bromine K-edge. The reconstructed electron density profiles unambiguously revealed that the alamethicin-induced membrane pore is of barrel-stave type, while the Bax-alpha5 induced pore is of lipidic toroidal (wormhole) type. The underlying mechanism of pore formation was resolved by observing the time-dependent process of pore formation in vesicles exposed to Bax-alpha5 solutions, as well as the membrane thinning experiment. This demonstrated that Bax-alpha5 exhibited the same sigmoidal concentration dependence as

  13. Coarse Graining to Investigate Membrane Induced Peptide Folding of Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Sai; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    Information about membrane induced peptide folding mechanisms using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge due to time and length scale issues.We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads.These two dummy particles represent a fluctuating dipole,thus introducing structural polarization into the coarse-grained model.With this model,we were able to achieve significant α- β secondary structure content de novo,without any added bias.We extended the model to zwitterionic and anionic lipids,by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside polar beads, to capture the ability of the head group region to form hydrogen bonds.We use zwitterionic POPC and anionic POPS as our model lipids, and a cationic anticancer peptide,SVS1,as our model peptide.We have characterized the driving forces for SVS1 folding on lipid bilayers with varying anionic and zwitterionic lipid compositions.Based on our results, dipolar interactions between peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilize folded conformations.Cooperativity in folding is induced by both intra peptide and membrane-peptide interaction.

  14. Copper-induced oligomerization of peptides: a model study.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gitta; Stefanescu, Raluca; Przybylski, Michael; Murariu, Manuela; Hudecz, Ferenc; Drochioiu, Gabi

    2007-01-01

    In this work, copper-binding of the tetraglycine peptide (Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly) was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Experiments were performed under alkaline conditions, in the presence of ethanolamine (pH 10.95). We observed that the presence of copper(II) ions induces the aggregation of the peptide and the formation of copper-bound complexes with higher molecular mass is favored, such as the oligomer complexes [3M+2Cu-3H](+) and [4M+3Cu-5H](+). At 1:1 peptide-copper(II) ion ratio, the singly charged [3M+2Cu-3H](+) oligomer complex is the base peak in the mass spectrum. Metal ion-induced oligomer-ization of neurotoxic peptides is well known in the literature; however, there are very few examples in which such oligomerization was directly observed by mass spectrometry. Our results show that application of short peptides can be useful to study the -mechanism of metal ion binding and metal ion-induced oligomerization of peptides.

  15. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  16. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  17. Chiral Sulfoxide-Induced Single Turn Peptide α-Helicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Bingchuan; Lin, Huacan; Tian, Yuan; Xie, Mingsheng; Bai, Guoyun; Gilbert, Adam M.; Goetz, Gilles H.; Liras, Spiros; Mathiowetz, Alan A.; Price, David A.; Song, Kun; Tu, Meihua; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Tao; Flanagan, Mark E.; Wu, Yun-Dong; Li, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Inducing α-helicity through side-chain cross-linking is a strategy that has been pursued to improve peptide conformational rigidity and bio-availability. Here we describe the preparation of small peptides tethered to chiral sulfoxide-containing macrocyclic rings. Furthermore, a study of structure-activity relationships (SARs) disclosed properties with respect to ring size, sulfur position, oxidation state, and stereochemistry that show a propensity to induce α-helicity. Supporting data include circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), NMR spectroscopy, and a single crystal X-ray structure for one such stabilized peptide. Finally, theoretical studies are presented to elucidate the effect of chiral sulfoxides in inducing backbone α-helicity. PMID:27934919

  18. Mucin-like peptides from Echinococcus granulosus induce antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Noya, Verónica; Bay, Sylvie; Festari, María Florencia; García, Enrique P; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Ganneau, Christelle; Baleux, Françoise; Astrada, Soledad; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Osinaga, Eduardo; Freire, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    There is substantial evidence suggesting that certain parasites can have antitumor properties. We evaluated mucin peptides derived from the helminth Echinococcus granulosus (denominated Egmuc) as potential inducers of antitumor activity. We present data showing that Egmuc peptides were capable of inducing an increase of activated NK cells in the spleen of immunized mice, a fact that was correlated with the capacity of splenocytes to mediate killing of tumor cells. We demonstrated that Egmuc peptides enhance LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells in vitro by increasing the production of IL-12p40p70 and IL-6 and that Egmuc-treated DCs may activate NK cells, as judged by an increased expression of CD69. This evidence may contribute to the design of tumor vaccines and open new horizons in the use of parasite-derived molecules in the fight against cancer.

  19. Peptides conjugated to gold nanoparticles induce macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Bastús, Neus G; Sánchez-Tilló, Ester; Pujals, Silvia; Farrera, Consol; Kogan, Marcelo J; Giralt, Ernest; Celada, Antonio; Lloberas, Jorge; Puntes, Victor

    2009-02-01

    Macrophages that react against pathogenic organisms can also be activated with artificial nanometric units consisting of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with a peptide coating. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, here we show that these cells have the capacity to recognize Au NPs once conjugated to two biomedically relevant peptides, the amyloid growth inhibitory peptide (AGIP) and the sweet arrow peptide (SAP), while they do not recognize peptides or NPs alone. The recognition of these conjugates by macrophages is mediated by a pattern recognition receptor, the TLR-4. Consequently, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6, as well as nitric oxide synthase were induced and macrophage proliferation was stopped when exposed to the peptide-conjugated Au NPs. Contamination by lipopolysaccharide in our experimental system was excluded. Furthermore, macrophage activation appeared to be independent of peptide length and polarity. As a result of macrophage activation, conjugated Au NPs were internalized and processed. These results open up a new avenue in the world of adjuvants and illustrate the basic requirements for the design of NP conjugates that efficiently reach their target.

  20. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  1. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  2. Peptide hydrogelation triggered by enzymatic induced pH switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    It remains challenging to develop methods that can precisely control the self-assembling kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide hydrogelators to achieve hydrogels with optimal properties. Here we report the hydrogelation of peptide hydrogelators by an enzymatically induced pH switch, which involves the combination of glucose oxidase and catalase with D-glucose as the substrate, in which both the gelation kinetics and thermodynamics can be controlled by the concentrations of D-glucose. This novel hydrogelation method could result in hydrogels with higher mechanical stability and lower hydrogelation concentrations. We further illustrate the application of this hydrogelation method to differentiate different D-glucose levels.

  3. Biofilm Induced Tolerance towards Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Folkesson, Anders; Haagensen, Janus A. J.; Zampaloni, Claudia; Sternberg, Claus; Molin, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. We established Escherichia coli biofilms with differential structural organization due to the presence of IncF plasmids expressing altered forms of the transfer pili in two different biofilm model systems. The mature biofilms were subsequently treated with two antibiotics with different molecular targets, the peptide antibiotic colistin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. The dynamics of microbial killing were monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Strains forming structurally organized biofilms show an increased bacterial survival when challenged with colistin, compared to strains forming unstructured biofilms. The increased survival is due to genetically regulated tolerant subpopulation formation and not caused by a general biofilm property. No significant difference in survival was detected when the strains were challenged with ciprofloxacin. Our data show that biofilm formation confers increased colistin tolerance to cells within the biofilm structure, but the protection is conditional being dependent on the structural organization of the biofilm, and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms. PMID:18382672

  4. CART peptide induces neuroregeneration in stroke rats

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu; Shen, Hui; Liu, Hua-Shan; Yu, Seong-Jin; Reiner, David J; Harvey, Brandon K; Hoffer, Barry J; Yang, Yihong; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a classic stroke model in rodents, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), we describe a novel neuroregenerative approach using the repeated intranasal administration of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide starting from day 3 poststroke for enhancing the functional recovery of injured brain. Adult rats were separated into two groups with similar infarction sizes, measured by magnetic resonance imaging on day 2 after MCAo, and were treated with CART or vehicle. The CART treatment increased CART level in the brain, improved behavioral recovery, and reduced neurological scores. In the subventricular zone (SVZ), CART enhanced immunolabeling of bromodeoxyuridine, a neural progenitor cell marker Musashi-1, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, as well as upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA. AAV–GFP was locally applied to the SVZ to examine migration of SVZ cells. The CART enhanced migration of GFP(+) cells from SVZ toward the ischemic cortex. In SVZ culture, CART increased the size of neurospheres. The CART-mediated cell migration from SVZ explants was reduced by anti-BDNF blocking antibody. Using 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), increases in N-acetylaspartate levels were found in the lesioned cortex after CART treatment in stroke brain. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript increased the expression of GAP43 and fluoro-ruby fluorescence in the lesioned cortex. In conclusion, our data suggest that intranasal CART treatment facilitates neuroregeneration in stroke brain. PMID:23211962

  5. Biofilm induced tolerance towards antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Anders; Haagensen, Janus A J; Zampaloni, Claudia; Sternberg, Claus; Molin, Søren

    2008-04-02

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. We established Escherichia coli biofilms with differential structural organization due to the presence of IncF plasmids expressing altered forms of the transfer pili in two different biofilm model systems. The mature biofilms were subsequently treated with two antibiotics with different molecular targets, the peptide antibiotic colistin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. The dynamics of microbial killing were monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Strains forming structurally organized biofilms show an increased bacterial survival when challenged with colistin, compared to strains forming unstructured biofilms. The increased survival is due to genetically regulated tolerant subpopulation formation and not caused by a general biofilm property. No significant difference in survival was detected when the strains were challenged with ciprofloxacin. Our data show that biofilm formation confers increased colistin tolerance to cells within the biofilm structure, but the protection is conditional being dependent on the structural organization of the biofilm, and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Mechanisms of protein transduction domains: HIV TAT and ANTP penetratin as prototypical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan; Gordon, Vernita; Wong, Gerard

    2007-03-01

    Biologically active molecules such as proteins and oligonucleotides can be transduced across cell membranes with high efficiency when covalently linked to a Protein Transduction Domain (PTD), such as the TAT domain in the HIV virus and ANTP from the fruitfly. All PTDs have a high content of basic amino acids resulting in a net positive charge. Electrostatic interactions between cationic PTDs and the negatively charged phospholipids that constitute the plasma membrane are likely to be responsible for peptide uptake, but no detailed structural studies exist. We examined membrane structures induced by the cationic TAT domain and those induced by other cationic polypeptides as a function of membrane composition using synchrotron x-ray scattering. We find that both the TAT PTD and ANTP generate negative Gaussian curvature, which is necessary for pore formation, and produce a bicontinuous Pn3m double diamond cubic phase. A general mechanism is proposed.

  7. Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Lezhava, T; Monaselidze, J; Kadotani, T; Dvalishvili, N; Buadze, T

    2006-04-01

    The effect of synthetic peptide bioregulators (Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon) on structural and facultative heterochromatin of cultivated lymphocytes have been studied among old (75-88yr.) people. The data obtained indicate that epitalon, livagen and vilon: 1) activate synthetic processes, caused by reactivation of ribosomal genes as a result of deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of nucleolus organizer regions; 2) induce unrolling (deheterochromatinization) of total heterochromatin; 3) release genes repressed by heterochromatinization (condensation) of euchromatic regions forming facultative heterochromatin; 4) epitalon and livagen induce deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin of the chromosomes1 and 9. However, vilon does not induce deheterochromatinization of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin. These results indicate that peptide bioregulators Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon cause activation (deheterochromatinization) of chromatin in lymphocytes of old individuals.

  8. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wells, J Mitchell; McLuckey, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    The most commonly used activation method in the tandem mass spectrometry (MS) of peptides and proteins is energetic collisions with a neutral target gas. The overall process of collisional activation followed by fragmentation of the ion is commonly referred to as collision-induced dissociation (CID). The structural information that results from CID of a peptide or protein ion is highly dependent on the conditions used to effect CID. These include, for example, the relative translational energy of the ion and target, the nature of the target, the number of collisions that is likely to take place, and the observation window of the apparatus. This chapter summarizes the key experimental parameters in the CID of peptide and protein ions, as well as the conditions that tend to prevail in the most commonly employed tandem mass spectrometers.

  9. Honokiol suppresses formyl peptide-induced human neutrophil activation by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Syu, Yu-Ting; Fang, Jia-You; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Tung; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2017-07-27

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) mediates bacterial and mitochondrial N-formyl peptides-induced neutrophil activation. Therefore, FPR1 is an important therapeutic target for drugs to treat septic or sterile inflammatory diseases. Honokiol, a major bioactive compound of Magnoliaceae plants, possesses several anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we show that honokiol exhibits an inhibitory effect on FPR1 binding in human neutrophils. Honokiol inhibited superoxide anion generation, reactive oxygen species formation, and elastase release in bacterial or mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (FPR1 agonists)-activated human neutrophils. Adhesion of FPR1-induced human neutrophils to cerebral endothelial cells was also reduced by honokiol. The receptor-binding results revealed that honokiol repressed FPR1-specific ligand N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein binding to FPR1 in human neutrophils, neutrophil-like THP-1 cells, and hFPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. However, honokiol did not inhibit FPR2-specific ligand binding to FPR2 in human neutrophils. Furthermore, honokiol inhibited FPR1 agonist-induced calcium mobilization as well as phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK in human neutrophils. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that honokiol may have therapeutic potential for treating FPR1-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  10. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry analyses of cell-penetrating peptides internalization pathways: optimization, pitfalls, comparison with mass spectrometry quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illien, Françoise; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Amoura, Mehdi; Joliot, Alain; Pallerla, Manjula; Cribier, Sophie; Burlina, Fabienne; Sagan, Sandrine

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of cell-penetrating peptides entry into cells is unclear, preventing the development of more efficient vectors for biotechnological or therapeutic purposes. Here, we developed a protocol relying on fluorometry to distinguish endocytosis from direct membrane translocation, using Penetratin, TAT and R9. The quantities of internalized CPPs measured by fluorometry in cell lysates converge with those obtained by our previously reported mass spectrometry quantification method. By contrast, flow cytometry quantification faces several limitations due to fluorescence quenching processes that depend on the cell line and occur at peptide/cell ratio >6.108 for CF-Penetratin. The analysis of cellular internalization of a doubly labeled fluorescent and biotinylated Penetratin analogue by the two independent techniques, fluorometry and mass spectrometry, gave consistent results at the quantitative and qualitative levels. Both techniques revealed the use of two alternative translocation and endocytosis pathways, whose relative efficacy depends on cell-surface sugars and peptide concentration. We confirmed that Penetratin translocates at low concentration and uses endocytosis at high μM concentrations. We further demonstrate that the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the N-terminal extremity impacts on the internalization efficiency of CPPs. We expect these results and the associated protocols to help unraveling the translocation pathway to the cytosol of cells.

  11. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry analyses of cell-penetrating peptides internalization pathways: optimization, pitfalls, comparison with mass spectrometry quantification.

    PubMed

    Illien, Françoise; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Amoura, Mehdi; Joliot, Alain; Pallerla, Manjula; Cribier, Sophie; Burlina, Fabienne; Sagan, Sandrine

    2016-11-14

    The mechanism of cell-penetrating peptides entry into cells is unclear, preventing the development of more efficient vectors for biotechnological or therapeutic purposes. Here, we developed a protocol relying on fluorometry to distinguish endocytosis from direct membrane translocation, using Penetratin, TAT and R9. The quantities of internalized CPPs measured by fluorometry in cell lysates converge with those obtained by our previously reported mass spectrometry quantification method. By contrast, flow cytometry quantification faces several limitations due to fluorescence quenching processes that depend on the cell line and occur at peptide/cell ratio >6.10(8) for CF-Penetratin. The analysis of cellular internalization of a doubly labeled fluorescent and biotinylated Penetratin analogue by the two independent techniques, fluorometry and mass spectrometry, gave consistent results at the quantitative and qualitative levels. Both techniques revealed the use of two alternative translocation and endocytosis pathways, whose relative efficacy depends on cell-surface sugars and peptide concentration. We confirmed that Penetratin translocates at low concentration and uses endocytosis at high μM concentrations. We further demonstrate that the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the N-terminal extremity impacts on the internalization efficiency of CPPs. We expect these results and the associated protocols to help unraveling the translocation pathway to the cytosol of cells.

  12. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry analyses of cell-penetrating peptides internalization pathways: optimization, pitfalls, comparison with mass spectrometry quantification

    PubMed Central

    Illien, Françoise; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Amoura, Mehdi; Joliot, Alain; Pallerla, Manjula; Cribier, Sophie; Burlina, Fabienne; Sagan, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of cell-penetrating peptides entry into cells is unclear, preventing the development of more efficient vectors for biotechnological or therapeutic purposes. Here, we developed a protocol relying on fluorometry to distinguish endocytosis from direct membrane translocation, using Penetratin, TAT and R9. The quantities of internalized CPPs measured by fluorometry in cell lysates converge with those obtained by our previously reported mass spectrometry quantification method. By contrast, flow cytometry quantification faces several limitations due to fluorescence quenching processes that depend on the cell line and occur at peptide/cell ratio >6.108 for CF-Penetratin. The analysis of cellular internalization of a doubly labeled fluorescent and biotinylated Penetratin analogue by the two independent techniques, fluorometry and mass spectrometry, gave consistent results at the quantitative and qualitative levels. Both techniques revealed the use of two alternative translocation and endocytosis pathways, whose relative efficacy depends on cell-surface sugars and peptide concentration. We confirmed that Penetratin translocates at low concentration and uses endocytosis at high μM concentrations. We further demonstrate that the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the N-terminal extremity impacts on the internalization efficiency of CPPs. We expect these results and the associated protocols to help unraveling the translocation pathway to the cytosol of cells. PMID:27841303

  13. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by peptides targeting NF-kappa B essential modulator (nemo) oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Courtois, Gilles; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Baleux, Françoise; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Traincard, François; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2004-12-24

    NF-kappa B essential modulator/IKK-gamma (NEMO/IKK-gamma) plays a key role in the activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous studies suggested that the signal-dependent activation of the IKK complex involves the trimerization of NEMO. The minimal oligomerization domain of this protein consists of two coiled-coil subdomains named Coiled-coil 2 (CC2) and leucine zipper (LZ) (Agou, F., Traincard, F., Vinolo, E., Courtois, G., Yamaoka, S., Israel, A., and Veron, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 27861-27869). To search for drugs inhibiting NF-kappa B activation, we have rationally designed cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the CC2 and LZ subdomains that mimic the contact areas between NEMO subunits. The peptides were tagged with the Antennapedia/Penetratin motif and delivered to cells prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Peptide transduction was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and their effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappa B activation was quantified using an NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase assay in stably transfected pre-B 70Z/3 lymphocytes. We show that the peptides corresponding to the LZ and CC2 subdomains inhibit NF-kappa B activation with an IC(50) in the mum range. Control peptides, including mutated CC2 and LZ peptides and a heterologous coiled-coil peptide, had no inhibitory effect. The designed peptides are able to induce cell death in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells exhibiting constitutive NF-kappa B activity. Our results provide the "proof of concept" for a new and promising strategy for the inhibition of NF-kappa B pathway activation through targeting the oligomerization state of the NEMO protein.

  14. Assays for Identifying Inducers of the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37.

    PubMed

    Nylén, Frank; Bergman, Peter; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    One promising approach to meet the growing problem of antibiotic resistance is to modulate host defense mechanisms, i.e., host-directed therapy (HDT), in the fight against infections. Induction of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) via small molecular compounds, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or phenylbutyrate, could provide one such HDT-based approach.We have developed a cell-based screening assay for the identification of novel compounds with the capacity to induce AMP expression and here follows the detailed protocol.

  15. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide induces the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ki-Chan; Chae, Han-Jung; Piao, Cheng-Shi; Kim, Suhn-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2005-01-01

    Early heart failure is characterized by elevated plasma Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity (DNP-LI). However, the direct effects of DNP on heart or the heart-associated cell system are not well known. Therefore, we investigated whether DNP induces the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells. H9c2 cardiac muscle cells and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with various concentrations of DNP. Cell viability and nuclear morphology change were determined by trypan blue staining and Hoechst 33258 staining, respectively. Caspase-3-like activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrates. Pro-and antiapoptotic proteins were assayed by Western blotting. DNP induced the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum effects occurred at 100 nM concentration of DNP, with a 7-8-fold increase in apoptotic cells, to reach a maximum apoptotic index of 17%. We also identified that H9c2 cardiac muscle cells expressed Natriuretic peptide reactor -A and -B, which respond to DNP to generate cGMP. The treatment with DNP also markedly reduced levels of Bcl-2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1, and inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and increased the level of Bax and cytochrome c release into cytoplasm and subsequent caspase-3 activation, which co-occurred with increased apoptosis. DNP-induced apoptosis was mediated by cyclic GMP, and this effect was mimicked by dibutylyl-cGMP (30 microM), a membrane permeable analog of cGMP. Furthermore, DNP-induced apoptosis was observed in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DNP induces the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells and of cardiomyocytes via cGMP and demonstrate that the operative mechanism includes the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  16. Determination of the optimal cell-penetrating peptide sequence for intestinal insulin delivery based on molecular orbital analysis with self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Kikuchi, Shingo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Terasawa, Yoshiaki; Yasuda, Akihito; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Ida, Nobuo; Nishio, Reiji; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Our recent work has shown that the intestinal absorption of insulin can be improved significantly by coadministration of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), especially penetratin. However, a relatively high dose of penetratin is required to adequately stimulate the intestinal absorption of insulin. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the CPP that most effectively enhanced intestinal insulin absorption. An in situ loop absorption study using 26 penetratin analogues suggested that the chain length, hydrophobicity, and amphipathicity of the CPPs, as well as their basicity, contribute to their absorption-enhancing efficiency. Moreover, a molecular orbital method with self-organizing maps (SOMs) classification suggested that multiple factors, including the molecular weight, basicity, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, absolute hardness, and chemical potential of CPPs, are associated with their effects on intestinal insulin absorption. Furthermore, the new CPPs proposed by SOM clustering had a marked capacity to interact with insulin, and their ability to enhance insulin absorption was much stronger than that of the original penetratin. Therefore, the peptide sequence that optimally enhances intestinal insulin absorption could be defined by SOM with the molecular orbital method, and our present work emphasizes the utility of such methodologies in the development of effective drug delivery systems.

  17. Short peptide induces an "uncultivable" microorganism to grow in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Lewis, K; Orjala, J; Mo, S; Ortenberg, R; O'Connor, P; Zhao, C; Vouros, P; Kaeberlein, T; Epstein, S S

    2008-08-01

    Microorganisms comprise the bulk of biodiversity, but only a small fraction of this diversity grows on artificial media. This phenomenon was noticed almost a century ago, repeatedly confirmed, and termed the "great plate count anomaly." Advances in microbial cultivation improved microbial recovery but failed to explain why most microbial species do not grow in vitro. Here we show that at least some of such species can form domesticated variants capable of growth on artificial media. We also present evidence that small signaling molecules, such as short peptides, may be essential factors in initiating growth of nongrowing cells. We identified one 5-amino-acid peptide, LQPEV, that at 3.5 nM induces the otherwise "uncultivable" strain Psychrobacter sp. strain MSC33 to grow on standard media. This demonstrates that the restriction preventing microbial in vitro growth may be different from those offered to date to explain the "great plate count anomaly," such as deficiencies in nutrient composition and concentrations in standard media, medium toxicity, and inappropriate incubation time. Growth induction of MSC33 illustrates that some microorganisms do not grow in vitro because they are removed from their native communities and the signals produced therein. "Uncultivable" species represent the largest source of unexplored biodiversity, and provide remarkable opportunities for both basic and applied research. Access to cultures of some of these species should be possible through identification of the signaling compounds necessary for growth, their addition to standard medium formulations, and eventual domestication.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses.

  19. JNK3 perpetuates metabolic stress induced by Aβ peptides.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Ok; Park, Dong Ju; Ryu, Jae Cheon; Ozer, Hatice Gulcin; Tep, Chhavy; Shin, Yong Jae; Lim, Tae Hee; Pastorino, Lucia; Kunwar, Ajaya J; Walton, James C; Nagahara, Alan H; Lu, Kun Ping; Nelson, Randy J; Tuszynski, Mark H; Huang, Kun

    2012-09-06

    Although Aβ peptides are causative agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. We report that Aβ42 induces a translational block by activating AMPK, thereby inhibiting the mTOR pathway. This translational block leads to widespread ER stress, which activates JNK3. JNK3 in turn phosphorylates APP at T668, thereby facilitating its endocytosis and subsequent processing. In support, pharmacologically blocking translation results in a significant increase in Aβ42 in a JNK3-dependent manner. Thus, JNK3 activation, which is increased in human AD cases and a familial AD (FAD) mouse model, is integral to perpetuating Aβ42 production. Concomitantly, deletion of JNK3 from FAD mice results in a dramatic reduction in Aβ42 levels and overall plaque loads and increased neuronal number and improved cognition. This reveals AD as a metabolic disease that is under tight control by JNK3. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain delivery of insulin boosted by intranasal coadministration with cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-01-10

    Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway. To test this hypothesis, the CNS-related model peptide insulin was intranasally coadministered with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin to mice. As a result, insulin coadministered with l- or d-penetratin reached the distal regions of the brain from the nasal cavity, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem. In particular, d-penetratin could intranasally deliver insulin to the brain with a reduced risk of systemic insulin exposure. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggested that CPPs are potential tools for the brain delivery of peptide- and protein-based pharmaceuticals via intranasal administration.

  1. Fragmentation of intra-peptide and inter-peptide disulfide bonds of proteolytic peptides by nanoESI collision-induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Mormann, Michael; Eble, Johannes; Schwöppe, Christian; Mesters, Rolf M; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Pohlentz, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Characterisation and identification of disulfide bridges is an important aspect of structural elucidation of proteins. Covalent cysteine-cysteine contacts within the protein give rise to stabilisation of the native tertiary structure of the molecules. Bottom-up identification and sequencing of proteins by mass spectrometry most frequently involves reductive cleavage and alkylation of disulfide links followed by enzymatic digestion. However, when using this approach, information on cysteine-cysteine contacts within the protein is lost. Mass spectrometric characterisation of peptides containing intra-chain disulfides is a challenging analytical task, because peptide bonds within the disulfide loop are believed to be resistant to fragmentation. In this contribution we show recent results on the fragmentation of intra and inter-peptide disulfide bonds of proteolytic peptides by nano electrospray ionisation collision-induced dissociation (nanoESI CID). Disulfide bridge-containing peptides obtained from proteolytic digests were submitted to low-energy nanoESI CID using a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument as a mass analyser. Fragmentation of the gaseous peptide ions gave rise to a set of b and y-type fragment ions which enabled derivation of the sequence of the amino acids located outside the disulfide loop. Surprisingly, careful examination of the fragment-ion spectra of peptide ions comprising an intramolecular disulfide bridge revealed the presence of low-abundance fragment ions formed by the cleavage of peptide bonds within the disulfide loop. These fragmentations are preceded by proton-induced asymmetric cleavage of the disulfide bridge giving rise to a modified cysteine containing a disulfohydryl substituent and a dehydroalanine residue on the C-S cleavage site.

  2. Lens Endogenous Peptide αA66-80 Generates Hydrogen Peroxide and Induces Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Murugesan; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Sharma, K. Krishna

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported the presence of a large number of low-molecular-weight (LMW) peptides in aged and cataract human lens tissues. Among the LMW peptides, a peptide derived from αA-crystallin, αA66-80, was found in higher concentration in aged and cataract lenses. Additional characterization of the αA66-80 peptide showed beta sheet signature, and it formed well-defined unbranched fibrils. Further experimental data showed that αA66-80 peptide binds α-crystallin, impairs its chaperone function, and attracts additional crystallin proteins to the peptide α-crystallin complex, leading to the formation of larger light scattering aggregates. It is well established that Aβ peptide exhibits cell toxicity by the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The αA66-80 peptide shares the principal properties of Aβ peptide. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether the fibril-forming peptide αA66-80 has the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. The results show that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide, in the amount of 1.2 nM H2O2 per µg of αA66-80 peptide by incubation at 37°C for 4h. We also observed cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in αA66-80 peptide-transduced Cos7 cells. As evident, we found more TUNEL-positive cells in αA66-80 peptide transduced Cos7 cells than in control cells, suggesting peptide-mediated cell apoptosis. Additional immunohistochemistry analysis showed the active form of caspase-3, suggesting activation of the caspase-dependent pathway during peptide-induced cell apoptosis. These results confirm that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide and promotes hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell apoptosis. PMID:28203481

  3. Lens Endogenous Peptide αA66-80 Generates Hydrogen Peroxide and Induces Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Murugesan; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Sharma, K Krishna

    2017-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported the presence of a large number of low-molecular-weight (LMW) peptides in aged and cataract human lens tissues. Among the LMW peptides, a peptide derived from αA-crystallin, αA66-80, was found in higher concentration in aged and cataract lenses. Additional characterization of the αA66-80 peptide showed beta sheet signature, and it formed well-defined unbranched fibrils. Further experimental data showed that αA66-80 peptide binds α-crystallin, impairs its chaperone function, and attracts additional crystallin proteins to the peptide α-crystallin complex, leading to the formation of larger light scattering aggregates. It is well established that Aβ peptide exhibits cell toxicity by the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The αA66-80 peptide shares the principal properties of Aβ peptide. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether the fibril-forming peptide αA66-80 has the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. The results show that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide, in the amount of 1.2 nM H2O2 per µg of αA66-80 peptide by incubation at 37°C for 4h. We also observed cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in αA66-80 peptide-transduced Cos7 cells. As evident, we found more TUNEL-positive cells in αA66-80 peptide transduced Cos7 cells than in control cells, suggesting peptide-mediated cell apoptosis. Additional immunohistochemistry analysis showed the active form of caspase-3, suggesting activation of the caspase-dependent pathway during peptide-induced cell apoptosis. These results confirm that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide and promotes hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell apoptosis.

  4. Euler buckling, membrane corrugation and pore formation induced by antimicrobial peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Fang, Weihai

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides serve as defense weapons against bacteria. They are secreted by organisms of plants and animals and have a wide variety in composition and structure. In this study, we theoretically explore the effects of the antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using analytic arguments and the coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. Such buckled membrane states have been indeed seen in a number of experiments with bacteria affected by peptide, yet this is the first theoretical study addressing these phenomena more deeply.

  5. Signalling processes involved in C-peptide-induced chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, M; Walcher, D; Giehl, K; Bach, H; Grüb, M; Durst, R; Hombach, V; Marx, N

    2009-06-01

    Previous data from our group demonstrated that C-peptide induces chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes in-vitro, mediated by activation of G-protein and PI 3-kinase gamma, but additional signalling pathways involved in this process remained unexplored. In the present study we further analyze intracellular signalling pathways which lead to C-peptide-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration. We provide evidence that C-peptide-induced chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes is critically dependent on activation of Src-kinase and RhoA, Rac-1 and Cdc42 GTPases. Furthermore, C-peptide stimulates phosphorylation of PAK, LIMK and cofilin downstream of Rac-1 and Cdc42, leading to cofilin inactivation and actin filament stabilization. In addition, C-peptide induces ROCK kinase activity and MLC phosphorylation downstream of RhoA, thereby stimulating myosin mediated cell contraction. In contrast, C-peptide does not activate ERK1/2, p38 or Akt in CD4-positive lymphocytes. Our data support an active role of C-peptide in CD4-positive lymphocyte chemotaxis and elucidate molecular mechanisms in C-peptide-induced cell migration.

  6. Protective effect of wheat peptides against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  7. Venom peptides from solitary hunting wasps induce feeding disorder in lepidopteran larvae.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Ji, Yeounjung; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2011-03-01

    The cell lytic activity and toxicity against lepidopteran larvae of 13 venom peptides (4 OdVPs and 9 EpVPs) from two solitary hunting wasps, Orancistrocerus drewseni and Eumenes pomiformis, were examined with mastoparan as a reference peptide. Of the 13 peptides, 7 were predicted to have α-helical structures that exhibit the typical character of amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptides. The remaining peptides exhibited coil structures; among these, EpVP5 possesses two Cys residues that form an internal disulfide bridge. All the helical peptides including mastoparan showed antimicrobial and insect cell lytic activities, whereas only two of them were hemolytic against human erythrocytes. The helical peptides induced a feeding disorder when injected into the vicinity of the head and thorax of Spodoptera exigua larvae, perhaps because their non-specific neurotoxic or myotoxic action induced cell lysis. At low concentrations, however, these helical peptides increased cell permeability without inducing cell lysis. These findings suggest that the helical venom peptides may function as non-specific neurotoxins or myotoxins and venom-spreading factors at low concentrations, as well as preservatives for long-term storage of the prey via antimicrobial, particularly antifungal, activities.

  8. Tryptophan within basic peptide sequences triggers glycosaminoglycan-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Chérine; Pallerla, Manjula; Zaltsman, Yefim; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D; Lequin, Olivier; Sagan, Sandrine

    2013-02-01

    Deciphering the structural requirements and mechanisms for internalization of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is required to improve their delivery efficiency. Herein, a unique role of tryptophan (Trp) residues in the interaction and structuring of cationic CPP sequences with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) has been characterized, in relation with cell internalization. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, circular dichroism, NMR, mass spectrometry, and phase-contrast microscopy, we compared the interaction of 7 basic CPPs with 5 classes of GAGs. We found that the affinity of CPPs for GAGs increases linearly with the number of Trp residues, from 30 nM for a penetratin analog with 1 Trp residue to 1.5 nM for a penetratin analog with 6 Trp residues for heparin (HI); peptides with Trp residues adopt a predominantly β-strand structure in complex with HI and form large, stable β-sheet aggregates with GAGs; and in the absence of any cytotoxicity effect, the quantity of peptide internalized into CHO cells increased 2 times with 1 Trp residue, 10 times with 2 Trp residues, and 20 times with 3 Trp residues, compared with +6 peptides with no Trp residues. Therefore, Trp residues represent molecular determinants in basic peptide sequences not only for direct membrane translocation but also for efficient endocytosis through GAGs.

  9. Peptidal Sex Hormones Inducing Conjugation Tube Formation in Compatible Mating-Type Cells of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Y; Yoshida, M; Isogai, A; Suzuki, A

    1981-06-26

    The pair of peptidal sex hormones (tremerogen A-10 and tremerogen a-13) that induce conjugation tube formation in compatible type cells (A and a types) of Tremella mesenterica were isolated. Tremerogen A-10 is a dodecapeptide and tremerogen a-13, a tridecapeptide. In both peptides, the sulfiydryl group of the cysteines at the carboxyl terminus was blocked by farnesyl moieties.

  10. Caffeine-induced diuresis and atrial natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Nussberger, J; Mooser, V; Maridor, G; Juillerat, L; Waeber, B; Brunner, H R

    1990-05-01

    After a single-blind, randomized, cross-over protocol using decaffeinated coffee in a control experiment, the effect of an oral 250-mg caffeine dose on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) was assessed in eight healthy students who had been on a methylxanthine-free diet for 1 week. One to 2 h after caffeine ingestion, both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased by 12 mm Hg while heart rate (HR) also tended to increase. An increase in diuresis and in urinary sodium, potassium, and osmol excretion was observed within 1 h. Decaffeinated coffee induced no change in any of these parameters. Plasma epinephrine (EPI) increased gradually from 16.6 +/- 3.2 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) to 45.1 +/- 7.9 pg/ml within 2 h after caffeine ingestion, but did not change after decaffeinated coffee (p less than 0.001). Plasma norepinephrine (NE), renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, and vasopressin remained unchanged. Plasma ANF was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using an extremely sensitive antiserum (Kd = 10(-12) M) after rapid and virtually complete (90-103%) extraction from plasma. In 0.2 ml plasma, the theoretical detection limit is 1.1 fmol/ml. Normal plasma ANF concentrations in supine subjects were 17.9 +/- 8.1 fmol/ml (mean +/- SD) and 11.0 +/- 3.3 fmol/ml in subjects in the upright position. Plasma ANF levels were not affected by coffee drinking. In conclusion, by using a new and sensitive assay for plasma ANF, we did not find that caffeine-induced diuresis is mediated by ANF.

  11. Superoxide generation catalyzed by the ozone-inducible plant peptides analogous to prion octarepeat motif.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-04-01

    Ozone-inducible (OI) peptides found in plants contain repeated sequences consisting of a hexa-repeat unit (YGH GGG) repeated 7-9 times in tandem, and each unit tightly binds copper. To date, the biochemical roles for OI peptides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the hexa-repeat unit from OI peptides behaves as metal-binding motif catalytically active in the O2•--generation. Lastly, possible mechanisms of the reaction and biological consequence of the reactions are discussed by analogy to the action of human prion octarepeat peptides.

  12. Improving the identification rate of endogenous peptides using electron transfer dissociation and collision-induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Eisuke; Menschaert, Gerben; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Luyten, Walter; Gevaert, Kris; Baggerman, Geert; Schoofs, Liliane

    2013-12-06

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with bioinformatics tools have enabled fast and systematic protein identification based on peptide-to-spectrum matches. However, it remains challenging to obtain accurate identification of endogenous peptides, such as neuropeptides, peptide hormones, peptide pheromones, venom peptides, and antimicrobial peptides. Since these peptides are processed at sites that are difficult to predict reliably, the search of their MS/MS spectra in sequence databases needs to be done without any protease setting. In addition, many endogenous peptides carry various post-translational modifications, making it essential to take these into account in the database search. These characteristics of endogenous peptides result in a huge search space, frequently leading to poor confidence of the peptide characterizations in peptidomics studies. We have developed a new MS/MS spectrum search tool for highly accurate and confident identification of endogenous peptides by combining two different fragmentation methods. Our approach takes advantage of the combination of two independent fragmentation methods (collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation). Their peptide spectral matching is carried out separately in both methods, and the final score is built as a combination of the two separate scores. We demonstrate that this approach is very effective in discriminating correct peptide identifications from false hits. We applied this approach to a spectral data set of neuropeptides extracted from mouse pituitary tumor cells. Compared to conventional MS-based identification, i.e., using a single fragmentation method, our approach significantly increased the peptide identification rate. It proved also highly effective for scanning spectra against a very large search space, enabling more accurate genome-wide searches and searches including multiple potential post-translational modifications.

  13. Computer-aided designing of immunosuppressive peptides based on IL-10 inducing potential

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Usmani, Salman Sadullah; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, Meenu; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In the past, numerous methods have been developed to predict MHC class II binders or T-helper epitopes for designing the epitope-based vaccines against pathogens. In contrast, limited attempts have been made to develop methods for predicting T-helper epitopes/peptides that can induce a specific type of cytokine. This paper describes a method, developed for predicting interleukin-10 (IL-10) inducing peptides, a cytokine responsible for suppressing the immune system. All models were trained and tested on experimentally validated 394 IL-10 inducing and 848 non-inducing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues and motifs are more frequent in IL-10 inducing peptides than in non-inducing peptides. Based on this analysis, we developed composition-based models using various machine-learning techniques. Random Forest-based model achieved the maximum Matthews’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC) value of 0.59 with an accuracy of 81.24% developed using dipeptide composition. In order to facilitate the community, we developed a web server “IL-10pred”, standalone packages and a mobile app for designing IL-10 inducing peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/IL-10pred/). PMID:28211521

  14. The prelamin A pre-peptide induces cardiac and skeletal myoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Gary L. . E-mail: Gary.Brodsky@uchsc.edu; Bowersox, Jeffrey A.; Fitzgerald-Miller, Lisa; Miller, Leslie A.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-18

    Prelamin A processing is unique amongst mammalian proteins and results in the production of a farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptide. We examined the effect of pathogenic LMNA mutations on prelamin A processing, and of the covalently modified peptide on cardiac and skeletal myoblast differentiation. Here we report a mutation associated with dilated cardiomyopathy prevents prelamin A peptide production. In addition, topical application of the covalently modified C-terminal peptide to proliferating skeletal and cardiac myoblasts induced myotube and striated tissue formation, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that skeletal and cardiac myoblasts are the first cell lines examined to contain unprocessed prelamin A, and immunostaining of peptide-treated cells revealed a previously unidentified role for prelamin A in cytoskeleton formation and intercellular organization. These results demonstrate a direct role for prelamin A in myoblast differentiation and indicate the prelamin A peptide may have therapeutic potential.

  15. Sodium diclofenac and cell-penetrating peptides embedded in H(II) mesophases: physical characterization and delivery.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Avrahami, Marganit; Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-09-01

    Glycerol monooleate (GMO)-based mesophases offer extensive prospects for incorporation of various bioactive molecules. This work deals with the solubilization of selected cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) together with sodium diclofenac (Na-DFC) within the H(II) mesophase for transdermal applications. The effect of CPPs such as RALA (an amphipatic CPP), penetratin (PEN), and oligoarginine (NONA) on Na-DFC skin permeation kinetics to provide controlled release and tune the drug transdermal diffusion was studied. The location of the drug and the CPPs within the mesophase was probed by DSC and FTIR. Na-DFC was found to be located at the interfacial region between the surfactant chains, leading to denser H(II) mesophase. The hydrophilic NONA was intercalated into the aqueous cylinders and caused their swelling. It induced a significant decrease in the hydrogen binding between the GMO carbonyls and their surrounding. The amphiphilic PEN was entrapped within two different regions, depending on its concentration. PEN and NONA improved Na-DFC permeation by 100%, whereas RALA enhanced permeation by 50%. When estimating Na-DFC migration rate out of the mesophase toward surrounding aqueous media, it appeared to be slower with the CPPs. The peptides were not involved at this diffusion-controlled step. It seems that their effect on skin permeation is based on their specific interaction with the skin.

  16. Angioedema induced by a peptide derived from complement component C2

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic peptides that correspond to the COOH-terminal portion of C2b enhance vascular permeability in human and guinea pig skin. In human studies, 1 nmol of the most active peptide of 25-amino acid residues produced substantial local edema. A pentapeptide and a heptapeptide corresponding to the COOH-terminal sequence of C2b each induced contraction of estrous rat uterus in the micromole range; a peptide of 25 amino acids from this region induced a like contraction of rat uterus at a concentration 20-fold lower than the smaller peptides. The vascular permeability of guinea pig skin was enhanced by doses of these synthetic peptides in a similar fashion as that observed for the concentration of rat uterus. The induction of localized edema by intradermal injection in both the guinea pig and the human proceeds in the presence of antihistaminic drugs, suggesting that there is a histamine-independent component to the observed increase in vascular permeability. Cleavage of C2 with the enzymic subcomponent of C1, C1s, yields only C2a and C2b, and no small peptides, whereas cleavage of C2 with C1s and plasmin yields a set of small peptides. These plasmin- cleaved peptides are derived from the COOH terminus of C2b, and they induce the contraction of estrous rat uterus. PMID:2972793

  17. Antiapoptotic effect of a novel synthetic peptide from bovine muscle and MPG peptide on H2O2-induced C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan; Ochirbat, Chinzorio; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Yang, Jieun; Hwang, Inho

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of a novel peptide (T.peptide) isolated from bovine and commercially available MPG peptide. The amino acid sequences of the T.peptide were (Glu-Val-Pro-Glu-Val-His-Glu-Glu-Val). The antioxidant activities of these peptides were determined by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+•) radical scavenging assays. The in vitro cytotoxicity of T.peptide and MPG peptide was determined against H2O2-induced C2C12 cells. H2O2-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells were determined by mRNA expression of caspase-3. Moreover, the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The findings of the study indicate that the mRNA expression of TNF-α and NF-κB are significantly (p < 0.05) increased in H2O2-induced C2C12 cells, whereas a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in these mRNA expressions are observed when pretreated with T.peptide or MPG peptide. Pretreatment with MPG or T.peptides is also found to significantly (p < 0.05) decrease the mRNA expression of caspase-3 in H2O2-induced C2C12 cells. The results of the study demonstrate that both T.peptide and MPG peptide could reduce the DPPH• and ABTS+• radical and inhibit cytotoxicity against H2O2-induced injury, resulting in prevention of free radical generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death, which indicates the potential of bovine meat as a source of antioxidant peptides.

  18. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  19. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis of cysteinyl-modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Oleg V; Goshe, Michael B; Conrads, Thomas P; Rakov, V Sergey; Veenstra, Timothy D; Smith, Richard D

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue-containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of Deinococcus radiodurans, the presence of these label-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-d0 or ICAT-d8.

  20. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  1. Pore-forming peptides induce rapid phospholipid flip-flop in membranes.

    PubMed

    Fattal, E; Nir, S; Parente, R A; Szoka, F C

    1994-05-31

    A kinetic model for pore-mediated and perturbation-mediated flip-flop is presented and used to characterize the mechanism of peptide-induced phospholipid flip-flop in bilayers. The model assumes that certain peptides can bind to and aggregate within the membrane. When the aggregate attains a critical size (M peptides), a channel is created that results in a fast flip-flop of phospholipids. In addition, certain peptides induce flip-flop through perturbation of the membrane without forming a pore. Donor phospholipid vesicles with an asymmetrical distribution of the fluorescent phospholipid 1-oleoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-1,2,3-benzoxadiazol-4- yl)amino]dodecanoyl]phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) were used to measure the extent of flip-flop by quantitating the decrease in fluorescence as the NBD-PC exchanged from the donor vesicles to acceptor vesicles that contained a quencher of the NBD fluorescence. Flip-flop curves generated at lipid/peptide ratios ranging from 30/1 to 300000/1 could be well-simulated by the model. Pore-forming peptides, such as melittin or the synthetic peptide GALA (WEAALAEALAEALAEHLAEALAEALEALAA), induce rapid phospholipid flip-flop with half-times for flip-flop of seconds at low peptide/vesicle ratios. The deduced pore sizes are M = 10 +/- 2 for GALA and M = 2 - 4 for melittin. The synthetic peptide LAGA (WEAALAEAEALALAEHEALALAEAELALAA) can catalyze flip-flop via bilayer perturbation. In contrast, hydrophobic peptides such as gramicidin A and valinomycin intercalate into the membrane, but induce little flip-flop. Modeling of the kinetics of phospholipid translocation supports pore formation as the key factor in accelerating phospholipid flip-flop. Thus, amphipathic segments from membrane proteins may account for non-energy-dependent phospholipid flip-flop in biological membranes.

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of rice-derived peptides against acetaminophen-induced damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kayoko; Moritani, Chie; Uraji, Misugi; Fujita, Akiko; Kawakami, Koji; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Suzaki, Etsuko; Tsuboi, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione, the most abundant intracellular antioxidant, protects cells against reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress and regulates intracellular redox status. We found that rice peptides increased intracellular glutathione levels in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic. However, an overdose of acetaminophen causes severe hepatotoxicity via depletion of hepatic glutathione. Here, we investigated the protective effects of rice peptides on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. ICR mice were orally administered rice peptides (0, 100 or 500 mg/kg) for seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity via intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (700 mg/kg). Pretreatment with rice peptides significantly prevented increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and protected against hepatic glutathione depletion. The expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, a key regulatory enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione, was decreased by treatment with acetaminophen, albeit rice peptides treatment recovered its expression compared to that achieved treatment with acetaminophen. In addition, histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that rice peptides prevented acetaminophen-induced centrilobular necrosis. These results suggest that rice peptides increased intracellular glutathione levels and could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  3. NIF (neurite-inducing factor): a novel peptide inducing neurite formation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J A

    1986-01-01

    Neurite-inducing factor (NIF) is a novel protein that has been partially purified from mouse submaxillary glands. NIF induces neurite formation in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, and the NIF-induced neurites are indistinguishable from NGF-induced neurites in both their morphology and the time course of their formation. Neurite-inducing activity can be recovered at a position corresponding to a molecular weight of 20,000 Da after fractionation of partially purified preparations via SDS-PAGE. Partially purified preparations of NIF are about half as potent as pure beta NGF, and since the neurite-inducing activity does not correspond to any of the major proteins in this fraction, specific activity of purified NIF will probably be significantly greater than the 60 ng/ml found for our partially purified material. NIF is distinct from beta NGF by four criteria: (1) antibodies to beta NGF can block the activity of beta NGF, but not the activity of NIF; (2) beta NGF can induce ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in PC12 cells at concentrations significantly below those required to induce neurites, while NIF induces ODC only at concentrations greatly in excess of those required to induce neurite formation; (3) by the criterion of SDS-PAGE, there is insufficient beta NGF in our partially purified preparations of NIF to explain the biological activity of this fraction; and (4) the biological activity of NIF has a molecular weight (20,000 Da) that is distinct from beta NGF (13,000 Da). We conclude that NIF is probably a novel peptide that is very active in promoting morphological differentiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloid-β peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  5. The protective immune response against infectious bronchitis virus induced by multi-epitope based peptide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tai; Wang, Hong-Ning; Wang, Xue; Tang, Jun-Ni; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Guo, Zi-Cheng; Li, Yu-Ling; Gao, Rong; Kang, Run-Min

    2009-07-01

    Peptide vaccine was found to be an effective and powerful approach to a variety of pathogens. To explore multi-epitope based peptide vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the immunogenic peptides were fused to the 3' terminal of glutathione S transferase gene (GST) and expressed in Escherichia coli. ELISA and Western blot analysis showed that the purified fusion proteins had excellent immune activity with chicken anti-IBV serum. During the vaccination course, the candidate peptide vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular response, and provided up to 80.0% immune protection, while all non-immunized chickens in the negative control group manifested obvious typical symptoms and died after virus challenge. Our finding provides a new way to develop multi-epitope based peptide vaccine against IBV.

  6. Tailor-made designer helical peptides that induce mitochondrion-mediated cell death without necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Kagayaki; Takahama, Kentaro; Okushima, Ayako; Oyoshi, Takanori; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Inouye, Masahiko

    2014-11-24

    Managing protein-protein interactions is essential for resolving unknown biological events at the molecular level and developing drugs. We have designed and synthesized a side-chain-crosslinked helical peptides based on the binding domain of a pro-apoptotic protein (Bad) that induces programmed cell death. The peptide showed high helical content and bound to its target, Bcl-XL, more strongly than its non-crosslinked counterparts. When HeLa cells were incubated with the crosslinked peptide, the peptide entered the cytosol across the plasma membrane. The peptide formed a stable complex with Bcl-XL localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and this binding event caused the release of cytochrome c from the intermembrane space of mitochondria into the cytosol. This activated the caspase cascade: 70% of HeLa cells died by the apoptosis pathway (without evidence of necrosis).

  7. Intracellular delivery of fluorescent protein into viable wheat microspores using cationic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bilichak, Andriy; Luu, Justin; Eudes, François

    2015-01-01

    Microspores are specialized generative cells with haploid genome that demonstrate the amenability toward embryogenesis under certain conditions. The induced microspore culture technique is largely exploited by the breeding programs of wheat and other crops due to its high efficiency for generation of the large number of haploid plants in the relatively short period of time. The ability to produce mature double haploid plant from a single cell has also attracted attention of the plant biotechnologists in the past few years. More importantly, the possibility to deliver proteins for improvement of embryogenesis and the genome modification purposes holds great potential for transgene-free wheat biotechnology. In the present study, we examined the ability of cationic and amphipathic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to convey a covalently-linked mCherry protein inside the viable microspores. We demonstrate that the affinity of CPPs to the microspore cells dependents on their charge with the highest efficiency of CPP-mCherry binding to the cells achieved by cationic CPPs (penetratin and R9). Additionally, due to overall negative charge of the microspore cell wall, the successful uptake of the protein cargo by live microspore cells is attained by utilization of a reversible disulfide bond between the R9 CPP and mCherry protein. Overall, the approach proposed herein can be applied by the other biotechnology groups for the fast and efficient screening of the different CPP candidates for their ability to deliver proteins inside the viable plant cells. PMID:26379691

  8. Osteogenic differentiation of 3D cultured mesenchymal stem cells induced by bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Lukasova, Vera; Buzgo, Matej; Sovkova, Vera; Dankova, Jana; Rampichova, Michala; Amler, Evzen

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from receptor binding motifs of native proteins are a potent source of bioactive molecules that can induce signalling pathways. These peptides could substitute for osteogenesis promoting supplements. The work presented here compares three kinds of bioactive peptides derived from collagen III, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) and BMP-2 with their potential osteogenic activity on the model of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs). pMSCs were cultured on electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds with different concentrations of the bioactive peptides without addition of any osteogenic supplement. Analysis of pMSCs cultures included measurement of the metabolic activity and proliferation, immunofluorescence staining and also qPCR. Results showed no detrimental effect of the bioactive peptides to cultured pMSCs. Based on qPCR analysis, the bioactive peptides are specific for osteogenic differentiation with no detectable expression of collagen II. Our results further indicate that peptide derived from BMP-2 protein promoted the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I significantly compared to control groups and also supported deposition of OCN as observed by immunostaining method. The data suggest that bioactive peptide with an amino acid sequence of KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYL derived from BMP-2 protein was the most potent for triggering osteogenic differentiation of pMSCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaporation cycle experiments — A simulation of salt-induced peptide synthesis under possible prebiotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetia, Somporn; Liedl, Klaus R.; Eder, Artur H.; Rode, Bernd M.

    1993-06-01

    Evaporation cycles applied to dilute solutions of amino acids, Cu(II) and NaCl lead to peptides within 1 3 days. This simulation of possible coastal or laguna processes in a primitive earth environment gives further indications towards the relevance of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction in chemical evolution. The experiments were successfully applied to glycine, alanine, aspartic and glutamic acid. Besides isolated amino acids, also their mixtures with glycine as reaction partner were studied, leading to peptides for all of the aforementioned substances, as well as for valine and proline, which do not dimerize alone. Sequence preferences and some conservation of optical purity were observed.

  10. Evaporation cycle experiments--a simulation of salt-induced peptide synthesis under possible prebiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Saetia, S; Liedl, K R; Eder, A H; Rode, B M

    1993-06-01

    Evaporation cycles applied to dilute solutions of amino acids, Cu(II) and NaCl lead to peptides within 1-3 days. This simulation of possible coastal or laguna processes in a primitive earth environment gives further indications towards the relevance of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction in chemical evolution. The experiments were successfully applied to glycine, alanine, aspartic and glutamic acid. Besides isolated amino acids, also their mixtures with glycine as reaction partner were studied, leading to peptides for all of the aforementioned substances, as well as for valine and proline, which do not dimerize alone. Sequence preferences and some conservation of optical purity were observed.

  11. Shotgun collision-induced dissociation of peptides using a time of flight mass analyzer.

    PubMed

    Purvine, Samuel; Eppel, Jason-Thomas; Yi, Eugene C; Goodlett, David R

    2003-06-01

    Parallel collision-induced dissociation (CID) of peptides rather than serial, as is customary, results in loss of the obvious parent-fragment ion lineage available from CID on a single ion. We report proof-of-principle results suggesting the feasibility of parallel peptide CID, referred to here as shotgun CID, for protein identification when using the measured mass accuracies available from a time of flight mass analyzer and currently available search routines such as SEQUEST. Additionally, we report that parent-fragment ion lineage may be reconstructed from information encoded in the chromatographic single ion current traces of peptides.

  12. Potent Inducers of Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides for Host Directed Therapy of Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, H.; Nylén, F.; Sarker, P.; Miraglia, E.; Bergman, P.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Raqib, R.; Agerberth, B.; Strömberg, R.

    2016-11-01

    A new concept for treatment of infections is induction of our own antimicrobial peptides and the presented novel class of inducer, aroylated phenylenediamines (APDs), gives up to 20 to 30-fold induction of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, in vitro. In addition, oral administration of an APD in a rabbit model of Shigellosis resulted in recovery from the infection in a few days implying that APD’s are promising candidates for treatment of infections.

  13. Potent Inducers of Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides for Host Directed Therapy of Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, H.; Nylén, F.; Sarker, P.; Miraglia, E.; Bergman, P.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Raqib, R.; Agerberth, B.; Strömberg, R.

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for treatment of infections is induction of our own antimicrobial peptides and the presented novel class of inducer, aroylated phenylenediamines (APDs), gives up to 20 to 30-fold induction of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, in vitro. In addition, oral administration of an APD in a rabbit model of Shigellosis resulted in recovery from the infection in a few days implying that APD’s are promising candidates for treatment of infections. PMID:27827460

  14. An analogue peptide from the Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 induces CD8+ T cell responses against naturally processed peptide.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Nicola; Buchan, Sarah; Ingram, Wendy; Khan, Ghazala; Vittes, Gisella; Rice, Jason; Pulford, Karen; Mufti, Ghulam; Stevenson, Freda; Guinn, Barbara-ann

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified the novel Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 by immunoscreening a testis library with pooled acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient sera. To develop a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing vaccine, we have now investigated the carboxy-terminal region, known to contain serological determinants, for MHC class I (HLA-A⋆0201)-binding peptides. Algorithm-selected natural peptides failed to show detectable HLA-A⋆0201 binding in T2 assays. However, anchor-modified analogue peptides showed enhanced binding, with decreased off-rates. Analogue peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs) induced IFN-γ production by T cells from normal donors and patients. In addition, peptide-specific T cells could be expanded from cancer patients by stimulation with the PASD1 analogue peptide Pa14. For clinical application, a DNA fusion gene vaccine encoding Pa14 was designed and tested in "humanized" mice. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice showed in vitro cytotoxicity against tumour cells, either exogenously loaded with the corresponding wild-type peptide (Pw8) or expressing endogenously processed PASD1 protein. We show for the first time that a DNA vaccine encoding an altered PASD1 epitope can induce CTLs to target the natural peptide expressed by human tumour cells.

  15. A Study into the Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) Behavior of Cross-Linked Peptides.

    PubMed

    Giese, Sven H; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry resolves protein-protein interactions or protein folds by help of distance constraints. Cross-linkers with specific properties such as isotope-labeled or collision-induced dissociation (CID)-cleavable cross-linkers are in frequent use to simplify the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here, we analyzed the mass spectrometric behavior of 910 unique cross-linked peptides in high-resolution MS1 and MS2 from published data and validate the observation by a ninefold larger set from currently unpublished data to explore if detailed understanding of their fragmentation behavior would allow computational delivery of information that otherwise would be obtained via isotope labels or CID cleavage of cross-linkers. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers reveal cross-linked and linear fragments in fragmentation spectra. We show that fragment mass and charge alone provide this information, alleviating the need for isotope-labeling for this purpose. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers also indicate cross-linker-containing, albeit not specifically cross-linked, peptides in MS1. We observed that acquisition can be guided to better than twofold enrich cross-linked peptides with minimal losses based on peptide mass and charge alone. By help of CID-cleavable cross-linkers, individual spectra with only linear fragments can be recorded for each peptide in a cross-link. We show that cross-linked fragments of ordinary cross-linked peptides can be linearized computationally and that a simplified subspectrum can be extracted that is enriched in information on one of the two linked peptides. This allows identifying candidates for this peptide in a simplified database search as we propose in a search strategy here. We conclude that the specific behavior of cross-linked peptides in mass spectrometers can be exploited to relax the requirements on cross-linkers.

  16. Fragmentation patterns of Chromophore-Tagged Peptides in Visible Laser Induced Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lény; Lemoine, Jérôme; Dugourd, Philippe; Girod, Marion

    2017-09-08

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the pivotal tool for protein structural characterization and quantification. Identification relies on the fragmentation step of tryptic peptides in bottom-up strategy. Specificity of fragmentation can be obtained using laser induced dissociation (LID) in the visible range, after tagging of the targeted peptides with an adequate chromophore. Backbone fragmentation is required to obtain specific fragments and confident identification. We present herein a study of fragmentation patterns of chromophore-tagged peptides in LID, showing the potential of LID methodology to provide the maximum of fragments for further identification and quantification. 401 cysteine-containing tryptic peptides coming from the human proteome were derivatizated on the thiol group of cysteine with a Dabcyl maleimide chromophore, which has a high photo-absorption cross section at 473 nm. The derivatized peptides were then analyzed by LID at 473 nm on a Q Exactive instrument. LID spectra present a characteristic fragment at m/z 252.112 for all precursors. This product ion arises from the internal dissociation of the dabcyl chromophore. Several peptide-backbone fragment ions are also detected. Results show the quasi absence of fragmentation at the cysteine site. This indicates that part of the energy must be redistributed across the entire system despite excitation initially localized at the chromophore. Indeed, the fragmentation mainly occurs at 3 to 5 amino acids from the derivatized cysteine residue. LID of derivatized cysteine-containing peptides displays the initial fragmentation of the chromophore. As energy is redistributed all along the peptide sequence, fragmentation of the peptide backbone is also observed. Thus, LID of chromophore-tagged peptides produces adequate fragment ions, allowing both good sequence coverage for a greater confidence of identification, and a large choice of transitions for specific quantification. This article is protected by

  17. Topical application of a melanotropic peptide induces systemic follicular melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hadley, M E; Wood, S H; Lemus-Wilson, A M; Dawson, B V; Levine, N; Dorr, R T; Hruby, V J

    1987-05-11

    We determined the relative effectiveness of alpha-MSH and a highly potent melanotropin analogue, [Nle4, D-Phe] - alpha-MSH, in stimulating a shift from pheomelanogenesis to eumelanogenesis within hair bulbs of mice. The analogue proved to be at least a hundred times more effective than the native hormone when injected subcutaneously. The two melanotropins were then incorporated into an ointment base and topically applied to a shaved area of the skin on the back of a yellow strain of mice (C57BL/6JAY). Within 24-48 hours eumelanin production was visible within hair bulb melanocytes in both treated and untreated areas of animals. The presence of melanized organelles (eumelanosomes) within melanocytes was confirmed by electron microscopy. These results document the delivery of a peptide hormone through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This is the first demonstration of the delivery of a peptide hormone by percutaneous absorption and may provide a model for a similar route of delivery of other peptide hormones. The hormone analogue has also been delivered across human skin in vitro. Delivery of a melanotropin by a transdermal route may prove to be clinically useful in the treatment of some integumental hypopigmentary disorders in humans.

  18. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF)3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF)3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  19. Evidence for Membrane Thinning Effect as the Mechanism for Peptide-Induced Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ming-Tao; Huang, Huey W.

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have two binding states in a lipid bilayer, a surface state S and a pore-forming state I. The transition from the S state to the I state has a sigmoidal peptide-concentration dependence indicating cooperativity in the peptide-membrane interactions. In a previous paper, we reported the transition of alamethicin measured in three bilayer conditions. The data were explained by a free energy that took into account the membrane thinning effect induced by the peptides. In this paper, the full implications of the free energy were tested by including another type of peptide, melittin, that forms toroidal pores, instead of barrel-stave pores as in the case of alamethicin. The S-to-I transitions were measured by oriented circular dichroism. The membrane thinning effect was measured by x-ray diffraction. All data were in good agreement with the theory, indicating that the membrane thinning effect is a plausible mechanism for the peptide-induced pore formations. PMID:12770881

  20. Cholesterol-Enriched Domain Formation Induced by Viral-Encoded, Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Joshua M.; Gettel, Douglas L.; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Jackman, Joshua; Kim, Min Chul; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Groves, Jay T.; Liedberg, Bo; Cho, Nam-Joon; Parikh, Atul N.

    2016-01-01

    The α-helical (AH) domain of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A, anchored at the cytoplasmic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a role in viral replication. However, the peptides derived from this domain also exhibit remarkably broad-spectrum virocidal activity, raising questions about their modes of membrane association. Here, using giant lipid vesicles, we show that the AH peptide discriminates between membrane compositions. In cholesterol-containing membranes, peptide binding induces microdomain formation. By contrast, cholesterol-depleted membranes undergo global softening at elevated peptide concentrations. Furthermore, in mixed populations, the presence of ∼100 nm vesicles of viral dimensions suppresses these peptide-induced perturbations in giant unilamellar vesicles, suggesting size-dependent membrane association. These synergistic composition- and size-dependent interactions explain, in part, how the AH domain might on the one hand segregate molecules needed for viral assembly and on the other hand furnish peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum virocidal activity. PMID:26745420

  1. Destabilization of peptide: MHC interaction induces IL-2 resistant anergy in diabetogenic T cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay J.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive T cells are responsible for inducing several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. We have developed a strategy to induce unresponsiveness in these cells by destabilizing the peptide:MHC ligand recognized by the T cell receptor. By introducing amino acid substitutions into the immunogenic peptide at residues that bind to the MHC, the half life of the peptide:MHC complex is severely reduced, thereby resulting in abortive T cell activation and anergy. By treating a monoclonal diabetogenic T cell population with an MHC variant peptide, the cells are rendered unresponsive to the wild type ligand, as measured by both proliferation and IL-2 production. Stimulation of T cells with MHC variant peptides results in minimal Erk1/2 phosphorylation or cell division. Variant peptide stimulation effectively initiates a signaling program dominated by sustained tyrosine phosphatase activity, including elevated SHP-1 activity. These negative signaling events result in an anergic phenotype in which the T cells are not competent to signal through the IL-2 receptor, as evidenced by a lack of phospho-Stat5 upregulation and proliferation, despite high expression of the IL-2 receptor. This unique negative signaling profile provides a novel means to shut down the anti-self response. PMID:23895744

  2. Potassium Ions are More Effective than Sodium Ions in Salt Induced Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubina, Michael V.; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.; Popov, Igor A.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Eliseev, Igor E.; Natochin, Yuri V.

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K+ is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na+, which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K+ as the driving force, not Na+, as commonly believed.

  3. Interpretation of collision-induced fragmentation tandem mass spectra of posttranslationally modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Matthiesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    Tandem collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS) provides a sensitive means of analyzing the amino acid sequence of peptides. Modern MS instrumentation is capable of rapidly generating many thousands of tandem mass spectra, and protein database search engines have been developed to cope with this avalanche of data. In most studies, there is a schism between discarding perfectly valid data and including nonsensical peptide identifications--this is currently a major bottleneck in data analysis and it calls for manual evaluation of the data. Especially for posttranslationally modified peptides, there is a need for manual validation of the data because search algorithms seldom have been optimized for the identification of modified peptides and because there are many pitfalls for the unwary. This chapter describes some of the issues that should be considered when interpreting and validating low-energy CID tandem mass spectra and gives some useful tables to aid this process.

  4. Combination treatment with Grb7 peptide and Doxorubicin or Trastuzumab (Herceptin) results in cooperative cell growth inhibition in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pero, S C; Shukla, G S; Cookson, M M; Flemer, S; Krag, D N

    2007-05-21

    Grb7 has potential importance in the progression of cancer. We have previously identified a novel peptide that binds to the SH2 domain of Grb7 and inhibits its association with several different receptor tyrosine kinases. We have synthesised the Grb7 peptide, G7-18NATE, with two different cell penetrating peptides, Penetratin and Tat. In this study, we have shown that both Penetratin- and Tat-conjugated G7-18NATE peptides are able to inhibit the proliferation of SK-BR-3, ZR-75-30, MDA-MB-361 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. There was no significant effects on breast cancer MCF-7cells, non-malignant MCF 10A or 3T3 cells. In addition, there was no significant inhibition of proliferation by Penetratin or Tat alone or by their conjugates with arbitrary peptide sequence in any of the cell lines tested. We determined the EC50 of G7-18NATE-P peptide for SK-BR-3 cell proliferation to be 7.663 x 10(-6) M. Co-treatment of G7-18NATE-P peptide plus Doxorubicin in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells resulted in an additional inhibition of proliferation, resulting in 56 and 84% decreases in the Doxorubicin EC50 value in the presence of 5 x 10(-6) and 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide, respectively. Importantly, the co-treatment with Doxorubicin and the delivery peptide did not change the Doxorubicin EC50. Since Grb7 associates with ErbB2, we assessed whether the peptide inhibitor would have a combined effect with a molecule that targets ErbB2, Herceptin. Co-treatment of Herceptin plus 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide in SK-BR-3 cells resulted in a 46% decrease in the Herceptin EC50 value and no decrease following the co-treatment with Herceptin and penetratin alone. This Grb7 peptide has potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent alone, in combination with traditional chemotherapy, or in combination with other targeting molecules.

  5. Established theory of radiation-induced decay is not generalizable to Bolton-Hunter labeled peptides.

    PubMed

    Doran, Amanda C; Wan, Yieh-Ping; Kopin, Alan S; Beinborn, Martin

    2003-05-01

    Peptide hormones radiolabeled with 125I are widely used for the pharmacological characterization of cognate receptors. As a prerequisite for calculating ligand affinities from competition binding assays, and for estimating receptor densities from such studies, it is necessary to know the concentration of bioactive radioligand that is used in respective experiments. It has been demonstrated previously that radioiodinated peptides undergo decay catastrophe, i.e. disintegration of the radioactive label leads to the concomitant destruction of the carrier peptide. Here, we demonstrate that decay catastrophe does not apply to two peptide hormones that are iodinated by Bolton-Hunter conjugation: cholecystokinin octapeptide and glucagon-like peptide 2. The function of aged samples of these radioligands at corresponding recombinantly expressed receptors was assessed by measuring ligand-induced inositol phosphate production or generation of cyclic AMP, respectively. Both of the tested compounds, although predicted by decay catastrophe to contain little or subthreshold remaining bioactivity, stimulated an unexpectedly high level of receptor-mediated second messenger signaling. Quantitative comparison of observed functions with those of corresponding unlabeled peptides suggested that the bioactivity of each radioligand had been largely conserved despite the radioactive decay of the iodine label. Consistent with an apparent absence of decay catastrophe, we noted that the specific radioactivity, when determined immediately following peptide iodination, was close to the theoretical maximum but exponentially decreased over time. These findings raise the possibility that attachment of a Bolton-Hunter conjugate may shield labeled peptides from radiation-induced damage, a scenario that should be considered when performing radioligand binding experiments.

  6. A TLR4-interacting SPA4 peptide inhibits LPS-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Vijay; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Kosanke, Stanley; Awasthi, Shanjana

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and TLR4 is important for host defense. We have recently identified an SPA4 peptide region from the interface of SP-A-TLR4 complex. Here, we studied the involvement of the SPA4 peptide region in SP-A-TLR4 interaction using a two-hybrid system, and biological effects of SPA4 peptide in cell systems and a mouse model. HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmid DNAs encoding SP-A or a SP-A-mutant lacking SPA4 peptide region and TLR4. Luciferase activity was measured as the end-point of SP-A-TLR4 interaction. NF-κB activity was also assessed simultaneously. Next, the dendritic cells or mice were challenged with Escherichia coli-derived LPS and treated with SPA4 peptide. Endotoxic shock-like symptoms and inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, NF-κB, leukocyte influx) were assessed. Our results reveal that the SPA4 peptide region contributes to the SP-A-TLR4 interaction and inhibits the LPS-induced NF-κB activity and TNF-α. We also observed that the SPA4 peptide inhibits LPS-induced expression of TNF-α, nuclear localization of NF-κB-p65 and cell influx, and alleviates the endotoxic shock-like symptoms in a mouse model. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of the SPA4 peptide through its binding to TLR4 can be of therapeutic benefit.

  7. Peptide Fragmentation Induced by Radicals at Atmospheric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Vilkov, Andrey N.; Laiko, Victor V.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

    2009-01-01

    A novel ion dissociation technique, which is capable of providing an efficient fragmentation of peptides at essentially atmospheric pressure conditions, is developed. The fragmentation patterns observed often contain c-type fragments that are specific to ECD/ETD, along with the y-/b- fragments that are specific to CAD. In the presented experimental setup, ion fragmentation takes place within a flow reactor located in the atmospheric pressure region between the ion source and the mass spectrometer. According to a proposed mechanism, the fragmentation results from the interaction of ESI-generated analyte ions with the gas-phase radical species produced by a corona discharge source. PMID:19034885

  8. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate

  9. Insect immunity: expression of the two major inducible antibacterial peptides, defensin and diptericin, in Phormia terranovae.

    PubMed Central

    Dimarcq, J L; Zachary, D; Hoffmann, J A; Hoffmann, D; Reichhart, J M

    1990-01-01

    Injections of low doses of bacteria into larvae of Phormia terranovae induce the appearance of potent bactericidal peptides in the blood, among which predominate the anti-Gram positive insect defensins and the anti-Gram negative diptericins. Insect defensins show significant homologies to mammalian (including human) microbicidal peptides present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. We report the molecular cloning of cDNAs and primer extension studies which indicate that insect defensin is produced as a prepro-peptide yielding mature defensin A (40 residues) after cleavage of a putative signal peptide (23 residues) and a prosequence (34 residues). Previous studies have established that diptericin (82 residues) is matured from a pre-peptide by cleavage of a putative signal peptide (19 residues) and C-terminal amidation. Using oligonucleotide probes complementary to the sequences of the mRNAs for defensin and diptericin, we show by in situ hybridization that both antibacterial peptides are concomitantly synthesized by the same cells: thrombocytoids, a specialized blood cell type, and adipocytes. Transcriptional studies based on hybridization of RNAs to cDNAs of defensin and diptericin indicate that the transcription of both genes is induced regardless of the nature of the stimulus (injection of Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides). Even a sterile injury applied to axenically raised larvae is efficient in inducing the transcription of both genes suggesting that the local disruption of the integument aspecifically initiates a signalling mechanism which the thrombocytoids and the adipocytes are able to interpret. The transcription of immune genes is relatively short lived and a second challenge yields a response similar to that of the first stimulus, indicating that the experimental insects do not keep a 'memory' of their first injection. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2369900

  10. Release of Dengue Virus Genome Induced by a Peptide Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hrobowski, Yancey M.; Hoffmann, Andrew R.; Rowe, Dawne K.; Kukkaro, Petra; Holdaway, Heather; Chipman, Paul; Fontaine, Krystal A.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Garry, Robert F.; Kostyuchenko, Victor; Wimley, William C.; Isern, Sharon; Rossmann, Michael G.; Michael, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus infects approximately 100 million people annually, but there is no available therapeutic treatment. The mimetic peptide, DN59, consists of residues corresponding to the membrane interacting, amphipathic stem region of the dengue virus envelope (E) glycoprotein. This peptide is inhibitory to all four serotypes of dengue virus, as well as other flaviviruses. Cryo-electron microscopy image reconstruction of dengue virus particles incubated with DN59 showed that the virus particles were largely empty, concurrent with the formation of holes at the five-fold vertices. The release of RNA from the viral particle following incubation with DN59 was confirmed by increased sensitivity of the RNA genome to exogenous RNase and separation of the genome from the E protein in a tartrate density gradient. DN59 interacted strongly with synthetic lipid vesicles and caused membrane disruptions, but was found to be non-toxic to mammalian and insect cells. Thus DN59 inhibits flavivirus infectivity by interacting directly with virus particles resulting in release of the genomic RNA. PMID:23226444

  11. Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage within peptides via ultraviolet irradiation of an electrospray plume.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2013-05-21

    Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage in peptides was demonstrated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the electrospray ionization (ESI) plume using a low pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp. Tandem mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurements confirmed that the primary reaction products were due to disulfide bond cleavage to form thiol (-SH) and sulfinyl radical (-SO˙). Mechanistic studies showed that the 185 nm emission from a LP-Hg lamp was responsible for UV photolysis of atmospheric O2, which further initiated secondary radical formation and subsequent disulfide bond cleavage by radical attack. The radical induced disulfide bond cleavage was found to be analytically useful in providing rich sequence information for naturally occurring peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds. The utility of this method was also demonstrated for facile disulfide peptide identification and characterization from protein digests.

  12. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal.

  13. Daily subcutaneous injections of peptide induce CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, P E; Schartner, J M; Timmel, A; Seroogy, C M

    2007-01-01

    Peptide immunotherapy is being explored to modulate varied disease states; however, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of a subcutaneous peptide immunization schedule to induce of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells. DO11·10 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice on a Rag 2–/– background were injected subcutaneously with varied doses of purified ovalbumin (OVA323−339) peptide daily for 16 days. While these mice have no CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells, following this injection schedule up to 30% of the CD4+ cells were found to express CD25. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis of the induced CD4+ CD25+ T cells revealed increased expression of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), suggesting that these cells may have a regulatory function. Proliferation and suppression assays in vitro utilizing the induced CD4+ CD25+ T cells revealed a profound anergic phenotype in addition to potent suppressive capability. Importantly, co-injection of the induced CD4+ CD25+ T cells with 5,6-carboxy-succinimidyl-fluorescence-ester (CFSE)-labelled naive CD4+ T cells (responder cells) into BALB/c recipient mice reduced proliferation and differentiation of the responder cells in response to challenge with OVA323−339 peptide plus adjuvant. We conclude that repeated subcutaneous exposure to low-dose peptide leads to de novo induction of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells with potent in vitro and in vivo suppressive capability, thereby suggesting that one mechanism of peptide immunotherapy appears to be induction of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. PMID:17490400

  14. Daily subcutaneous injections of peptide induce CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, P E; Schartner, J M; Timmel, A; Seroogy, C M

    2007-08-01

    Peptide immunotherapy is being explored to modulate varied disease states; however, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of a subcutaneous peptide immunization schedule to induce of CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells. DO11.10 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice on a Rag 2(-/-) background were injected subcutaneously with varied doses of purified ovalbumin (OVA(323-339)) peptide daily for 16 days. While these mice have no CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells, following this injection schedule up to 30% of the CD4(+) cells were found to express CD25. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis of the induced CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells revealed increased expression of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), suggesting that these cells may have a regulatory function. Proliferation and suppression assays in vitro utilizing the induced CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells revealed a profound anergic phenotype in addition to potent suppressive capability. Importantly, co-injection of the induced CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells with 5,6-carboxy-succinimidyl-fluorescence-ester (CFSE)-labelled naive CD4(+) T cells (responder cells) into BALB/c recipient mice reduced proliferation and differentiation of the responder cells in response to challenge with OVA(323-339) peptide plus adjuvant. We conclude that repeated subcutaneous exposure to low-dose peptide leads to de novo induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells with potent in vitro and in vivo suppressive capability, thereby suggesting that one mechanism of peptide immunotherapy appears to be induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells.

  15. Reactivity of natural and induced human antibodies to MUC1 mucin with MUC1 peptides and n-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) peptides.

    PubMed

    von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S; Petrakou, E; Kenemans, P; van Uffelen, K; Verstraeten, A A; Snijdewint, F G; van Kamp, G J; Schol, D J; Reis, C A; Price, M R; Livingston, P O; Hilgers, J

    2000-06-01

    Antibodies (Abs) to MUC1 occur naturally in both healthy subjects and cancer patients and can be induced by MUC1 peptide vaccination. We compared the specificity of natural and induced MUC1 Abs with the objective of defining an effective MUC1 vaccine for active immunotherapy of adenocarcinoma patients. Serum samples, selected out of a screened population of 492 subjects for their high levels of IgG and/or IgM MUC1 Abs, were obtained from 55 control subjects and from 26 breast cancer patients before primary treatment, as well as from 19 breast cancer patients immunized with MUC1 peptides coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mixed with QS-21. The samples were tested with enzyme-linked immunoassays for reactivity with (1) overlapping hepta- and 20-mer peptides spanning the MUC1 tandem repeat sequence; (2) two modified 60-mer peptides with substitutions in the PDTR (PDTA) or in the STAPPA (STAAAA) sequence of each tandem repeat; and (3) four 60-mer glycopeptides with each 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) per repeat. More than one minimal epitopic sequence could be defined, indicating that Abs directed to more than one region of the MUC1 peptide core can coexist in one and the same subject. The most frequent minimal epitopic sequence of natural MUC1 IgG and IgM Abs was RPAPGS, followed by PPAHGVT and PDTRP. MUC1 peptide vaccination induced high titers of IgM and IgG Abs predominantly directed, respectively, to the PDTRPAP and the STAPPAHGV sequences of the tandem repeat. Natural MUC1 Abs from breast cancer patients reacted more strongly with the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) peptides than with the naked 60-mer peptide, while reactivity with the GalNAc-peptides was significantly reduced (2-tailed p < 0.0001) in the MUC1 IgG and IgM Abs induced by MUC1 peptide vaccination. Whereas in cancer patients glycans appear to participate in epitope conformation, the epitope(s) recognized by MUC1 Abs induced by peptide vaccination are already masked by

  16. Lipoproteins/peptides are sepsis-inducing toxins from bacteria that can be neutralized by synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides

    PubMed Central

    de Tejada, Guillermo Martinez; Heinbockel, Lena; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Heine, Holger; Alexander, Christian; Bárcena-Varela, Sergio; Goldmann, Torsten; Correa, Wilmar; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gisch, Nicolas; Sánchez-Gómez, Susana; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Schürholz, Tobias; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a life-threatening syndrome with increasing incidence worldwide, is triggered by an overwhelming inflammation induced by microbial toxins released into the bloodstream during infection. A well-known sepsis-inducing factor is the membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), signalling via Toll-like receptor-4. Although sepsis is caused in more than 50% cases by Gram-positive and mycoplasma cells, the causative compounds are still poorly described. In contradicting investigations lipoproteins/-peptides (LP), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN), were made responsible for eliciting this pathology. Here, we used human mononuclear cells from healthy donors to determine the cytokine-inducing activity of various LPs from different bacterial origin, synthetic and natural, and compared their activity with that of natural LTA and PGN. We demonstrate that LP are the most potent non-LPS pro-inflammatory toxins of the bacterial cell walls, signalling via Toll-like receptor-2, not only in vitro, but also when inoculated into mice: A synthetic LP caused sepsis-related pathological symptoms in a dose-response manner. Additionally, these mice produced pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of a septic reaction. Importantly, the recently designed polypeptide Aspidasept® which has been proven to efficiently neutralize LPS in vivo, inhibited cytokines induced by the various non-LPS compounds protecting animals from the pro-inflammatory activity of synthetic LP. PMID:26390973

  17. Lipoproteins/peptides are sepsis-inducing toxins from bacteria that can be neutralized by synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Heinbockel, Lena; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Heine, Holger; Alexander, Christian; Bárcena-Varela, Sergio; Goldmann, Torsten; Correa, Wilmar; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gisch, Nicolas; Sánchez-Gómez, Susana; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Schürholz, Tobias; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-09-22

    Sepsis, a life-threatening syndrome with increasing incidence worldwide, is triggered by an overwhelming inflammation induced by microbial toxins released into the bloodstream during infection. A well-known sepsis-inducing factor is the membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), signalling via Toll-like receptor-4. Although sepsis is caused in more than 50% cases by Gram-positive and mycoplasma cells, the causative compounds are still poorly described. In contradicting investigations lipoproteins/-peptides (LP), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN), were made responsible for eliciting this pathology. Here, we used human mononuclear cells from healthy donors to determine the cytokine-inducing activity of various LPs from different bacterial origin, synthetic and natural, and compared their activity with that of natural LTA and PGN. We demonstrate that LP are the most potent non-LPS pro-inflammatory toxins of the bacterial cell walls, signalling via Toll-like receptor-2, not only in vitro, but also when inoculated into mice: A synthetic LP caused sepsis-related pathological symptoms in a dose-response manner. Additionally, these mice produced pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of a septic reaction. Importantly, the recently designed polypeptide Aspidasept(®) which has been proven to efficiently neutralize LPS in vivo, inhibited cytokines induced by the various non-LPS compounds protecting animals from the pro-inflammatory activity of synthetic LP.

  18. Laser-induced fabrication of gold nanoparticles on shellac-driven peptide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Gupta, Shradhey; Mishra, Narendra Kumar; Singh, Ramesh; Yadav, Santosh K. S.; Ballabh Joshi, Khashti

    2017-03-01

    This study demonstrates the synthesis of a new class of peptide amphiphiles derived from aleuritic acid. The aleuritic acid was extracted and purified from the natural source shellac, which was later conjugated with tryptophan, leading to a new class of very short peptide amphiphiles. The self-assembling behavior of this compound was studied using spectroscopic and microscopic tools. This shellac-driven peptide was further used to cultivate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the help of continuous wave (CW) laser light, where the AuNPs were encapsulated by peptide nanostructures. Laser irradiation caused nanoscopically confined heating in the AuNPs-peptide hybrid nanostructures. Such confined heating is mainly the result of scattering and simultaneous absorption of subwavelength power which is subjected to enhanced plasmonic resonances of the metal nanostructures. Hence, the generated heat power/photothermal effect of these AuNPs leads to disruption of the AuNP-peptide hybrids. Such light-induced prototype nano-structure hydrid devices have a wide range of thermal-plasmonic applications in the morphological modification of soft metal hybrid nanostructures for photothermal therapy and drug release.

  19. Bifunctional designed peptides induce mineralization and binding to TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Anna; Rapaport, Hanna

    2014-04-29

    A limitation of titanium implants is the rather poor bonding between the metal and the surrounding tissue. In this research, we aimed at developing functional peptides in the form of monomolecular coatings intended to improve adhesion between the native oxide of the metal (TiO2) and the calcium-phosphate mineralization layer with which it is in contact. Accordingly, a bifunctional peptide with a β-strand motif assumed to strongly bind to the oxide through two phosphorylated serine residues, both situated on the same face of the strand, was designed. The β-strand motif was extended by a mineralization "tail" composed of consecutive acidic amino acids capable of adsorbing calcium ions. This peptide was studied together with two additional control peptides, one serving to elucidate the role of the β-strand in stabilizing bonding with the oxide and the other demonstrating the ability of the tail to induce mineralization. The strong adsorption of the three peptides to the oxide surface was revealed by HPLC. That peptide presenting the mineralization tail showed the highest levels of adsorbed calcium and phosphate ions, as well as the largest area of cellular adherence, demonstrating its potential advantages for use with titanium implants in bone tissue.

  20. Peptide-Lipid Interactions of the Stress-Response Peptide TisB That Induces Bacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, Thomas; Prock, Sebastian; Reichert, Johannes; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Zimpfer, Benjamin; Bürck, Jochen; Berditsch, Marina; Elstner, Marcus; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial stress-response peptide TisB in Escherichia coli has been suggested to dissipate the transmembrane potential, such that the depletion of ATP levels induces the formation of dormant persister cells which can eventually form biofilms. We studied the structure and membrane interactions of TisB to find out whether it forms pores or other proton-selective channels. Circular dichroism revealed an amphiphilic α-helical structure when reconstituted in lipid vesicles, and oriented circular dichroism showed that the helix assumes a transmembrane alignment. The addition of TisB to dye-loaded vesicles caused leakage only at very high peptide concentration, notably with a Hill coefficient of 2, which suggests that dimers must be involved. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations showed that membrane binding of monomeric TisB is rapid and spontaneous, and transmembrane insertion is energetically feasible. When TisB oligomers are assembled as transmembrane pores, these channels collapse during the simulations, but transmembrane dimers are found to be stable. Given the pattern of charges on the amphiphilic TisB helix, we postulate that antiparallel dimers could be assembled via a ladder of salt bridges. This electrostatic charge-zipper could enable protons to pass along a wire of trapped water molecules across the hydrophobic membrane. PMID:23062338

  1. Do inhalation general anesthetic drugs induce the neuronal release of endogenous opioid peptides?

    PubMed

    Quock, Raymond M; Vaughn, Linda K

    2005-10-07

    The antagonism of some effects of inhalation general anesthetic agents by naloxone suggests that there may be an opioid component to anesthetic action. There is evidence that this opioid action component is due to neuronal release of endogenous opioid peptides. The strongest evidence is provided by studies that monitor changes in the concentration of opioid peptides in the perfused brain following inhalation of the anesthetic. Indirect or circumstantial evidence also comes from studies of anesthetic effects on regional brain levels of opioid peptides, antagonism of selected anesthetic effects by antisera to opioid peptides and anesthetic-induced changes radioligand binding to opioid receptors. It is likely that some inhalation general anesthetics (e.g., nitrous oxide) can induce neuronal release of opioid peptides and that this may contribute to certain components of general anesthesia (e.g., analgesia). More definitive studies utilizing in vivo microdialysis or autoradiography in selected areas of the brain during induction and successive states of general anesthesia have yet to be conducted.

  2. Human thyroglobulin peptide p2340 induces autoimmune thyroiditis in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Karras, Evangelos; Yang, Huan; Lymberi, Peggy; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2005-06-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that the human thyroglobulin (hTg) peptide p2340 (aa 2340-2359) can stimulate a T cell response and elicit experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in AKR/J (H-2(k)) mice. In the present study we examined whether p2340 can induce EAT in single HLA class II DR3 transgenic mice. This peptide was found to be immunogenic at the T cell level in DR3 mice, since it induced specific proliferative responses, as well as IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion in secondary cultures of peptide-primed lymph node cells (LNC). Immunization of HLA-DR3 mice with p2340 in CFA elicited EAT (infiltration index of 1 to 2) in eight of nine mice. Peptide-primed LNC responded to intact hTg, whereas, hTg-primed LNC did not respond to p2340 in culture, suggesting that p2340 contains subdominant T cell epitope(s). P2340 was also found to be immunogenic at the B cell level, since strong p2340-specific IgG response was detected in all transgenic mice tested. Thus, we provide evidence for a pathogenic role of an hTg peptide in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Therefore, p2340 could be presented by DR3 molecule in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and participate in the development of the disease.

  3. Peptide scrambling during collision-induced dissociation is influenced by N-terminal residue basicity.

    PubMed

    Chawner, Ross; Holman, Stephen W; Gaskell, Simon J; Eyers, Claire E

    2014-11-01

    'Bottom up' proteomic studies typically use tandem mass spectrometry data to infer peptide ion sequence, enabling identification of the protein whence they derive. The majority of such studies employ collision-induced dissociation (CID) to induce fragmentation of the peptide structure giving diagnostic b-, y-, and a- ions. Recently, rearrangement processes that result in scrambling of the original peptide sequence during CID have been reported for these ions. Such processes have the potential to adversely affect ion accounting (and thus scores from automated search algorithms) in tandem mass spectra, and in extreme cases could lead to false peptide identification. Here, analysis of peptide species produced by Lys-N proteolysis of standard proteins is performed and sequences that exhibit such rearrangement processes identified. The effect of increasing the gas-phase basicity of the N-terminal lysine residue through derivatization to homoarginine toward such sequence scrambling is then assessed. The presence of a highly basic homoarginine (or arginine) residue at the N-terminus is found to disfavor/inhibit sequence scrambling with a coincident increase in the formation of b(n-1)+H(2)O product ions. Finally, further analysis of a sequence produced by Lys-C proteolysis provides evidence toward a potential mechanism for the apparent inhibition of sequence scrambling during resonance excitation CID.

  4. Inhibition of Hepatocyte Apoptosis: An Important Mechanism of Corn Peptides Attenuating Liver Injury Induced by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhili; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Weiwei; He, Hui

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the effects of mixed corn peptides and synthetic pentapeptide (QLLPF) on hepatocyte apoptosis induced by ethanol were investigated in vivo. QLLPF, was previously characterized from corn protein hydrolysis, which had been shown to exert good facilitating alcohol metabolism activity. Mice were pre-treated with the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide for 1 week and then treated with ethanol. After treatment of three weeks, the biochemical indices and the key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, the serum TNF-α, liver TGF-β1 concentrations and the protein expressions related to apoptosis were determined. We found that the Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c expressions in the intrinsic pathway and the Fas, FasL and NF-κB expressions in the extrinsic pathway together with higher TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations were reversed compared with the model group by both the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide. The activation of caspase3 was also suppressed. Additionally, apoptosis was further confirmed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the TUNEL assay demonstrated peptides suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol is alleviated in response to the treatment of corn peptides, potentially due to reversing the related protein expression.

  5. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  6. Formation of active inclusion bodies induced by hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Bihong; Hu, Weike; Zhao, Qing; Lin, Zhanglin

    2015-06-16

    In the last few decades, several groups have observed that proteins expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) in bacteria could still be biologically active when terminally fused to an appropriate aggregation-prone partner such as pyruvate oxidase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (PoxB). More recently, we have demonstrated that three amphipathic self-assembling peptides, an alpha helical peptide 18A, a beta-strand peptide ELK16, and a surfactant-like peptide L6KD, have properties that induce target proteins into active IBs. We have developed an efficient protein expression and purification approach for these active IBs by introducing a self-cleavable intein molecule. In this study, the self-assembling peptide GFIL8 (GFILGFIL) with only hydrophobic residues was analyzed, and this peptide effectively induced the formation of cytoplasmic IBs in Escherichia coli when terminally attached to lipase A and amadoriase II. The protein aggregates in cells were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis and retained ~50% of their specific activities relative to the native counterparts. We constructed an expression and separation coupled tag (ESCT) by incorporating an intein molecule, the Mxe GyrA intein. Soluble target proteins were successfully released from active IBs upon cleavage of the intein between the GFIL8 tag and the target protein, which was mediated by dithiothreitol. A variant of GFIL8, GFIL16 (GFILGFILGFILGFIL), improved the ESCT scheme by efficiently eliminating interference from the soluble intein-GFIL8 molecule. The yields of target proteins at the laboratory scale were 3.0-7.5 μg/mg wet cell pellet, which is comparable to the yields from similar ESCT constructs using 18A, ELK16, or the elastin-like peptide tag scheme. The all-hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8 induced the formation of active IBs in E. coli when terminally attached to target proteins. GFIL8 and its variant GFIL16 can act as a "pull-down" tag to produce purified soluble proteins with

  7. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in hypertension-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark C; Katki, Khurshed A; Rao, Arundhati; Koehler, Michael; Patel, Parag; Spiekerman, Alvin; DiPette, Donald J; Supowit, Scott C

    2005-07-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide, a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, is localized in perivascular sensory nerves. We have reported that alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide knockout mice have elevated baseline blood pressure and enhanced hypertension-induced renal damage compared with wild-type controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the mechanism and functional significance of this increased hypertension-induced renal damage. We previously demonstrated by telemetric recording that the deoxycorticosterone-salt protocol produces a 35% increase in mean arterial pressure in both alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide knockout and wild-type mice. Both strains of mice were studied at 0, 14, and 21 days after deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension. Renal sections from hypertensive wild-type mice showed no pathological changes at any time point studied. However, on days 14 and 21, hypertensive knockout mice displayed progressive increases in glomerular proliferation, crescent formation, and tubular protein casts, as well as the inflammatory markers intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. There was a significant increase in 24-hour urinary isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation, levels at days 14 and 21 in the hypertensive knockout compared with hypertensive wild-type mice. Urinary microalbumin was significantly higher (2-fold) at day 21 and creatinine clearance was significantly decreased 4-fold in the hypertensive knockout compared with hypertensive wild-type mice. Therefore, in the absence of alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide, deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension induces enhanced oxidative stress, inflammation, and renal histopathologic damage, resulting in reduced renal function. Thus, sensory nerves, via alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide, appear to be renoprotective against hypertension-induced damage.

  8. Soy peptide-induced stem cell proliferation: involvement of ERK and TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the proliferative effect of vegetable soy peptides on adult stem cells (ASCs) in the absence of serum and their possible mechanisms of action. The proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) treated with soy peptides was found to increase significantly upon 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assay. In addition, soy peptides led to stepwise phosphorylation of the p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase, S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in ADSCs. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the cytokines revealed that the production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 increased significantly in response to treatment with soy peptides in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, soy peptide-induced phosphorylation of the ERK/mTOR/S6RP/eIF4E pathway was blocked in response to pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. Moreover, inhibition of TGF-β1 through PD98059 pretreatment and a consecutive decrease in ADSC proliferation revealed that TGF-β1 induces the phosphorylation of mTOR/S6RP/eIF4E. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that ERK-dependent production of TGF-β1 plays a crucial role in the soy peptide-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions.

  9. Mechanism of Membrane Permeation Induced by Synthetic β-Hairpin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kshitij; Jang, Hyunbum; Harlen, Kevin; Puri, Anu; Nussinov, Ruth; Schneider, Joel P.; Blumenthal, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the membrane destabilizing properties of synthetic amphiphilic cationic peptides, MAX1 and MAX35, which have the propensity to form β-hairpin structures under certain conditions, and a control non-β-hairpin-forming peptide MAX8V16E. All three peptides bind to liposomes containing a mixture of zwitterionic POPC and negatively charged POPS lipids as determined by Zeta potential measurements. Circular dichroism measurements indicated folding of MAX1 and MAX35 in the presence of the POPC/POPS liposomes, whereas no such folding was observed with MAX8V16E. There was no binding or folding of these peptides to liposomes containing only POPC. MAX1 and MAX35 induced release of contents from negatively charged liposomes, whereas MAX8V16E failed to promote solute release under identical conditions. Thus, MAX1 and MAX35 bind to, and fold at the surface of negatively charged liposomes adopting a lytic conformation. We ruled out leaky fusion as a mechanism of release by including 2 mol % PEG-PE in the liposomes, which inhibits aggregation/fusion but not folding of MAX or MAX-induced leakage. Using a concentration-dependent quenching probe (calcein), we determined that MAX-induced leakage of liposome contents was an all-or-none process. At MAX1 concentrations, which cause release of ∼50% of the liposomes that contain small (Rh <1.5 nm) markers, only ∼15% of those liposomes release a fluorescent dextran of 40 kDa. A multimeric model of the pore is presented based on these results. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that barrels consisting of 10 β-hairpin MAX1 and MAX35 peptides are relatively more stable than MAX8V16E barrels in the bilayer, suggesting that barrels of this size are responsible for the peptides lytic action. PMID:24209854

  10. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced

  11. Quantitative peptidomics study reveals that a wound-induced peptide from PR-1 regulates immune signaling in tomato.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Lan; Lee, Chi-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Chang, Wei-Hung; Huang, Rong-Nan; Nam, Hong Gil; Chen, Yet-Ran

    2014-10-01

    Many important cell-to-cell communication events in multicellular organisms are mediated by peptides, but only a few peptides have been identified in plants. In an attempt to address the difficulties in identifying plant signaling peptides, we developed a novel peptidomics approach and used this approach to discover defense signaling peptides in plants. In addition to the canonical peptide systemin, several novel peptides were confidently identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and quantified to be induced by both wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A wounding or wounding plus MeJA-induced peptide derived from the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family was found to induce significant antipathogen and minor antiherbivore responses in tomato. This study highlights a role for PR-1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of plant endogenous peptides in efforts to defeat biological threats in crop production. As PR-1 is highly conserved across many organisms and the putative peptide from At-PR1 was also found to be bioactive in Arabidopsis thaliana, our results suggest that this peptide may be useful for enhancing resistance to stress in other plant species. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. A synthetic peptide blocking TRPV1 activation inhibits UV-induced skin responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Min; Han, Sangbum; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Transient receptor potential type 1 (TRPV1) can be activated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and mediates UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. Various chemicals and compounds targeting TRPV1 activation have been developed, but are not in clinical use mostly due to their safety issues. We aimed to develop a novel TRPV1-targeting peptide to inhibit UV-induced responses in human skin. We designed and generated a novel TRPV1 inhibitory peptide (TIP) which mimics the specific site in TRPV1 (aa 701-709: Gln-Arg-Ala-Ile-Thr-Ile-Leu-Asp-Thr, QRAITILDT), Thr(705), and tested its efficacy of blocking UV-induced responses in HaCaT, mouse, and human skin. TIP effectively inhibited capsaicin-induced calcium influx and TRPV1 activation. Treatment of HaCaT with TIP prevented UV-induced increases of MMP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In mouse skin in vivo, TIP inhibited UV-induced skin thickening and prevented UV-induced expression of MMP-13 and MMP-9. Moreover, TIP attenuated UV-induced erythema and the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human skin in vivo. The novel synthetic peptide targeting TRPV1 can ameliorate UV-induced skin responses in vitro and in vivo, providing a promising therapeutic approach against UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1982-09-01

    Results of earlier investigators indicate that radioemesis is mediated by some humoral agent(s). Peptides are likely candiates since they exert a number of biological effects and are released from storage sites by various stimuli, including radiation. Peptides at various concentrations were injected singly intravenously into conscious dogs, and the dog's emetic response was observed. Of the peptides tested, neurotensin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, oxytocin, and TRH produced consistent emetic responses. Inhibition of drug-induced emesis was studied both centrally (chlorpromazine) and peripherally (domperidone) acting dopamine antagonists. Results indicate inhibition by chlorpromazine, which crosses the blood brain barrier, but only partial blockade by domperidone, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies were conducted attempting to characterize types of receptors on area postrema neurons. Single-cell recordings from these neurons, challenged by iontophoretic administration of various neurotransmitters, show stimulation by glutamic acid and serotonin and inhibiiton by norepinephrine.

  14. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Grage, Stephan L.; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state 2H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of a

  15. p75NTR antagonistic cyclic peptide decreases the size of beta amyloid-induced brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yaar, Mina; Arble, Bennet L; Stewart, Kenneth B; Qureshi, Nazer H; Kowall, Neil W; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2008-12-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) was shown to bind the 75 kD neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) to induce neuronal death. We synthesized a p75(NTR) antagonistic peptide (CATDIKGAEC) that contains the KGA motif that is present in the toxic part of Abeta and closely resembles the binding site of NGF for p75(NTR). In vivo injections of Abeta into the cerebral cortex of B57BL/6 mice together with the peptide produced significantly less inflammation than simultaneous injections of Abeta and a control (CKETIADGAC, scrambled) peptide injected into the contralateral cortex. These data suggest that blocking the binding of Abeta to p75(NTR) may reduce neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. p75NTR Antagonistic Cyclic Peptide Decreases the Size of β Amyloid-Induced Brain Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yaar, Mina; Arble, Bennet L.; Stewart, Kenneth B.; Qureshi, Nazer H.; Kowall, Neil W.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) was shown to bind the 75 kD neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) to induce neuronal death. We synthesized a p75NTR antagonistic peptide (CATDIKGAEC) that contains the KGA motif that is present in the toxic part of Aβ and closely resembles the binding site of NGF for p75NTR. In vivo injections of Aβ into the cerebral cortex of B57BL/6 mice together with the peptide produced significantly less inflammation than simultaneous injections of Aβ and a control (CKETIADGAC, scrambled) peptide injected into the contralateral cortex. These data suggest that blocking the binding of Aβ to p75NTR may reduce neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18807174

  17. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection.

  18. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  19. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R. Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse. PMID:25637548

  20. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Inducible expression of an antibiotic peptide gene in lipopolysaccharide-challenged tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, G; Russell, J P; Bevins, C L

    1996-01-01

    Mammals continually confront microbes at mucosal surfaces. A current model suggests that epithelial cells contribute to defense at these sites, in part through the production of broad-spectrum antibiotic peptides. Previous studies have shown that invertebrates can mount a host defense response characterized by the induction in epithelia] cells of a variety of antibiotic proteins and peptides when they are challenged with microorganisms, bacterial cell wall/membrane components, or traumatic injury [Boman, H.G. & Hultmark, D. (1987) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41, 103-126J. However, factors that govern the expression of similar defense molecules in mammalian epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, a 13-fold induction of the endogenous gene encoding tracheal antimicrobial peptide was found to characterize a host response of tracheal epithelia] cells (TECs) exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Northern blot data indicated that TECs express CD14, a well-characterized LPS-binding protein known to mediate many LPS responses. A monoclonal antibody to CD14 blocked the observed tracheal antimicrobial peptide induction by LPS under serum-free conditions. Together the data support that CD14 of epithelial cell origin mediates the LPS induction of an antibiotic peptide gene in TECs, providing evidence for the active participation of epithelial cells in the host's local defense response to bacteria. Furthermore, the data allude to a conservation of this host response in evolution and suggest that a similar inducible pathway of host defense is prevalent at mucosal surfaces of mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643545

  2. A cold-induced phytosulfokine peptide is related to the improvement of loquat fruit chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Song, Huwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Weicheng; Yang, Xianghui; Diao, Enjie; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian

    2017-10-01

    A novel peptidomics approach was used to discover cold-induced peptides in loquat fruit. Twenty unique peptides derived from 18 proproteins were identified, and they were involved in sugar signalling, protein metabolism and stress response. The quantitative analysis revealed 7 peptides with more than 2-fold upregulation, especially a 4.96-fold increase detected in the phytosulfokine (PSK) peptide. To further evaluate effects of PSK1 on fruit chilling tolerance, weight loss, firmness and internal browning were investigated in PSK1-treated loquat fruit at 0°C. By contrast, these chilling injury symptoms were effectively reduced by PSK1. PSK1 markedly delayed decreases of ATP content and energy charge. The PSK1-treated fruit exhibited significantly lower activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes and transcripts of genes related to lignin synthesis. Our results demonstrated that PSK1 improves chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by maintaining high energy status and cell integrity. Peptidomics analysis provides a promising tool to discover some key peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A sleep-inducing peptide from the venom of the Indian cone snail Conus araneosus.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jayaseelan Benjamin; Rajesh, Rajaian Pushpabai

    2015-09-01

    The marine snail Conus araneosus has unusual significance due to its confined distribution to coastal regions of southeast India and Sri Lanka. Due to its relative scarceness, this species has been poorly studied. In this work, we characterized the venom of C. araneosus to identify new venom peptides. We identified 14 novel compounds. We determined amino acid sequences from chemically-modified and unmodified crude venom using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ten sequences showed six Cys residues arranged in a pattern that is most commonly associated with the M-superfamily of conotoxins. Four other sequences had four Cys residues in a pattern that is most commonly associated with the T-superfamily of conotoxins. The post-translationally modified residue (pyroglutamate) was determined at the N-terminus of two sequences, ar3h and ar3i respectively. In addition, two sequences, ar3g and ar3h were C-terminally amidated. At a dose of 2 nmol, peptide ar3j elicited sleep when injected intraperitoneally into mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a peptide from a molluscivorous cone snail with sleep-inducing effects in mice. The novel peptides characterized herein extend the repertoire of unique peptides derived from cone snails and may add value to the therapeutic promise of conotoxins.

  4. Amino acids induce peptide uptake via accelerated degradation of CUP9, the transcriptional repressor of the PTR2 peptide transporter.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zanxian; Turner, Glenn C; Hwang, Cheol-Sang; Byrd, Christopher; Varshavsky, Alexander

    2008-10-24

    Multiple pathways link expression of PTR2, the transporter of di- and tripeptides in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the availability and quality of nitrogen sources. Previous work has shown that induction of PTR2 by extracellular amino acids requires, in particular, SSY1 and PTR3. SSY1 is structurally similar to amino acid transporters but functions as a sensor of amino acids. PTR3 acts downstream of SSY1. Expression of the PTR2 peptide transporter is induced not only by amino acids but also by dipeptides with destabilizing N-terminal residues. These dipeptides bind to UBR1, the ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway, and allosterically accelerate the UBR1-dependent degradation of CUP9, a transcriptional repressor of PTR2. UBR1 targets CUP9 through its internal degron. Here we demonstrate that the repression of PTR2 by CUP9 requires TUP1 and SSN6, the corepressor proteins that form a complex with CUP9. We also show that the induction of PTR2 by amino acids is mediated by the UBR1-dependent acceleration of CUP9 degradation that requires both SSY1 and PTR3. The acceleration of CUP9 degradation is shown to be attained without increasing the activity of the N-end rule pathway toward substrates with destabilizing N-terminal residues. We also found that GAP1, a general amino acid transporter, strongly contributes to the induction of PTR2 by Trp. Although several aspects of this complex circuit remain to be understood, our findings establish new functional links between the amino acids-sensing SPS system, the CUP9-TUP1-SSN6 repressor complex, the PTR2 peptide transporter, and the UBR1-dependent N-end rule pathway.

  5. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: a theoretical and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2014-07-14

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration.

  6. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: A theoretical and molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2014-07-01

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration.

  7. Designing peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor to induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in animal model Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Permatasari, Galuh W; Utomo, Didik H; Widodo

    2016-10-01

    A designing peptide as agent for inducing diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in an animal model is challenging. The computational approach provides a sophisticated tool to design a functional peptide that may block the insulin receptor activity. The peptide that able to inhibit the binding between insulin and insulin receptor is a warrant for inducing T2DM. Therefore, we designed a potential peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor as an agent to generate T2DM animal model by bioinformatics approach. The peptide has been developed based on the structure of insulin receptor binding site of insulin and then modified it to obtain the best properties of half life, hydrophobicity, antigenicity, and stability binding into insulin receptor. The results showed that the modified peptide has characteristics 100h half-life, high-affinity -95.1±20, and high stability 28.17 in complex with the insulin receptor. Moreover, the modified peptide has molecular weight 4420.8g/Mol and has no antigenic regions. Based on the molecular dynamic simulation, the complex of modified peptide-insulin receptor is more stable than the commercial insulin receptor blocker. This study suggested that the modified peptide has the promising performance to block the insulin receptor activity that potentially induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleosomal peptide epitopes for nephritis-inducing T helper cells of murine lupus

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Nucleosome-specific T helper (Th) cells provide major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, cognate help to nephritogenic antinuclear autoantibody-producing B cells in lupus. However, the lupus Th cells do not respond when components of the nucleosome, such as free DNA or histones, are individually presented by antigen-presenting cells. Thus critical peptide epitopes for the pathogenic Th cells are probably protected during uptake and processing of the native nucleosome particle as a whole. Therefore, herein we tested 145 overlapping peptides spanning all four core histones in the nucleosome. We localized three regions in core histones, one in H2B at amino acid position 10-33 (H2B(10-33)), and two in H4, at position 16- 39 (H4(16-39)) and position 71-94 (H4(71-94)), that contained the peptide epitopes recognized by the pathogenic autoantibody-inducing Th cells of lupus. The peptide autoepitopes also triggered the pathogenic Th cells of (SWR x NZB)F1 lupus mice in vivo to induce the development of severe lupus nephritis. The nucleosomal autoepitopes stimulated the production of Th1-type cytokines, consistent with immunoglobulin IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 being the isotypes of nephritogenic autoantibodies induced in the lupus mice. Interestingly, the Th cell epitopes overlapped with regions in histones that contain B cell epitopes targeted by autoantibodies, as well as the sites where histones contact with DNA in the nucleosome. Identification of the disease-relevant autoepitopes in nucleosomes will help in understanding how the pathogenic Th cells of spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus emerge, and potentially lead to the development of peptide-based tolerogenic therapy for this major autoimmune disease. PMID:8676066

  9. A peptide mimotope of type 8 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide induces a protective immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Ulrike K; Lees, Andrew; Steinitz, Michael; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and a rising patient population at risk for infection due to impaired immunity underscore the importance of vaccination against pneumococci. However, available capsular polysaccharide vaccines are often poorly immunogenic in patients at risk for pneumococcal disease. The goal of this study was to explore the potential of peptide mimotopes to function as alternative vaccine antigens to elicit a type-specific antibody response to pneumococci. We used a human monoclonal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody (NAD) to type 8 Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (type 8 PS) to screen a phage display library, and the phage PUB1 displaying the peptide FHLPYNHNWFAL was selected after three rounds of biopanning. Inhibition studies with phage-displayed peptide or the peptide PUB1 and type 8 PS showed that PUB1 is a mimetic of type 8 PS. PUB1 conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PUB1-TT) induced a type 8 PS-specific antibody response in BALB/c mice, further defining it as a mimotope of type 8 PS. The administration of immune sera obtained from PUB1-TT-immunized mice earlier (days 14 and 21) and later (days 87 and 100) after primary and reimmunization resulted in a highly significant prolongation of the survival of naive mice after pneumococcal challenge compared to controls. The survival of PUB1-TT-immunized mice was also prolonged after pneumococcal challenge nearly 4 months after primary immunization. The efficacy of PUB1-TT-induced immune sera provides proof of principle that a mimotope-induced antibody response can protect against pneumococci and suggests that peptide mimotopes selected by type-specific human antibodies could hold promise as immunogens for pneumococci.

  10. New example of proline-induced fragmentation in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of peptides.

    PubMed

    Maux, Delphine; Enjalbal, Christine; Martinez, Jean; Aubagnac, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-01

    The positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectra of peptides usually display only protonated molecules provided that soft ionization conditions are applied (low cone voltage to prevent in-source dissociations). Such ions can be multiply charged depending on the molecular weight of the studied compounds. We have experienced an unexpected behavior during the ESI analysis of a modified peptide of relatively high mass (3079 Da). A specific fragmentation occurred even under soft energetic conditions, leading to a mass spectrum containing multiply charged molecular and fragment ions. The selective rupture involved the amide bond between the glutamic acid and proline residues (E-P sequence). The successive replacement of each amino acid by an alanine residue (positional scanning study) was undertaken to assess which part of the sequence induced such selective and abundant fragmentation on multiply charged species. The succession P-P was evidenced as the minimum unit giving rise to the first peptide bond rupture in the sequence X-P-P. Any acidic amino acid at the X position (X = D, E) favored the fragmentation by an intramolecular interaction. Such proline-induced fragmentation occurring readily in the source differed from the literature data on the specific behavior of proline-containing peptides where bond ruptures occur solely in dissociation conditions.

  11. Mitophagy induced by nanoparticle-peptide conjugates enabling an alternative intracellular trafficking route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Yanqing; Liu, Jinyin; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Guoqiang; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular behaviors of nanoparticles are fundamentally important for the evaluation of their biosafety and the designs of nano carrier-assisted drug delivery with high therapeutic efficacy. It is still in a great need to discover how functionalized nanoparticles are transported inside the cells, for instance, in a complicated fashion of translocation between different types of cell organelles. Here we report a new understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells by the development of polyoxometalates nanoparticle-peptide conjugates and investigation of their intracellular trafficking behaviors. The as-prepared nanoparticles are featured with a unique combination of fluorescence and high contrast for synchrotron X-ray-based imaging. Functional surface modification with peptides facilitates effective delivery of the nanoparticles onto the target organelle (mitochondria) and subsequent intracellular trafficking in a dynamic mode. Interestingly, our experimental results have revealed that autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) can be induced by NP-peptide as a cellular response for recycling the damaged organelles, through molecular mediation associated with the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. The biological effects induced by NP-peptide reciprocally affect the distribution patterns and fates of nanoparticles in the cell metabolism by providing an alternative route of intracellular trafficking. The new understanding of the mutual activities between nanoparticles and cells will enrich our approaches in the development of nanobiotechnology and nano-medicine for disease treatments.

  12. Metacaspase-binding peptide inhibits heat shock-induced death in Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Peña, Mauricio S; Cabral, Guilherme C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Perez, Katia R; Stolf, Beatriz S

    2017-03-02

    Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. This parasite faces cell death in some situations during transmission to the vertebrate host, and this process seems to be dependent on the activity of metacaspase (MCA), an enzyme bearing trypsin-like activity present in protozoans, plants and fungi. In fact, the association between MCA expression and cell death induced by different stimuli has been demonstrated for several Leishmania species. Regulators and natural substrates of MCA are poorly known. To fulfill this gap, we have employed phage display over recombinant L. (L.) amazonensis MCA to identify peptides that could interact with the enzyme and modulate its activity. Four peptides were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to MCA and interfere with its activity. One of these peptides, similar to ecotin-like ISP3 of L. (L.) major, decreases trypsin-like activity of promastigotes under heat shock, and significantly decreases parasite heat shock-induced death. These findings indicate that peptide ligands identified by phage display affect trypsin-like activity and parasite death, and that an endogenous peptidase inhibitor is a possible natural regulator of the enzyme.

  13. Distinct Membrane Disruption Pathways Are Induced by 40-Residue β-Amyloid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dennis A; Doherty, Katelynne; Cheng, Qinghui; Kim, Hyeongeun; Xu, Dawei; Dong, He; Grewer, Christof; Qiang, Wei

    2016-06-03

    Cellular membrane disruption induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides has been considered one of the major pathological mechanisms for Alzheimer disease. Mechanistic studies of the membrane disruption process at a high-resolution level, on the other hand, are hindered by the co-existence of multiple possible pathways, even in simplified model systems such as the phospholipid liposome. Therefore, separation of these pathways is crucial to achieve an in-depth understanding of the Aβ-induced membrane disruption process. This study, which utilized a combination of multiple biophysical techniques, shows that the peptide-to-lipid (P:L) molar ratio is an important factor that regulates the selection of dominant membrane disruption pathways in the presence of 40-residue Aβ peptides in liposomes. Three distinct pathways (fibrillation with membrane content leakage, vesicle fusion, and lipid uptake through a temporarily stable ionic channel) become dominant in model liposome systems under specific conditions. These individual systems are characterized by both the initial states of Aβ peptides and the P:L molar ratio. Our results demonstrated the possibility to generate simplified Aβ-membrane model systems with a homogeneous membrane disruption pathway, which will benefit high-resolution mechanistic studies in the future. Fundamentally, the possibility of pathway selection controlled by P:L suggests that the driving forces for Aβ aggregation and Aβ-membrane interactions may be similar at the molecular level. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Ethyl ether fraction of Gastrodia elata Blume protects amyloid beta peptide-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Han

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Recently, it has been reported that Alzheimer's disease is associated with cell death in neuronal cells including the hippocampus. Amyloid beta-peptide stimulates neuronal cell death, but the underlying signaling pathways are poorly understood. In order to develop anti-dementia agents with potential therapeutic value, we examined the effect of the herbal compound Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on neuronal cell death induced by amyloid beta-peptide in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The fractionation of GEB was carried out in various solvents. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of the ethyl ether fraction was more potent than any other fractions. In cells treated with amyloid beta-peptide, the neuroprotective effect of the ethyl ether, chloroform, and butanol fractions was 92, 44, and 39%, respectively, compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that the ethyl ether fraction of GEB contains one or more compounds that dramatically reduce amyloid beta-peptide induced neuronal cell death in vitro.

  15. Photo-induced hydrogen production in a helical peptide incorporating a [FeFe] hydrogenase active site mimic.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Madden, Christopher; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2012-10-11

    There is growing interest in the development of hydrogenase mimics for solar fuel production. Here, we present a bioinspired mimic designed by anchoring a diiron hexacarbonyl cluster to a model helical peptide via an artificial dithiol amino acid. The [FeFe]-peptide complex catalyses photo-induced production of hydrogen in water.

  16. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  17. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  18. Peptides derived from cardiovascular G-protein-coupled receptors induce morphological cardiomyopathic changes in immunized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S; Fu, M L; Katsuda, S; Hayase, M; Yamaguchi, N; Teraoka, K; Kurihara, T; Takekoshi, N; Murakami, E; Hoebeke, J; Hjalmarson, A

    1997-02-01

    An experimental model of early-stage cardiomyopathy was created by immunizing rabbits for 1 year with synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of either beta-adrenoceptors or M2-muscarinic receptors. Thirty male rabbits were used and divided into three groups: a control group (n = 10), a group immunized with the peptide corresponding to the beta-adrenoceptor (beta 1 group) (n = 10) and a group immunized with the peptide corresponding to the M2-muscarinic receptor (M2 group) (n = 10). If the sera from both groups of immunized rabbits high-titres of anti-peptide antibodies were found throughout the study period but not in the sera from control rabbits or in the preimmune sera of immunized rabbits. No significant cross-reaction with peptides other than those used for immunization was found. The myocardial receptor density of both immunized groups displayed a strong trend toward receptor up-regulation. This was significant in the beta 1 group but not in the M2 group. Both groups of immunized rabbits displayed significantly enlarged ventricles and thinner walls, as compared with the control group. However, in contrast to the beta 1 group, which showed enlarged cavities in both left and right ventricles, the M2 group was mainly affected in the right ventricles. Moreover, morphological examinations of the hearts of rabbits from both immunized groups demonstrated focal myofibrillar lysis, loss of myofilament, mitochondrial swelling and condensation, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, deposition of dense granules in the sarcoplasm and the myofibrils. One of the sex control rabbit hearts which were examined showed mild degenerative changes in the myocardium and scant mononuclear cell infiltration. However, when all the control rabbit hearts were examined by electron microscopy, no significant alterations were found. These results suggest that immunization by peptides, corresponding to the target sequences for anti-receptor autoantibodies in

  19. Hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins [(gamma-glutamylcysteine)n-serine] are metal-induced peptides of the Poaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Klapheck, S; Fliegner, W; Zimmer, I

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of several species of the family Poaceae to cadmium results in the formation of metal-induced peptides of the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Ser (n=2-4). They are assumed to be formed from hydroxymethyl-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Ser) and are termed hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins (hm-PCs) in analogy to the homo-phytochelatins [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-beta-Ala], discovered in legumes, and the phytochelatins [PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly] found in most other plants and many fungi. The hm-PCs were isolated from the roots of cadmium-exposed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Strella), and their structure was confirmed by amino acid analysis after total and enzymic hydrolysis and by tandem mass spectrometry. The hm-PCs probably play a significant role in heavy metal detoxication in rice. In addition to this new form of gamma-Glu-Cys (gamma EC) peptide, PCs and gamma EC peptides without C-terminal Ser or Gly are found. All gamma EC peptides are synthesized without delay after incubation of rice plants in 100 microM CdCl2 in the roots as well as in the shoots. Incubation times exceeding 24 h or higher concentrations of cadmium result in a selective enrichment of gamma EC peptides with higher chain length and an increased ratio of PCs to hm-PCs. gamma EC peptide synthesis is accompanied by a decrease of the glutathione content and an increase of the hydroxymethyl-glutathione content in roots and shoots of rice plants. PMID:8016264

  20. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Johnson, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. Methods: We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. Measurements and Main Results: After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5–9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Conclusions: Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations. PMID:23024024

  1. Rhinovirus infection induces degradation of antimicrobial peptides and secondary bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A; Elkin, Sarah L; Kon, Onn M; Johnson, Malcolm; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5-9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.

  2. Identification of salt-inducible peptide with putative kinase activity in halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus halodenitrificans.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Mahmoud-Reza; Sokhansanj, Ashrafaddin; Yoosefi, Mitra; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2007-09-01

    Strain XII, a moderately halophilic bacterium, expressed a peptide in response to saline media. This peptide was designated as salt-inducible factor (Sif-A). The purpose of this study is to describe Sif-A, which might be involved in the osmoresistance mechanism of strain XII. The complete sequence of sif-A was determined using PCR. sif-A codes for a polypeptide of 20.518 kDa. The polypeptide has a putative signal peptide of 27 amino acids (2.667 kDa) preceding the mature protein (17.869 kDa). Motif analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that there is a p-loop NTPase domain on the C-terminal of the peptide, which might correlate with its function. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed phylogenetically to classify strain XII. This organism was found to have the closest association with Virgibacillus halodenitrificans, which was proven by its phenotypic characteristics.

  3. A Novel Intracellular Peptide Derived from G1/S Cyclin D2 Induces Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Christiane B.; Russo, Lilian C.; Castro, Leandro M.; Forti, Fábio L.; do Monte, Elisabete R.; Rioli, Vanessa; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Colquhoun, Alison; Ferro, Emer S.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular peptides are constantly produced by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and many are probably functional. Here, the peptide WELVVLGKL (pep5) from G1/S-specific cyclin D2 showed a 2-fold increase during the S phase of HeLa cell cycle. pep5 (25–100 μm) induced cell death in several tumor cells only when it was fused to a cell-penetrating peptide (pep5-cpp), suggesting its intracellular function. In vivo, pep5-cpp reduced the volume of the rat C6 glioblastoma by almost 50%. The tryptophan at the N terminus of pep5 is essential for its cell death activity, and N terminus acetylation reduced the potency of pep5-cpp. WELVVL is the minimal active sequence of pep5, whereas Leu-Ala substitutions totally abolished pep5 cell death activity. Findings from the initial characterization of the cell death/signaling mechanism of pep5 include caspase 3/7 and 9 activation, inhibition of Akt2 phosphorylation, activation of p38α and -γ, and inhibition of proteasome activity. Further pharmacological analyses suggest that pep5 can trigger cell death by distinctive pathways, which can be blocked by IM-54 or a combination of necrostatin-1 and q-VD-OPh. These data further support the biological and pharmacological potential of intracellular peptides. PMID:24764300

  4. Oral dosing with multi-antigenic construct induces atheroprotective immune tolerance to individual peptides in mice.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Lakshmi; Ponnusamy, Thiruvelselvan; Philip, Sheena; Rao, Lakshmi Narasimha; Biradar, Suryakant; Deshpande, Vrushali; Kumar, Ramesh; Lu, Xinjie; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2014-08-01

    Inflammatory immune response to self-antigens plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Restoring immune tolerance to self-proteins reduces the pro-inflammatory response. We previously showed that oral tolerance to a combination of two peptides is atheroprotective. In the present study we expressed epitopes from apolipoprotein B 100 (ApoB), human heat shock protein (HSP60) and Chlamydia pneumonia outer membrane protein (Cpn) in a single protein scaffold and used this multi-antigenic construct to induce tolerance to individual peptides by oral route in ApoBtm2Sgy/Ldlrtm1Her/J mice. Antigen specific tolerance to individual peptides was observed in treated animals as seen by an increase in regulatory T cells. Tolerance to the peptides resulted in a 46.5% (p=0.002) reduction in the development of atherosclerosis compared with control. Atheroprotection was associated with a significant (p<0.05) decrease in plaque inflammation and an increase in the expression of immune regulatory markers in the aorta. CD11c+ cells coexpressing CD11b and CD103 increased in lymphoid organs and were found to activate regulatory T cells and reduce effector T-cell response. Adoptive transfer of CD11c+ cells was atheroprotective. Our results suggest that atheroprotection by oral tolerance to a multi-antigenic construct is mediated by antigen specific regulatory T cells and CD11c+ cells with immune regulatory properties.

  5. A 31-residue peptide induces aggregation of tau's microtubule-binding region in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöhr, Jan; Wu, Haifan; Nick, Mimi; Wu, Yibing; Bhate, Manasi; Condello, Carlo; Johnson, Noah; Rodgers, Jeffrey; Lemmin, Thomas; Acharya, Srabasti; Becker, Julia; Robinson, Kathleen; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Gai, Feng; Stubbs, Gerald; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Degrado, William F.

    2017-09-01

    The self-propagation of misfolded conformations of tau underlies neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's. There is considerable interest in discovering the minimal sequence and active conformational nucleus that defines this self-propagating event. The microtubule-binding region, spanning residues 244-372, reproduces much of the aggregation behaviour of tau in cells and animal models. Further dissection of the amyloid-forming region to a hexapeptide from the third microtubule-binding repeat resulted in a peptide that rapidly forms fibrils in vitro. We show that this peptide lacks the ability to seed aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. However, as the hexapeptide is gradually extended to 31 residues, the peptides aggregate more slowly and gain potent activity to induce aggregation of tau244-372 in cells. X-ray fibre diffraction, hydrogen-deuterium exchange and solid-state NMR studies map the beta-forming region to a 25-residue sequence. Thus, the nucleus for self-propagating aggregation of tau244-372 in cells is packaged in a remarkably small peptide.

  6. Detection of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides via skimmer collision-induced dissociation/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zolodz, Melissa D; Wood, Karl V

    2003-03-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins is an important post-translational protein modification in cellular response to environmental change and occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identification of the amino acid on individual proteins that become phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimulus is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the intracellular signals that these modifications facilitate. Most protein kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine or tyrosine. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is often the least abundant of the three major phosphorylation sites, it is important owing to its role in signal pathways. Currently available methods for the identification of phosphorylation sites can often miss low levels of tyrosine phosphorylations. This paper describes a method for the identification of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides using electrospray ionization on an ion trap mass spectrometer. Skimmer-activated collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to generate the phosphotyrosine immonium ion at m/z 216. This method is gentle enough that the protonated molecule of the intact peptide is still observed. In-trap CID was employed for the verification of the phosphotyrosine immonium ion. Using this technique, low levels of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides can be identified from peptide mixtures separated by nanoflow micro liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  7. Ventral tegmental self-stimulation selectively induces opioid peptide release in rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Stein, E A

    1993-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICS) is thought to activate neuronal systems involved in processing natural reinforcing agents. Metabolic mapping studies have previously demonstrated a subset of CNS structures specifically engaged by ICS in animals receiving stimulation actively vs. passively. Since opiates are known to enhance ICS behavior and presumably its reinforcing properties, the current study addressed the question of the role of opioid peptides as mediators of ICS. Rats were trained on a fixed ration (FR) 20 schedule of responding maintained by ICS. Following response stabilization, rats were assigned either to an active or a corresponding yoked stimulation group at 1 of 2 schedules of reinforcement (i.e., FR1-YFR1, FR20-YFR20, or sedentary control), and opioid peptide release was inferred from in vivo receptor occupancy. Autoradiographic analyses identified 3 groups of structures. Treatment-induced alterations in occupancy were seen in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, basolateral amygdala, ventral pallidum, medial habenula, dorsal raphe, posterior hypothalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, agranular preinsular cortex, and zona incerta. Depending upon the structure, peptide release was dependent upon stimulus contingency (active vs. yoked) and/or schedule (FR1 vs. FR20). Evidence for ICS-induced inhibition of peptide release was found in the habenula and preinsular cortex. Nine additional structures, all components of, or receiving projections from, the limbic system, revealed complex interactions between ICS treatment and the electrode side. Finally, a widespread ipsilateral increase in receptor binding was seen rostrally from the cingulate, olfactory tubercle, and nucleus accumbens, along the lateral hypothalamus and hippocampus, and extending caudally to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum. These later effects appear to be related to stimulation-induced changes in blood flow and subsequent ligant presentation increases. Collectively

  8. Intercellular communication via the comX-Inducing Peptide (XIP) of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Justin; Underhill, Simon A M; Shields, Robert C; Reyes, Adrian; Rosenzweig, Suzanne; Hagen, Stephen J; Burne, Robert A

    2017-08-14

    Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested. Co-culture model systems were developed that included a "sender" strain that overexpressed the XIP precursor (ComS) and a "responder" strain harboring a GFP reporter fusion to a ComR-activated gene (comX) promoter. The ability of the sender strain to provide a signal to activate GFP expression was monitored at the individual cell and population levels using i) planktonic culture systems, ii) cells suspended in an agarose matrix or iii) cells growing in biofilms. XIP was shown to be freely diffusible and XIP signaling between the S. mutans sender and responder strains did not require cell-to-cell contact. The presence of a sucrose-derived exopolysaccharide matrix diminished the efficiency of XIP signaling in biofilms, possibly by affecting spatial distribution of XIP senders and potential responders. Intercellular signaling was greatly impaired in a strain lacking the primary autolysin, AtlA, and was substantially greater when the sender strain underwent lysis. Collectively, these data provide evidence that S. mutans XIP can indeed function as a peptide signal between cells and highlight the importance of studying signaling with endogenously-produced peptide(s) in populations in various environments and physiologic states.IMPORTANCE The comX-inducing peptide (XIP) of Streptococcus mutans is a key regulatory element in the activation of genetic competence, which allows cells to take up extracellular DNA. XIP has been found in cell culture fluids and addition of

  9. A mimotope from a solid-phase peptide library induces a measles virus-neutralizing and protective antibody response.

    PubMed

    Steward, M W; Stanley, C M; Obeid, O E

    1995-12-01

    A solid-phase 8-mer random combinatorial peptide library was used to generate a panel of mimotopes of an epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody to the F protein of measles virus (MV). An inhibition immunoassay was used to show that these peptides were bound by the monoclonal antibody with different affinities. BALB/c mice were coimmunized with the individual mimotopes and a T-helper epitope peptide (from MV fusion protein), and the reactivity of the induced anti-mimotope antibodies with the corresponding peptides and with MV was determined. The affinities of the antibodies with the homologous peptides ranged from 8.9 x 10(5) to 4.4 x 10(7) liters/mol. However, only one of the anti-mimotope antibodies cross-reacted with MV in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inhibited MV plaque formation. Coimmunization of mice with this mimotope and the T-helper epitope peptide induced an antibody response which conferred protection against fatal encephalitis induced following challenge with MV and with the structurally related canine distemper virus. These results indicate that peptide libraries can be used to identify mimotopes of conformational epitopes and that appropriate immunization with these mimotopes can induce protective antibody responses.

  10. Participation of opioid peptides in sucking-induced oxytocin and prolactin secretions in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bruna, F A; de Di Nasso, E G; Soaje, M; Deis, R P; Carón, R W

    2010-10-01

    The role of opioid peptides in the secretion of oxytocin (OT) and prolactin (PRL) induced by sucking was studied in goats. Seven goats were isolated with their kids (four singletons and three twins) in individual corrals 3-4 weeks after parturition. On day 1 of the experiment, the kids were separated from the does for 7 h and were weighed before and 15 min after being reunited with their mothers to assess the amount of milk obtained by sucking. The does were blood-sampled 10 min before and at the end of the sucking period. On day 2, a similar protocol was followed, but naloxone was given immediately after the first blood sample. On day 3, the protocol was repeated but saline vehicle was injected instead of naloxone. On day 5, the naloxone experiment was repeated as on day 2. Milk ejection was evaluated as the difference in the weight of the kids before and after sucking for 15 min, and the maternal serum levels of OT and PRL were measured by radioimmunoassay. A significant decrease in the weight gain of the kids was obtained when the mothers were treated with naloxone on day 2. Consistently, serum levels of OT and PRL induced by sucking were significantly reduced; indicating that sucking-induced OT secretion for milk ejection in lactating goats is facilitated by opioid peptides. In a second experiment performed in the same animals 10 days later, the administration of OT, immediately after naloxone administration, prevented the decrease in the weight gain induced by naloxone, suggesting that the effect of the opioid antagonist on milk ejection in goats is a result of a reduced OT secretion. The results of this study confirm the importance of sucking-induced OT secretion for milk ejection in lactating goats, and indicate that OT and PRL secretion are regulated by opioid peptides in this species.

  11. Natriuretic peptide type C induces sperm attraction for fertilization in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Nana; Xu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yakun; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Zhao, Yu; Qiao, Jie; Xia, Guoliang; Zhang, Meijia

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa undergo selective movement along the isthmus of the oviduct to the ampulla during ovulation, which is a prerequisite for fertilization. The factor(s) that involves in selective spermatozoa movement is still unknown. In this study, we found that the oviductal epithelium in mouse ampulla expressed high levels of natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) in the presence of ovulated oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). Spermatozoa expressed NPPC receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase) on the midpiece of flagellum. NPPC increased intracellular levels of cGMP and Ca2+ of spermatozoa, and induced sperm accumulation in the capillary by attraction. Importantly, spermatozoa from Npr2 mutant mice were not attracted by NPPC, preventing fertilization in vivo. Oocyte-derived paracrine factors promoted the expression of Nppc mRNA in the ampulla. Therefore, NPPC secreted by oviductal ampulla attracts spermatozoa towards oocytes, which is essential for fertilization. PMID:28054671

  12. Applying Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy to Investigate Peptide-Induced Membrane Disruption.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas R; Andresen, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with phospholipid membranes. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful experimental technique that can be used to gain insight into these interactions. Specifically, FCS can be used to quantify leakage of fluorescent molecules of different sizes from large unilamellar lipid vesicles, thereby providing a tool for estimating the size of peptide-induced membrane disruptions. If fluorescently labeled lipids are incorporated into the membranes of the vesicles, FCS can also be used to obtain information about whether leakage occurs due to localized membrane perturbations or global membrane destabilization. Here, we outline a detailed step-by-step protocol on how to optimally implement an FCS-based leakage assay. To make the protocol easily accessible to other researchers, it has been supplemented with a number of practical tips and tricks.

  13. Representing environment-induced helix-coil transitions in a coarse grained peptide model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Coarse grained (CG) models are widely used in studying peptide self-assembly and nanostructure formation. One of the recurrent challenges in CG modeling is the problem of limited transferability, for example to different thermodynamic state points and system compositions. Understanding transferability is generally a prerequisite to knowing for which problems a model can be reliably used and predictive. For peptides, one crucial transferability question is whether a model reproduces the molecule's conformational response to a change in its molecular environment. This is of particular importance since CG peptide models often have to resort to auxiliary interactions that aid secondary structure formation. Such interactions take care of properties of the real system that are per se lost in the coarse graining process such as dihedral-angle correlations along the backbone or backbone hydrogen bonding. These auxiliary interactions may then easily overstabilize certain conformational propensities and therefore destroy the ability of the model to respond to stimuli and environment changes, i.e. they impede transferability. In the present paper we have investigated a short peptide with amphiphilic EALA repeats which undergoes conformational transitions between a disordered and a helical state upon a change in pH value or due to the presence of a soft apolar/polar interface. We designed a base CG peptide model that does not carry a specific (backbone) bias towards a secondary structure. This base model was combined with two typical approaches of ensuring secondary structure formation, namely a C α -C α -C α -C α pseudodihedral angle potential or a virtual site interaction that mimics hydrogen bonding. We have investigated the ability of the two resulting CG models to represent the environment-induced conformational changes in the helix-coil equilibrium of EALA. We show that with both approaches a CG peptide model can be obtained that is environment-transferable and that

  14. Charge States of y Ions in the Collision-Induced Dissociation of Doubly Charged Tryptic Peptide Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Pedatsur; Stein, Stephen E.

    2011-05-01

    Bonds that break in collision-induced dissociation (CID) are often weakened by a nearby proton, which can, in principle, be carried away by either of the product fragments. Since peptide backbone dissociation is commonly charge-directed, relative intensities of charge states of product y- and b-ions depend on the final location of that proton. This study examines y-ion charge distributions for dissociation of doubly charged peptide ions, using a large reference library of peptide ion fragmentation generated from ion-trap CID of peptide ions from tryptic digests. Trends in relative intensities of y2+ and y1+ ions are examined as a function of bond cleavage position, peptide length (n), residues on either side of the bond and effects of residues remote from the bond. It is found that yn-2/b2 dissociation is the most sensitive to adjacent amino acids, that y2+/y1+ steadily increase with increasing peptide length, that the N-terminal amino acid can have a major influence in all dissociations, and in some cases other residues remote from the bond cleavage exert significant effects. Good correlation is found between the values of y2+/y1+ for the peptide and the proton affinities of the amino acids present at the dissociating peptide bond. A few deviations from this correlation are rationalized by specific effects of the amino acid residues. These correlations can be used to estimate trends in y2+/y1+ ratios for peptide ions from amino acid proton affinities.

  15. In vivo treatment with a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide can prevent virus-induced autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    von Herrath, M G; Coon, B; Lewicki, H; Mazarguil, H; Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1998-11-01

    We tested the in vivo potential of a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide to sufficiently lower an anti-viral CTL response for preventing virus-induced CTL-mediated autoimmune diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)) in vivo without affecting systemic viral clearance. By designing and screening several peptides with high binding affinities to MHC class I H-2Db for best efficiency in blocking killing of target cells by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and other viral CTL, we identified the peptide for this study. In vitro, it selectively lowered CTL killing restricted to the Db allele, which correlated directly with the affinity of the respective epitopes. Expression of the blocking peptide in the target cell lowered recognition of all Db-restricted LCMV epitopes. In addition, in vitro expansion of LCMV memory CTL was prevented, resulting in decreased IFN-gamma secretion. In vivo, a 2-wk treatment with this peptide lowered the LCMV Db-restricted CTL response by over threefold without affecting viral clearance. However, the CTL reduction by the peptide treatment was sufficient to prevent LCMV-induced IDDM in rat insulin promoter-LCMV-glycoprotein transgenic mice. Following LCMV infection, these mice develop IDDM, which depends on Db-restricted anti-self (viral) CTL. Precursor numbers of splenic LCMV-CTL in peptide-treated mice were reduced, but their cytokine profile was not altered, indicating that the peptide did not induce regulatory cells. Further, non-LCMV-CTL recognizing the blocking peptide secreted IFN-gamma and did not protect from IDDM. This study demonstrates that in vivo treatment with a MHC class I blocking peptide can prevent autoimmune disease by directly affecting expansion of autoreactive CTL.

  16. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. killerFLIP: a novel lytic peptide specifically inducing cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Pennarun, B; Gaidos, G; Bucur, O; Tinari, A; Rupasinghe, C; Jin, T; Dewar, R; Song, K; Santos, M T; Malorni, W; Mierke, D; Khosravi-Far, R

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killerFLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using electron microscopy demonstrated that killerFLIP-E triggers cell death accompanied by rapid (within minutes) plasma membrane permeabilization. Studies of the structure of the active core of killerFLIP (-E) indicated that it possesses amphiphilic properties and self-assembles into micellar structures in aqueous solution. The biochemical properties of killerFLIP are comparable to those of cationic lytic peptides, which participate in defense against pathogens and have also demonstrated anticancer properties. We show that the pro-cell death effects of killerFLIP are independent of its sequence similarity with c-FLIPL as killerFLIP-induced cell death was largely apoptosis and necroptosis independent. A killerFLIP-E variant containing a scrambled c-FLIPL motif indeed induced similar cell death, suggesting the importance of the c-FLIPL residues but not of their sequence. Thus, we report the discovery of a promising synthetic peptide with novel anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24176852

  18. killerFLIP: a novel lytic peptide specifically inducing cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Pennarun, B; Gaidos, G; Bucur, O; Tinari, A; Rupasinghe, C; Jin, T; Dewar, R; Song, K; Santos, M T; Malorni, W; Mierke, D; Khosravi-Far, R

    2013-10-31

    One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killerFLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using electron microscopy demonstrated that killerFLIP-E triggers cell death accompanied by rapid (within minutes) plasma membrane permeabilization. Studies of the structure of the active core of killerFLIP (-E) indicated that it possesses amphiphilic properties and self-assembles into micellar structures in aqueous solution. The biochemical properties of killerFLIP are comparable to those of cationic lytic peptides, which participate in defense against pathogens and have also demonstrated anticancer properties. We show that the pro-cell death effects of killerFLIP are independent of its sequence similarity with c-FLIPL as killerFLIP-induced cell death was largely apoptosis and necroptosis independent. A killerFLIP-E variant containing a scrambled c-FLIPL motif indeed induced similar cell death, suggesting the importance of the c-FLIPL residues but not of their sequence. Thus, we report the discovery of a promising synthetic peptide with novel anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Cholecystokinin-Induced Gallbladder Emptying and Metformin Elicit Additive Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sonne, David Peick; Christensen, Mikkel; Hansen, Morten; Brønden, Andreas; Toräng, Signe; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik; Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip Krag

    2016-05-01

    Bile acids have been suggested to mediate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Metformin, too, has been shown to increase GLP-1 levels. The effect of gallbladder emptying, metformin, or a combination has, however, never been studied. We hypothesized that cholecystokinin (CCK)-8-induced gallbladder emptying stimulates human GLP-1 secretion and that metformin would potentiate this effect. A double-blinded, randomized study. The study was conducted at a specialized research unit. Ten healthy male subjects with no family history of diabetes (age, 22 [range, 20-32] years; body mass index, 21.7 [19.3-24.2] kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose, 4.9 [4.7-5.3] mm; and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, 5.1 [4.4-5.8] %). On 4 separate days, the subjects received metformin or placebo and a concomitant 60-minute intravenous infusion of saline or CCK. Blood was sampled for 4 hours, and gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasound. Plasma levels of GLP-1. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying and metformin alone (no observed effect on gallbladder emptying) both elicited significant and additive GLP-1 responses. Metformin alone or combined with gallbladder emptying elicited a significant peptide YY response. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying resulted in a short-lasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response independent of metformin. No effects were seen on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or gastrin. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy subjects elicits significant GLP-1 secretion, which can be potentiated by metformin.

  20. Gliadin Induces Neutrophil Migration via Engagement of the Formyl Peptide Receptor, FPR1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Casolaro, Vincenzo; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Parent, Carole A.; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Background Gliadin, the immunogenic component within gluten and trigger of celiac disease, is known to induce the production of Interleukin-8, a potent neutrophil-activating and chemoattractant chemokine. We sought to study the involvement of neutrophils in the early immunological changes following gliadin exposure. Methods Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, the redistribution of major tight junction protein, Zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and neutrophil recruitment were assessed in duodenal tissues of gliadin-gavaged C57BL/6 wild-type and Lys-GFP reporter mice, respectively. Intravital microscopy with Lys-GFP mice allowed monitoring of neutrophil recruitment in response to luminal gliadin exposure in real time. In vitro chemotaxis assays were used to study murine and human neutrophil chemotaxis to gliadin, synthetic alpha-gliadin peptides and the neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-1 (FPR1), cyclosporine H. An irrelevant protein, zein, served as a control. Results Redistribution of ZO-1 and an influx of CD11b+Lys6G+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine were observed upon oral gavage of gliadin. In vivo intravital microscopy revealed a slowing down of GFP+ cells within the vessels and influx in the mucosal tissue within 2 hours after challenge. In vitro chemotaxis assays showed that gliadin strongly induced neutrophil migration, similar to fMet-Leu-Phe. We identified thirteen synthetic gliadin peptide motifs that induced cell migration. Blocking of FPR1 completely abrogated the fMet-Leu-Phe-, gliadin- and synthetic peptide-induced migration. Conclusions Gliadin possesses neutrophil chemoattractant properties similar to the classical neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, and likewise uses FPR1 in the process. PMID:26378785

  1. Peptide LSARLAF induces integrin β3 dependent outside-in signaling in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Haixia; Xu, Zhenlu; Li, Ding; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Kemin; Taylor, Donald B.; Liu, Junling; Gartner, T. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Peptide LSARLAF (LSA) can bind and activate integrin αIIbβ3 in the absence of ‘inside-out’ signal. The active αIIbβ3 mediates ‘outside-in’ signaling that elicits platelet aggregation, granule secretion and TxA2 production. Here we identify the membrane glycoproteins which mediate LSA-induced platelet activation other than αIIbβ3, and determine the roles of Src, PLCγ2, FcRγ-chain, and SLP-76 in LSA-induced platelet activation. Method Ligand-receptor binding assay was performed to study the effect of peptide LSA or its control peptide FRALASL (FRA) on integrins binding to their ligands. Spreading of CHO cells expressing αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 on immobilized fibrinogen was measured in the presence of LSA or FRA. Washed β3, Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets aggregation and secretion were tested in response to LSA. Results Ligand-receptor binding assay indicated that LSA promoted the binding of multiple ligands to αIIbβ3 or αVβ3. LSA also enhanced CHO cells with αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 expression spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. β3 deficient platelets failed to aggregate and secrete in response to LSA. The phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and Syk was also β3 dependent. Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets did not aggregate, secrete ATP or produce TxA2 in response to LSA. Conclusion LSA-induced platelet activation is β3 dependent, and signaling molecules Src, FcRγ-chain, SLP-76 and LAT play crucial roles in LSA-induced β3 mediated signaling. PMID:22482832

  2. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence peptide-based biosensor for the determination of prostate-specific antigen based on target-induced cleavage of peptide.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honglan; Li, Min; Dong, Manman; Ruan, Sanpeng; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2014-02-04

    A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence peptide-based biosensor (ECL-PB) for the determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was developed on the basis of target-induced cleavage of a specific peptide within Nafion film incorporated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ECL emitting species. A specific peptide (CHSSKLQK) was used as a molecular recognition element; tris(2,2'-ripyridine) dichlororuthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) was used as ECL emitting species, and ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc) was employed as ECL quencher. The ECL-PB biosensor was fabricated by casting the mixture of Nafion and AuNPs onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode to form AuNPs/Nafion film, and then, Ru(bpy)3(2+) was electrostatically adsorbed into the AuNPs/Nafion film; finally, the peptide-tagged with ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc-peptide) was self-assembled onto the surface of the AuNPs. When PSA was present, it specifically cleaved the Fc-peptide, leading the quencher to leave the electrode and resulting in the increase of the ECL intensity obtained from the resulted electrode in 0.1 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) containing tri-n-propylamine. The results showed that the increased ECL intensity was directly linear to the logarithm of the concentration of PSA in the range from 5.0 × 10(-12) to 5.0 × 10(-9) g/mL. An extremely low detection limit of 8 × 10(-13) g/mL was achieved because of the signal amplification through AuNPs and the ECL background suppression through Fc as ECL quencher. This work demonstrates that the combination of the direct transduction of peptide cleavage events with the highly sensitive ECL method is a promising strategy for the design of enzymatic cleavage-based ECL biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  3. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. "Non-toxic" cyclic peptides induce lysis of cyanobacteria-an effective cell population density control mechanism in cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Sedmak, B; Carmeli, S; Elersek, Tina

    2008-08-01

    The presence of planktopeptin BL1125, anabaenopeptin B and anabaenopeptin F, two types of "non-toxic" cyclic peptide produced in bloom forming cyanobacteria, can provoke lysis of different non-axenic Microcystis aeruginosa cell lines via the induction of virus-like particles. The resulting particles are also able to infect the axenic M. aeruginosa cell line without lytic effects. Nevertheless, the presence of "non-toxic" cyclic peptides of cyanobacterial origin can induce lysis of these previously infected cells. This effect implies that a possible role of these peptides in the natural environment is the control of cyanobacterial population density. Lysogenic cyanobacteria can consequently act as hot-spots that, in the presence of cyanobacterial cyclic peptides, release numerous infectious particles. The process can be self-augmented with the simultaneous release of additional cyclic peptides from the producing lysogens, starting a forest fire effect that ends in collapse of cyanobacterial blooms.

  5. An Analog of the Antimicrobial Peptide CopA5 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, I Na; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2017-02-28

    We previously reported that the CopA3 peptide (LLCIALRKK, D-form) originally isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial and immunosuppressive effects. However, the high cost of producing the synthetic peptide, especially the D-form, has limited the development of CopA3 for therapeutic purposes. Here, we investigated whether the CopA3 deletion derivative, CopA5, which is composed of only five amino acids (LLCIA) and has the L-form structure, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) were isolated from mice and exposed to LPS in the presence or absence of CopA5, and biomarkers of macrophage activation were measured. Our results revealed that LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion, and phagocytic activity of PEM were significantly inhibited by CopA5 treatment. Similar to CopA3, the structurally modified CopA5 peptide had no cell toxicity (as assessed by measurement of cell viability loss and apoptosis) in PEM. Moreover, the LPS-induced upregulation of the activating phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was markedly inhibited by CopA5 treatment. These results suggest that, similar to CopA3, CopA5 inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation and blocking the release of NO and TNF-α. CopA5 may therefore prove therapeutically useful in the realm of immune suppression.

  6. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C.; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2010-01-01

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32°C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32°C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm. PMID:21044625

  7. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2011-01-15

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32 °C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32 °C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm.

  8. Inhibition by FK506 of formyl peptide-induced neutrophil activation and associated protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D; Adams, D H; Martin, T J; Liu, Q; Grant, R A; Stockley, R A; Lord, J M

    1994-09-15

    The macrolide FK506 inhibited, by up to 50%, neutrophil migration and the production of the superoxide radical in response to the formyl peptide, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). The production of the superoxide radical in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was unaffected by FK506. The inhibition of neutrophil functions was accompanied by a partial reversal of FMLP-induced synthesis of cellular proteins, despite a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Neutrophils treated with FK506 demonstrated a small (average 23%) though significant decrease in formyl-peptide receptor numbers but receptor binding affinity was unaffected. The effects of FK506 on neutrophil activation appear to be analogous to those in T-lymphocytes. The incomplete inhibition, by FK506, of neutrophil responses suggests further that activation by FMLP is mediated via distinct multiple signalling pathways, including protein kinase activation and protein synthesis. The inability of FK506 to reduce FMLP-induced rises in cellular Ca2+ or PMA-induced activation of neutrophils suggests that its action is distal to Ca2+ mobilization and distinct from pathways relying on PKC activation. Thus the immunosuppressive effects of FK506 in vivo might be mediated through the inhibition of inflammatory cells other than lymphocytes and the drug therefore has therapeutic potential in a variety of inflammatory conditions. The drug also has potential in vitro for the characterization of signalling pathways from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.

  9. Smac therapeutic Peptide nanoparticles inducing apoptosis of cancer cells for combination chemotherapy with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxing; Liu, Peng; Gao, Guanhui; Deng, Jizhe; Pan, Zhengyin; Wu, Xu; Xie, Gaofeng; Yue, Caixia; Cho, Chi Hin; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-04-22

    Smac-conjugated nanoparticle (Smac-NP) was designed to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells and as a drug carrier for combination therapy. It contained three parts, a SmacN7 peptide which could induce apoptosis of cancer cells by interacting with XIAPs, the cell penetrating domain rich in arginine, and four hydrophobic tails for self-assembled Smac-NP. We demonstrated that Smac-NPs exerted an antitumor effect in breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and nonsmall lung cancer (NSCLC) cell H460, which efficiently inhibited cancer cells proliferation without influencing normal liver cell lines LO2. Smac-NPs also significantly induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and H460 cells through activating pro-caspase-3, down-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, Smac-NPs could be explored as a drug delivery system to load hydrophobic drug such as DOX for combination therapy. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-Smac-NPs) exhibited higher cellular uptake efficiency and antitumor effect. Our work provided a new insight into therapeutic peptides integrated with drug simultaneously in one system for cancer combination treatment.

  10. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Hervé; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The pathways leading specifically to the toxic Aβ42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of Aβ42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases Aβ42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC50 of 30 μM. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of γ-secretase components and could, therefore, modify γ-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other “AD accelerator” compounds. In summary, treatment with three Aβ42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets.—Bettayeb, K., Oumata, N., Zhang, Y., Luo, W., Bustos, V., Galons, H., Greengard, P., Meijer, L., Flajolet, M. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action. PMID:22972917

  11. Cafestol, a coffee-specific diterpene, induces peripheral antinociception mediated by endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Luciana S; Perez, Andrea C; Romero, Thiago Rl; Azevedo, Adolfo O; Duarte, Igor Dg

    2012-05-01

    The opioid peptides have been implicated in peripheral antinociception induced by non-opioidergic compounds, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and α(2) -adrenoceptor agonists. The aims of the present study were to investigate the possible peripheral antinociceptive effect of cafestol, a diterpene present in the oil derived from coffee beans, and to evaluate the involvement of opioid peptides in its effect. The rat paw pressure test was used to assess antinocipeptive effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2) (2 μg/paw). All drugs were locally administered into the hind-paws of male Wistar rats. Intraplantar injection of cafestol (20, 40 and 80 μg) induced peripheral antinociception. The antinociceptive effect of cafestol was due to a local action because the higher dose (80 μg/paw) did not produce any effect in the contralateral paw. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (25, 50 and 100 μg/paw) prevented the action of cafestol (80 μg/paw), whereas the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin (400 μg/paw) potentiated the antinociceptive effect of cafestol (40 μg/paw). The results of the present study provide evidence that cafestol treatment has a peripheral antinociceptive effect and suggest that this effect is mediated by the release of endogenous opioids.

  12. Novel leptin OB3 peptide-induced signaling and progression in thyroid cancers: Comparison with leptin

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Ke, Chien-Chih; Crawford, Dana R.; Lee, Oscar K.; Fu, Earl; Mousa, Shaker A.; Grasso, Patricia; Liu, Leroy F.; Chang, Heng-Yu; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Lin, Hung-Yun; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity results in increased secretion of cytokines from adipose tissue and is a risk factor for various cancers. Leptin is largely produced by adipose tissue and cancer cells. It induces cell proliferation and may serve to induce various cancers. OB3-leptin peptide (OB3) is a new class of functional leptin peptide. However, its mitogenic effect has not been determined. In the present study, because of a close link between leptin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, OB3 was compared with leptin in different thyroid cancer cells for gene expression, proliferation and invasion. Neither agent stimulated cell proliferation. Leptin stimulated cell invasion, but reduced adhesion in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Activated ERK1/2 and STAT3 contributed to leptin-induced invasion. In contrast, OB3 did not affect expression of genes involved in proliferation and invasion. In vivo studies in the mouse showed that leptin, but not OB3, significantly increased circulating levels of thyrotropin (TSH), a growth factor for thyroid cancer. In summary, OB3 is a derivative of leptin that importantly lacks the mitogenic effects of leptin on thyroid cancer cells. PMID:27050378

  13. A synthetic peptide induces long-term protection from lethal infection with herpes simplex virus 2

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Immunization against viral pathogens is generally directed toward the induction of virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) and the maintenance of the potential for a second-set (IgG) response. Indeed, an elevated level of specific antibody is considered a reliable clinical indicator that a state of immunity exists in the host. However, in the case of herpes simplex virus (HSV), the presence of circulating VNA does not necessarily correlate with protection. Thus, it has been found that secondary infections occur in individuals even with high neutralizing titers to HSV, suggesting that antibody to the virus may be useless or even deleterious. In consideration of these facts, we were interested in inducing a T cell response to HSV. We had already shown that synthetic peptides corresponding to the NH3-terminal region of the glycoprotein D (gD) molecule of HSV could induce a strong T cell response when injected into mice, but did not, by themselves, confer protection. In this report, we examined the ability of peptides, covalently coupled to palmitic acid and incorporated into liposomes, to induce virus-specific T cell responses that confer protection against a lethal challenge of HSV-2. We have demonstrated that long-term protective immunity is achieved with a single immunization in the absence of neutralizing antibody when antigen is presented in this form. Furthermore, T cells but not serum from such immune mice can adoptively transfer this protection. PMID:3029270

  14. Mystixin-7 Peptide Protects Ionotropic Glutamatergic Mechanisms against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used. Application of L-glutamate in toxic concentration (20 mM) on slices evoked hyperactivation of NMDARs and weaker activation of the AMPARs. Upon further action agonist, the excessive activation of glutamate receptors was replaced by their irreversible blockade. Pretreatment of the slices using MTX in different concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) protected both NMDARs and AMPARs from glutamate-induced damage. An enzymatic treatment of MTX reduced hyperactivation of both NMDARs and AMPARs. The present study demonstrated that MTX minipeptide protected the functioning of both NMDARs and AMPARs against glutamate-induced damage. The MTX peptide is a prospective candidate for elaborated medication in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:27504123

  15. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guoqiu; Wu, Hongbin; Li, Linxian; Fan, Xiaobo; Ding, Jiaxuan; Li, Xiaofang; Xi, Tao; Shen, Zilong

    2010-04-23

    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  16. Production of Phytotoxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides in Plant Cells Using Inducible Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  17. PR1 peptide vaccine induces specific immunity with clinical responses in myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Qazilbash, M H; Wieder, E; Thall, P F; Wang, X; Rios, R; Lu, S; Kanodia, S; Ruisaard, K E; Giralt, S A; Estey, E H; Cortes, J; Komanduri, K V; Clise-Dwyer, K; Alatrash, G; Ma, Q; Champlin, R E; Molldrem, J J

    2017-03-01

    PR1, an HLA-A2-restricted peptide derived from both proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase, is recognized on myeloid leukemia cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that preferentially kill leukemia and contribute to cytogenetic remission. To evaluate safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of PR1 vaccination, a phase I/II trial was conducted. Sixty-six HLA-A2+ patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML: 42), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML: 13) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS: 11) received three to six PR1 peptide vaccinations, administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg. Patients were randomized to the three dose levels after establishing the safety of the highest dose level. Primary end points were safety and immune response, assessed by doubling of PR1/HLA-A2 tetramer-specific CTL, and the secondary end point was clinical response. Immune responses were noted in 35 of 66 (53%) patients. Of the 53 evaluable patients with active disease, 12 (24%) had objective clinical responses (complete: 8; partial: 1 and hematological improvement: 3). PR1-specific immune response was seen in 9 of 25 clinical responders versus 3 of 28 clinical non-responders (P=0.03). In conclusion, PR1 peptide vaccine induces specific immunity that correlates with clinical responses, including molecular remission, in AML, CML and MDS patients.

  18. Unusual Fragmentation of Pro-Ser/Thr-Containing Peptides Detected in Collision-Induced Dissociation Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Trinidad, Jonathan C.

    2012-04-01

    During collision-induced dissociation (CID)-, phosphoserine- and phosphothreonine-containing peptides frequently undergo neutral loss of phosphoric acid. Subsequent amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation results in a y ion with a mass 18 Da lower than the corresponding unmodified y fragment. We report here that when the phosphoserine or phosphothreonine is directly preceded by a proline, an unusual fragment with a mass 10 Da higher than the corresponding unmodified y ion is frequently observed. Accurate mass measurements are consistent with elimination of the phosphoric acid followed by fragmentation between the α carbon and the carbonyl group of the proline residue. We propose a cyclic oxazoline structure for this fragment. Our observation may be explained by the charge-directed SN2 neighboring group participation reaction proposed for the phosphoric acid elimination by Palumbo et al. [Palumbo, A. M., Tepe, J. J., Reid, G. E. Mechanistic Insights into the Multistage Gas-Phase Fragmentation Behavior of Phosphoserine- and Phosphothreonine-Containing Peptides. J. Protein Res. 7(2), 771-779 (2008)]. Considering such specific fragment ions for confirmation purposes after regular database searches may boost the confidence of peptide identifications as well as phosphorylation site assignments.

  19. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  20. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-26

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  1. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  2. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic–inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  3. PR1 Peptide Vaccine Induces Specific Immunity With Clinical Responses In Myeloid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; Wieder, Eric; Thall, Peter F.; Wang, Xuemei; Rios, Rosa; Lu, Sijie; Kanodia, Shreya; Ruisaard, Kathryn E.; Giralt, Sergio A.; Estey, Elihu H.; Cortes, Jorge; Komanduri, Krishna V.; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Alatrash, Gheath; Ma, Qing; Champlin, Richard E.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    PR1, an HLA-A2-restricted peptide derived from both proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase, is recognized on myeloid leukemia cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that preferentially kill leukemia and contribute to cytogenetic remission. To evaluate safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of PR1 vaccination, a phase I/II trial was conducted. Sixty-six HLA-A2+ patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML: 42), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML: 13) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS: 11) received three to six PR1 peptide vaccinations, administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg. Patients were randomized to the 3 dose levels after establishing the safety of the highest dose level. Primary endpoints were safety and immune response, assessed by doubling of PR1/HLA-A2 tetramer-specific CTL, and the secondary endpoint was clinical response. Immune responses were noted in 35 of 66 (53%) patients. Of the 53 evaluable patients with active disease, 12 (24%) had objective clinical responses (complete: 8, partial: 1 and hematological improvement: 3). PR1-specific immune response was seen in 9 of 25 clinical responders vs. 3 of 28 clinical non-responders (p=0.03). In conclusion, PR1 peptide vaccine induces specific immunity that correlates with clinical responses, including molecular remission, in AML, CML and MDS patients. PMID:27654852

  4. Spermicidal efficacy of VRP, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, inducing apoptosis and membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prasanta; Bhoumik, Arpita; Saha, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Ghosh, Jimut K; Dungdung, Sandhya R

    2017-04-14

    Presently available contraceptives are mostly hormonal or detergent in nature with numerous side effects like irritation, lesion, inflammation in vagina, alteration of body homeostasis, etc. Antimicrobial peptides with spermicidal activity but without adverse effects may be suitable alternatives. In the present study, spermicidal activity of a cationic antimicrobial peptide VRP on human spermatozoa has been elucidated. Progressive forward motility of human spermatozoa was instantly stopped after 100 μM VRP treatment and at 350 μM, all kinds of sperm motility ceased within 20 s as assessed by the Sander-Cramer assay. The spermicidal effect was confirmed by eosin-nigrosin assay and HOS test. VRP treatment (100 μM) in human spermatozoa induced both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. TUNEL assay showed VRP treatment significantly disrupted the DNA integrity and changed the mitochondrial membrane permeability as evident from MPTP assay. AFM and SEM results depicted ultra structural changes including disruption of the acrosomal cap and plasma membrane of the head and midpiece region after treatment with 350 μM VRP. MTT assay showed after treatments with 100 and 350 μM of VRP for 24 hr, a substantial amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus (about 90% and 75%, respectively) remained viable. Hence, VRP being a small synthetic peptide with antimicrobial and spermicidal activity but tolerable to normal vaginal microflora, may be a suitable target for elucidating its contraceptive potentiality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of infrared multiphoton dissociation and collision-induced dissociation of supercharged peptides in ion traps.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2009-03-01

    The number and types of diagnostic ions obtained by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were evaluated for supercharged peptide ions created by electrospray ionization of solutions spiked with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. IRMPD of supercharged peptide ions increased the sequence coverage compared with that obtained by CID for all charge states investigated. The number of diagnostic ions increased with the charge state for IRMPD; however, this trend was not consistent for CID because the supercharged ions did not always yield the greatest number of diagnostic ions. Significantly different fragmentation pathways were observed for the different charge states upon CID or IRMPD with the latter yielding far more immonium ions and often fewer uninformative ammonia, water, and phosphoric acid neutral losses. Pulsed-Q dissociation resulted in an increase in the number of internal product ions, a decrease in sequence-informative ions, and reduced overall ion abundances. The enhanced sequence coverage afforded by IRMPD of supercharged ions was demonstrated for a variety of model peptides, as well as for a tryptic digest of cytochrome c.

  6. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes.

  7. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  8. On the dynamics of fragment isomerization in collision-induced dissociation of peptides.

    PubMed

    Polfer, Nick C; Bohrer, Brian C; Plasencia, Manolo D; Paizs, Béla; Clemmer, David E

    2008-02-14

    The structures of peptide collision-induced dissociation (CID) product ions are investigated using ion mobility/mass spectrometry techniques combined with theoretical methods. The cross-section results are consistent with a mixture of linear and cyclic structures for both b4 and a4 fragment ions. Direct evidence for cyclic structures is essential in rationalizing the appearance of fragments with scrambled (i.e., permutated) primary structures, as the cycle may not open up where it was initially formed. It is demonstrated here that cyclic and linear a4 structures can interconvert freely as a result of collisional activation, implying that isomerization takes place prior to dissociation.

  9. Lipochitooligosaccharide-induced tobacco cells release a peptide as mediator of the glycolipid signal

    PubMed Central

    John, Michael; Schmidt, Jürgen; Walden, Richard; Czaja, Inge; Dülz, Marion; Schell, Jeff; Röhrig, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are plant growth regulators that promote at subfemtomolar concentrations cell division in tobacco protoplasts. In response to LCO treatment, tobacco cells release a second growth factor that fully mediates the growth-promoting activities of the initial extracellular LCO stimulus. This diffusible growth factor was isolated from the protoplasts’ culture filtrate and shown to be a peptide. We report that the LCO-induced mitogen released by tobacco cells and a synthetic heptadecapeptide derived from region 2 of the tobacco homolog of the early nodulin gene ENOD40 are antigenically related and qualitatively indistinguishable in their ability to stimulate cell division. PMID:9294183

  10. Characterization of γ-carboxylated tryptic peptides by collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramström, Margareta; Sandberg, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamic acid (Glu) residues into γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) is a post-translational modification essential for normal protein activity of, for example, proteins involved in the blood coagulation system. These proteins may contain as many as 12 sites for γ-carboxylation within a protein sequence of 45 amino acid residues. In the biopharmaceutical industry, powerful analytical techniques are required for identification and localization of modified sites. We here present comparatively easy and rapid methods for studies of Gla-containing proteins using recent technology. The performances of two mass spectrometric fragmentation techniques, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), were evaluated with respect to γ-carboxylated peptides, applying on-line LC-ion trap MS. ETD MS has so far not been reported for Gla-containing peptides and the applicability of CID for heavily γ-carboxylated proteins has not been evaluated. The anticoagulant protein, protein C, containing nine Gla-sites, was chosen as a model protein. After tryptic digestion, three peptides containing Gla-residues were detected by MS; a 1.2 kDa fragment containing two Gla-residues, a 4.5 kDa peptide containing seven residues and also the 5.6 kDa tryptic peptides containing all nine Gla-residues. Regarding the shortest peptide, both CID and ETD provided extensive peptide sequencing. For the larger peptides, fragmentation by CID resulted in loss of the 44 Da CO(2)-group, while little additional fragmentation of the peptide chain was observed. In contrast, ETD resulted in comprehensive fragmentation of the peptide backbone. The study demonstrates that the combination of both techniques would be beneficial and complementary for investigation of γ-carboxylated proteins and peptides.

  11. The 118-135 peptide of the human prion protein forms amyloid fibrils and induces liposome fusion.

    PubMed

    Pillot, T; Lins, L; Goethals, M; Vanloo, B; Baert, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Rosseneu, M; Brasseur, R

    1997-12-05

    The prion protein (PrPC) is a glycoprotein of unknown function normally found at the surface of neurons and of glial cells. It is involved in diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the human, where PrPC is converted into an altered form (termed PrPSc). PrPSc is highly resistant towards proteolytic degradation and accumulates in the central nervous system of affected individuals. By analogy with the pathological events occuring during the development of Alzheimer's disease, controverses still exist regarding the relationship between amyloidogenesis, prion aggregation and neuronal loss. To unravel the mechanism of PrP neurotoxicity and understand the interaction of PrP with cellular membranes, a series of natural and variant peptides spanning residues 118 to 135 of PrP was synthesized. The potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was investigated. According to computer modeling calculations, the 120 to 133 domain of PrP is predicted to be a tilted lipid-associating peptide, and to insert in a oblique way into a lipid bilayer through its N-terminal end. In addition to amyloidogenic properties exhibited in vitro by these peptides, peptide-induced vesicle fusion was demonstrated by several techniques, including lipid- and core-mixing assays. Elongation of the 120 to 133 peptide towards the N- and C-terminal ends of the PrP sequence showed that the 118 to 135 PrP peptide has maximal fusogenic properties, while the variant peptides had no effect. Due to their high hydrophobicity, all peptides tested were able to interact with liposomes to induce leakage of encapsulated calcein. We demonstrate also that the propensity of the peptides to fold as an alpha-helix increases their fusogenic activity, thus accounting for the maximal fusogenic activity of the most stable helix at residues 118 to 135. These data suggest that, by analogy with the C-terminal domain of the beta-amyloid peptide, the

  12. F5-peptide induces aspermatogenesis by disrupting organization of actin- and microtubule-based cytoskeletons in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lui, Wing-yee; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    During the release of sperm at spermiation, a biologically active F5-peptide, which can disrupt the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier, is produced at the site of the degenerating apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization). This peptide coordinates the events of spermiation and blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, creating a local apical ES-BTB axis to coordinate cellular events across the epithelium. The mechanism(s) by which F5-peptide perturbs BTB restructuring, and its involvement in apical ES dynamics remain unknown. F5-peptide, besides perturbing BTB integrity, was shown to induce germ cell release from the epithelium following its efficient in vivo overexpression in the testis. Overexpression of F5-peptide caused disorganization of actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons, mediated by altering the spatiotemporal expression of actin binding/regulatory proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. F5-peptide perturbed the ability of actin microfilaments and/or MTs from converting between their bundled and unbundled/defragmented configuration, thereby perturbing adhesion between spermatids and Sertoli cells. Since apical ES and basal ES/BTB are interconnected through the underlying cytoskeletal networks, this thus provides an efficient and novel mechanism to coordinate different cellular events across the epithelium during spermatogenesis through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments and MTs. These findings also illustrate the potential of F5-peptide being a male contraceptive peptide for men. PMID:27611949

  13. HLA Class I Binding 9mer Peptides from Influenza A Virus Induce CD4+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Larsen, Mette V.; Nielsen, Morten; Harndahl, Mikkel; Justesen, Sune; Dziegiel, Morten H.; Buus, Søren; Tang, Sheila T.; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes from influenza virus is of importance for the development of new effective peptide-based vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, bioinformatics was used to predict 9mer peptides derived from available influenza A viral proteins with binding affinity for at least one of the 12 HLA-I supertypes. The predicted peptides were then selected in a way that ensured maximal coverage of the available influenza A strains. One hundred and thirty one peptides were synthesized and their binding affinities for the HLA-I supertypes were measured in a biochemical assay. Influenza-specific T cell responses towards the peptides were quantified using IFNγ ELISPOT assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from adult healthy HLA-I typed donors as responder cells. Of the 131 peptides, 21 were found to induce T cell responses in 19 donors. In the ELISPOT assay, five peptides induced responses that could be totally blocked by the pan-specific anti-HLA-I antibody W6/32, whereas 15 peptides induced responses that could be completely blocked in the presence of the pan-specific anti-HLA class II (HLA-II) antibody IVA12. Blocking of HLA-II subtype reactivity revealed that 8 and 6 peptide responses were blocked by anti-HLA-DR and -DP antibodies, respectively. Peptide reactivity of PBMC depleted of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells prior to the ELISPOT culture revealed that effectors are either CD4+ (the majority of reactivities) or CD8+ T cells, never a mixture of these subsets. Three of the peptides, recognized by CD4+ T cells showed binding to recombinant DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 or DRA1*0101/DRB5*0101 molecules in a recently developed biochemical assay. Conclusions/Significance HLA-I binding 9mer influenza virus-derived peptides induce in many cases CD4+ T cell responses restricted by HLA-II molecules. PMID:20479886

  14. Vincamine Alleviates Amyloid-β 25–35 Peptides-induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jianfeng; Qu, Qiumin; Qiao, Jin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of vincamine on amyloid-β 25–35 (Aβ25–35) induced cytotoxicity, to gain a better understanding of the neuroprotective effects of this clinically used anti-Alzheimer's disease drug. Materials and Methods: Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis detection was performed using an Annexin-V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using an ROS Assay Kit. Western blot detection was carried out to detect the protein expression. Results: Our studies showed that pretreatment with vincamine could reduce Aβ25–35 induced oxidative stress. Vincamine markedly inhibited cell apoptosis dose-dependently. More importantly, vincamine increased the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and Bcl-2 family protein ratios on preincubation with cells for 2 h. Conclusion: Above observation led us to assume that one possible mechanism of vincamine protects Aβ25-35-induced cell death could be through upregulation of SOD and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. SUMMARY Vincamine ameliorates amyloid-β 25–35 (Aβ25–35) peptides induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cellsVincamine reduces Aβ 25–35 peptides induced apoptosis of PC12 cellsVincamine activates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathwayVincamine up-regulates the superoxide dismutase. Abbreviation used: Aβ25-35: Amyloid-β 25-35; AD: Alzheimer's disease; BCA: Bicinchoninic acid; GSH: glutathione; PBS: Phosphate buffered solution; SDS: Sodium dodecylsulphate; SOD: Superoxide dismutase PMID:28216895

  15. Novel peptide VIP-TAT with higher affinity for PAC1 inhibited scopolamine induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Yanxu; Cui, Zekai; Zheng, Lijun; Zeng, Zhixing; Zhang, Huahua

    2014-10-01

    A novel peptide VIP-TAT with a cell penetrating peptide TAT at the C-terminus of VIP was constructed and prepared using intein mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag (IMPACT) system to enhance the brain uptake efficiency for the medical application in central nervous system. It was found by labeling VIP-TAT and VIP with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) that the extension with TAT increased the brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT significantly. Then short-term and long-term treatment with scopolamine (Scop) was used to evaluate the effect of VIP-TAT or VIP on Scop induced amnesia. Both short-term and long-term administration of VIP-TAT inhibited the latent time reduction in step-through test induced by Scop significantly, but long-term administration of VIP aggravated the Scop induced amnesia. Long-term i.p. injection of VIP-TAT was shown to have positive effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage, apoptosis and the cholinergic system activity reduction that induced by Scop, while VIP exerted negative effect in brain opposite to that in periphery system. The in vitro data showed that VIP-TAT had not only protective but also proliferative effect on Neuro2a cells which was inhibited by PAC1 antagonist PACAP(6-38). Competition binding assay and cAMP assay confirmed that VIP-TAT had higher affinity and activation for PAC1 than VIP. So it was concluded that the significantly stronger protective effect of VIP-TAT against Scop induced amnesia than VIP was due to (1) the enhanced brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT and (2) the increased affinity and activation of VIP-TAT for receptor PAC1.

  16. Protective effect of bioactive peptide carnosine against lead-induced oxidative stress in kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, P; Teimuri-Far, M

    2015-08-05

    Oxidative stress is among the mechanisms involved in renal injury. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of bioactive peptide carnosine on lead induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/L in the drinking water) and/or carnosine (10 mg/kg, i.g.) for eight weeks. Then rats were weighed and used for biochemical, histological and oxidant/antioxidant evaluations. Lead-induced oxidative stress in renal tissue was indicated by a significant increase in the renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P's < 0.001). Carnosine treatment decreased MDA whereas it increased the contents of GSH, TAC, CAT and SOD in both lead and control groups. Carnosine prevented the increased kidney weight and lead-induced deleterious effects on serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin and total protein in lead group. It also attenuated lead induced abnormal renal structure. The present study showed that carnosine protected against lead induced oxidative stress and renal injury in rat. Therefore, carnosine represents a potential therapeutic option against the deleterious effect of lead induced nephrotoxicity which deserves consideration and further examination.

  17. Characteristics of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide and its receptor in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Mi; Noh, Hye Jung; Cho, Chong Gu; Kim, Sung Zoo

    2015-08-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) shares a functionally important sequence homology with other natriuretic peptides. However, the characteristics of DNP and its receptor in the context of diabetes remafin to be fully elucidated. In the present study, alterations in the plasma levels and tissue contents of DNP and the properties of its receptor in diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection, were investigated. The plasma levels of DNP were 90.01 ± 4.12 and 196.68 ± 5.60 pg/ml in the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. The tissue contents of DNP in the cardiac atrium, ventricle, renal cortex and inner medulla of the STZ-induced diabetic rats were also significantly increased compared with the control rats. Specific (125)I-DNP-binding sites were located predominantly in the glomeruli and inner medulla of the rat kidney. In the glomeruli of the kidney, the apparent dissociation constants (Kd) of (125)I-DNP in the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats were 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.06 nM, respectively. The maximum binding capacities (Bmax) of (125)I-DNP in control and STZ-induced diabetic rats were 2.98 ± 0.21 and 6.22 ± 1.06 fmol/mg protein, respectively. However, no differences were observed in the apparent Kd and Bmax of (125)I-DNP in the inner medulla of the kidney between the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats. In the glomerular and inner medullary kidney membranes, DNP stimulated the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of cGMP production in glomerular membranes was greater in the STZ-induced diabetic rats, whereas the magnitude of cGMP production in the inner medullary membranes was lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats compared with the control rats. These results indicated that STZ-induced diabetes modulate DNP and its receptor, and also suggested that modulation of the DNP system is involved in the renal function of diabetic animals via the intracellular domain

  18. Osmotically induced membrane tension modulates membrane permeabilization by class L amphipathic helical peptides: nucleation model of defect formation.

    PubMed Central

    Polozov, I V; Anantharamaiah, G M; Segrest, J P; Epand, R M

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of action of lytic peptides on membranes is widely studied and is important in view of potential medical applications. Previously (I. V. Polozov, A. I. Polozova, E. M. Tytler, G. M. Anantharamaiah, J. P. Segrest, G. A. Woolley, and R. M., Biochemistry, 36:9237--9245) we analyzed the mechanism of membrane permeabilization by 18L, the archetype lytic peptide featuring the class L amphipathic alpha-helix, according to the classification of Segrest et al. (J. P. Segrest, G. de Loof, J. G. Dohlman, C. G. Brouillette, and G. M. Anantharamaiah, 1990, Proteins, 8:103--117). We concluded that the 18L peptide destabilizes membranes, leading to a transient formation of large defects that result in contents leakage and, in the presence of bilayer-bilayer contact, could lead to vesicle fusion. Here we report that this defect formation is strongly enhanced by the membrane tension induced by osmotic swelling of vesicles. Even below standard leakage-inducing peptide/lipid ratios, membrane resistance to osmotic tension drops from hundreds to tens of milliosmoles. The actual decrease is dependent on the peptide/lipid ratio and on the type of lipid. We propose that under membrane tension a peptidic pore serves as a nucleation site for the transient formation of a lipidic pore. The tension is released upon pore expansion with inclusion of more peptides and lipids into the pore lining. This tension modulation of leakage was observed for other class L peptides (mastoparan, K18L) and thus may be of general applicability for the action of membrane active lytic peptides. PMID:11463637

  19. Peptide-mediated desmoglein 3 crosslinking prevents pemphigus vulgaris autoantibody-induced skin blistering.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Volker; Rötzer, Vera; Dehner, Carina; Kempf, Bettina; Gliem, Martin; Radeva, Mariya; Hartlieb, Eva; Harms, Gregory S; Schmidt, Enno; Waschke, Jens

    2013-02-01

    In pemphigus vulgaris, a life-threatening autoimmune skin disease, epidermal blisters are caused by autoantibodies primarily targeting desmosomal cadherins desmoglein 3 (DSG3) and DSG1, leading to loss of keratinocyte cohesion. Due to limited insights into disease pathogenesis, current therapy relies primarily on nonspecific long-term immunosuppression. Both direct inhibition of DSG transinteraction and altered intracellular signaling by p38 MAPK likely contribute to the loss of cell adhesion. Here, we applied a tandem peptide (TP) consisting of 2 connected peptide sequences targeting the DSG adhesive interface that was capable of blocking autoantibody-mediated direct interference of DSG3 transinteraction, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and optical trapping. Importantly, TP abrogated autoantibody-mediated skin blistering in mice and was effective when applied topically. Mechanistically, TP inhibited both autoantibody-induced p38 MAPK activation and its association with DSG3, abrogated p38 MAPK-induced keratin filament retraction, and promoted desmosomal DSG3 oligomerization. These data indicate that p38 MAPK links autoantibody-mediated inhibition of DSG3 binding to skin blistering. By limiting loss of DSG3 transinteraction, p38 MAPK activation, and keratin filament retraction, which are hallmarks of pemphigus pathogenesis, TP may serve as a promising treatment option.

  20. Peptide-mediated desmoglein 3 crosslinking prevents pemphigus vulgaris autoantibody-induced skin blistering

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Volker; Rötzer, Vera; Dehner, Carina; Kempf, Bettina; Gliem, Martin; Radeva, Mariya; Hartlieb, Eva; Harms, Gregory S.; Schmidt, Enno; Waschke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In pemphigus vulgaris, a life-threatening autoimmune skin disease, epidermal blisters are caused by autoantibodies primarily targeting desmosomal cadherins desmoglein 3 (DSG3) and DSG1, leading to loss of keratinocyte cohesion. Due to limited insights into disease pathogenesis, current therapy relies primarily on nonspecific long-term immunosuppression. Both direct inhibition of DSG transinteraction and altered intracellular signaling by p38 MAPK likely contribute to the loss of cell adhesion. Here, we applied a tandem peptide (TP) consisting of 2 connected peptide sequences targeting the DSG adhesive interface that was capable of blocking autoantibody-mediated direct interference of DSG3 transinteraction, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and optical trapping. Importantly, TP abrogated autoantibody-mediated skin blistering in mice and was effective when applied topically. Mechanistically, TP inhibited both autoantibody-induced p38 MAPK activation and its association with DSG3, abrogated p38 MAPK-induced keratin filament retraction, and promoted desmosomal DSG3 oligomerization. These data indicate that p38 MAPK links autoantibody-mediated inhibition of DSG3 binding to skin blistering. By limiting loss of DSG3 transinteraction, p38 MAPK activation, and keratin filament retraction, which are hallmarks of pemphigus pathogenesis, TP may serve as a promising treatment option. PMID:23298835

  1. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Small Molecules, Peptides, and Non-covalent Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Vicki H.; Joyce, Karen E.; Jones, Christopher M.; Beardsley, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a perspective on collisions of ions with surfaces, including surface-induced dissociation (SID) and reactive ion scattering spectrometry (RISS). The content is organized into sections on surface-induced dissociation of small ions, surface characterization of organic thin films by collision of well-characterized ions into surfaces, the use of SID to probe peptide fragmentation, and the dissociation of large non-covalent complexes by SID. Examples are given from the literature with a focus on experiments from the authors’ laboratory. The article is not a comprehensive review but is designed to provide the reader with an overview of the types of results possible by collisions of ions into surfaces. PMID:18191578

  2. PCR-cloning of cadmium-inducible peptides in the barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Togi, Akiko; Kamino, Kei; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    A 340 bp DNA fragment was amplified from barnacle (Megabalanus volcano) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of barnacle cadmium-inducible peptides CdlP1 and CdlP2. The whole sequence was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 71 amino acid residues and the sequences for CdlP1 and CdlP2 were found to be located in the center of this coding region. Although CdlP1 and CdlP2 had been detected only in the cadmium-exposed barnacles, their mRNA was present both in cadmium-exposed barnacles and in unexposed barnacles. These results suggest that posttranslational proteolytic processing may be induced in the presence of cadmium.

  3. Surface-induced dissociation of small molecules, peptides, and non-covalent protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Vicki H; Joyce, Karen E; Jones, Christopher M; Beardsley, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    This article provides a perspective on collisions of ions with surfaces, including surface-induced dissociation (SID) and reactive ion scattering spectrometry (RISS). The content is organized into sections on surface-induced dissociation of small ions, surface characterization of organic thin films by collision of well-characterized ions into surfaces, the use of SID to probe peptide fragmentation, and the dissociation of large non-covalent complexes by SID. Examples are given from the literature with a focus on experiments from the authors' laboratory. The article is not a comprehensive review but is designed to provide the reader with an overview of the types of results possible by collisions of ions into surfaces.

  4. Microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides induce T-cell tolerance and ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R; Martin, Aaron J; McCarthy, Derrick P; Terry, Rachael L; Hunter, Zoe N; Yap, Woon Teck; Getts, Meghann Teague; Pleiss, Michael; Luo, Xunrong; King, Nicholas JC; Shea, Lonnie D; Miller, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant T-cell activation underlies many autoimmune disorders, yet most attempts to induce T-cell tolerance have failed. Building on previous strategies for tolerance induction that exploited natural mechanisms for clearing apoptotic debris, we show that antigen-decorated microparticles (500-nm diameter) induce long-term T-cell tolerance in mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Specifically, intravenous infusion of either polystyrene or biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides prevents the onset and modifies the course of the disease. These beneficial effects require microparticle uptake by marginal zone macrophages expressing the scavenger receptor MARCO and are mediated in part by the activity of regulatory T cells, abortive T-cell activation and T-cell anergy. Together these data highlight the potential for using microparticles to target natural apoptotic clearance pathways to inactivate pathogenic T cells and halt the disease process in autoimmunity. PMID:23159881

  5. A T cell receptor antagonist peptide induces T cells that mediate bystander suppression and prevent autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced with multiple myelin antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Murtaza, Anwar; Hafler, Brian P.; Sette, Alessandro; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) residues 139–151 (HSLGKWLGHPDKF) can be prevented by treatment with a T cell receptor (TCR) antagonist peptide (L144/R147) generated by substituting at the two principal TCR contact residues in the encephalitogenic peptide. The TCR antagonist peptide blocks activation of encephalitogenic Th1 helper cells in vitro, but the mechanisms by which the antagonist peptide blocks EAE in vivo are not clear. Immunization with L144/R147 did not inhibit generation of PLP-(139–151)-specific T cells in vivo. Furthermore, preimmunization with L144/R147 protected mice from EAE induced with the encephalitogenic peptides PLP-(178–191) and myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG) residues 92–106 and with mouse myelin basic protein (MBP). These data suggest that the L144/R147 peptide does not act as an antagonist in vivo but mediates bystander suppression, probably by the generation of regulatory T cells. To confirm this we generated T cell lines and clones from animals immunized with PLP-(139–151) plus L144/R147. T cells specific for L144/R147 peptide were crossreactive with the native PLP-(139–151) peptide, produced Th2/Th0 cytokines, and suppressed EAE upon adoptive transfer. These studies demonstrate that TCR antagonist peptides may have multiple biological effects in vivo. One of the principal mechanisms by which these peptides inhibit autoimmunity is by the induction of regulatory T cells, leading to bystander suppression of EAE. These results have important implications for the treatment of autoimmune diseases where there are autopathogenic responses to multiple antigens in the target organ. PMID:9256473

  6. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity.

  7. Atheroprotective vaccination with MHC-II-restricted ApoB peptides induces peritoneal IL-10-producing CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takayuki; Tse, Kevin; McArdle, Sara; Gerhardt, Teresa; Miller, Jacqueline; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Wolf, Dennis; Ley, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Although immunization with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted apolipoprotein B (ApoB) peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM), were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on Western diet). Immunization with each of the three peptides (1 time in complete Freund's adjuvant subcuntaneously and 4 time in incomplete Freund's adjuvant intraperitoneally) but not with adjuvant alone showed significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic root by serial sections and in the whole aorta by en face staining. There were no differences in body weight, LDL cholesterol, or triglycerides. Peritoneal leukocytes from ApoB peptide-immunized mice, but not control mice, secreted significant amounts of IL-10 (150 pg/ml). Flow cytometry showed that peptide immunization induced IL-10 in 10% of peritoneal CD4(+) T cells, some of which also expressed chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5). Vaccination with ApoB peptides expanded peritoneal FoxP3(+) regulatory CD4(+) T cells and more than tripled the number of CCR5(+)FoxP3(+) cells. Similar trends were also seen in the draining mediastinal lymph nodes but not in the nondraining inguinal lymph nodes. We conclude that vaccination with MHC class II-restricted autologous ApoB peptides induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and IL-10, suggesting a plausible mechanism for atheroprotection.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Vaccination against apolipoprotein B (ApoB), the protein of LDL, attracts attention as a novel approach to prevent atherosclerosis. We discovered major histocompatibility

  8. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  9. Liquid Crystalline Nanodispersions Functionalized with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Topical Delivery of Short-Interfering RNAs: A Proposal for Silencing a Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Cutaneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, R; Eloy, J O; Praça, F S G; Del Ciampo, J O; Fantini, M A C; Fonseca, M J V; Bentley, M V L B

    2016-05-01

    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a potential strategy for the treatment of cutaneous diseases. In this context, liquid crystalline nanoparticles functionalized with specific proteins and peptide-transduction domains (PTDs), which act as penetration enhancers, are a promising carrier for siRNA delivery through the skin. Herein, hexagonal phase liquid crystal nanoparticles based on monoolein (MO) and/or oleic acid (OA) containing (or lacking) the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) and the cationic lipid oleylamine (OAM) were functionalized with the membrane transduction peptides transcriptional activator (TAT) or penetratin (PNT). These nanoparticles were complexed with siRNA and characterized by particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, complexation efficiency and siRNA release. The formulations containing cationic agents presented positive zeta potentials, sizes on the nanometer scale, and complexed siRNAs at concentrations of 10 μM; these agents were successfully released in a heparin competition assay. Cell culture studies demonstrated that nanoparticles composed of MO:OA:PEI functionalized with TAT were the most efficient at transfecting L929 cells, and the uptake efficiency was enhanced by TAT peptide functionalization. Thereafter, the selected formulations were evaluated for in vivo skin irritation, penetration and in vivo efficacy using a chemically induced inflammatory animal model. These nanoparticles did not irritate the skin and provided higher siRNA penetration and delivery into the skin than control formulations. Additionally, efficacy studies in the animal model showed that the association of TAT with the nanodispersion provided higher suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Thus, the development of liquid crystalline nanodispersions containing TAT may lead to improved topical siRNA delivery for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  10. A newly identified tomato peptide induces cytosolic calcium and may correspond to pathogen defense-related endogenous peptides in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants recognize a variety of stimuli that invoke defenses against attacking pathogens and herbivores. This recognition primes the plant to mount defenses against herbivory and disease. These stimuli include molecules called damage-associated molecular patterns or DAMPs, among them signaling peptide...

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function.

    PubMed

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts.

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function†

    PubMed Central

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts. PMID:25221673

  13. Four different synthetic peptides of proteolipid protein induce a distinct antibody response in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Grether, Nicolai B; van der Broeck, Franziska; Ganscher, Alla; Wagner, Nicole; Henke, Erik; Ergün, Süleyman; Schroeter, Michael; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2015-07-01

    Here we studied the autoantibody specificity elicited by proteolipid protein (PLP) in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, antibodies were induced by immunization with one of the two extracellular and by the intracellular PLP domain. Antibodies against extracellular PLP were myelin-reactive in oligodendrocyte cultures and induced mild spinal cord demyelination upon transfer into B cell-deficient J(H)T mice. Remarkably, also antibodies against intracellular PLP showed binding to intact oligodendrocytes and were capable of inducing myelin pathology upon transfer into J(H)T mice. In MP4-immunized mice peptide-specific T(H)1/T(H)17 responses were mainly directed against the extracellular PLP domains, but also involved the intracellular epitopes. These data suggest that both extracellular and intracellular epitopes of PLP contribute to the pathogenesis of MP4-induced EAE already in the setting of intact myelin. It remains to be elucidated if this concept also applies to MS itself.

  14. Non-fibrillar amyloid-{beta} peptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Goto, Yasuaki; Kato, Masaru; Wang, Pi-Lin; Goh, Saori; Tanaka, Naoki; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2009-09-04

    Amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that A{beta} has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between A{beta}42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar A{beta}42, but not fibrillar A{beta}42, protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar A{beta}42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by {alpha}-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.

  15. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang; and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  16. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-01-01

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T; Öörni, Katariina

    2015-06-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20:1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20:1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modified LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A continuous infusion of a minor histocompatibility antigen-immunodominant peptide induces a delay of male skin graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Sireci, Guido; Barera, Annalisa; Macaluso, Pasquale; Di Sano, Caterina; Bonanno, Cesira T; Pio La Manna, Marco; Di Liberto, Diana; Dieli, Francesco; Salerno, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that an inhibition of antigen-specific Interferon-gamma release and cytotoxicity occurs after a continuous infusion of an HY immunodominant peptide although this treatment is not able to cause a significant delay of male skin grafts rejection. In vivo administration of high doses of an HY peptide, through mini-osmotic pumps, in naïve female mice was used to study the effects on the male skin grafts rejection. A continuous infusion of 1mg of an HY peptide induces a significant delay of male skin graft rejection. In vitro HY-specific Interferon-gamma release was inhibited adding peptide-specific suppressor cells: the ability to inhibit Interferon-gamma release was evident when two HY peptides were present on the same dendritic cells indicating that the suppressor cells exert "linked-suppression". The phenotype of the suppressor cells is CD8(+)CD28(-) and these cells express more CD62 ligand and FOXP3 than controls. Suppressor cells were able to cause a significant delay of rejection of male skin grafts when injected in naive female mice. The inhibitory effects of these suppressor cells seem to be due to the impairment of antigen presentation; down-regulation of B7 molecules on dendritic cells occurred. Taken all together, our data demonstrate that a continuous infusion of an immunodominant HY peptide induces a T CD8 suppressor subset able to inhibit immune responses to male tissues and cells.

  19. Changing ABRA protein peptide to fit into the HLA-DRbeta1*0301 molecule renders it protection-inducing.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Luz M; Alba, Martha P; Curtidor, Hernando; Bermúdez, Adriana; Luis E Vargas; Rivera, Zuly J; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2004-09-10

    The Plasmodium falciparum acidic-basic repeat antigen represents a potential malarial vaccine candidate. One of this protein's high activity binding peptides, named 2150 ((161)KMNMLKENVDYIQKNQNLFK(180)), is conserved, non-immunogenic, and non-protection-inducing. Analogue peptides whose critical binding residues (in bold) were replaced by amino-acids having similar mass but different charge were synthesized and tested to try to modify such immunological properties. These analogues' HLA-DRbeta1* molecule binding ability were also studied in an attempt to explain their biological mechanisms and correlate binding capacity and immunological function with their three-dimensional structure determined by (1)H NMR. A 3(10) distorted helical structure was identified in protective and immunogenic peptide 24922 whilst alpha-helical structure was found for non-immunogenic, non-protective peptides having differences in alpha-helical position. The changes performed on immunogenic, protection-inducing peptide 24922 allowed it to bind specifically to the HLA-DRbeta1*0301 molecule, suggesting that these changes may lead to better interaction with the MHC Class II-peptide-TCR complex rendering it immunogenic and protective, thus suggesting a new way of developing multi-component, sub-unit-based anti-malarial vaccines.

  20. Effects of electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) on doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a useful peptide fragmentation technique that can be applied to investigate post-translational modifications (PTMs), the sequencing of highly hydrophilic peptides, and the identification of large peptides and even intact proteins. In contrast to traditional fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD produces c- and z(·)-type product ions by randomly cleaving the N-Cα bonds. The disappointing fragmentation efficiency of ETD for doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptide ions has been improved by ETcaD (supplemental activation). However, the ETD data derived from most database search algorithms yield low confidence scores due to the presence of unreacted precursors and charge-reduced ions within MS/MS spectra. In this work, we demonstrate that eight out of ten standard doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides can be effortlessly identified by electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) using the SEQUEST algorithm without further spectral processing. ET/CID was performed with the further dissociation of the charge-reduced ions isolated from ETD ion/ion reactions. ET/CID had high fragmentation efficiency, which elevated the confidence scores of doubly charged peptide and phosphospeptide sequencing. ET/CID was found to be an effective fragmentation strategy in "bottom-up" proteomic analysis.

  1. Effects of Electron-Transfer Coupled with Collision-Induced Dissociation (ET/CID) on Doubly Charged Peptides and Phosphopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a useful peptide fragmentation technique that can be applied to investigate post-translational modifications (PTMs), the sequencing of highly hydrophilic peptides, and the identification of large peptides and even intact proteins. In contrast to traditional fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD produces c- and z·-type product ions by randomly cleaving the N-Cα bonds. The disappointing fragmentation efficiency of ETD for doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptide ions has been improved by ETcaD (supplemental activation). However, the ETD data derived from most database search algorithms yield low confidence scores due to the presence of unreacted precursors and charge-reduced ions within MS/MS spectra. In this work, we demonstrate that eight out of ten standard doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides can be effortlessly identified by electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) using the SEQUEST algorithm without further spectral processing. ET/CID was performed with the further dissociation of the charge-reduced ions isolated from ETD ion/ion reactions. ET/CID had high fragmentation efficiency, which elevated the confidence scores of doubly charged peptide and phosphospeptide sequencing. ET/CID was found to be an effective fragmentation strategy in "bottom-up" proteomic analysis.

  2. Effect of delta sleep-inducing peptide on oxidative modification of proteins in rat tissues and blood during physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, T I; Sorokina, I A; Mayboroda, E A; Durkanaeva, O A; Kutilin, D S; Mikhaleva, I I

    2012-07-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins (evaluated by the levels of carbonyl and SH groups) in tissues of 2-24-month-old rats (spleen>myocardium>testicles>liver>skeletal muscles) has been demonstrated. Exogenous delta sleep-inducing peptide injected subcutaneously to rats of different age in a dose of 100 μg/kg by monthly 5-day courses protected proteins of the studied tissues from oxidation; its effect was tissue-specific. Delta sleep-inducing peptide exhibited a hypoglycemic effect: it prevented nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin and reduced the level of defective protein molecules during aging.

  3. FV peptide induces apoptosis in HEp 2 and HeLa cells: an insight into the mechanism of induction.

    PubMed

    Sri Balasubashini, M; Karthigayan, S; Somasundaram, S T; Balasubramanian, T; Rukkumani, R; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of peptide (7.6 kDa) from lionfish (Pterios volitans) venom on cultured HEp2 and HeLa cells. Different dose of purified peptide (1, 2 and 4 microg/ml) at different time points (12, 24 and 36 hrs) were tested for antiproliferative index of the peptide. Among them, 2 microg/ml at 24 hrs was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and did not cause any adverse effect on normal human lymphocytes. Apoptosis was examined by propidium iodide staining, confirmed by the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3, down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and DNA fragmentation in treated cells, when compared to untreated HEp2 and HeLa cells. Thus fish venom peptide was found to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cell.

  4. FV peptide induces apoptosis in HEp 2 and HeLa cells: an insight into the mechanism of induction

    PubMed Central

    Sri Balasubashini, M; Karthigayan, S; Somasundaram, ST; Balasubramanian, T; Rukkumani, R; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of peptide (7.6 kDa) from lionfish (Pterios volitans) venom on cultured HEp2 and HeLa cells. Different dose of purified peptide (1, 2 and 4 μg/ml) at different time points (12, 24 and 36 hrs) were tested for antiproliferative index of the peptide. Among them, 2 μg/ml at 24 hrs was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and did not cause any adverse effect on normal human lymphocytes. Apoptosis was examined by propidium iodide staining, confirmed by the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3, down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and DNA fragmentation in treated cells, when compared to untreated HEp2 and HeLa cells. Thus fish venom peptide was found to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cell. PMID:17137521

  5. CXC chemokines and antimicrobial peptides in rhinovirus-induced experimental asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, G; Message, S D; Haas, J J; Kebadze, T; Parker, H; Laza-Stanca, V; Khaitov, M R; Kon, O M; Stanciu, L A; Mallia, P; Edwards, M R; Johnston, S L

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the major triggers of asthma exacerbations. We have shown previously that lower respiratory tract symptoms, airflow obstruction, and neutrophilic airway inflammation were increased in experimental RV-induced asthma exacerbations. Objectives We hypothesized that neutrophil-related CXC chemokines and antimicrobial peptides are increased and related to clinical, virologic, and pathologic outcomes in RV-induced exacerbations of asthma. Methods Protein levels of antimicrobial peptides (SLPI, HNP 1–3, elafin, and LL-37) and neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1/GRO-α, CXCL2/GRO-β, CXCL5/ENA-78, CXCL6/GCP-2, CXCL7/NAP-2, and CXCL8/IL-8) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of 10 asthmatics and 15 normal controls taken before, at day four during and 6 weeks post-experimental infection. Results BAL HNP 1–3 and Elafin were higher, CXCL7/NAP-2 was lower in asthmatics compared with controls at day 4 (P = 0.035, P = 0.048, and P = 0.025, respectively). BAL HNP 1–3 and CXCL8/IL-8 were increased during infection (P = 0.003 and P = 0.011, respectively). There was a trend to increased BAL neutrophils at day 4 compared with baseline (P = 0.076). BAL HNP 1–3 was positively correlated with BAL neutrophil numbers at day 4. There were no correlations between clinical parameters and HNP1–3 or IL-8 levels. Conclusions We propose that RV infection in asthma leads to increased release of CXCL8/IL-8, attracting neutrophils into the airways where they release HNP 1–3, which further enhances airway neutrophilia. Strategies to inhibit CXCL8/IL-8 may be useful in treatment of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:24673807

  6. Entropic Anomaly Observed in Lipid Polymorphisms Induced by Surfactant Peptide SP-B(1-25).

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhi; Kurian, Justin; Bhatt, Avni; McKenna, Robert; Long, Joanna R

    2017-09-25

    The N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B1-25) induces unusual lipid polymorphisms in a model lipid system, 4:1 DPPC/POPG, mirroring the lipid composition of native pulmonary surfactant. It is widely suggested that SP-B1-25-induced lipid polymorphisms within the alveolar aqueous subphase provide a structural platform for rapid lipid adsorption to the air-water interface. Here, we characterize in detail the phase behavior of DPPC and POPG in hydrated lipid assemblies containing therapeutic levels of SP-B1-25 using (2)H and (31)P solid state NMR spectroscopy. The appearance of a previously observed isotropic lipid phase is found to be highly dependent on the thermal cycling of the samples. Slow heating of frozen samples leads to phase separation of DPPC into a lamellar phase whereas POPG lipids interact with the peptide to form an isotropic phase at physiologic temperature. Rapid heating of frozen samples to room temperature leads to strongly isotropic phase behavior for both DPPC and POPG lipids, with DPPC in exchange between isotropic and interdigitated phases. (31)P T2 relaxation times confirm the isotropic phase to be consistent with a lipid cubic phase. The observed phases exhibit thermal stability up to physiologic temperature (37 °C) and are consistent with the formation of a ripple phase containing a large number of peptide-induced membrane structural defects enabling rapid transit of lipids between lipid lamellae. The coexistance of a lipid cubic phase with interdigitated lipids suggests a specific role for the highly conserved N-terminus of SP-B in stabilizing this unusual lipid polymorphism.

  7. Laser-induced thermal desorption facilitates postsource decay of peptide ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Aera; Song, Jae Yong; Han, Sang Yun

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the thermal mechanism involved in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) of thermally labile molecules from the flat surfaces of amorphous Si (a-Si) and crystalline Si (c-Si). a-Si was selected for this study because of its thermal property, such as low thermal conductivity; thus, it was predicted to be highly susceptible to laser-induced surface heating. By virtue of lack of surface nanostructures, the flat surfaces offer a simple model system to focus on the thermal mechanism, avoiding other effects, including possible non-thermal contributions that can arise from the physical existence of surface nanostructures. For the energetics study, the internal energies of substituted benzylpyridinium ions produced by LDI on the bare and coated surfaces of a-Si and c-Si were obtained using the survival yield method. The results, including LDI thresholds, ion yields, and internal energies all suggested that the LDI mechanism would be indeed thermal, which is most likely promoted by thermal desorption caused by laser-induced surface heating. In addition, the LDI process driven by laser-induced thermal desorption (LITD) was also found to be capable of depositing an excessive internal energy in resulting LDI ions, which underwent a dissociation. It exhibited the essentially same features as in postsource decay (PSD) in MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We report that the LDI process by LITD offers not only a way of intact ionization but also a facile means for PSD of peptide ions, which this work demonstrates is well suited to peptide sequencing using TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

  8. Annexin A1 Induces Skeletal Muscle Cell Migration Acting through Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Valentina; Belvedere, Raffaella; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Parente, Luca; Petrella, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1, lipocortin-1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated 37-kDa protein, so called since its main property is to bind (i.e. to annex) to cellular membranes in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Although ANXA1 has predominantly been studied in the context of immune responses and cancer, the protein can affect a larger variety of biological phenomena, including cell proliferation and migration. Our previous results show that endogenous ANXA1 positively modulates myoblast cell differentiation by promoting migration of satellite cells and, consequently, skeletal muscle differentiation. In this work, we have evaluated the hypothesis that ANXA1 is able to exert effects on myoblast cell migration acting through formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) following changes in its subcellular localization as in other cell types and tissues. The analysis of the subcellular localization of ANXA1 in C2C12 myoblasts during myogenic differentiation showed an interesting increase of extracellular ANXA1 starting from the initial phases of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. The investigation of intracellular Ca2+ perturbation following exogenous administration of the ANXA1 N-terminal derived peptide Ac2-26 established the engagement of the FPRs which expression in C2C12 cells was assessed by qualitative PCR. Wound healing assay experiments showed that Ac2-26 peptide is able to increase migration of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and to induce cell surface translocation and secretion of ANXA1. Our results suggest a role for ANXA1 as a highly versatile component in the signaling chains triggered by the proper calcium perturbation that takes place during active migration and differentiation or membrane repair since the protein is strongly redistributed onto the plasma membranes after an rapid increase of intracellular levels of Ca2+. These properties indicate that ANXA1 may be involved in a novel repair mechanism for skeletal muscle and may have therapeutic implications with respect to the

  9. Unique properties of Cd-binding peptides induced in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y; Nakagawa, C W; Murasugi, A

    1986-01-01

    Metallothioneins, a class of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy metal ions, have been found in various eucaryotic organisms. When fission yeasts are grown in the presence of high concentration of CdCl2, large amounts of Cd-binding peptides (Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2) are synthesized. Cd-BP1 (MW 4000) contains 4 mole of small unit peptide (cadystin, MW 771), 6 mole of Cd2+, and 1 mole of the labile sulfide; on the other hand, Cd-BP2 (MW 1800) contains 2 mole of cadystin and 2 mole of Cd2+. While Cd-BP2 shows similarities to mammalian Cd-thioneins in UV and CD spectra, Cd-BP1 has a characteristic shoulder at 265 nm in the UV absorption spectrum and shows two marked Cotton bands at 257 nm (negative) and 275 nm (positive). These characteristics of Cd-BP1 are not found in the other Cd-thioneins. When Cd-BP1 is acidified (pH 2.0) and successively neutralized, a shoulder of 265 nm in the UV spectrum and a Cotton band at 275 nm disappear, and the molecular weight changes from 4000 to 1800, with simultaneous loss of the labile sulfide. While the reconstituted complex without labile sulfide showed the characteristics of Cd-BP2, the reconstituted complex in the presence of labile sulfide indicated partial reconstitution of Cd-BP1. The UV and CD spectra differences between reconstituted and native Cd-BP1 suggest the requirement for some additional molecular architecture including another peptide-Cd2+ interaction. Induction of cadystin synthesis is almost exclusive for Cd, but an exception is a small amount of cadystin also induced by the higher concentration of CuCl2 (2.5 mM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3709432

  10. Endogenous α-calcitonin-gene-related peptide promotes exercise-induced, physiological heart hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Schuler, B; Rieger, G; Gubser, M; Arras, M; Gianella, M; Vogel, O; Jirkof, P; Cesarovic, N; Klohs, J; Jakob, P; Brock, M; Gorr, T A; Baum, O; Hoppeler, H; Samillan-Soto, V; Gassmann, M; Fischer, J A; Born, W; Vogel, J

    2014-05-01

    It is unknown how the heart distinguishes various overloads, such as exercise or hypertension, causing either physiological or pathological hypertrophy. We hypothesize that alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide (αCGRP), known to be released from contracting skeletal muscles, is key at this remodelling. The hypertrophic effect of αCGRP was measured in vitro (cultured cardiac myocytes) and in vivo (magnetic resonance imaging) in mice. Exercise performance was assessed by determination of maximum oxygen consumption and time to exhaustion. Cardiac phenotype was defined by transcriptional analysis, cardiac histology and morphometry. Finally, we measured spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass and skeletal muscle capillarization and fibre composition. While αCGRP exposure yielded larger cultured cardiac myocytes, exercise-induced heart hypertrophy was completely abrogated by treatment with the peptide antagonist CGRP(8-37). Exercise performance was attenuated in αCGRP(-/-) mice or CGRP(8-37) treated wild-type mice but improved in animals with higher density of cardiac CGRP receptors (CLR-tg). Spontaneous activity, body fat content, blood volume, haemoglobin mass, muscle capillarization and fibre composition were unaffected, whereas heart index and ventricular myocyte volume were reduced in αCGRP(-/-) mice and elevated in CLR-tg. Transcriptional changes seen in αCGRP(-/-) (but not CLR-tg) hearts resembled maladaptive cardiac phenotype. Alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide released by skeletal muscles during exercise is a hitherto unrecognized effector directing the strained heart into physiological instead of pathological adaptation. Thus, αCGRP agonists might be beneficial in heart failure patients. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide down-regulates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hui; Du, Jie; Li, Dai; Li, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Chang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    We have found that eIF3a plays an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and up-regulation of eIF3a induced by TGF-β1 is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway. Whether ERK1/2 - eIF3a signal pathway is involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-mediated pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. Sensory CGRP depletion by capsaicin exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, as shown by a significant disturbed alveolar structure, marked thickening of the interalveolar septa and dense interstitial infiltration by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accompanied with increased expression of TGF-β1, eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. Exogenous application of CGRP significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts concomitantly with decreased expression of eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. These effects of CGRP were abolished in the presence of CGRP8-37. These results suggest that endogenous CGRP is related to the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin, and the inhibitory effect of CGRP on proliferation of lung fibroblasts involves the ERK1/2 - eIF3a signaling pathway.

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise; Janjooa, Benjamin Naveed; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than patients with low family load. Methods We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 µg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial aggregation was obtained by telephone interview of first-degree relatives using a validated semi-structured questionnaire. Results Calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion induced a migraine-like attack in 75% (12 out of 16) of patients with high family load compared to 52% (12 out of 23) with low family load ( P = 0.150). In addition, we found that the migraine response after calcitonin gene-related peptide was not associated with specific or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms of migraine without aura. Conclusion We found no statistical association between familial aggregation of migraine and hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine without aura patients. We also demonstrated that the currently known single nucleotide polymorphisms conferring risk of migraine without aura have no additive effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine-like attacks.

  14. The Chemopreventive Peptide Lunasin Inhibits d-Galactose- Induced Experimental Cataract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guangzhi; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Pei; Zhang, Miaoqing; Han, Ning; Shuai, Haoyue; Tan, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to the constituents of the eye lens is a major mechanism in the initiation and development of cataract. Lunasin, a 43-amino acids chemoprevention peptide, has been proved to possess potent anti-oxidative activity other than its established anticancer activities. Herein, we explored whether lunasin has preventative effects on d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rat. After modeling, SD rats were administrated by instillation, 80 µM of lunasin eye drops to each eye thrice daily and consecutively for 30 days. As a result, lunasin treatment effectively inhibited the progression of d-galactose-induced experimental cataract, and protected the lenses of rats from oxidative damage and attenuated the lipid peroxidation through up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibited the activation of polyol pathway by decreasing AR activity. Additionally, in vitro studies proved that lunasin treatment could protect human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) against d-galactose induced cell damage and apoptosis, and up-regulate antioxidant enzymes. This is the first demonstration that lunasin could inhibit d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rats by protecting against oxidative damage and inhibiting the activation of polyol pathway.

  15. The bee venom peptide tertiapin underlines the role of IKACh in acetylcholine-induced atrioventricular blocks

    PubMed Central

    Drici, Milou-Daniel; Diochot, Sylvie; Terrenoire, Cécile; Romey, Georges; Lazdunski, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neuromodulator of cardiac function that is released upon stimulation of the vagus nerve. Despite numerous reports on activation of IKACh by acetylcholine in cardiomyocytes, it has yet to be demonstrated what role this channel plays in cardiac conduction. We studied the effect of tertiapin, a bee venom peptide blocking IKACh, to evaluate the role of IKACh in Langendorff preparations challenged with ACh.ACh (0.5 μM) reproducibly and reversibly induced complete atrioventricular (AV) blocks in retroperfused guinea-pig isolated hearts (n=12).Tertiapin (10 to 300 nM) dose-dependently and reversibly prevented the AV conduction decrements and the complete blocks in unpaced hearts (n=8, P<0.01).Tertiapin dose-dependently blunted the ACh-induced negative chronotropic response from an ACh-induced decrease in heart rate of 39±16% in control conditions to 3±3% after 300 nM tertiapin (P=0.01). These effects were not accompanied by any significant change in QT intervals.Tertiapin blocked IKACh with an IC50 of 30±4 nM with no significant effect on the major currents classically associated with cardiac repolarisation process (IKr, IKs, Ito1, Isus, IK1 or IKATP) or AV conduction (INa and ICa(L)).In summary, tertiapin prevents dose-dependently ACh-induced AV blocks in mammalian hearts by inhibiting IKACh. PMID:11015309

  16. Bilirubin and amyloid-beta peptide induce cytochrome c release through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, C. M.; Solá, S.; Silva, R.; Brites, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of bilirubin encephalopathy and Alzheimer's disease appears to result from accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, respectively, which may cause apoptosis. Permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane, with release of intermembrane proteins, has been strongly implicated in cell death. Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability is one pathway by which ursodeoxycholate (UDC) and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) protect against apoptosis in hepatic and nonhepatic cells. In this study, we further characterize UCB- and Abeta-induced cytotoxicty in isolated neural cells, and investigate membrane perturbation during incubation of isolated mitochondria with both agents. In addition, we evaluate whether the anti-apoptotic drugs UDC and TUDC prevent any changes from occurring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary rat neuron and astrocyte cultures were incubated with UCB or Abeta peptide, either alone or in the presence of UDC. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological changes. Isolated mitochondria were treated with each toxic, either alone or in combination with UDC, TUDC, or cyclosporine A. Mitochondrial swelling was measured spectrophotometrically and cytochrome c protein levels determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Incubation of neural cells with both UCB and Abeta induced apoptosis (p < 0.01). Coincubation with UDC reduced apoptosis by > 50% (p < 0.05). Both toxins caused membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria (p < 0.001); whereas, pretreatment with UDC was protective (p < 0.05). TUDC was even more effective at preventing matrix swelling mediated by Abeta (p < 0.01). UDC and TUDC markedly reduced cytochrome c release associated with mitochondrial permeabilization induced by UCB and Abeta, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, cyclosporine A significantly inhibited mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c efflux mediated by UCB (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: UCB and Abeta peptide

  17. Antimicrobial peptides and induced membrane curvature: geometry, coordination chemistry, and molecular engineering

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Short cationic, amphipathic antimicrobial peptides are multi-functional molecules that have roles in host defense as direct microbicides and modulators of the immune response. While a general mechanism of microbicidal activity involves the selective disruption and permeabilization of cell membranes, the relationships between peptide sequence and membrane activity are still under investigation. Here, we review the diverse functions that AMPs collectively have in host defense, and show that these functions can be multiplexed with a membrane mechanism of activity derived from the generation of negative Gaussian membrane curvature. As AMPs preferentially generate this curvature in model bacterial cell membranes, the selective generation of negative Gaussian curvature provides AMPs with a broad mechanism to target microbial membranes. The amino acid constraints placed on AMPs by the geometric requirement to induce negative Gaussian curvature are consistent with known AMP sequences. This ‘saddle-splay curvature selection rule’ is not strongly restrictive so AMPs have significant compositional freedom to multiplex membrane activity with other useful functions. The observation that certain proteins involved in cellular processes which require negative Gaussian curvature contain domains with similar motifs as AMPs, suggests this rule may be applicable to other curvature-generating proteins. Since our saddle-splay curvature design rule is based upon both a mechanism of activity and the existing motifs of natural AMPs, we believe it will assist the development of synthetic antimicrobials. PMID:24778573

  18. Unique properties of cd-binding peptides induced in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.; Nakagawa, C.W.; Murasugi, A.

    1986-03-01

    Metallothioneins, a class of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy metal ions, have been found in various eucaryotic organisms. When fission yeasts are grown in the presence of high concentration of CdCl/sub 2/, large amounts of Cd-binding peptides (Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2) are synthesized. While Cd-BP2 shows similarities to mammalian Cd-thioneins in UV and CD spectra, Cd-BP1has a characteristic shoulder at 265 nm in the UV absorption spectrum and shows two marked Cotton bands at 257 nm (negative) and 275 nm (positive). These characteristics of Cd-BP1 are not found in the other Cd-thioneins. The UV and CD spectra differences between reconstituted and native Cd-BP1 suggest the requirement for some additional molecular architecture including another peptide-Cd/sup 2 +/ interaction. Induction of cadystin synthesis is almost exclusive for Cd, but an exception is a small amount of cadystin also induced by the higher concentration of CuCl/sub 2/ (2.5 mM). The UV spectrum of the natural Cu-cadystin complex was similar to that of Cd-BP1. On the basis of these findings the models for Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2 are proposed.

  19. Dietary peptides induce satiety via cholecystokinin-A and peripheral opioid receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Jelena; Anderson, G Harvey

    2002-09-01

    We hypothesized that the digestion of proteins gives rise to peptides that initiate several satiety signals from the gut, and that the signals arising will be dependent on the protein source. The role of peripheral opioid and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptors was investigated. Casein, soy protein, and casein and soy hydrolysates were administered to rats by gavage (0.5 g protein/4 mL water). Food intake was measured over 2 h. The opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone methiodide (1.0 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.), increased food intake when given at the same time as the hydrolysate preloads, 25 min after the casein preloads and 55 min after the soy protein preloads. The CCK-A receptor antagonist, devazepide (which reverses protein-induced food intake suppression), when given at 0.25 mg/kg, i.p., 60 min before preloads of each of three soy hydrolysates, also blocked suppression of food intake, but the strength and duration of the interaction depended on the preparation. When the two receptor antagonists were both administered with soy or casein preloads, their effects were additive. We conclude that peptides arising from digestion contribute to satiety by independent activation of both opioid and CCK-A receptors.

  20. Mitochondria localization induced self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles for cellular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jeena, M T; Palanikumar, L; Go, Eun Min; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Myoung Gyun; Lee, Seonik; Park, Sooham; Choi, Huyeon; Kim, Chaekyu; Jin, Seon-Mi; Bae, Sung Chul; Rhee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Eunji; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ryu, Ja-Hyoung

    2017-06-21

    Achieving spatiotemporal control of molecular self-assembly associated with actuation of biological functions inside living cells remains a challenge owing to the complexity of the cellular environments and the lack of characterization tools. We present, for the first time, the organelle-localized self-assembly of a peptide amphiphile as a powerful strategy for controlling cellular fate. A phenylalanine dipeptide (FF) with a mitochondria-targeting moiety, triphenyl phosphonium (Mito-FF), preferentially accumulates inside mitochondria and reaches the critical aggregation concentration to form a fibrous nanostructure, which is monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Mito-FF fibrils induce mitochondrial dysfunction via membrane disruption to cause apoptosis. The organelle-specific supramolecular system provides a new opportunity for therapeutics and in-depth investigations of cellular functions.Spatiotemporal control of intracellular molecular self-assembly holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here the authors develop a peptide consisting of a phenylalanine dipeptide with a mitochondrial targeting moiety to form self-assembling fibrous nanostructures within mitochondria, leading to apoptosis.

  1. Dynamic collision-induced dissociation of peptides in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Collin, Olivier L; Beier, Matthias; Jackson, Glen P

    2007-07-15

    The fragmentation of natural peptides using dynamic collision-induced dissociation (DCID), a novel fragmentation method for quadrupole ion traps, is demonstrated. Using leucine enkephalin as a diagnostic molecule, the fragmentation efficiencies and energetics of DCID are compared with other methods of collisional activation in ion traps such as conventional on-resonance excitation and high-amplitude short-time excitation (HASTE). A typical fragmentation efficiency of approximately 20% is achieved for DCID, which is significantly lower than conventional CID (maximum near 80%). Tandem mass spectra of two other peptides, substance P and oxidized insulin alpha-chain, demonstrate that product ion spectra for DCID are comparable to conventional or HASTE CID. Because DCID achieves fragmentation during the standard mass acquisition scan, no extra time is necessary for on-resonance excitation or product ion collection, so analysis times are reduced by a minimum of 10-15% depending on the scanning conditions. DCID therefore offers more tandem mass spectra per second than conventional methods of collisional activation, which could be highly advantageous for bottom-up proteomics separations.

  2. LXXLL peptide converts transportan 10 to a potent inducer of apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tints, Kairit; Prink, Madis; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2014-04-03

    Degenerate expression of transcription coregulator proteins is observed in most human cancers. Therefore, in targeted anti-cancer therapy development, intervention at the level of cancer-specific transcription is of high interest. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is highly expressed in breast, endometrial, and prostate cancer. It is present in various transcription complexes, including those containing nuclear hormone receptors. We examined the effects of a peptide that contains the LXXLL-motif of the human SRC-1 nuclear receptor box 1 linked to the cell-penetrating transportan 10 (TP10), hereafter referred to as TP10-SRC1LXXLL, on proliferation and estrogen-mediated transcription of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our data show that TP10-SRC1LXXLL induced dose-dependent cell death of breast cancer cells, and that this effect was not affected by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Surprisingly TP10-SRC1LXXLL severely reduced the viability and proliferation of hormone-unresponsive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the regulation of the endogenous ERα direct target gene pS2 was not affected by TP10-SRC1LXXLL in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Dermal fibroblasts were similarly affected by treatment with higher concentrations of TP10-SRC1LXXLL and this effect was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the TP10-SRC1LXXLL peptide may be an effective drug candidate in the treatment of cancers with minimal therapeutic options, for example ER-negative tumors.

  3. Comparative dissociation of peptide polyanions by electron impact and photo-induced electron detachment.

    PubMed

    Larraillet, Vincent; Vorobyev, Aleksey; Brunet, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Tsybin, Yury O; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    We compare product-ion mass spectra produced by electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and electron photodetachment dissociation (EPD) of multi-deprotonated peptides on a Fourier transform and a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, respectively. Both methods, EDD and EPD, involve the electron emission-induced formation of a radical oxidized species from a multi-deprotonated precursor peptide. Product-ion mass spectra display mainly fragment ions resulting from backbone cleavages of C(alpha)-C bond ruptures yielding a and x ions. Fragment ions originating from N-C(alpha) backbone bond cleavages are also observed, in particular by EPD. Although EDD and EPD methods involve the generation of a charge-reduced radical anion intermediate by electron emission, the product ion abundance distributions are drastically different. Both processes seem to be triggered by the location and the recombination of radicals (both neutral and cation radicals). Therefore, EPD product ions are predominantly formed near tryptophan and histidine residues, whereas in EDD the negative charge solvation sites on the backbone seem to be the most favorable for the nearby bond dissociation. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The insect peptide CopA3 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo Jung; Oh, Ah Reum; Nam, Seung Taek; Kang, Jin Ku; Chang, Jong Soo; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Jae Sam; Shong, Ko Eun; Park, Mi Jung; Seok, Heon; Kim, Ho

    2012-10-01

    We recently demonstrated that the insect peptide CopA3 (LLCIALRKK), a disulfide-linked dimeric peptide, exerts antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities in a mouse colitis model. Here, we examined whether CopA3 inhibited activation of macrophages by LPS. Exposure of an unseparated mouse peritoneal cell population or isolated peritoneal macrophages to LPS markedly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α; these effects were significantly inhibited by CopA3 treatment. The inhibitory effect of CopA3 was also evident in murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Western blotting revealed that LPS-induced activation of STAT1 and STAT5 in macrophages was significantly inhibited by CopA3. Inhibition of JAK (STAT1/STAT5 kinase) with AG490 markedly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in macrophages. Collectively, these observations suggest that CopA3 inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting activating phosphorylations of the transcription factors, STAT1 and STAT5, and blocking subsequent production of IL-6 and TNF-α and indicate that CopA3 may be useful as an immune-modulating agent.

  5. A TNF receptor loop peptide mimic blocks RANK ligand-induced signaling, bone resorption, and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Itzstein, Cecile; Ishiguro, Masaji; Shibata, Tatsuya; Blanque, Roland; Mian, Anower Hussain; Takahashi, Mariko; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Yamaguchi, Akira; Deprez, Pierre; Mollat, Patrick; Murali, Ramachandran; Ohya, Keiichi; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2006-06-01

    Activating receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) and TNF receptor (TNFR) promote osteoclast differentiation. A critical ligand contact site on the TNFR is partly conserved in RANK. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that a peptide (WP9QY) that mimics this TNFR contact site and inhibits TNF-alpha-induced activity bound to RANK ligand (RANKL). Changing a single residue predicted to play an important role in the interaction reduced the binding significantly. WP9QY, but not the altered control peptide, inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of RANK-dependent signaling in RAW 264.7 cells but had no effect on M-CSF-induced activation of some of the same signaling events. WP9QY but not the control peptide also prevented RANKL-induced bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis, even when TNFRs were absent or blocked. In vivo, where both RANKL and TNF-alpha promote osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast activity, and bone loss, WP9QY prevented the increased osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced in mice by ovariectomy or low dietary calcium, in the latter case in both wild-type and TNFR double-knockout mice. These results suggest that a peptide that mimics a TNFR ligand contact site blocks bone resorption by interfering with recruitment and activation of osteoclasts by both RANKL and TNF.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of urea and thermal-induced denaturation of S-peptide analogue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, Y; Shi, Y

    2001-02-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the S-peptide analogue AETAAAKFLREHMDS in water at 278 and 358 K, and in 8 M urea at 278 K were performed. The results show agreement with experiments. The helix is stable at low temperature (278 K), while at 358 K, unfolding is observed. The effects of urea on protein stability have been studied. The data support a model in which urea denatures proteins by: (1) diminishing the hydrophobic effect by displacing water molecules from the solvent shell around nonpolar groups; and (2) binding directly to amide units (NH and CO groups) via hydrogen bonds. The results of cluster analysis and essential dynamics analysis suggest that the mechanism of urea and thermal-induced denaturation may not be the same.

  7. Loss of bombesin-induced feeding suppression in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Lori L.; Ladenheim, Ellen E.; Akeson, Mark; Way, James M.; Weber, H. Christian; Sutliff, Vince E.; Jensen, Robert T.; Wine, Lara J.; Arnheiter, Heinz; Battey, James F.

    1998-01-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is one of three members of the mammalian bombesin subfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors that mediate diverse biological responses including secretion, neuromodulation, chemotaxis, and growth. The X chromosome-linked GRP-R gene is expressed widely during embryonic development and predominantly in gastrointestinal, neuronal, and neuroendocrine systems in the adult. Surprisingly, gene-targeted mice lacking a functional GRP-R gene develop and reproduce normally and show no gross phenotypic abnormalities. However, peripheral administration of bombesin at dosages up to 32 nmol/kg to such mice had no effect on the suppression of glucose intake, whereas normal mice showed a dose-dependent suppression of glucose intake. These data suggest that selective agonists for the GRP-R may be useful in inducing satiety. PMID:9501238

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces malignant transformation of the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Isabel Arenas, M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2010-12-18

    The carcinogenic potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was analyzed in non-tumor human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and in vivo xenografts. VIP induced morphological changes and a migratory phenotype consistent with stimulation of expression/activity of metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, decreased E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. VIP increased cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation that was blocked after VPAC(1)-receptor siRNA transfection. Similar effects were seen in RWPE-1 tumors developed by subcutaneous injection of VIP-treated cells in athymic nude mice. VIP acts as a cytokine in RWPE-1 cell transformation conceivably through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), reinforcing VIP role in prostate tumorigenesis.

  9. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Electron Ionization of Amino Acids and Small Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrell, Tiffany M.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Riedeman, James S.; Prentice, Boone M.; Pulliam, Chris J.; Max, Joann; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) allows for desorption of neutral nonvolatile compounds independent of their volatility or thermal stability. Many different ionization methods have been coupled with LIAD. Hence, this setup provides a better control over the types of ions formed than other mass spectrometry evaporation/ionization methods commonly used to characterize biomolecules, such as ESI or MALDI. In this study, the utility of LIAD coupled with electron ionization (EI) was tested for the analysis of common amino acids with no derivatization. The results compared favorably with previously reported EI mass spectra obtained using thermal desorption/EI. Further, LIAD/EI mass spectra collected for hydrochloride salts of two amino acids were found to be similar to those measured for the neutral amino acids with the exception of the appearance of an HCl+● ion. However, the hydrochloride salt of arginine showed a distinctly different LIAD/EI mass spectrum than the previously published literature EI mass spectrum, likely due to its highly basic side chain that makes a specific zwitterionic form particularly favorable. Finally, EI mass spectra were measured for seven small peptides, including di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides. These mass spectra show a variety of ion types. However, an type ions are prevalent. Also, electron-induced dissociation (EID) of protonated peptides has been reported to form primarily an type ions. In addition, the loss of small neutral molecules and side-chain cleavages were observed that are reminiscent of other high-energy fragmentation methods, such as EID. Finally, the isomeric dipeptides LG and IG were found to produce drastically different EI mass spectra, thus allowing differentiation of the leucine and isoleucine amino acids in these dipeptides. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Prepro-orexin and feeding-related peptide receptor expression in dehydration-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    García-Luna, C; Amaya, M I; Alvarez-Salas, E; de Gortari, P

    2010-01-08

    Food-restricted animals present metabolic adaptations that facilitate food-seeking behavior and decelerate energy utilization by reducing the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function. Stress by dehydration induces an anorexic behavior in rats, loss of weight and reduced food intake when compared to ad libitum fed animals, however these alterations are accompanied by HPT axis changes such as increased serum thyrotropin levels and enhanced expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is considered as anorexigenic peptide. In contrast, a pair-fed group conformed by forced-food-restricted animals (FFR) (eating the exact same amount of food as dehydration-induced anorexic rats--DIA rats) present decreased TRH mRNA levels. NPY synthesis in the arcuate nucleus and orexin-expressing neurons from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are activated during food restriction. These brain structures project into PVN, suggesting that NPY and orexins are possible factors involved in TRHergic neuron activation in DIA rats. Leptin signaling is another likely factor to be involved in TRH differential expression. Therefore, to gain more insight into the regulation of the feeding behavior in the experimental models, we analyzed Y1, Y5, Ox1-R and Ob-R(b) mRNA levels in PVN and prepro-orexin in LHA, since their signaling to the PVN might be altering TRH synthesis and feeding in DIA animals. Prepro-orexinergic cells were activated in FFR animals; Ox1-R and Y1 expression was reduced in FFR vs. controls or DIA group. Compensatory changes in PVN receptor expression of some feeding-related peptides in anorexic rats may alter TRHergic neural response to energy demands.

  11. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  12. The gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides in cisplatin-induced anorexic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Ohno, Motoko; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Cisplatin has been widely used; however, various disadvantageous side effects afflict patients. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been widely prescribed in Japan to improve anorexia; but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we studied whether RKT could improve anorexia induced by cisplatin and changes in feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus in rats. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: water+saline (WS), water+cisplatin (WC), RKT+saline (RS), and RKT+cisplatin (RC) groups. Water or RKT (1g/kg) was intragastrically administered for 4 days, from day -1 to day 2, and saline or cisplatin (6mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at day 0. After i.p. administration, cumulative food intake, water intake, urine volume and body weight were measured. The rats were then decapitated, followed by removal of the brain, and feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the three-day measurements, there were no significant changes in cumulative water intake and urine volume. The body weight and cumulative food intake in WC significantly decreased compared to WS, whereas these were not observed in RC. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in WC significantly increased, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ARC decreased compared to WS, whereas those in RS and RC were comparable to WS. These results suggest that RKT may have therapeutic potential for anorexia induced by cisplatin. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of natriuretic peptide family on the oxidized LDL-induced migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Kano, H; Minami, M; Ueda, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-10-01

    The migration of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the intima is proposed to be an important process of intimal thickening in atherosclerotic lesions. The present study examined the possible effect of a novel endothelium-derived relaxing peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced migration of cultured human coronary artery SMCs by the Boyden's chamber method. The effect of CNP was compared with that of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively). Oxidized LDL stimulates SMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner between 20 and 200 micrograms/mL. This stimulation was chemotactic in nature but was not chemokinetic. By contrast, native LDL was without significant activity. CNP-22 clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with 200 micrograms/mL oxidized LDL in a concentration-dependent manner between 10(-9) and 10(-6) mol/L. ANP-(1-28) and BNP-32 also inhibited oxidized LDL-induced SMC migration at concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol/L, but these effects were weaker than the effect of CNP-22. Such inhibition by these natriuretic peptides was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cGMP. Oxidized LDL-induced migration was significantly inhibited by a stable analogue of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP, or an activator of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase, sodium nitroprusside. These natriuretic peptides did not suppress the cell adhesion either in the absence or presence of oxidized LDL. These data indicate that oxidized LDL stimulates migration of human coronary artery SMCs and that natriuretic peptides, especially CNP, inhibit this stimulated SMC migration, at least in part, through a cGMP-dependent process. Taken together with the finding that oxidized LDL is present in the intima, CNP may play a role as a local antimigration factor during the process of intimal thickening in hypercholesterolemia-induced coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Salivary Peptide Tyrosine–Tyrosine 3–36 Modulates Ingestive Behavior without Inducing Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Maria D.; Sergeyev, Valeriy G.; Acosta, Andres; Spegele, Michael; La Sala, Michael; Waler, Nickolas J.; Chiriboga-Hurtado, Juan; Currlin, Seth W.; Herzog, Herbert; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S.

    2013-01-01

    Hormone peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y2R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. We describe here a novel approach of elevating PYY in saliva in mice, which, although reliably inducing strong anorexic responses, does not cause aversive reactions. The augmentation of salivary PYY activated forebrain areas known to mediate feeding, hunger, and satiation while minimally affecting brainstem chemoreceptor zones triggering nausea. By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y2R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. The discovery of this alternative circuit that regulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion may open the possibility of a therapeutic application of PYY for the treatment of obesity via direct oral application. PMID:24259562

  15. The antimicrobial peptide cecropin A induces caspase-independent cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cerón, José María; Contreras-Moreno, Judit; Puertollano, Elena; de Cienfuegos, Gerardo Álvarez; Puertollano, María A; de Pablo, Manuel A

    2010-08-01

    Most antimicrobial peptides have been shown to have antitumoral activity. Cecropin A, a linear 37-residue antimicrobial polypeptide produced by the cecropia moth, has exhibited cytotoxicity in various human cancer cell lines and inhibitory effects on tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis induced by cecropin A in the promyelocytic cell line HL-60. Treatment of cells with cecropin A was characterized by loss of viability in a dose-dependent manner, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and modest attenuation of lysosomal integrity measured by neutral red assay. An increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization were quantified following cecropin A exposure at a concentration of 30 microM, whereas cecropin A-induced apoptosis was independent of caspase family members, because the activity of caspase-8 and -9 were irrelevant. Nevertheless, caspase-3 activity showed a significant increase at concentrations of 20-40 microM, but a considerable reduction at 50 microM. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), and the accumulation of cells at sub-G1 phase measured by FACS analysis of propidium iodide (PI) stained nuclei suggested induction of apoptosis. Morphological changes measured by Hoechst 33342 or acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed nuclear condensation, corroborating the apoptotic action of cecropin A. Overall, these data indicate that cecropin A is able to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a signaling mechanism mediated by ROS, but independently of caspase activation.

  16. Isoflurane and desflurane at clinically relevant concentrations induce amyloid {beta}-peptide oligomerization: An NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Pravat K Fodale, Vincenzo

    2009-02-13

    Current understanding on Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveals that soluble amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) oligomeric formation plays an important role in AD pathophysiology. A potential role for several inhaled anesthetics in promoting A{beta} oligomer formation has been suggested. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study, we previously demonstrated that at a high concentration (higher than clinically relevant concentrations), the inhaled anesthetics halothane and isoflurane, interact with specific amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31) and induce A{beta} oligomerization. The present study confirms this is true at a clinically relevant concentration. Isoflurane and desflurane induce A{beta} oligomerization by inducing chemical shift changes of the critical amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31), reinforcing the evidence that perturbation of these three crucial residues indeed plays an important role in oligomerization. These findings support the emerging hypothesis that several commonly used inhaled anesthetics could be involved in neurodegeneration, as well as risk factor for accelerating the onset of AD.

  17. Shape changes induced by biologically active peptides and nerve growth factor in blood platelets of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gudat, F; Laubscher, A; Otten, U; Pletscher, A

    1981-11-01

    1 Nerve growth factor (NGF), substance P (SP) and thymopoietin all caused shape change reactions of rapid onset in rabbit platelets. NGF had the highest maximal effect, and SP the lowest EC50 (concentration causing half maximal shape change). The action of SP was reversible within 5 min, whereas that of NGF lasted for at least 1 h. A series of other peptides were inactive. 2 After preincubation of platelets with SP, a second application of SP no longer caused a shape change reaction, whereas the effect of NGF was not influenced. 3 An oxidized NGF-derivative without biological activity did not cause a shape change reaction, neither did epidermal growth factor. 4 Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and pretreatment of the platelets with 3% butanol, which counteract the shape changes caused by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate, also antagonized those induced by NGF and SP. Neither heparin nor methysergide, an antagonist of 5-HT-receptors, influenced the shape change induced by NGF or SP. The action of NGF was also antagonized by a specific antibody to NGF. 5 Thymopoietin, like the basic polypeptide polyornithine (mol. wt. 40,000) was not antagonized by PGE1 and butanol. Heparin, which counteracted the effect of polyornithine, did not influence that of thymopoietin. 6 In conclusion, different modes of action are involved in the shape change of blood platelets induced by polypeptides and proteins. SP and NGF may act by stimulating specific membrane receptors.

  18. Curcumin induces human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression through a vitamin D receptor-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunxiao; Rosoha, Elena; Lowry, Malcolm B.; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the pleiotropic biologic effects of 1α,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Recent in vitro studies suggested that curcumin and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also bind to VDR with low affinity. As potential ligands for the VDR, we hypothesized that curcumin and PUFAs would induce expression of known VDR target genes in cells. In this study, we tested whether these compounds regulated two important VDR target genes - human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1)- in human monocytic cell line U937, colon cancer cell line HT-29 and keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. We demonstrated that PUFAs failed to induce CAMP or CYP24A1 mRNA expression in all three cell lines, but curcumin up-regulated CAMP mRNA and protein levels in U937 cells. Curcumin treatment induced CAMP promoter activity from a luciferase reporter construct lacking the VDR binding site and did not increase binding of the VDR to the CAMP promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These findings indicate that induction of CAMP by curcumin occurs through a vitamin D receptor-independent manner. We conclude that PUFAs and curcumin do not function as ligands for the VDR. PMID:22841393

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits fMLP-induced respiratory burst in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bellido, L; López-González, M A; Pedrera, C; Lucas, M

    1994-01-01

    N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) induced in lymphocytes the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in a process which was inhibited by the presence of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) in a dose-dependent response at VIP concentrations in the range 10(-10)-10(-7) M. The dissociation constant for the high-affinity receptors of VIP agrees with the ID50 of the activation of adenylate cyclase which are close to 0.2 nM VIP, whereas the ID50 for the inhibition by VIP of fMLP-induced chemiluminescence approaches to 5 nM VIP. Both IBMX and Forskolin produced in lymphocytes an inhibition of fMLP-induced chemiluminescence. The degree of inhibition was ascertained to be additive in the presence of the above indicated agents and suboptimal concentrations of VIP. The saturation by cAMP of its putative target, the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, appears to be required for the onset of the inhibitory effect of VIP. This study provides evidence of the molecular signal, namely cAMP, which provokes an inhibitory effect on chemoatractant-stimulated human lymphocytes and further support a role for VIP as a mediator in the neuroimmune system.

  20. Butyrate Enhances Disease Resistance of Chickens by Inducing Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptide Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T.; Achanta, Mallika; Schreiber, Nicole B.; Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dai, Gan; Jiang, Weiyu; Lamont, Susan; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Beker, Ali; Teeter, Robert G.; Zhang, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance. PMID:22073293

  1. Differential patterns of spinal cord pathology induced by MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, and PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kuerten, Stefanie; Gruppe, Traugott L; Laurentius, Laura-Maria; Kirch, Christiane; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V; Addicks, Klaus

    2011-06-01

    In this study we demonstrate that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the MBP-PLP fusion protein MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, or PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice, respectively, displays distinct features of CNS pathology. Major differences between the three models resided in (i) the region-/tract-specificity and disseminated nature of spinal cord degeneration, (ii) the extent and kinetics of demyelination, and (iii) the involvement of motoneurons in the disease. In contrast, axonal damage was present in all models and to a similar extent, proposing this feature as a possible morphological correlate for the comparable chronic clinical course of the disease induced by the three antigens. The data suggest that the antigen targeted in autoimmune encephalomyelitis is crucial to the induction of differential histopathological disease manifestations. The use of MP4-, MOG:35-55-, and PLP:178-191-induced EAE on the C57BL/6 background can be a valuable tool when it comes to reproducing and studying the structural-morphological diversity of multiple sclerosis.

  2. Induced polymersome formation from a diblock PS-b-PAA polymer via encapsulation of positively charged proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Hvasanov, David; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Braet, Filip; Thordarson, Pall

    2011-06-14

    In contrast to simple salts or negatively charged macromolecules, positively charged proteins and peptides including cytochrome c (yeast) and poly-L-lysine are efficiently encapsulated while inducing the formation of polymersomes from polystyrene(140)-b-poly(acrylic acid)(48) (PS(140)-b-PAA(48)). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. Collision induced dissociation-based characterization of nucleotide peptides: fragmentation patterns of microcin C7-C51, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Petit, Vanessa W; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2008-08-01

    Covalent protein-nucleic acid conjugates form an original class of compounds that occur in nature or can be generated in vitro through cross-linking to investigate domains involved in protein/nucleic acid interactions. Their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns are poorly characterized. We have used electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with collision-induced dissociation (CID) to characterize microcin C7-C51, an antimicrobial nucleotide peptide that targets aspartyl-tRNA synthetase and inhibits translation. The fragments of microcin C7-C51 were analyzed in positive- and negative-ion modes and compared with those of the corresponding unmodified heptapeptide and to the derived aspartyl-adenylate. The positive- and negative-ion mode fragments of microcin C7-C51 provided information on both the nucleotide and peptide moieties. Accurate mass measurement obtained using an LTQ Orbitrap instrument was a key factor for a comprehensive interpretation of the fragments. The experimental results obtained permitted the proposal of stepwise fragmentation pathways involving ion-dipole complexes. The data provide a better understanding of nucleotide peptide fragmentation in the gas phase.

  4. Nisin-induced expression of a recombinant antihypertensive peptide in dairy lactic acid bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peptides with antihypertensive activity have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine milk proteins. A 12-residue peptide (FFVAPFPEVFGK) shown to inhibit the angiotensin I-converting enzyme is released from the enzymatic breakdown of aS1-casein. A synthetic gene encoding this peptid...

  5. Oral biodrug delivery using cell-penetrating peptide.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Morishita, Mariko

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, the novel biotherapeutic agents such as peptides and proteins have been contributed to the treatment of several diseases. However, their oral absorption is significantly limited due to their poor delivery through the intestinal mucosa. Therefore, the feasible approaches are needed for improving the oral bioavailability of biodrugs. Recently, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as HIV-1 Tat, penetratin and oligoarginine are considered as a useful tool for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic macromolecules. Hence, it was expected that the ability of CPPs may be applicable to enhance the absorption of biodrugs through intestinal epithelial membrane. CPPs are likely to become powerful tools for overcoming the low permeability of therapeutic peptides and proteins through the intestinal membrane, the major barrier to their oral delivery. Further advantage of this promising strategy is that this successful intestinal absorption could be achieved by more convenient methodology, coadministration of CPP with drugs via intermolecular interaction among them. Hereafter, the further establishment of delivery system based on CPPs is required to realize the development of the oral forms of therapeutic peptides and proteins. The aim here is to introduce our vision focusing on oral biodrug delivery by the use of CPPs as potential peptide carrier in order to provide new information in the design and development of new oral delivery systems for novel biotherapeutics.

  6. The impact of photo-induced molecular changes of dairy proteins on their ACE-inhibitory peptides and activity.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Shrestha, Kshitij; Van Camp, John; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Among all dietary proteins, dairy proteins are the most important source of bio-active peptides which can, however, be affected by modifications upon processing and storage. Since it is still unknown to which extent the biological activity of dairy proteins is altered by chemical reactions, this study focuses on the effect of photo-induced molecular changes on the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Milk proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer containing riboflavin and stored under light at 4 °C for one month during which the molecular changes and the ACE-inhibitory activity were analysed. An increase in the total protein carbonyls and the N-formylkynurenine content was observed, besides a decrease in the free thiol, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine content. These changes were more severe in caseins compared with whey proteins and resulted moreover in the aggregation of caseins. Due to these photo-induced molecular changes, a significant loss of the ACE-inhibitory activity was observed for casein peptides. A peptide analysis moreover illustrated that the decreased activity was not attributed to a reduced digestibility but to losses of specific ACE-inhibitory peptides. The observed molecular changes, more specifically the degradation of specific amino acids and the casein aggregation, could be assigned as the cause of the altered peptide pattern and as such of the loss in ACE-inhibitory activity.

  7. HER-3 peptide vaccines/mimics: Combined therapy with IGF-1R, HER-2, and HER-1 peptides induces synergistic antitumor effects against breast and pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Megan Jo; Foy, Kevin C; Overholser, Jay P; Nahta, Rita; Kaumaya, Pravin TP

    2014-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER-3/ErbB3) is a unique member of the human epidermal growth factor family of receptors, because it lacks intrinsic kinase activity and ability to heterodimerize with other members. HER-3 is frequently upregulated in cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER-1/ErbB1) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/ErBB2) overexpression, and targeting HER-3 may provide a route for overcoming resistance to agents that target EGFR or HER-2. We have previously developed vaccines and peptide mimics for HER-1, HER-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we extend our studies by identifying and evaluating novel HER-3 peptide epitopes encompassing residues 99–122, 140–162, 237–269 and 461–479 of the HER-3 extracellular domain as putative B-cell epitopes for active immunotherapy against HER-3 positive cancers. We show that the HER-3 vaccine antibodies and HER-3 peptide mimics induced antitumor responses: inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, inhibition of receptor phosphorylation, induction of apoptosis and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Two of the HER-3 epitopes 237–269 (domain II) and 461–479 (domain III) significantly inhibited growth of xenografts originating from both pancreatic (BxPC3) and breast (JIMT-1) cancers. Combined therapy of HER-3 (461–471) epitope with HER-2 (266–296), HER-2 (597–626), HER-1 (418–435) and insulin-like growth factor receptor type I (IGF-1R) (56–81) vaccine antibodies and peptide mimics show enhanced antitumor effects in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. This study establishes the hypothesis that combination immunotherapy targeting different signal transduction pathways can provide effective antitumor immunity and long-term control of HER-1 and HER-2 overexpressing cancers. PMID:25941588

  8. Target Gas Effects on Collision-Induced Dissociation of Peptides in a Tandem Four-Sector Mass Spectrometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    regulator to the metering valve at the collision cell was thoroughly evacuated and then purged three times before each experiment by introducing small amounts...Thesis; Aug 89 - May 91 4. TIfLE AND S.BTiTLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Target Gas Effects on Collision-Induced Dissociation of Peptides in a Tandem Four...intensities of ihe undecapeptide physalaemin during collision-induced dissociation (CID) has been determined to be target mass dependent. The data

  9. Collision-induced dissociation of Lys-Lys intramolecular crosslinked peptides.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Amadeu H; Santos, Luiz F A; Gozzo, Fabio C

    2009-04-01

    The use of chemical crosslinking is an attractive tool that presents many advantages in the application of mass spectrometry to structural biology. The correct assignment of crosslinked peptides, however, is still a challenge because of the lack of detailed fragmentation studies on resultant species. In this work, the fragmentation patterns of intramolecular crosslinked peptides with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) has been devised by using a set of versatile, model peptides that resemble species found in crosslinking experiments with proteins. These peptides contain an acetylated N-terminus followed by a random sequence of residues containing two lysine residues separated by an arginine. After the crosslinking reaction, controlled trypsin digestion yields both intra- and intermolecular crosslinked peptides. In the present study we analyzed the fragmentation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-generated peptides crosslinked with DSS in which both lysines are found in the same peptide. Fragmentation starts in the linear moiety of the peptide, yielding regular b and y ions. Once it reaches the cyclic portion of the molecule, fragmentation was observed to occur either at the following peptide bond or at the peptide crosslinker amide bond. If the peptide crosslinker bond is cleaved, it fragments as a regular modified peptide, in which the DSS backbone remains attached to the first lysine. This fragmentation pattern resembles the fragmentation of modified peptides and may be identified by common automated search engines using DSS as a modification. If, on the other hand, fragmentation happens at the peptide bond itself, rearrangement of the last crosslinked lysine is observed and a product ion containing the crosslinker backbone and lysine (m/z 222) is formed. The detailed identification of fragment ions can help the development of softwares devoted to the MS/MS data analysis of crosslinked peptides.

  10. The effects of the phyllolitorin analogue [desTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin on scratching induced by bombesin and related peptides in rats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark D.; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Choo, Kevin S.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.; Naughton, Norah N.; Woods, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Bombesin along with several closely related neuropeptides elicit scratching behavior when administered centrally. The first part of the study was designed to determine the antagonistic effects of a novel phyllolitorin analogue wdesTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin (DTP) on scratching induced by three peptides (bombesin, neuromedin-C, and [Leu8]phyllolitorin). In addition, the binding affinity of each peptide for the bombesin receptor site was determined. DTP (30 μg) inhibited scratching induced by these peptides, but unlike the peptides, DTP had no affinity for the bombesin site, thereby suggesting that DTP is displaying physiological antagonism through an unknown mechanism. PMID:10482814

  11. Cytoprotective effect of neuropeptides on cancer stem cells: vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced antiapoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Konduru S; Chouchane, Aouatef Ismail; Wang, Ena; Kulik, George; Marincola, Francesco M; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2017-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are increasingly considered to be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis and drug resistance. The drug resistance mechanisms activated in CSCs have not been thoroughly investigated. Although neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can promote tumor growth and activate antiapoptotic signaling in differentiated cancer cells, it is not known whether they can activate antiapoptotic mechanisms in CSCs. The objectives of this study are to unravel the cytoprotective effects of neuropeptides and identify antiapoptotic mechanisms activated by neuropeptides in response to anticancer drug treatment in CSCs. We enriched and purified CSCs (CD44(+/high)/CD24(-/low) or CD133(+) population) from breast and prostate cancer cell lines, and demonstrated their stemness phenotype. Of the several neuropeptides tested, only VIP could protect CSCs from drug-induced apoptosis. A functional correlation was found between drug-induced apoptosis and dephosphorylation of proapoptotic Bcl2 family protein BAD. Similarly, VIP-induced cytoprotection correlated with BAD phosphorylation at Ser112 in CSCs. Using pharmacological inhibitors and dominant-negative proteins, we showed that VIP-induced cytoprotection and BAD phosphorylation are mediated via both Ras/MAPK and PKA pathways in CSCs of prostate cancer LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but only PKA signaling was involved in CSCs of DUVIPR (DU145 prostate cancer cells ectopically expressing VIP receptor) and breast cancer MCF7 cells. As each of these pathways partially control BAD phosphorylation at Ser112, both have to be inhibited to block the cytoprotective effects of VIP. Furthermore, VIP is unable to protect CSCs that express phosphorylation-deficient mutant-BAD, suggesting that BAD phosphorylation is essential. Thus, antiapoptotic signaling by VIP could be one of the drug resistance mechanisms by which CSCs escape from anticancer therapies. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of VIP receptor

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide protects against Staphylococcus aureus-induced lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junjie; Moldobaeva, Nurgul

    2011-01-01

    Lung inflammation and alterations in endothelial cell (EC) permeability are key events to development of acute lung injury (ALI). Protective effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been shown against inflammatory signaling and endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by gram-negative bacterial wall liposaccharide. We hypothesized that ANP may possess more general protective effects and attenuate lung inflammation and EC barrier dysfunction by suppressing inflammatory cascades and barrier-disruptive mechanisms shared by gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. C57BL/6J wild-type or ANP knockout mice (Nppa−/−) were treated with gram-positive bacterial cell wall compounds, Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan (PepG) and/or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (intratracheal, 2.5 mg/kg each), with or without ANP (intravenous, 2 μg/kg). In vitro, human pulmonary EC barrier properties were assessed by morphological analysis of gap formation and measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. LTA and PepG markedly increased pulmonary EC permeability and activated p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases, NF-κB, and Rho/Rho kinase signaling. EC barrier dysfunction was further elevated upon combined LTA and PepG treatment, but abolished by ANP pretreatment. In vivo, LTA and PepG-induced accumulation of protein and cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tissue neutrophil infiltration, and increased Evans blue extravasation in the lungs was significantly attenuated by intravenous injection of ANP. Accumulation of bronchoalveolar lavage markers of LTA/PepG-induced lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction was further augmented in ANP−/− mice and attenuated by exogenous ANP injection. These results strongly suggest a protective role of ANP in the in vitro and in vivo models of ALI associated with gram-positive infection. Thus ANP may have important implications in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of sepsis and ALI-induced gram-positive bacterial

  13. Neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuates warm-, but not cold-water swim stress-induced analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Zi-long; Tang, Hong-zhu; Ren, Hui; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to a neuropeptide family including two receptors (NPFF(1) and NPFF(2)). NPFF system has been reported to play important roles in pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of NPFF related peptides and their receptors in swim stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Nociceptive test was performed in mice stressed by forced swimming in water at 15 °C (cold water swimming) or 32 °C (warm water swimming). Warm water swimming produced a naloxone-mediated antinociceptive effect. This warm water swim SIA was dose-dependently antagonized by i.c.v. injection of NPFF and two related peptides (3-30 nmol), NPVF and dNPA, which exhibited the highest selectivities for NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors, respectively. Moreover, the selective NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 (30 nmol) was inactive by itself, but prevented the effects of NPFF and related peptides. Cold-water swimming produced a wilder analgesic effect that was blocked by MK-801, but not naloxone. However, NPFF system failed to modify the cold water swim stress-induced analgesia. These findings demonstrated that NPFF and related peptides attenuated opioid-mediated form of SIA via NPFF receptors in the brain, but not non-opioid swim stress-induced analgesia. These data further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system.

  14. Mucosal Tolerance Induced by an Immunodominant Peptide from Rat α3(IV)NC1 in Established Experimental Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John; Abbott, Danielle S.; Karegli, Julieta; Evans, David J.; Pusey, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture’s disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the noncollagenous domain of the α 3 chain of type IV collagen, α3(IV)NC1. Recent studies have identified an immunodominant peptide, pCol (24-38), from the N-terminus of rat α3(IV)NC1; this peptide contains the major B- and T-cell epitopes in EAG and can induce crescentic nephritis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of mucosal tolerance in EAG by examining the effects of the nasal administration of this peptide after the onset of disease. A dose-dependent effect was observed: a dose of 300 μg had no effect, a dose of 1000 μg resulted in a moderate reduction in EAG severity, and a dose of 3000 μg produced a marked reduction in EAG severity accompanied by diminished antigen-specific, T-cell proliferative responses. These results demonstrate that mucosal tolerance in EAG can be induced by nasal administration of an immunodominant peptide from the N-terminus of α3(IV)NC1 and should be of value in designing new therapeutic strategies for patients with Goodpasture’s disease and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:19406992

  15. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase aggregation inhibitor peptide: A potential therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Masanori; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Semi, Yuko; Higashida, Shusaku; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-11-13

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has multiple functions, including mediating oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. This process is associated with disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation. Some reports suggest a link between GAPDH and the pathogenesis of several oxidative stress-related diseases. However, the pathological significance of GAPDH aggregation in disease pathogenesis remains unclear due to the lack of an effective GAPDH aggregation inhibitor. In this study, we identified a GAPDH aggregation inhibitor (GAI) peptide and evaluated its biological profile. The decapeptide GAI specifically inhibited GAPDH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the GAI peptide did not affect GAPDH glycolytic activity or cell viability. The GAI peptide also exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. This peptide could potentially serve as a tool to investigate GAPDH aggregation-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders and as a possible therapy for diseases associated with oxidative stress-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic peptide TEKKRRETVEREKE derived from ezrin induces differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chulkina, Marina; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Pichugin, Aleksey; Mazurov, Dmitriy; Ataullakhanov, Ravshan; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson

    2017-09-15

    Synthetic 14 AA peptide (Gepon) derived from the hinge region of ezrin, a protein that links cell surface molecules to intracellular actin filaments, accelerates and facilitates wound and ulcer healing in clinical applications. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and involved in enhanced healing of wounds with Gepon are not yet understood. The purpose of current study was to investigate intracellular signaling pathways involved in the effect of this peptide on wild type and genetically modified (CD44 KO) NIH/3T3 embryonic mouse fibroblasts. Gepon treatment of NIH/3T3 cells resulted in morphological and biochemical changes, characteristic of differentiated fibroblasts. While treatment of NIH/3T3 cells with TGF-β1 triggered the activation of both canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways, exposure of fibroblasts to Gepon activated only the ERK1/2 dependent pathway without modulating SMAD dependent signaling pathway. Knocking out hyaluronic acid CD44 receptor did not change Gepon or TGF-β1 dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways and assembling of α-SMA-positive filaments. Gepon dependent differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts is based on activation of ERK1/2 kinase, non-canonical intracellular signaling pathway. Our data suggest that the treatment of fibroblasts with Gepon triggers activation of the non-canonical (SMAD independent) intracellular signaling pathway that involves ERK1/2kinase phosphorylation. Activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the increase in formation of α-SMA containing stress filaments induced by Gepon were independent on presence of CD44 receptor in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, our observation designates the significance and sufficiency of MAPK pathway mediated activation of fibroblasts with Gepon for healing of erosion, ulcers and wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and gastrointestinal bypass-induced weight loss: the roles of ghrelin and peptide YY.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Keval; Gelegen, Cigdem; Karra, Efthimia; Choudhury, Agharul I; Drew, Megan E; Fauveau, Veronique; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Withers, Dominic J; Batterham, Rachel L

    2011-03-01

    Bariatric surgery causes durable weight loss. Gut hormones are implicated in obesity pathogenesis, dietary failure, and mediating gastrointestinal bypass (GIBP) surgery weight loss. In mice, we determined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO), subsequent dieting, and GIBP surgery on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To evaluate PYY's role in mediating weight loss post-GIBP, we undertook GIBP surgery in PyyKO mice. Male C57BL/6 mice randomized to a high-fat diet or control diet were killed at 4-week intervals. DIO mice underwent switch to ad libitum low-fat diet (DIO-switch) or caloric restriction (CR) for 4 weeks before being killed. PyyKO mice and their DIO wild-type (WT) littermates underwent GIBP or sham surgery and were culled 10 days postoperatively. Fasting acyl-ghrelin, total PYY, active GLP-1 concentrations, stomach ghrelin expression, and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression were determined. Fasting and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 concentrations were assessed 30 days postsurgery in GIBP and sham pair-fed (sham.PF) groups. DIO progressively reduced circulating fasting acyl-ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 levels. CR and DIO-switch caused weight loss but failed to restore circulating PYY to weight-appropriate levels. After GIBP, WT mice lost weight and exhibited increased circulating fasting PYY and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression. In contrast, the acute effects of GIBP on body weight were lost in PyyKO mice. Fasting PYY and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 levels were increased in GIBP mice compared with sham.PF mice. PYY plays a key role in mediating the early weight loss observed post-GIBP, whereas relative PYY deficiency during dieting may compromise weight-loss attempts.

  18. LXXLL Peptide Converts Transportan 10 to a Potent Inducer of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tints, Kairit; Prink, Madis; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2014-01-01

    Degenerate expression of transcription coregulator proteins is observed in most human cancers. Therefore, in targeted anti-cancer therapy development, intervention at the level of cancer-specific transcription is of high interest. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is highly expressed in breast, endometrial, and prostate cancer. It is present in various transcription complexes, including those containing nuclear hormone receptors. We examined the effects of a peptide that contains the LXXLL-motif of the human SRC-1 nuclear receptor box 1 linked to the cell-penetrating transportan 10 (TP10), hereafter referred to as TP10-SRC1LXXLL, on proliferation and estrogen-mediated transcription of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our data show that TP10-SRC1LXXLL induced dose-dependent cell death of breast cancer cells, and that this effect was not affected by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Surprisingly TP10-SRC1LXXLL severely reduced the viability and proliferation of hormone-unresponsive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the regulation of the endogenous ERα direct target gene pS2 was not affected by TP10-SRC1LXXLL in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Dermal fibroblasts were similarly affected by treatment with higher concentrations of TP10-SRC1LXXLL and this effect was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the TP10-SRC1LXXLL peptide may be an effective drug candidate in the treatment of cancers with minimal therapeutic options, for example ER-negative tumors. PMID:24705462

  19. Loss of proteostasis induced by amyloid beta peptide in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pereira, Cláudia F; Cardoso, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    Abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neurotoxic effects, Aβ also damages brain endothelial cells (ECs) and may thus contribute to the degeneration of cerebral vasculature, which has been proposed as an early pathogenic event in the course of AD and is able to trigger and/or potentiate the neurodegenerative process and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced endothelial dysfunction are not completely understood. Here we hypothesized that Aβ impairs protein quality control mechanisms both in the secretory pathway and in the cytosol in brain ECs, leading cells to death. In rat brain RBE4 cells, we demonstrated that Aβ1-40 induces the failure of the ER stress-adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), deregulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) decreasing overall proteasome activity with accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and impairs the autophagic protein degradation pathway due to failure in the autophagic flux, which culminates in cell demise. In conclusion, Aβ deregulates proteostasis in brain ECs and, as a consequence, these cells die by apoptosis.

  20. Label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling of cellular response induced by an insect cytokine paralytic peptide.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Wang, Fei; Dong, Zhaoming; Hua, Xiaoting; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-02-10

    Paralytic peptide (PP) participates in diverse physiological processes as an insect cytokine, such as immunity control, paralysis induction, regulation of cell morphology and proliferation. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying those physiological activities, we systematically investigated the global phosphorylation events in fat body of silkworm larvae induced by PP through label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics. 2534 phosphosites were finally identified, of which the phosphorylation level of 620 phosphosites on 244 proteins was significantly up-regulated and 67 phosphosites on 43 proteins was down-regulated. Among those proteins, 13 were protein kinases (PKs), 13 were transcription factors (TFs) across 10 families and 17 were metabolism related enzymes. Meanwhile, Motif-X analysis of the phosphorylation sites showed that 16 motifs are significantly enriched, including 8 novel phosphorylation motifs. In addition, KEGG and functional interacting network analysis revealed that phosphorylation cascades play the crucial regulation roles in PP-dependent signaling pathways, and highlighted the potential central position of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in them. These analyses provide direct insights into the molecule mechanisms of cellular response induced by PP.

  1. Amyloid-β peptide (1-42) aggregation induced by copper ions under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bin, Yannan; Li, Xia; He, Yonghui; Chen, Shu; Xiang, Juan

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induced by Cu²⁺ is related to incubation time, solution pH, and temperature. In this work, the aggregation of Aβ₁₋₄₂ in the presence of Cu²⁺ under acidic conditions was studied at different incubation time and temperature (e.g. 25 and 37°C). Incubation temperature, pH, and the presence of Cu²⁺ in Aβ solution were confirmed to alter the morphology of aggregation (fibrils or amorphous aggregates), and the morphology is pivotal for Aβ neurotoxicity and Alzheimer disease (AD) development. The results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the formation of Aβ fibrous morphology is preferred at lower pH, but Cu²⁺ induced the formation of amorphous aggregates. The aggregation rate of Aβ was increased with the elevation of temperature. These results were further confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy and it was found that the formation of β-sheet structure was inhibited by Cu²⁺ binding to Aβ. The result was consistent with AFM observation and the fibrillation process was restrained. We believe that the local charge state in hydrophilic domain of Aβ may play a dominant role in the aggregate morphology due to the strong steric hindrance. This research will be valuable for understanding of Aβ toxicity in AD.

  2. Uncoupling protein 2 negatively regulates glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiangying; Luo, Yun; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2012-04-01

    It is known that endogenous levels of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) can be enhanced by various secretagogues, but the mechanism underlying GLP1 secretion is still not fully understood. We assessed the possible effect of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) on GLP1 secretion in mouse intestinal tract and NCI-H716 cells, a well-characterized human enteroendocrine L cell model. Localization of UCP2 and GLP1 in the gastrointestinal tract was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Ucp2 mRNA levels in gut were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Human NCI-H716 cells were transiently transfected with siRNAs targeting UCP2. The plasma and ileum tissue levels of GLP1 (7-36) amide were measured using an ELISA kit. UCP2 was primarily expressed in the mucosal layer and colocalized with GLP1 in gastrointestinal mucosa. L cells secreting GLP1 also expressed UCP2. After glucose administration, UCP2-deficient mice showed increased glucose-induced GLP1 secretion compared with wild-type littermates. GLP1 secretion increased after NCI-H716 cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting UCP2. UCP2 was markedly upregulated in ileum tissue from ob/ob mice, and GLP1 secretion decreased compared with normal mice. Furthermore, GLP1 secretion increased after administration of genipin by oral gavage. Taken together, these results reveal an inhibitory role of UCP2 in glucose-induced GLP1 secretion.

  3. The Arabidopsis peptide kiss of death is an inducer of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Blanvillain, Robert; Young, Bennett; Cai, Yao-min; Hecht, Valérie; Varoquaux, Fabrice; Delorme, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Delseny, Michel; Gallois, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has a key role in defence and development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, there is a large gap in our knowledge of the molecular machinery involved at the various stages of PCD, especially the early steps. Here, we identify kiss of death (KOD) encoding a 25-amino-acid peptide that activates a PCD pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two mutant alleles of KOD exhibited a reduced PCD of the suspensor, a single file of cells that support embryo development, and a reduced PCD of root hairs after a 55°C heat shock. KOD expression was found to be inducible by biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, KOD expression was sufficient to cause death in leaves or seedlings and to activate caspase-like activities. In addition, KOD-induced PCD required light in leaves and was repressed by the PCD-suppressor genes AtBax inhibitor 1 and p35. KOD expression resulted in depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, placing KOD above mitochondria dysfunction, an early step in plant PCD. A KOD∷GFP fusion, however, localized in the cytosol of cells and not mitochondria. PMID:21326210

  4. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Hervé; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

    2012-12-01

    The pathways leading specifically to the toxic Aβ42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of Aβ42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases Aβ42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC(50) of 30 μM. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of γ-secretase components and could, therefore, modify γ-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other "AD accelerator" compounds. In summary, treatment with three Aβ42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets.

  5. Endomorphins, endogenous opioid peptides, provide antioxidant defense in the brain against free radical-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin; Yang, Ding-Jian; Cai, Wen-Qing; Zhao, Qian-Yu; Gao, Yan-Feng; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2003-11-20

    Oxidative stress has been considered to be a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of chronic health problems, such as carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative disorders. The brain appears to be more susceptible to oxidative damage than other organs. Therefore, the existence of antioxidants may be essential in brain protective systems. The antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2), endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, have been investigated in vitro. The oxidative damage was initiated by a water-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrocholoride) (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The linoleic acid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage were monitored by formation of hydroperoxides, by plasmid pBR 322 DNA nicking assay and single-cell alkaline electrophoresis, and by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Endomorphins can inhibit lipid peroxidation, DNA strand breakage, and protein fragmentation induced by free radical. Endomorphins also reacted with galvinoxyl radicals in homogeneous solution, and the pseudo-first-order rate constants were determined spectrophotometrically by following the disappearance of galvinoxyl radicals. In all assay systems, EM1 was more potent than EM2 and GSH, a major intracellular water-soluble antioxidant. We propose that endomorphins are one of the protective systems against free radical-induced damage in the brain.

  6. Comparative study on the mechanism of bradykinin potentiation induced by bradykinin-potentiating peptide 9a, enalaprilat and kinin-potentiating peptide.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M S; Schaffel, R; Assreuy, J

    1992-06-17

    The action of a kinin-potentiating peptide (KPP) obtained from tryptic digestion of human serum proteins was compared with that of bradykinin-potentiating peptide 9a (BPP9a; obtained from snake venom) and enalaprilat (a synthetic inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACE) as a means of understanding the mechanism of action of KPP on smooth muscle. KPP potentiated bradykinin-induced contractile effects in guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus, but not the bradykinin-induced relaxation of pre-contracted ileum, whereas BPP9a and enalaprilat potentiated both bradykinin effects. The receptor mediating both the contraction and the relaxation elicited by bradykinin in the ileum was found to be of the B2 type. KPP retained its potentiating effect in the presence of enalaprilat in the guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus, whereas the potentiation evoked by BPP9a was abolished. Enalaprilat inhibited the activity of purified ACE, whereas KPP was completely devoid of such an effect. The potentiating effect of KPP, but not that of BPP9a or enalaprilat, was blocked by compounds that inhibit phospholipase A2 and lipoxygenase activity but not by inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase or phosphodiesterases. The results suggest that the potentiating effect of KPP (i) does not involve inhibition of ACE; (ii) is not due to an increased affinity of the receptor for bradykinin, and (iii) probably involves post-receptor events linked to phospholipase A2 and to the lipoxygenase pathway.

  7. Molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by Hsp90-targeted Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is vital to cell survival under conditions of stress, and binds client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes, and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Therefore, Hsp90 has emerged as an important target for the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that novel Antp-TPR hybrid peptide, which can inhibit the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain of Hop, induces selective cytotoxic activity to discriminate between normal and cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results In this study, we investigated the functional cancer-cell killing mechanism of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma (GB) cell lines. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity in GB cells through the loss of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, CDK4, and cRaf. Antp-TPR also did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-AAG, induced the up-regulation of these proteins. It was also found that Antp-TPR peptide increased the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and the cytotoxic activity of this hybrid peptide to GB cells in the endoplasmic reticulum stress condition. Conclusion These results show that targeting of Hsp90 by Antp-TPR could be an attractive approach to selective cancer-cell killing because no other Hsp90-targeted compounds show selective cytotoxic activity. Antp-TPR might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22913813

  8. Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic Agonist Peptides Induce Selective Death in Tumor Cells: Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.

    PubMed

    Denèfle, Thomas; Boullet, Héloise; Herbi, Linda; Newton, Clara; Martinez-Torres, Ana-Carolina; Guez, Alexandre; Pramil, Elodie; Quiney, Claire; Pourcelot, Marilyne; Levasseur, Mikail D; Lardé, Eva; Moumné, Roba; Ogi, François-Xavier; Grondin, Pascal; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Lequin, Olivier; Susin, Santos A; Karoyan, Philippe

    2016-09-22

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein considered as a key actor within the tumor microenvironment. Its binding to CD47, a cell surface receptor, triggers programmed cell death. Previous studies allowed the identification of 4N1K decapeptide derived from the TSP-1/CD47 binding epitope. Here, we demonstrate that this peptide is able to induce selective apoptosis of various cancer cell lines while sparing normal cells. A structure-activity relationship study led to the design of the first serum stable TSP-1 mimetic agonist peptide able to trigger selective programmed cell death (PCD) of at least lung, breast, and colorectal cancer cells. Altogether, these results will be of valuable interest for further investigation in the design of potent CD47 agonist peptides, opening new perspectives for the development of original anticancer therapies.

  9. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Russo, Andrew F; Hammond, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether mice with a deficiency of neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein, exhibit a nociceptive phenotype and probed a possible contribution by calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the absence of inflammation, Nf1+/- mice (B6.129S6 Nf1/J) and wild type littermates responded comparably to heat or mechanical stimuli, except for a subtle enhanced mechanical sensitivity in female Nf1+/- mice. Nociceptive phenotype was also examined after inflammation induced by capsaicin and formalin, which release endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin evoked comparable heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in Nf1+/- and wild type mice of both genders. Formalin injection caused a similar duration of licking in male Nf1+/- and wild type mice. Female Nf1+/- mice licked less than wild type mice, but displayed other nociceptive behaviors. In contrast, intraplantar injection of CGRP caused greater heat hyperalgesia in Nf1+/- mice of both genders compared to wild type mice. Male Nf1+/- mice also exhibited greater mechanical hypersensitivity; however, female Nf1+/- mice exhibited less mechanical hypersensitivity than their wild type littermates. Transcripts for calcitonin gene-related peptide were similar in the dorsal root ganglia of both genotypes and genders. Transcripts for receptor activity-modifying protein-1, which is rate-limiting for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, in the spinal cord were comparable for both genotypes and genders. The increased responsiveness to intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide suggests that the peripheral actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide are enhanced as a result of the neurofibromin deficit. The analgesic efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists may therefore merit investigation in neurofibromatosis patients.

  10. Heat Hyperalgesia and Mechanical Hypersensitivity Induced by Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in a Mouse Model of Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Russo, Andrew F.; Hammond, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether mice with a deficiency of neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein, exhibit a nociceptive phenotype and probed a possible contribution by calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the absence of inflammation, Nf1+/− mice (B6.129S6 Nf1/J) and wild type littermates responded comparably to heat or mechanical stimuli, except for a subtle enhanced mechanical sensitivity in female Nf1+/− mice. Nociceptive phenotype was also examined after inflammation induced by capsaicin and formalin, which release endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin evoked comparable heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in Nf1+/− and wild type mice of both genders. Formalin injection caused a similar duration of licking in male Nf1+/− and wild type mice. Female Nf1+/− mice licked less than wild type mice, but displayed other nociceptive behaviors. In contrast, intraplantar injection of CGRP caused greater heat hyperalgesia in Nf1+/− mice of both genders compared to wild type mice. Male Nf1+/− mice also exhibited greater mechanical hypersensitivity; however, female Nf1+/− mice exhibited less mechanical hypersensitivity than their wild type littermates. Transcripts for calcitonin gene-related peptide were similar in the dorsal root ganglia of both genotypes and genders. Transcripts for receptor activity-modifying protein-1, which is rate-limiting for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, in the spinal cord were comparable for both genotypes and genders. The increased responsiveness to intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide suggests that the peripheral actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide are enhanced as a result of the neurofibromin deficit. The analgesic efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists may therefore merit investigation in neurofibromatosis patients. PMID:25184332

  11. Mass spectrometric identification of formaldehyde-induced peptide modifications under in vivo protein cross-linking conditions.

    PubMed

    Toews, Judy; Rogalski, Jason C; Clark, Thomas J; Kast, Juergen

    2008-06-23

    Formaldehyde cross-linking of proteins is emerging as a novel approach to study protein-protein interactions in living cells. It has been shown to be compatible with standard techniques used in functional proteomics such as affinity-based protein enrichment, enzymatic digestion, and mass spectrometric protein identification. So far, the lack of knowledge on formaldehyde-induced protein modifications and suitable mass spectrometric methods for their targeted detection has impeded the identification of the different types of cross-linked peptides in these samples. In particular, it has remained unclear whether in vitro studies that identified a multitude of amino acid residues reacting with formaldehyde over the course of several days are suitable substitutes for the much shorter reaction times of 10-20 min used in cross-linking experiments in living cells. The current study on model peptides identifies amino-termini as well as lysine, tryptophan, and cysteine side chains, i.e. a small subset of those modified after several days, as the major reactive sites under such conditions, and suggests relative position in the peptide sequence as well as sequence microenvironment to be important factors that govern reactivity. Using MALDI-MS, mass increases of 12 Da on amino groups and 30 Da on cysteines were detected as the major reaction products, while peptide fragment ion analysis by tandem mass spectrometry was used to localize the actual modification sites on a peptide. Non-specific cross-linking was absent, and could only be detected with low yield at elevated peptide concentrations. The detailed knowledge on the constraints and products of the formaldehyde reaction with peptides after short incubation times presented in this study is expected to facilitate the targeted mass spectrometric analysis of proteins after in vivo formaldehyde cross-linking.

  12. A mucin-like peptide from Fasciola hepatica induces parasite-specific Th1-type cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; Berasaín, Patricia; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Mazal, Daniel; Carmona, Carlos; Freire, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is a major parasitic disease of livestock that causes significant economic losses worldwide. Although drugs are effective against liver flukes, they do not prevent reinfection, and continuous treatment is costly. Moreover, resistant fluke strains are emerging. In this context, vaccination is a good alternative since it provides a cost-effective long-term prevention strategy to control fasciolosis. In this paper, we evaluate the Fhmuc peptide as a potential vaccine against fasciolosis. This peptide derives from a mucin-like protein highly expressed in the infective stage of Fasciola hepatica. Mucin-like molecules expressed by parasites can contribute to several infection processes by protecting the parasite from host proteases and recognition by the immune system. We show that the Fhmuc peptide induces Th1-like immune responses specific for F. hepatica excretion-secretion products (FhESP) with a high production of IFNγ. We also investigated whether this peptide could protect animals from infection, and present preliminary data indicating that animals treated with Fhmuc exhibited reduced liver damage compared to non-immunised animals and that this protection was associated with a recruitment of B and T lymphocytes in the peritoneum, as well as eosinophils and mature dendritic cells. These results suggest that the mucin-like peptide Fhmuc could constitute a potential vaccine candidate against fasciolosis and pave the way towards the development of vaccines against parasites.

  13. Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Inside Disulfide C-Terminal Loops of Natural Non-Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Y.; Vorontsov, Egor A.; Gorshkov, Vladimir A.; Artemenko, Konstantin A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Ytterberg, Jimmy A.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  14. Substrate-induced protein stabilization reveals a predominant contribution from mature protein to peptides presented on MHC class I

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Jeff D.; Farfán-Arribas, Diego J.; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the MHC class I-presented peptides are thought to be primarily from newly synthesized but defective proteins, termed DRiPs. Most of the data supporting this concept come from studies where inhibitors of protein synthesis were found to rapidly block antigen presentation even when cells contained a pool of mature protein. However, these data only indirectly address the origin of presented peptides and in most studies the contribution of mature functional protein to the class I peptide pool has not been directly quantified. In this report we address the efficiency and contribution of mature protein by using a tetracycline-inducible system to express antigen that is conditionally stabilized upon ligand binding. This system circumvents the use of general inhibitors of protein synthesis to control antigen expression. Moreover, by controlling antigen stabilization, we could investigate whether the degradation of mature antigen contributed to antigen presentation at early and/or late time points. We show that mature protein is the major contributor of peptides presented on class I for two distinct antigenic constructs. Furthermore our data show that the protein synthesis inhibitors used previously to test the contribution of defective proteins actually block antigen presentation in ways that are independent from blocking antigen synthesis. These data suggest that for the constructs we have analyzed, mature functional protein rather than DRiPs are the predominant source of MHC class I presented-peptides PMID:24174619

  15. Collision-induced dissociation fragmentation inside disulfide C-terminal loops of natural non-tryptic peptides.

    PubMed

    Samgina, Tatiana Y; Vorontsov, Egor A; Gorshkov, Vladimir A; Artemenko, Konstantin A; Zubarev, Roman A; Ytterberg, Jimmy A; Lebedev, Albert T

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  16. Detection and characterization of methionine oxidation in peptides by collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ziqiang; Yates, Nathan A; Bakhtiar, Ray

    2003-06-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID), the two complementary fragmentation techniques, are demonstrated to be effective in the detection and localization of the methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)] residues in peptides using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. The presence of Met(O) can be easily recognized in the low-energy CID spectrum showing the characteristic loss of methanesulfenic acid (CH(3)SOH, 64 Da) from the side chain of Met(O). The position of Met(O) can then be localized by ECD which is capable of providing extensive peptide backbone fragmentation without detaching the labile Met(O) side chain. We studied CID and ECD of several Met(O)-containing peptides that included the 44-residue human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and the human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). The distinction and complementarity of the two fragmentation techniques were particularly remarkable in their effects on ANP, a disulfide bond-containing peptide. While the predominant fragmentation pathway in CID of ANP was the loss of CH(3)SOH (64 Da) from the molecular ion, ECD of ANP resulted in many sequence-informative products, including those from cleavages within the disulfide-bonded cyclic structure, to allow for the direct localization of Met(O) without the typical procedures for disulfide bond reduction followed by [bond]SH alkylation.

  17. Improving fragmentation of poorly fragmenting peptides and phosphopeptides during collision-induced dissociation by malondialdehyde modification of arginine residues.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander; Foettinger, Alexandra; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant technological and methodological advancements in peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, analyzing peptides that exhibit only poor fragmentation upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) remains a challenge. A major cause for unfavorable fragmentation is insufficient proton 'mobility' due to charge localization at strongly basic sites, in particular, the guanidine group of arginine. We have recently demonstrated that the conversion of the guanidine group of the arginine side chain by malondialdehyde (MDA) is a convenient tool to reduce the basicity of arginine residues and can have beneficial effects for peptide fragmentation. In the present work, we have focused on peptides that typically yield incomplete sequence information in CID-MS/MS experiments. Energy-resolved tandem MS experiments were carried out on angiotensins and arginine-containing phosphopeptides to study in detail the influence of the modification step on the fragmentation process. MDA modification dramatically improved the fragmentation behavior of peptides that exhibited only one or two dominant cleavages in their unmodified form. Neutral loss of phosphoric acid from phosphopeptides carrying phosphoserine and threonine residues was significantly reduced in favor of a higher abundance of fragment ions. Complementary experiments were carried out on three different instrumental platforms (triple-quadrupole, 3D ion trap, quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid) to ascertain that the observation is a general effect.

  18. Reversible liposome association induced by LAH4: a peptide with potent antimicrobial and nucleic acid transfection activities.

    PubMed

    Marquette, Arnaud; Lorber, Bernard; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2010-06-02

    We report on the reversible association of anionic liposomes induced by an antimicrobial peptide (LAH4). The process has been characterized for mixed membranes of POPC and POPS at molar ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 9:1. Although the vesicles remain in suspension in the presence of excess amounts of peptide, the addition of more lipids results in surface charge neutralization, aggregation of the liposomes, and formation of micrometer-sized structures that coexist in equilibrium with vesicles in suspension. At low ratios of anionic lipids, vesicle aggregation is a reversible process, and vesicle disassembly is observed upon inversion of the surface charge by further supplementation with anionic vesicles. In contrast, a different process, membrane fusion, occurs in the presence of high phosphatidylserine concentrations. Upon binding to membranes containing low POPS concentrations, the peptide adopts an in-plane alpha-helical structure, a secondary structure that is conserved during vesicle association and dissociation. Our finding that peptides are essential for vesicle aggregation contributes to a better understanding of the activity of antimicrobial peptides, and suggests an additional layer of complexity in membrane-protein lipid interactions.

  19. Reversible Liposome Association Induced by LAH4: A Peptide with Potent Antimicrobial and Nucleic Acid Transfection Activities

    PubMed Central

    Marquette, Arnaud; Lorber, Bernard; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We report on the reversible association of anionic liposomes induced by an antimicrobial peptide (LAH4). The process has been characterized for mixed membranes of POPC and POPS at molar ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 9:1. Although the vesicles remain in suspension in the presence of excess amounts of peptide, the addition of more lipids results in surface charge neutralization, aggregation of the liposomes, and formation of micrometer-sized structures that coexist in equilibrium with vesicles in suspension. At low ratios of anionic lipids, vesicle aggregation is a reversible process, and vesicle disassembly is observed upon inversion of the surface charge by further supplementation with anionic vesicles. In contrast, a different process, membrane fusion, occurs in the presence of high phosphatidylserine concentrations. Upon binding to membranes containing low POPS concentrations, the peptide adopts an in-plane α-helical structure, a secondary structure that is conserved during vesicle association and dissociation. Our finding that peptides are essential for vesicle aggregation contributes to a better understanding of the activity of antimicrobial peptides, and suggests an additional layer of complexity in membrane-protein lipid interactions. PMID:20513398

  20. Prophenoloxidase activation and antimicrobial peptide expression induced by the recombinant microbe binding protein of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2017-04-01

    Manduca sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) is a member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily that includes Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs), β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs), and β-1,3-glucanases. Our previous and current studies showed that the purified MBP from baculovirus-infected insect cells had stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation in the hemolymph of naïve and immune challenged larvae and that supplementation of the exogenous MBP and peptidoglycans (PGs) had caused synergistic increases in PO activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, we separated by SDS-PAGE naïve and induced larval plasma treated with buffer or MBP and detected on immunoblots changes in intensity and/or mobility of hemolymph (serine) proteases [HP14, HP21, HP6, HP8, proPO-activating proteases (PAPs) 1-3] and their homologs (SPH1, SPH2). In a nickel pull-down assay, we observed association of MBP with proHP14 (slightly), βGRP2, PG recognition protein-1 (PGRP1, indirectly), SPH1, SPH2, and proPO2. Further experiments indicated that diaminopimelic acid (DAP) or Lys PG, MBP, PGRP1, and proHP14 together trigger the proPO activation system in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Injection of the recombinant MBP into the 5th instar naïve larvae significantly induced the expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes, revealing a possible link between HP14 and immune signal transduction. Together, these results suggest that the recognition of Gram-negative or -positive bacteria via their PGs induces the melanization and Toll pathways in M. sexta.

  1. Design and implementation of a high yield production system for recombinant expression of peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Making peptide pharmaceuticals involves challenging processes where many barriers, which include production and manufacture, need to be overcome. A non common but interesting research area is related to peptides with intracellular targets, which opens up new possibilities, allowing the modulation of processes occurring within the cell or interference with signaling pathways. However, if the bioactive sequence requires fusion to a carrier peptide to allow access into the cell, the resulting peptide could be such a length that traditional production could be difficult. The goal of the present study was the development of a flexible recombinant expression and purification system for peptides, as a contribution to the discovery and development of these potentially new drugs. Results In this work, a high throughput recombinant expression and purification system for production of cell penetrating peptides in Escherichia coli has been designed and implemented. The system designed produces target peptides in an insoluble form by fusion to a hexahistidine tagged ketosteroid isomerase which is then separated by a highly efficient thrombin cleavage reaction procedure. The expression system was tested on the anticancer peptides p53pAnt and PNC27. These peptides comprise the C-terminal region and the N-terminal region of the protein p53, respectively, fused by its carboxyl terminal extreme to the cell penetrating peptide Penetratin. High yields of purified recombinant fused peptides were obtained in both cases; nevertheless, thrombin cleavage reaction was successful only for p53pAnt peptide release. The features of the system, together with the procedure developed, allow achievement of high production yields of over 30 mg of highly pure p53pAnt peptide per g of dry cell mass. It is proposed that the system could be used for production of other peptides at a similar yield. Conclusions This study provides a system suitable for recombinant production of peptides for

  2. Prostate-related antigen-derived new peptides having the capacity of inducing prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mamoru; Matsueda, Satoko; Yao, Akihisa; Ogata, Rika; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo

    2004-09-01

    Prostate-related antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), can be targets in specific immunotherapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to newly identify epitope peptides from these 2 antigens, which are immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2+ prostate cancer patients. Twenty-nine peptides (PSMA with 15 and PAP with 14) were prepared based on the HLA-A2 binding motif. Based on our previous finding that antigenic peptides recognized by both cellular and humoral immune systems are useful for peptide-based immunotherapy, peptide candidates were screened first by their ability to be recognized by immunoglobulin G (IgG), and then by their ability to induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). As a result, PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides were found to be frequently recognized by IgG in plasma from prostate cancer patients. These 2 candidates effectively induced HLA-A2-restricted and prostate cancer-reactive CTLs in HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients with several HLA-A2 subtypes. In addition, their cytotoxicity was mainly dependent on peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that these PSMA441-450 and PAP112-120 peptides could be promising candidates for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A2(+) prostate cancer.

  3. Short Peptide Vaccine Induces CD4+ T Helper Cells in Patients with Different Solid Cancers.

    PubMed

    Gross, Stefanie; Lennerz, Volker; Gallerani, Elisa; Mach, Nicolas; Böhm, Steffen; Hess, Dagmar; von Boehmer, Lotta; Knuth, Alexander; Ochsenbein, Adrian; Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike; Forssmann, Ulf; Woelfel, Thomas; Kaempgen, Eckhart

    2016-01-01

    Previous cancer vaccination trials often aimed to activate CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses with short (8-10mer) peptides and targeted CD4(+) helper T cells (TH) with HLA class II-binding longer peptides (12-16 mer) that were derived from tumor antigens. Accordingly, a study of immunomonitoring focused on the detection of CTL responses to the short, and TH responses to the long, peptides. The possible induction of concurrent TH responses to short peptides was widely neglected. In a recent phase I vaccination trial, 53 patients with different solid cancers were vaccinated with EMD640744, a cocktail of five survivin-derived short (9- or 10-mer) peptides in Montanide ISA 51VG. We monitored 49 patients and found strong CD8(+) T-cell responses in 63% of the patients. In addition, we unexpectedly found CD4(+) TH cell responses against at least two of the five short peptides in 61% (23/38) of the patients analyzed. The two peptides were recognized by HLA-DP4- and HLA-DR-restricted TH1 cells. Some short peptide-reactive (sp)CD4 T cells showed high functional avidity. Here, we show that a short peptide vaccine is able to activate a specific CD4(+) T-cell repertoire in many patients, facilitating a strong combined CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell response.

  4. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  5. Effect of structural parameters on the electron capture dissociation and collision-induced dissociation pathways of copper(II)-peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangfeng; Wang, Ze; Li, Wan; Wong, Y L Elaine; Chan, T-W Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase dissociation pathways of proteins/peptides are usually affected by the nature of the charge carrier and the sequence of amino acid residues. The effects of peptide structural parameters, including peptide composition, chain length and amide hydrogen, on the gas-phase dissociation of Cu(II)-model peptide complexes were explored in this study. Polyglycine peptides with flexible frames were used as probes to reduce the complexity of the system and illustrate the mechanism. Results revealed that the types of fragment ions generated in the electron capture dissociation (ECD) of Cu(II)-adducted peptides changed according to the basic amino acid residue composition. Charged or neutral tryptophan side-chain losses were observed in the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of Cu(II)-peptide complexes. Internal electron transfer between tryptophan and metal ion within the complex occurred during the CID reaction, leaving the charge-reduced Cu(+) as a closed d-shell stable electron configuration. The choice of the reaction channel was then determined by the gas-phase basicity of the peptide. Amide hydrogen was critical in the formation of metalated b-/y-ions in the ECD process as determined through mutation of the backbone amide group. Increasing the chain length suppressed the ECD of Cu-metalated peptide species. Our results indicate that the structural parameters of peptides play important roles in the gas-phase dissociation processes of Cu-peptide complexes.

  6. Involvement of endogenous opioid peptides in the antinociception induced by the novel dermorphin tetrapeptide analog amidino-TAPA.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Chizuko; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Kaori; Sato, Bunsei; Ohwada, Keiko; Yonezawa, Akihiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2007-04-10

    The antinociceptive effect of i.t. administered N(alpha)-amidino-Tyr-d-Arg-Phe-beta-Ala (amidino-TAPA), an N-terminal tetrapeptide analog of dermorphin, was characterized in ddY mice. In the opioid receptor ligand-binding assays using mouse brain membranes, amidino-TAPA showed a very high affinity for mu-opioid receptors, a low affinity to delta-opioid receptors and no affinity for kappa-opioid receptors. In the mouse tail-flick test, i.t. treatment with amidino-TAPA produced a potent antinociception. The antinociception induced by amidino-TAPA was significantly attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. Moreover, the antinociception induced by amidino-TAPA was significantly attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with antisera against the endogenous kappa-opioid peptides dynorphin A, dynorphin B and alpha-neo-endorphin; and the endogenous delta-opioid peptide [Leu(5)]enkephalin. In mice lacking prodynorphin, the precursor of the endogenous kappa-opioid peptides, the antinociceptive effect of amidino-TAPA was significantly attenuated compared to that in wild-type C57BL/6J mice. However, there was no difference in G-protein activation by amidino-TAPA in the spinal cord membranes from prodynorphin knockout mice and C57BL/6J mice. The present results suggest that the spinal antinociception induced by the mu-opioid receptor selective peptide amidino-TAPA is mediated in part by the release of endogenous opioid peptides in the spinal cord, which is caused by the direct stimulation of mu-opioid receptors.

  7. Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Barberá, Gonzalo G; Albalat, Amaya; García-Alonso, Javier; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Periago, María Jesús

    2016-10-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene-which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. Urine samples, collected weekly for four weeks, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was carried out to explore the association between differential peptides and treatments. Among the 888 peptides initially identified, a total of 55 were obtained as potential biomarkers. Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. Accordingly, tomato products could be considered as a dietary strategy for the impairment of NAFLD, although further research should be carried out to develop a specific biomarkers panel for NAFLD.

  8. Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Albalat, Amaya; García-Alonso, Javier; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Periago, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene—which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. Urine samples, collected weekly for four weeks, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was carried out to explore the association between differential peptides and treatments. Among the 888 peptides initially identified, a total of 55 were obtained as potential biomarkers. Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. Accordingly, tomato products could be considered as a dietary strategy for the impairment of NAFLD, although further research should be carried out to develop a specific biomarkers panel for NAFLD. PMID:27792191

  9. A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Masatoshi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Ohno, Kaoru; Shibata, Yasushi; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Pitchayawasin, Suthasinee; Isobe, Minoru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence. The purified GSS was a heterodimer composed of 2 different peptides, A and B chains, with disulfide cross-linkages. Based on its cysteine motif, starfish GSS was classified as a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/relaxin superfamily. The cDNA of GSS encodes a preprohormone sequence with a C peptide between the A and B chains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that starfish GSS was a relaxin-like peptide. Chemically synthesized GSS induced not only oocyte maturation and ovulation in isolated ovarian fragments, but also unique spawning behavior, followed by release of gametes shortly after the injection. Importantly, the action of the synthetic GSS on oocyte maturation and ovulation was mediated through the production of cAMP by isolated ovarian follicle cells, thereby producing the maturation-inducing hormone of this species, 1-methyladenine. In situ hybridization showed the transcription of GSS to occur in the periphery of radial nerves at the side of tube feet. Together, the structure, sequence, and mode of signal transduction strongly suggest that GSS is closely related to the vertebrate relaxin. PMID:19470645

  10. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Results KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. Conclusions The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion. PMID:24330857

  11. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Arangassery Rosemary; Contarino, Mark; Bailey, Lauren D; Aneja, Rachna; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Freedman, Kevin; McFadden, Karyn; Duffy, Caitlin; Emileh, Ali; Leslie, George; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Hoxie, James A; Chaiken, Irwin

    2013-12-13

    We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion.

  12. Experimental myositis inducible with transfer of dendritic cells presenting a skeletal muscle C protein-derived CD8 epitope peptide.

    PubMed

    Okiyama, Naoko; Hasegawa, Hisanori; Oida, Takatoku; Hirata, Shinya; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Fujimoto, Manabu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that polymyositis, an autoimmune inflammatory myopathy, is mediated by autoaggressive CD8 T cells. Skeletal muscle C protein is a self-antigen that induces C protein-induced myositis, a murine model of polymyositis. To establish a new murine model of myositis inducible with a single CD8 T-cell epitope peptide that derives from the C protein, three internet-based prediction systems were employed to identify 24 candidate peptides of the immunogenic fragment of the C protein and bind theoretically to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules of C57BL/6 (B6) mice. RMA-S cell assay revealed that a HILIYSDV peptide, amino acid position 399-406 of the C protein, had the highest affinity to the H2-K(b) molecules. Transfer of mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with HILIYSDV induced myositis in naive B6 mice. This myositis was suppressed by anti-CD8-depleting antibodies but not by anti-CD4-depleting antibodies. Because this myositis model is mediated by CD8 T cells independently of CD4 T cells, it should be a useful tool to investigate pathology of polymyositis and develop therapies targeting CD8 T cells. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  14. RGDC Peptide-Induced Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Lina; Fan, Lingying; Xiao, Wenjun; Lin, Bingpeng; Xu, Yimeng; Liang, Jun; Cao, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys as biodegradable metal implants have received a lot of interest in biomedical applications. However, magnesium alloys have extremely high corrosion rates a in physiological environment, which have limited their application in the orthopedic field. In this study, calcium phosphate compounds (Ca–P) coating was prepared by arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–cysteine (RGDC) peptide-induced mineralization in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloys. The adhesion of Ca–P coating to the AZ31 substrates was evaluated by a scratch test. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of the Ca–P coating were investigated. The results showed that the RGDC could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of the Ca–P coating and the Ca–P coating had poor adhesion to the AZ31 substrates. The corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the biomimetic Ca–P coating Mg alloys were greatly improved compared with that of the uncoated sample. PMID:28772717

  15. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cold-induced diuresis (CID)

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, J.W.; Freund, B.J.; DuBose, D.A.; McKay, J.M.; Hashiro, G.M. Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-11

    The hormonal control of cold-induced diuresis (CID) remains unresolved. This study investigated the role of ANP, plasma vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone (ALDO) on CID. Four semi-nude men participated in a 210 min exposure to 15C and 29C air, on separate days. These subjects drank 300 mL of water and had an intravenous saline drip throughout both exposures to replace blood and insensible fluid losses. CID was observed in 15C but not in the 29C experiment, as indicated by a greater urine output. In 15C, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased after 90 min by 41% and remained elevated for 2 h relative to 29C. No differences were observed in AVP between 15C and 29C. In the 15C versus the 29C experiment, ALDO was approximately 37% lower at the pre, 15 and 90 min time periods. Mean arterial blood pressure was generally greater but only significant at 60 min during the 15C versus the 29C experiment. Urinary NA{sup +} excretion was elevated in 15C relative to 29C while no difference in K{sup +} excretion was observed. Although pressure effects may contribute, the observed natriuresis in the absence of a kaliuresis in the cold suggests a physiological role of ANP in CID.

  17. Mitochondrial Cholesterol Loading Exacerbates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Induced Inflammation and Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Anna; Llacuna, Laura; Fernández-Checa, José C.; Colell., Anna

    2009-01-01

    The role of cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the generation of toxic amyloid β peptides (Aβ). Using genetic mouse models of cholesterol loading, we examined whether mitochondrial cholesterol regulates Aβ neurotoxicity and AD pathology. Isolated mitochondria from brain or cortical neurons of transgenic mice overexpressing SREBP-2 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 2) or NPC1 (Niemann-Pick type C1) knockout mice exhibited mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation, mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion and increased susceptibility to Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and release of apoptogenic proteins. Similar findings were observed in pharmacologically GSH-restricted rat brain mitochondria, while selective mGSH depletion sensitized human neuronal and glial cell lines to Aβ1-42-mediated cell death. Intracerebroventricular human Aβ delivery co-localized with mitochondria resulting in oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that were enhanced in Tg-SREBP-2 mice and prevented upon mGSH recovery by GSH ethyl ester co-infusion, with a similar protection observed by i.p. administration of GSH ethyl ester. Finally, APP/PS1 mice, a transgenic AD mouse model, exhibited mitochondrial cholesterol loading and mGSH depletion. Thus, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation emerges as a novel pathogenic factor in AD by modulating Aβ toxicity via mGSH regulation; strategies boosting the particular pool of mGSH may be of relevance to slow down disease progression. PMID:19458211

  18. Synthetic multi-epitope peptides identified in silico induce protective immunity against multiple influenza serotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoloff, Gregory A; Caparros-Wanderley, Wilson

    2007-09-01

    Influenza causes yearly epidemics of mild disease and, occasionally, pandemics with millions of fatalities. Currently, no vaccine is effective against all influenza strains. Analysis of influenza sequences from animal and human isolates using CLUSTALW and a novel proprietary epitope prediction algorithm identified six conserved T cell-reactive regions in several proteins. Immunisation of transgenic mice with a preparation of these six regions as chemically synthesised peptides (FLU-v) induced a specific HLA-A*0201-mediated CD8(+) T cell response. This T cell population also reacted against human cells infected with three non-related influenza strains, confirming that the identified regions contain epitopes naturally presented by infected human cells and conserved amongst non-related viruses. Moreover, FLU-v immunisation significantly increased survival of transgenic mice against lethal challenge with influenza. Overall, FLU-v represents a promising influenza vaccine candidate, obviating the need for yearly vaccinations and allowing the stockpiling and initiation of a worldwide vaccination program in advance of a pandemic outbreak.

  19. Extracellular DNA-induced antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lewenza, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is in the environment, bodily fluids, in the matrix of biofilms, and accumulates at infection sites. eDNA can function as a nutrient source, a universal biofilm matrix component, and an innate immune effector in eDNA traps. In biofilms, eDNA is required for attachment, aggregation, and stabilization of microcolonies. We have recently shown that eDNA can sequester divalent metal cations, which has interesting implications on antibiotic resistance. eDNA binds metal cations and thus activates the Mg(2+)-responsive PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component systems. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and many other Gram-negative bacteria, the PhoPQ/PmrAB systems control various genes required for virulence and resisting killing by antimicrobial peptides (APs), including the pmr genes (PA3552-PA3559) that are responsible for the addition of aminoarabinose to lipid A. The PA4773-PA4775 genes are a second DNA-induced cluster and are required for the production of spermidine on the outer surface, which protects the outer membrane from AP treatment. Both modifications mask the negative surface charges and limit membrane damage by APs. DNA-enriched biofilms or planktonic cultures have increased antibiotic resistance phenotypes to APs and aminoglycosides. These dual antibiotic resistance and immune evasion strategies may be expressed in DNA-rich environments and contribute to long-term survival.

  20. Internal energy distribution of peptides in electrospray ionization : ESI and collision-induced dissociation spectra calculation.

    PubMed

    Pak, Alireza; Lesage, Denis; Gimbert, Yves; Vékey, Károly; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-01

    The internal energy of ions and the timescale play fundamental roles in mass spectrometry. The main objective of this study is to estimate and compare the internal energy distributions of different ions (different nature, degree of freedom 'DOF' and fragmentations) produced in an electrospray source (ESI) of a triple-quadrupole instrument (Quattro I Micromass). These measurements were performed using both the Survival Yield method (as proposed by De Pauw) and the MassKinetics software (kinetic model introduced by Vékey). The internal energy calibration is the preliminary step for ESI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra calculation. meta-Methyl-benzylpyridinium ion and four protonated peptides (YGGFL, LDIFSDF, LDIFSDFR and RLDIFSDF) were produced using an electrospray source. These ions were used as thermometer probe compounds. Cone voltages (V(c)) were linearly correlated with the mean internal energy values () carried by desolvated ions. These mean internal energy values seem to be slightly dependent on the size of the studied ion. ESI mass spectra and CID spectra were then simulated using the MassKinetics software to propose an empirical equation for the mean internal energy () versus cone voltage (V(c)) for different source temperatures (T): < E(int) > = [405 x 10(-6) - 480 x 10(-9) (DOF)] V(c)T + E(therm)(T). In this equation, the E(therm)(T) parameter is the mean internal energy due to the source temperature at 0 V(c).

  1. A peptide vaccine targeting angiotensin II attenuates the cardiac dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ryo; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Wakayama, Kouji; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Shimamura, Munehisa; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Morishita, Ryuichi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    A peptide vaccine targeting angiotensin II (Ang II) was recently developed as a novel treatment for hypertension to resolve the problem of noncompliance with pharmacotherapy. Ang II plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI), which causes heart failure. In the present study, we examined whether the Ang II vaccine is effective in preventing heart failure. The injection of the Ang II vaccine in a rat model of MI attenuated cardiac dysfunction in association with an elevation in the serum anti-Ang II antibody titer. Furthermore, any detrimental effects of the Ang II vaccine were not observed in the rats that underwent sham operations. Treatment with immunized serum from Ang II vaccine-injected rats significantly suppressed post-MI cardiac dysfunction in MI rats and Ang II-induced remodeling-associated signaling in cardiac fibroblasts. Thus, our present study demonstrates that the Ang II vaccine may provide a promising novel therapeutic strategy for preventing heart failure. PMID:28266578

  2. Carbohydrate-induced secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Seino, Yusuke; Maekawa, Ryuya; Ogata, Hidetada; Hayashi, Yoshitaka

    2016-04-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the incretin hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K-cells and L-cells, respectively, by oral ingestion of various nutrients including glucose. K-cells, L-cells and pancreatic β-cells are glucose-responsive cells with similar glucose-sensing machinery including glucokinase and an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel comprising KIR6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1. However, the physiological role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP secretion in K-cells and GLP-1 secretion in L-cells is not elucidated. Recently, it was reported that GIP and GLP-1-producing cells are present also in pancreatic islets, and islet-derived GIP and GLP-1 contribute to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. In this short review, we focus on GIP and GLP-1 secretion by monosaccharides, such as glucose or fructose, and the role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP and GLP-1 secretion.

  3. Development of a peptide conjugate vaccine for inducing therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Licari, Amelia; Castagnoli, Riccardo; De Sando, Elisabetta; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2017-04-01

    Given the multifaceted effector functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity, late-phase reactions, regulation of IgE receptor expression and immune modulation, IgE antibodies have long represented an attractive target for therapeutic agents in asthma and other allergic diseases. Effective pharmacologic blockade of the binding of IgE to its receptors has become one of most innovative therapeutic strategies in the field of allergic diseases in the last 10 years. Areas covered: The latest strategies targeting IgE include the development of a therapeutic vaccine, able to trigger our own immune systems to produce therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies, potentially providing a further step forward in the treatment of allergic diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the discovery strategy, preclinical and early clinical development of a peptide conjugate vaccine for inducing therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies. Expert opinion: Outside the area of development of humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, the research field of therapeutic IgE-targeted vaccines holds potential benefits for the treatment of allergic diseases. However, most of the experimental observations in animal models have not yet been translated into new treatments and evidence of human efficacy and safety of this new therapeutic strategy are still lacking.

  4. Pimecrolimus Enhances TLR2/6-Induced Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Büchau, Amanda S.; Schauber, Jürgen; Hultsch, Thomas; Stuetz, Anton; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors are potent inhibitors of T-cell-receptor mediated activation of the adaptive immune system. The effects of this class of drug on the innate immune response system are not known. Keratinocytes are essential to innate immunity in skin and rely on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides to appropriately recognize and respond to injury or microbes. In this study we examined the response of cultured human keratinocytes to pimecrolimus. We observed that pimecrolimus enhances distinct expression of cathelicidin, CD14, and human β-defensin-2 and β-defensin-3 in response to TLR2/6 ligands. Some of these responses were further enhanced by 1,25 vitamin D3. Pimecrolimus also increased the functional capacity of keratinocytes to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureusand decreased TLR2/6-induced expression of IL-10 and IL-1β. Furthermore, pimecrolimus inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT and NF-κB in keratinocytes. These observations uncover a previously unreported function for pimecrolimus in cutaneous innate host defense. PMID:18496569

  5. Melittin peptide kills Trypanosoma cruzi parasites by inducing different cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Adade, Camila M; Oliveira, Isabelle R S; Pais, Joana A R; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are components of the innate immune response that represent desirable alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals, as they have a fast mode of action, a low likelihood of resistance development and can act in conjunction with existing drug regimens. AMPs exhibit strong inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, metazoans and other parasites, such as the protozoan Leishmania. Melittin is a naturally occurring AMP, which comprises 40-50% of the dry weight of Apis mellifera venom. Our group has recently shown that crude A. mellifera venom is lethal to Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease etiologic agent, and generates a variety of cell death phenotypes among treated parasites. Here, we demonstrate that the melittin affected all of T. cruzi developmental forms, including the intracellular amastigotes. The ultrastructural changes induced by melittin suggested the occurrence of different programmed cell death pathways, as was observed in A. mellifera-treated parasites. Autophagic cell death appeared to be the main death mechanism in epimastigotes. In contrast, melittin-treated trypomastigotes appeared to be dying via an apoptotic mechanism. Our findings confirm the great potential of AMPs, including melittin, as a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Septal Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Expression Determines Suppression of Cocaine-Induced Behavior.

    PubMed

    Harasta, Anne E; Power, John M; von Jonquieres, Georg; Karl, Tim; Drucker, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D; Schneider, Miriam; Klugmann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its receptor GLP-1R are a key component of the satiety signaling system, and long-acting GLP-1 analogs have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Previous reports demonstrate that GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis alongside the rewarding effects of food. Both palatable food and illicit drugs activate brain reward circuitries, and pharmacological studies suggest that central nervous system GLP-1 signaling holds potential for the treatment of addiction. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1 in the attenuation of reward-oriented behavior, and the essential domains of the mesolimbic system mediating these beneficial effects, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the central regions of highest Glp-1r gene activity are essential in mediating responses to drugs of abuse. Here, we show that Glp-1r-deficient (Glp-1r(-/-)) mice have greatly augmented cocaine-induced locomotor responses and enhanced conditional place preference compared with wild-type (Glp-1r(+/+)) controls. Employing mRNA in situ hybridization we located peak Glp-1r mRNA expression in GABAergic neurons of the dorsal lateral septum, an anatomical site with a crucial function in reward perception. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of dorsal lateral septum neurons revealed that genetic Glp-1r ablation leads to increased excitability of these cells. Viral vector-mediated Glp-1r gene delivery to the dorsal lateral septum of Glp-1r(-/-) animals reduced cocaine-induced locomotion and conditional place preference to wild-type levels. This site-specific genetic complementation did not affect the anxiogenic phenotype observed in Glp-1r(-/-) controls. These data reveal a novel role of GLP-1R in dorsal lateral septum function driving behavioral responses to cocaine.

  7. Septal Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Expression Determines Suppression of Cocaine-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harasta, Anne E; Power, John M; von Jonquieres, Georg; Karl, Tim; Drucker, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D; Schneider, Miriam; Klugmann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its receptor GLP-1R are a key component of the satiety signaling system, and long-acting GLP-1 analogs have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Previous reports demonstrate that GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis alongside the rewarding effects of food. Both palatable food and illicit drugs activate brain reward circuitries, and pharmacological studies suggest that central nervous system GLP-1 signaling holds potential for the treatment of addiction. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1 in the attenuation of reward-oriented behavior, and the essential domains of the mesolimbic system mediating these beneficial effects, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the central regions of highest Glp-1r gene activity are essential in mediating responses to drugs of abuse. Here, we show that Glp-1r-deficient (Glp-1r−/−) mice have greatly augmented cocaine-induced locomotor responses and enhanced conditional place preference compared with wild-type (Glp-1r+/+) controls. Employing mRNA in situ hybridization we located peak Glp-1r mRNA expression in GABAergic neurons of the dorsal lateral septum, an anatomical site with a crucial function in reward perception. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of dorsal lateral septum neurons revealed that genetic Glp-1r ablation leads to increased excitability of these cells. Viral vector-mediated Glp-1r gene delivery to the dorsal lateral septum of Glp-1r−/− animals reduced cocaine-induced locomotion and conditional place preference to wild-type levels. This site-specific genetic complementation did not affect the anxiogenic phenotype observed in Glp-1r−/− controls. These data reveal a novel role of GLP-1R in dorsal lateral septum function driving behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:25669605

  8. Antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L induce formation of tubular lipid protrusions from supported phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Domanov, Yegor A; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2006-12-15

    The binding of the antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L to supported lipid bilayer (SLB) model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (4:1, mol/mol) caused the formation of fibrillar protrusions, visible by fluorescent microscopy of both a fluorescent lipid analog and a labeled peptide. Multicolor imaging at low peptide-to-lipid ratios (P/L < approximately 1:5) revealed an initial in-plane segregation of membrane-bound peptide and partial exclusion of lipid from the peptide-enriched areas. Subsequently, at higher P/L numerous flexible lipid fibrils were seen growing from the areas enriched in lipid. The fibrils have diameters <250 nm and lengths of up to approximately 1 mm. Fibril formation reduces the in-plane heterogeneity and results in a relatively even redistribution of bound peptide over the planar bilayer and the fibrils. Physical properties of the lipid fibrils suggest that they have a tubular structure. Our data demonstrate that the peptide-lipid interactions alone can provide a driving force for the spontaneous membrane shape transformations leading to tubule outgrowth and elongation. Further experiments revealed the importance of positive curvature strain in the tubulation process as well as the sufficient positive charge on the peptide (>/=+2). The observed membrane transformations could provide a simplified in vitro model for morphogenesis of intracellular tubular structures and intercellular connections.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides Temporins B and L Induce Formation of Tubular Lipid Protrusions from Supported Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Domanov, Yegor A.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The binding of the antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L to supported lipid bilayer (SLB) model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (4:1, mol/mol) caused the formation of fibrillar protrusions, visible by fluorescent microscopy of both a fluorescent lipid analog and a labeled peptide. Multicolor imaging at low peptide-to-lipid ratios (P/L < ∼1:5) revealed an initial in-plane segregation of membrane-bound peptide and partial exclusion of lipid from the peptide-enriched areas. Subsequently, at higher P/L numerous flexible lipid fibrils were seen growing from the areas enriched in lipid. The fibrils have diameters <250 nm and lengths of up to ∼1 mm. Fibril formation reduces the in-plane heterogeneity and results in a relatively even redistribution of bound peptide over the planar bilayer and the fibrils. Physical properties of the lipid fibrils suggest that they have a tubular structure. Our data demonstrate that the peptide-lipid interactions alone can provide a driving force for the spontaneous membrane shape transformations leading to tubule outgrowth and elongation. Further experiments revealed the importance of positive curvature strain in the tubulation process as well as the sufficient positive charge on the peptide (≥+2). The observed membrane transformations could provide a simplified in vitro model for morphogenesis of intracellular tubular structures and intercellular connections. PMID:16997872

  10. Plant CLE peptides from two distinct functional classes synergistically induce division of vascular cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitford, Ryan; Fernandez, Ana; De Groodt, Ruth; Ortega, Esther; Hilson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The Clavata3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region (CLE) signaling peptides are encoded in large plant gene families. CLV3 and the other A-type CLE peptides promote cell differentiation in root and shoot apical meristems, whereas the B-type peptides (CLE41–CLE44) do not. Instead, CLE41 inhibits the differentiation of Zinnia elegans tracheary elements. To test whether CLE genes might code for antagonistic or synergistic functions, peptides from both types were combined through overexpression within or application onto Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The CLE41 peptide (CLE41p) promoted proliferation of vascular cells, although delaying differentiation into phloem and xylem cell lineages. Application of CLE41p or overexpression of CLE41 did not suppress the terminal differentiation of the root and shoot apices triggered by A-type CLE peptides. However, in combination, A-type peptides enhanced all of the phenotypes associated with CLE41 gain-of-function, leading to massive proliferation of vascular cells. This proliferation relied on auxin signaling because it was enhanced by exogenous application of a synthetic auxin, decreased by an auxin polar transport inhibitor, and abolished by a mutation in the Monopteros auxin response factor. These findings highlight that vascular patterning is a process controlled in time and space by different CLE peptides in conjunction with hormonal signaling. PMID:19011104

  11. Peptide YY ameliorates cerulein-induced pancreatic injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tito, J M; Rudnicki, M; Jones, D H; Alpern, H D; Gold, M S

    1993-06-01

    Peptide YY (PYY), a known inhibitor of both pancreatic secretion and the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), may play a role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP). Supramaximal stimulation of the pancreas with CCK, or its analogue cerulein, induces edematous AP. We previously documented significant decreases in plasma PYY in sodium taurocholate-induced AP in the anesthetized pig, with exogenous PYY suppressing plasma amylase activity. We hypothesized that PYY may ameliorate cerulein-induced pancreatic injury in a conscious animal model. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic cannulation of the jugular vein and carotid artery for drug infusion and blood sampling. The animals were allowed to recover from anesthesia for a minimum of 16 hours, after which they were randomized to one of four (n = 8) treatment groups (cerulein 10 micrograms/kg/h, PYY 400 pmol/kg/h, cerulein+PYY, and control-saline 2 mL/kg/h). All treatments were administered by intravenous infusion over the first 6 hours of the experiment. Blood samples were taken prior to infusion and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 hours into the study; the rats were then killed and the pancreata removed for weighing and histologic examination. All pancreatic specimens were graded in a blinded fashion for vacuolization, edema, inflammation, and necrosis. The mean basal plasma amylase level for all animals was 1,171 +/- 100 U/L and was not significantly different between groups. Infusion of cerulein resulted in significant increases in plasma amylase levels at 3, 6, 9, and 24 hours (4,827 +/- 1,022 U/L at 24 hours). In the group receiving both cerulein and PYY, the hyperamylasemia was attenuated with a return to basal values at 24 hours (1,206 +/- 103 U/L). There was significant pancreatic weight gain (1.99 +/- 0.07 g versus 1.03 +/- 0.07 g) and a worsened histologic picture in cerulein-treated animals compared with control animals (worsened edema, necrosis, and vacuolization). The addition of PYY to

  12. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated l-Alanine Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2017-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of l-alanine peptides ( l-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala n ) and homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the l-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+( l-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of d-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+( d-Trp). l-Ala peptides recognize d-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+( d-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas l-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of l-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species in Europe Induce Diverse Immune Responses against C6 Peptides in Infected Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Inke; Knauer, Jens; Lorentzen, Leif; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Saucier, Jill; Straubinger, Reinhard K.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of Lyme-borreliosis-inducing Borrelia species in Europe set high standards for the use of serodiagnostic test systems in terms of specificity and sensitivity. In the United States, the one-step C6 antibody test system based on the invariable domain IR6 of the VlsE molecule has been established as a successful diagnostic tool for testing canine samples. However, only a limited set of data are available regarding the antigenicity of the C6 peptides in an experimental murine model and sensitivity of the test regarding European Borrelia species. In order to investigate antibody reactions induced by these spirochetes, a total of 142 C3H/HeN mice were inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto N40, B. garinii PBi, two isolates of B. afzelii, B. spielmanii A14S, B. valaisiana Rio6, B. valaisiana VS116, or B. lusitaniae. Infection of the mice was documented utilizing tissue culture and PCR. The IR6 sequences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto B31, B. garinii IP90, and two B. afzelii ACAI strains have been used to synthesize and test additional C6 peptides. Compared to the well-established two-tiered test system, the results indicate that single C6 peptides derived from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based technique to detect murine antibodies induced by either agent. Little is known about the prevalence or pathogenicity of the B. afzelii strains in mammalian hosts, but our experimental data indicate differences in the C6 peptide test sensitivity for the detection of antibodies induced by different strains or isolates of B. afzelii. PMID:19726618

  14. Wild-type amyloid beta 1-40 peptide induces vascular smooth muscle cell death independently from matrix metalloprotease activity.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Régis; Mateo, Véronique; Rouxel, Clotilde; Zaccarini, François; Glorian, Martine; Béréziat, Gilbert; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Limon, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of intracerebral hemorrhages in the elderly, characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulating in central nervous system blood vessels. Within the vessel walls, Aβ-peptide deposits [composed mainly of wild-type (WT) Aβ(1-40) peptide in sporadic forms] induce impaired adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to the extracellular matrix (ECM) associated with their degeneration. This process often results in a loss of blood vessel wall integrity and ultimately translates into cerebral ischemia and microhemorrhages, both clinical features of CAA. In this study, we decipher the molecular mechanism of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 activation in WT-Aβ(1-40) -treated VSMC and provide evidence that MMP activity, although playing a critical role in cell detachment disrupting ECM components, is not involved in the WT-Aβ(1-40) -induced degeneration of VSMCs. Indeed, whereas this peptide clearly induced VSMC apoptosis, neither preventing MMP-2 activity nor hampering the expression of membrane type1-MMP, or preventing tissue inhibitors of MMPs-2 (TIMP-2) recruitment (two proteins evidenced here as involved in MMP-2 activation), reduced the number of dead cells. Even the use of broad-range MMP inhibitors (GM6001 and Batimastat) did not affect WT-Aβ(1-40) -induced cell apoptosis. Our results, in contrast to those obtained using the Aβ(1-40) Dutch variant suggesting a link between MMP-2 activity, VSMC mortality and degradation of specific matrix components, indicate that the ontogenesis of the Dutch familial and sporadic forms of CAAs is different. ECM degradation and VSMC degeneration would be tightly connected in the Dutch familial form while being two independent processes in sporadic forms of CAA.

  15. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Türck, Patrick; Stutz, Elaine; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado) in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT) is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT), leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado).

  16. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  17. Genetic differentiation of poly I:C from B:9-23 peptide induced experimental autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Paronen, Johanna; Liu, Edwin; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Devendra, Devasenan; Ide, Akane; Taylor, Robert; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Melanitou, Evie; Eisenbarth, George S

    2004-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells of the adaptive immune system mediate beta cell destruction. Recently the innate immune system has been linked to etiopathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes, as innate effector cells (e.g. dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and NK cells) can prime and promote or regulate (auto)immune responses. We have previously developed an experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD) model with insulin peptide B:9-23 immunization in transgenic H-2(d)mice expressing the costimulatory molecule B7.1 in their islets (under the Rat Insulin Promotor, RIP). We compared the induction of diabetes with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), a mimic of double stranded viral RNA versus insulin B:9-23 peptide in mice following backcrossing of the B7.1 transgene on to BALB/c mice from original B7.1 C57Bl/6 mice. We find that diabetes induction by Poly I:C is C57Bl/6 associated, whereas B:9-23 peptide induced diabetes and induction of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) are dependent on BALB/c genes. This B:9-23 peptide induced diabetes is consistent with MHC class II H-2(d)being necessary for the response to this peptide. Of note Poly I:C induction of diabetes was lost while B:9-23 induction was retained with backcrossing to BALB/c mice. Interaction of genes and environment (antigenic epitope and viral mimic) can be important in the pathogenesis of immune mediated diabetes and activation of the innate immune system (e.g. Poly I:C) may be one key determinant.

  18. Circulating advanced glycation peptides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: evidence for preferential modification of IgG light chains.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, A; Menini, T

    1998-01-01

    As the glycation/glycoxidation hypothesis for the genesis of diabetic complications is achieving widespread acceptance, much attention is being paid to the role of low molecular weight advanced glycation (AGE) adducts, as second generation glycating agents. We set out a study with the objective of attesting the presence of increased amounts of AGE-peptides in the circulation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and to determine the nature of the plasma proteins which are main targets for advanced glycation. AGE (Ex 370/Em 440 nm) and pentosidine fluorescence (Ex 335/Em 385 nm) were significantly higher in plasma from diabetic rats after only one month of hyperglycemia as compared to controls (35 +/- 7 vs 25 +/- 2 AU, p< 0.05 and 54 +/- 14 vs 27 +/- 3 AU, p< 0.01 respectively). AGE-peptides (<10 kDa) were more than two-fold higher in diabetic animals. Immunoblots after SDS-PAGE of plasma proteins showed that AGE-IgG displayed a selective predominant increment in the same animals. When native rat IgG was incubated in the presence of AGE-peptides isolated from diabetic animals, AGE modification was already apparent after only 24 h of incubation, and was particularly important for light chains. AGE-immunoreactive light chains displayed an apparent increase in molecular weight. Aminoguanidine prevented, while copper enhanced AGE binding to IgG light chains. Our data validate the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat as a model reproducing the presence of circulating AGE-peptides, give evidence that IgG are preferential targets for advanced glycation in plasma and suggest that this modification, mediated by AGE-peptides, can be prevented by aminoguanidine.

  19. Peptide-Induced AIEgen Self-Assembly: A New Strategy to Realize Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Light-Up Probes.

    PubMed

    Han, Aitian; Wang, Huaimin; Kwok, Ryan T K; Ji, Shenglu; Li, Jun; Kong, Deling; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin; Yang, Zhimou; Ding, Dan

    2016-04-05

    Fluorescent light-up probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have recently attracted great research interest due to their intelligent fluorescence activation mechanism and excellent photobleaching resistance. In this work, we report a new, simple, and generic strategy to design and prepare highly sensitive AIE fluorescent light-up bioprobe through facile incorporation of a self-assembling peptide sequence GFFY between the recognition element and the AIE luminogen (AIEgen). After the bioprobes respond to the targets, the peptide GFFY is capable of inducing the ordered self-assembly of AIEgens, yielding close and tight intermolecular steric interactions to restrict the intramolecular motions of AIEgens for excellent signal output. Using two proof-of-concepts, we have demonstrated that self-assembling peptide-incorporating AIE light-up probes show much higher sensitivity in sensing the corresponding targets in both solutions and cancer cells as compared to those without GFFY induced self-assembly. Taking the probe TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac), for example, a detection limit as low as 0.54 pM can be achieved for TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac) in caspase-3 detection, which is much lower than that of TPE-K(DVED-Ac) (3.50 pM). This study may inspire new insights into the design of advanced fluorescent molecular probes.

  20. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  1. Identification of SART3-derived peptides having the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Matsueda, Satoko; Takedatsu, Hiroko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Noguchi, Masanori; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Itoh, Kyogo; Harada, Mamoru

    2007-05-01

    SART3-derived peptides applicable to prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles were identified in order to expand the possibility of an anti-cancer vaccine, because the peptide vaccine candidates receiving the most attention thus far have been the HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 alleles. Twenty-nine SART3-derived peptides that were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A3 supertype alleles (HLA-A11, -A31, and -A33) were first screened for their recognizability by immunoglobulin G (IgG) of prostate cancer patients and subsequently for the potential to induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HLA-A3 supertype(+) prostate cancer patients. As a result, five SART3 peptides were frequently recognized by IgG, and two of them-SART3 (511-519) and SART3 (734-742)-efficiently induced peptide-specific and cancer-reactive CTLs. Their cytotoxicity toward prostate cancer cells was ascribed to peptide-specific and CD8(+) T cells. These results indicate that these two SART3 peptides could be promising candidates for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A3 supertype(+) prostate cancer patients.

  2. Anti-tumorigenic effect of nano formulated peptide pACC1 by diminishing de novo lipogenisis in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rat model.

    PubMed

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Elangovan, Namasivayam; Hari, Natarajan

    2014-07-01

    At present, the majority of established treatments for breast cancer are based on clinical manifestations, some fundamental of molecular and cellular biology of cancer. In recent times, the therapy is moving towards personalized medicines. Nevertheless, both the methodologies have own demerits. In the present study, we proposed a novel idea of targeted therapy with twin pharmacological potential by a peptide pACC1. The peptide was formulated with chitosan and evaluated with DMBA induced mammary carcinoma. Results suggest that the peptide holds great control on tumor cell multiplication, fatty acid synthesis and lactate levels. In addition, peptide also brings normal metabolic signs in glycolytic and glycogenic pathways. Histological studies confirm the dual pharmacological actions. Further, it is also proven that the peptide controls membrane receptor levels of HER2 and EGFR. In conclusion, that the peptide pACC1 could be employed as greater therapeutic adjuvant with currently established drugs without considering the stage of the cancer.

  3. Chemical dynamics simulations of energy transfer, surface-induced dissociation, soft-landing, and reactive-landing in collisions of protonated peptide ions with organic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Subha; Barnes, George L; Hase, William L

    2016-07-07

    There are two components to the review presented here regarding simulations of collisions of protonated peptide ions peptide-H(+) with organic surfaces. One is a detailed description of the classical trajectory chemical dynamics simulation methodology. Different simulation approaches are used, and identified as MM, QM + MM, and QM/MM dependent on the potential energy surface used to represent the peptide-H(+) + surface collision. The second are representative examples of the information that may be obtained from the simulations regarding energy transfer and peptide-H(+) surface-induced dissociation, soft-landing, and reactive-landing for the peptide-H(+) + surface collisions. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for each of these four collision properties. The simulations provide atomistic interpretations of the peptide-H(+) + surface collision dynamics.

  4. Fragmentation of peptide negative molecular ions induced by resonance electron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yury V.; Figard, Benjamin J.; Morre, Jeff; Deinzer, Max L.

    2009-07-28

    A simple robust method to study resonance gas-phase reactions between neutral peptides of low volatility and free electrons has been designed and implemented. Resonance electron capture (REC) experiments were performed by several neutral model peptides and two naturally occurring peptides. The assignment of negative ions (NIs) formed in these gas-phase reactions was based on high mass-resolving power experiments. From these accurate mass measurements, it was concluded that fragment NIs formed by low (1-2 eV) energy REC are of the same types as those observed in electron capture/transfer dissociation, where the positive charge is a factor. The main feature resulting from these REC experiments by peptides is the occurrence of z{sub n}-1 ions, which are invariably of the highest abundances in the negative ion mass spectra of larger peptides. [M-H]{sup -} NIs presumably the carboxylate anion structure dominate the REC spectra of smaller peptides. There was no evidence for the occurrence of the complementary reaction, i.e., the formations of c{sub n}+1 ions. Instead, c{sub n} ions arose without hydrogen/proton transfer albeit with lower abundances than that observed for z{sub n}-1 ions. Only the amide forms of small peptides showed more abundant ion peaks for the c{sub n} ions than for the z{sub n}-1 ions. The mechanisms for the N-C{sub {alpha}} bond cleavage are discussed.

  5. Fragmentation of peptide negative molecular ions induced by resonance electron capture

    PubMed Central

    Vasil’ev, Yury V.; Figard, Benjamin J.; Morré, Jeff; Deinzer, Max L.

    2009-01-01

    A simple robust method to study resonance gas-phase reactions between neutral peptides of low volatility and free electrons has been designed and implemented. Resonance electron capture (REC) experiments were performed by several neutral model peptides and two naturally occurring peptides. The assignment of negative ions (NIs) formed in these gas-phase reactions was based on high mass-resolving power experiments. From these accurate mass measurements, it was concluded that fragment NIs formed by low (1–2 eV) energy REC are of the same types as those observed in electron capture∕transfer dissociation, where the positive charge is a factor. The main feature resulting from these REC experiments by peptides is the occurrence of zn−1 ions, which are invariably of the highest abundances in the negative ion mass spectra of larger peptides. [M–H]− NIs presumably the carboxylate anion structure dominate the REC spectra of smaller peptides. There was no evidence for the occurrence of the complementary reaction, i.e., the formations of cn+1 ions. Instead, cn ions arose without hydrogen∕proton transfer albeit with lower abundances than that observed for zn−1 ions. Only the amide forms of small peptides showed more abundant ion peaks for the cn ions than for the zn−1 ions. The mechanisms for the N–Cα bond cleavage are discussed. PMID:19655877

  6. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  7. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G

    2012-11-23

    The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the β1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  8. The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Hsuan; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immuno-modulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. We found that LfB17-34, an 18-mer LfcinB-derived peptide, increased melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without significantly affecting cell viability. LfB17-34 increased in vitro tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LfB17-34 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Trp1). Moreover, LfB17-34 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, but not p38 and Akt, and constitutively active MEK was able to reverse the LfB17-34-enhanced pigmentation, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, suggesting a role of Erk signaling in the process of LfB17-34-mediated pigmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that LfB17-34 induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells primarily through increased tyrosinase expression and activity and that LfB17-34 could be further developed for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders. PMID:28204812

  9. 1–42 β-Amyloid peptide requires PDK1/nPKC/Rac 1 pathway to induce neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Manterola, L; Hernando-Rodríguez, M; Ruiz, A; Apraiz, A; Arrizabalaga, O; Vellón, L; Alberdi, E; Cavaliere, F; Lacerda, H M; Jimenez, S; Parada, L A; Matute, C; Zugaza, J L

    2013-01-01

    1–42 β-Amyloid (Aβ1–42) peptide is a key molecule involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Some of its effects are manifested at the neuronal morphological level. These morphological changes involve loss of neurites due to cytoskeleton alterations. However, the mechanism of Aβ1–42 peptide activation of the neurodegenerative program is still poorly understood. Here, Aβ1–42 peptide-induced transduction of cellular death signals through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositol-dependent kinase (PDK)/novel protein kinase C (nPKC)/Rac 1 axis is described. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 and nPKC activities blocks Rac 1 activation and neuronal cell death. Our results provide insights into an unsuspected connection between PDK1, nPKCs and Rac 1 in the same signal-transduction pathway and points out nPKCs and Rac 1 as potential therapeutic targets to block the toxic effects of Aβ1–42 peptide in neurons. PMID:23340502

  10. Thiosemicarbazone modification of 3-acetyl coumarin inhibits Aβ peptide aggregation and protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Dnyanesh S; Bapat, Archika M; Ramteke, Shefali N; Joshi, Bimba N; Roussel, Pascal; Tomas, Alain; Deschamps, Patrick; Kulkarni, Prasad P

    2016-10-04

    Aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is an important event in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, among the available therapeutic approaches to fight with disease, inhibition of Aβ aggregation is widely studied and one of the promising approach for the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Thiosemicarbazone compounds are known for their variety of biological activities. However, the potential of thiosemicarbazone compounds towards inhibition of Aβ peptide aggregation and the subsequent toxicity is little explored. Herein, we report synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of novel compound 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone and its efficacy toward inhibition of Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation. Our results indicate that 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone inhibits Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation up to 80% compared to the parent 3-acetyl coumarin which inhibits 52%. Further, 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone provides neuroprotection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line. These findings indicate that thiosemicarbazone modification renders 3-acetyl coumarin neuroprotective properties.

  11. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  12. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Wang, Yuefei; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures.

  13. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  14. The enthalpy of the alanine peptide helix measured by isothermal titration calorimetry using metal-binding to induce helix formation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria M; Chin, Der-Hang; Baldwin, Robert L; Makhatadze, George I

    2002-02-05

    The goal of this study is to use the model system described earlier to make direct measurements of the enthalpy of helix formation at different temperatures. For this we studied model alanine peptides in which helix formation can be triggered by metal (La(3+)) binding. The heat of La(3+) interaction with the peptides at different temperatures is measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to follow helix formation. Peptides of increasing length (12-, 16-, and 19-aa residues) that contain a La(3+)-binding loop followed by helices of increasing length, are used to separate the heat of metal binding from the enthalpy of helix formation. We demonstrate that (i) the enthalpy of helix formation is -0.9 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol; (ii) the enthalpy of helix formation is independent of the peptide length; (iii) the enthalpy of helix formation does not depend significantly on temperature in the range from 5 to 45 degrees C, suggesting that the heat capacity change on helix formation is very small. Thus, the use of metal binding to induce helix formation has an enormous potential for measuring various thermodynamic properties of alpha-helices.

  15. [The dose dependent effect of glycosaminoglycan peptide complex on corticosteroid-induced disordered metabolism in cartilage tissue of rats].

    PubMed

    Annefeld, M

    1989-01-01

    Systemic corticosteroid treatment induces morphological and functional changes in the articular cartilage similar to those in human osteoarthritis. In animal experiments the dexamethasone-induced inhibition of chondrocyte metabolism can be reduced in a dose-related manner by concomitant treatment with glycosaminoglycan-peptide complexes (GP-C)***). The metabolic changes in cartilage tissues of the joint and Processus Xiphoideus measured quantitatively by 35S-sulphate incorporation are comparable. The results indicate that GP-C could also have a dose-related effect on human osteoarthritic cartilage.

  16. Enhanced performance of pulsed Q collision induced dissociation-based peptide identification on a dual-pressure linear ion trap.

    PubMed

    Lössner, Christopher; Blackstock, Walter; Gunaratne, Jayantha

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed Q collision induced dissociation (PQD) was introduced for isobaric tag quantification on linear ion traps to circumvent the problem of the low-mass cut-off for collision induced dissociation (CID). Unfortunately, fragmentation efficiency is compromised and PQD has found limited use for identification as well as quantification. We demonstrate that PQD has a comparable peptide identification performance to CID on dual-pressure linear ion traps, opening the potential for wider use of isobaric tag quantification on this new generation of linear ion traps.

  17. Attenuation of systemic morphine-induced analgesia by central administration of ghrelin and related peptides in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Chen, Jia-Xiang; Yang, Bei; Zhi, Xing; Guo, Fa-Xian; Sun, Meng-Li; Wang, Jing-Lei; Wei, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino peptide secreted in the gastric endocrine cells, has been demonstrated to stimulate the release of growth hormone, increase food intake, and inhibit pro-inflammatory cascade, etc. Ghrelin mainly combines with its receptor (GHS-R1α) to play the role in physiological and pathological functions. It has been reported that ghrelin plays important roles in the control of pain through interaction with the opioid system in inflammatory pain and acute pain. However, very few studies show the effect of supraspinal ghrelin system on antinociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of ghrelin (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nmol/L) produced inhibition of systemic morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) analgesia in the tail withdrawal test. Similarly, i.c.v. injection GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 which are the agonists of GHS-R1α, also decreased analgesia effect induced by morphine injected intraperitoneally in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of ghrelin and related peptides were not blocked by pretreatment with the GHS-R1α selective antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (100 nmol/L, i.c.v.). These results demonstrated that central ghrelin and related peptides could inhibit the analgesia effect induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. The anti-opioid effects of ghrelin and related peptides do not interact with GHS-R1a. These findings may pave the way for a new strategy on investigating the interaction between ghrelin system and opioids on pain modulation.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille; Stoll, Barbara; Bering, Stine B.; Hartmann, Bolette; Jelsing, Jacob; Qvist, Niels; Burrin, Douglas G.; Jeppesen, Palle B.; Holst, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following intestinal resection in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs were fed enterally for 48 h before undergoing resection of 50% of the small intestine and establishment of a jejunostomy. Following resection, pigs were maintained on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without (SBS, n = 8) or with GLP-2 treatment (3.5 μg/kg body wt per h, SBS+GLP-2, n = 7) and compared with a group of unresected preterm pigs (control, n = 5). After 5 days of TPN, all piglets were fed enterally for 24 h, and a nutrient balance study was performed. Intestinal resection was associated with markedly reduced endogenous GLP-2 levels. GLP-2 increased the relative absorption of wet weight (46 vs. 22%), energy (79 vs. 64%), and all macronutrients (all parameters P < 0.05). These findings were supported by a 200% increase in sucrase and maltase activities, a 50% increase in small intestinal epithelial volume (P < 0.05), as well as increased DNA and protein contents and increased total protein synthesis rate in SBS+GLP-2 vs. SBS pigs (+100%, P < 0.05). Following intestinal resection in preterm pigs, GLP-2 induced structural and functional adaptation, resulting in a higher relative absorption of fluid and macronutrients. GLP-2 treatment may be a promising therapy to enhance intestinal adaptation and improve digestive function in preterm infants with jejunostomy following intestinal resection. PMID:23764891

  19. Subpopulation-Specific Transcriptome Analysis of Competence-Stimulating-Peptide-Induced Streptococcus mutans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lemme, André; Gröbe, Lothar; Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Competence-stimulating-peptide (CSP)-mediated competence development in Streptococcus mutans is a transient and biphasic process, since only a subpopulation induces the expression of ComX in the presence of CSP, and the activation of the DNA uptake machinery in this fraction shuts down ∼3 to 4 h postinduction. Here, we combine for the first time, to our knowledge, the bacterial flow-cytometric sorting of cells and subpopulation-specific transcriptome analysis of both the competent and noncompetent fraction of CSP-treated S. mutans cells. Sorting was guided by a ComX-green fluorescent protein (ComX-GFP) reporter, and the transcriptome analysis demonstrated the successful combination of both methods, because a strong enrichment of transcripts for comX and its downstream genes was achieved. Three two-component systems were expressed in the competent fraction, and among them was ComDE. Moreover, the recently identified regulator system ComR/S was expressed exclusively in the competent fraction. In contrast, the expression of bacteriocin-related genes was at the same level in all cells. GFP reporter strains for ComE and CipB (mutacin V) confirmed this expression pattern on the single-cell level. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that some ComX-expressing cells committed autolysis in an early stage of competence initiation. In viable ComX-expressing cells, the uptake of DNA could be shown on the single-cell level. This study demonstrates that all cells in the population respond to CSP through the activation of bacteriocin-related genes. Some of these cells start to activate ComX expression but then segregate into two subpopulations, one becoming competent and another one that lyses, resulting in intrapopulation diversity. PMID:21317319

  20. Functional Characterization of the Infection-Inducible Peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kaustio, Meri; Ulvila, Johanna; Wilke, Bettina; Hultmark, Dan; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila is a well-established model organism for studying innate immunity because of its high resistance against microbial infections and lack of adaptive immunity. In addition, the immune signaling cascades found in Drosophila are evolutionarily conserved. Upon infection, activation of the immune signaling pathways, Toll and Imd, leads to the expression of multiple immune response genes, such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Previously, we identified an uncharacterized gene edin among the genes, which were strongly induced upon stimulation with Escherichia coli in Drosophila S2 cells. Edin has been associated with resistance against Listeria monocytogenes, but its role in Drosophila immunity remains elusive. In this study, we examined the role of Edin in the immune response of Drosophila both in vitro and in vivo. We report that edin expression is dependent on the Imd-pathway NF-κB transcription factor Relish and that it is expressed upon infection both in vitro and in vivo. Edin encodes a pro-protein, which is further processed in S2 cells. In our experiments, Edin did not bind microbes, nor did it possess antimicrobial activity to tested microbial strains in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, edin RNAi did not significantly affect the expression of AMPs in vitro or in vivo. However, edin RNAi flies showed modestly impaired resistance to E. faecalis infection. We conclude that Edin has no potent antimicrobial properties but it appears to be important for E. faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response. PMID:22606343

  1. Structural transformation of peptide amphiphile self-assembly induced by headgroup charge and size regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changrui; Bedzyk, Michael; Olvera, Monica; Kewalramani, Sumit; Palmer, Liam

    The ability to control the nano and the meso-scale architecture of molecular assemblies is one of the major challenges in nanoscience. Significantly, structural transformations of amphiphilic aggregates induced by variations in environmental conditions have attracted attention due to their biotechnological relevance. Here, we study the assembly in aqueous solution for a modular series of peptide amphiphiles with 3, 2 or 1 lysine groups conjugated to a C16 carbon tail (C16K3, C16K2 and C16K1) . This system design allow us to probe how the equilibrium structure of the self-assembly can be tuned by controlling the coupling between steric (via choice of headgroup: K3, K2, or K1) and electrostatic (via solution pH) interactions. Solution small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that depending on pH and number of lysines in the lipid headgroup, amphiphiles can assemble into a range of structures: spherical micelles, bilayer ribbons and vesicles. We also perform detailed phase space mapping of pH-and headgroup size dependency of the structures of assembly over 0.1-100 nm length scales via SAXS/WAXS. The experimental results in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations deduce quantitative relations between pH-dependent molecular charges, steric constraints and self-assembly morphologies, which is significant for developing experimental routes to obtain assembly structures with specific nano- and meso-scale features through controlled external stimuli.

  2. A novel frog skin peptide containing function to induce muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ping; Wei, Lin; Yang, Shilong; Liu, Huan; Liu, Rui; Lai, Ren

    2012-12-01

    A novel bioactive peptide (polypedarelaxin 1) was identified from the skin secretions of the tree frog, Polypedates pingbianensis. Polypedarelaxin 1 is composed of 21 amino acid residues with a sequence of QGGLLGKVSNLANDALGILPI. Its primary structure was further confirmed by cDNA cloning and mass spectrometry analysis. Polypedarelaxin 1 was found to elicit concentration-dependent relaxation effects on isolated rat ileum. It has no antimicrobial and serine protease inhibitory activities. BLAST search revealed that polypedarelaxin 1 did not show similarity to known proteins or peptides. Especially, polypedarelaxin 1 do not contain conserved structural motifs of other amphibian myotropic peptides, such as bradykinins, bombesins, cholecystokinin (CCK), and tachykinins, indicating that polypedarelaxin 1 belongs to a novel family of amphibian myotropic peptide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral and parenteral immunization with synthetic retro-inverso peptides induce antibodies that cross-react with native peptides and parent antigens.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Comis, Alfio; Tyler, Margaret; Howden, Merlin

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether certain retro-inverso peptides have the potential to act as synthetic vaccines in mice, when immunized by injection or orally. Immunization of mice parenterally with conjugates of three such retro-inverso peptides and orally with the unconjugated peptides elicited generally high titres of anti-peptide antibodies. Antibodies against the same three peptides cross-reacted by binding strongly in ELISA to the native peptides and vice versa, regardless of the mode of immunization. Antibodies against a retro-inverso diphtheria peptide also reacted strongly with diphtheria toxin. Seven of 8 mice, immunized by injection of the conjugate of a retro-inverso derivative of robustoxin [a lethal spider (Atrax robustus) venom toxin] were protected from challenge involving injection with twice the minimum lethal dose of A. robustus venom containing the toxin.

  4. Rational optimization of conformational effects induced by hydrocarbon staples in peptides and their binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lama, Dilraj; Quah, Soo T; Verma, Chandra S; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Beuerman, Roger W; Lane, David P; Brown, Christopher J

    2013-12-13

    eIF4E is frequently over-expressed in different cancers and causes increased translation of oncogenic proteins via deregulated cap-dependent translation. Inhibitors of the eIF4E:eIF4G interactions represent an approach that would normalize cap-dependent translation. Stapled peptides represent an emerging class of therapeutics that can target protein: protein interactions. We present here molecular dynamics simulations for a set of rationally designed stapled peptides in solution and in complex with eIF4E, supported with biophysical and crystallographic data. Clustering of the simulated structures revealed the favoured conformational states of the stapled peptides in their bound or free forms in solution. Identifying these populations has allowed us to design peptides with improved affinities by introducing mutations into the peptide sequence to alter their conformational distributions. These studies emphasise the effects that engineered mutations have on the conformations of free and bound peptides, and illustrate that both states must be considered in efforts to attain high affinity binding.

  5. Rational Optimization of Conformational Effects Induced By Hydrocarbon Staples in Peptides and their Binding Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Dilraj; Quah, Soo T.; Verma, Chandra S.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Beuerman, Roger W.; Lane, David P.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    eIF4E is frequently over-expressed in different cancers and causes increased translation of oncogenic proteins via deregulated cap-dependent translation. Inhibitors of the eIF4E:eIF4G interactions represent an approach that would normalize cap-dependent translation. Stapled peptides represent an emerging class of therapeutics that can target protein: protein interactions. We present here molecular dynamics simulations for a set of rationally designed stapled peptides in solution and in complex with eIF4E, supported with biophysical and crystallographic data. Clustering of the simulated structures revealed the favoured conformational states of the stapled peptides in their bound or free forms in solution. Identifying these populations has allowed us to design peptides with improved affinities by introducing mutations into the peptide sequence to alter their conformational distributions. These studies emphasise the effects that engineered mutations have on the conformations of free and bound peptides, and illustrate that both states must be considered in efforts to attain high affinity binding.

  6. Fibulin1C peptide induces cell attachment and extracellular matrix deposition in lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qi; Chen, Ling; Jaffar, Jade; Argraves, William Scott; Twal, Waleed O.; Hansbro, Phil; Black, Judith L.; Burgess, Janette K.; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Fibulin-1 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, levels of which are elevated in serum and lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared to healthy volunteers. Inhibition of fibulin-1C, one of four fibulin-1 isoforms, reduced proliferation and wound healing in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. This study identified the bioactive region/s of fibulin-1C which promotes fibrosis. Seven fibulin-1C peptides were synthesized and used to pre-coat tissue culture plates before lung derived ASM cells and fibroblasts from patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or neither disease (Control) were plated. Peptide effects on in vitro measures of fibrosis: cell attachment, proliferation and viability, and ECM deposition, were examined. Among these peptides, peptide 1C1 (FBLN1C1) enhanced ASM cell and fibroblast attachment. FBLN1C1 increased mitochondrial activity and proliferation in fibroblasts. In addition, FBLN1C1 stimulated fibulin1 deposition in PF and COPD fibroblasts, and augmented fibronectin and perlecan deposition in all three groups. Peptides FBLN1C2 to FBLN1C7 had no activity. The active fibulin-1C peptide identified in this study describes a useful tool for future studies. Ongoing investigation of the role of fibulin-1 may reveal the mechanisms underlying the pathphysiology of chronic lung diseases. PMID:25834989

  7. Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Chervonsky, A V; Medzhitov, R M; Denzin, L K; Barlow, A K; Rudensky, A Y; Janeway, C A

    1998-08-18

    Intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is characterized by passage through specialized endocytic compartment(s) where antigenic peptides replace invariant chain fragments in the presence of the DM protein. These changes are accompanied by structural transitions of the MHC molecules that can be visualized by formation of compact SDS-resistant dimers, by changes in binding of mAbs, and by changes in T cell responses. We have observed that a mAb (25-9-17) that is capable of staining I-Ab on the surface of normal B cells failed to interact with I-Ab complexes with a peptide derived from the Ealpha chain of the I-E molecule but bound a similar covalent complex of I-Ab with the class II binding fragment (class II-associated invariant chain peptides) of the invariant chain. Moreover, 25-9-17 blocked activation of several I-Ab-reactive T cell hybridomas but failed to block others, suggesting that numerous I-Ab-peptide complexes acquire the 25-9-17(+) or 25-9-17(-) conformation. Alloreactive T cells were also able to discriminate peptide-dependent variants of MHC class II molecules. Thus, peptides impose subtle structural transitions upon MHC class II molecules that affect T cell recognition and may thus be critical for T cell selection and autiommunity.

  8. A possible role of atrial natriuretic peptide in ethanol-induced acute diuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Colantonio, D.; Casale, R.; Mammarella, M.; Pasqualetti, P. ); Desiati, P.; De Michele, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The acute effects of ethanol on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels were investigated in 4 clinically healthy males, aged 24-26 years, consumed either 750 ml of water as a control study, or the same beverage with 1 ml/kg alcohol added, which increased the plasma alcohol concentration to 99.12{plus minus}15.10 mg/dl at 60 min. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher in the alcohol study compared to the control study at each time point, and with a peak at 10 min. Atrial natriuretic peptide levels showed a positive significant correlation with plasma antidiuretic hormone in the control group, while no relationship was found between the two peptides in the alcohol study. Moreover, a significant correlation exists between plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels and systolic arterial blood pressure, and heart rate, and between the variations in atrial natriuretic peptide values and the variations in plasma sodium, serum ethanol, and plasma osmolality in the alcohol study. Acute ethanol intake causes an increase in urinary volume, and a decrease in urinary potassium excretion and urinary osmolality, and no change in urinary sodium excretion.

  9. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-01-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:1592430

  10. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-04-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction.

  11. Protective effects of Lingguizhugan decoction on amyloid-beta peptide (25-35)-induced cell injury: Anti-inflammatory effects☆

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Feifei; Sang, Feng; Zhou, Chunxiang; Ling, Yun

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) and BV-2 microglia were treated with amyloid-β peptide (25–35), as a model of Alzheimer’s disease, to evaluate the protective effects of 10-3–10-8 g/mL Lingguizhugan decoction and to examine the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism. Lingguizhugan decoction significantly enhanced the viability of SH-SY5Y cells with amyloid-β peptide-induced injury, and lowered levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in the culture supernatant of activated BV-2 microglia. The effects of 10-3 g/mL Lingguizhugan decoction were more significant. These results suggest that Lingguizhugan decoction can protect SH-SY5Y cells against amyloid-β peptide (25–35)-induced injury in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting overexpression of inflammatory factors by activated microglia. PMID:25317138

  12. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-10-27

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models.

  13. TLQP-21, a neuroendocrine VGF-derived peptide, prevents cerebellar granule cells death induced by serum and potassium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Severini, Cinzia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Biondini, Laura; Quaresima, Stefania; Rinaldi, Anna Maria; Levi, Andrea; Frank, Claudio; Possenti, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Different VGF peptides derived from Vgf, originally identified as a nerve growth factor responsive gene, have been detected in neurons within the central and peripheral nervous system and in various endocrine cells. In the current study, we have evaluated the ability of TLQP-21, a VGF-derived peptide, to protect, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) from serum and potassium deprivation-induced cell death. We demonstrated that TLQP-21 increased survival of CGCs by decreasing the degree of apoptosis as assessed by cell viability and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, TLQP-21 significantly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, serine/threonine protein kinase, and c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, while decreased the extent of protein kinase C phosphorylation, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. In addition, TLQP-21 induced significant increase in intracellular calcium (as measured by fura-2AM) in about 60% of the recorded neurons. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that TLQP-21 promotes the survival of CGCs via pathways involving, within few minutes, modulation of kinases associated with CGCs survival, and by increasing intracellular calcium which can contribute to the neuroprotective effect of the peptide.

  14. Surface-induced dissociation of peptides and protein complexes in a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Galhena, Asiri S; Dagan, Shai; Jones, Christopher M; Beardsley, Richard L; Wysocki, Vicki H

    2008-03-01

    A novel in-line surface-induced dissociation (SID) device was designed and implemented in a commercial QTOF instrument (Waters/Micromass QTOF II). This new setup allows efficient SID for a broad range of molecules. It also allows direct comparison with conventional collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the same instrument, taking advantage of the characteristics of QTOF instrumentation, including extended mass range, improved sensitivity, and better resolution compared with quadrupole analyzers and ion traps. Various peptides and a noncovalent protein complex have been electrosprayed and analyzed with the new SID setup. Here we present SID of leucine enkephalin, fibrinopeptide A, melittin, insulin chain-B, and a noncovalent protein complex from wheat, heat shock protein 16.9. The SID spectra were also compared to CID spectra. With the SID setup installed, ion transmission proved to be efficient. SID fragmentation patterns of peptides are, in general, similar to CID, with differences in the relative intensities of some peaks such as immonium ions, backbone cleavage b- versus y-type ions, and y- versus y-NH3 ions, suggesting enhanced accessibility to high-energy/secondary fragmentation channels with SID. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the in-line SID setup is a valid substitute for CID, with potential advantages for activation of singly/multiply charged peptides and larger species such as noncovalent protein complexes.

  15. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, protects against amyloid-β peptide-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Tao; Ye-Tian; Yuan-Li; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Di, Zheng-Li; Ying, Xiao-Ping; Fang, Yan; Song, Er-Fei; Qi, Jin-Shun; Pan, Yan-Fang

    2016-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share specific molecular mechanisms, and agents with proven efficacy in one may be useful against the other. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 has similar properties to GLP-1 and is currently in clinical use for T2DM treatment. Thus, this study was designed to characterize the effects of exendin-4 on the impairment of learning and memory induced by amyloid protein (Aβ) and its probable molecular underlying mechanisms. The results showed that (1) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 resulted in a significant decline of spatial learning and memory of rats in water maze tests; (2) pretreatment with exendin-4 effectively and dose-dependently protected against the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory; (3) exendin-4 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl2 in Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's rats. The vision and swimming speed of the rats among all groups in the visible platform tests did not show any difference. These findings indicate that systemic pretreatment with exendin-4 can effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Aβ1-42, and the underlying protective mechanism of exendin-4 may be involved in the Bcl2, Bax and caspase-3 pathways. Thus, the application of exendin-4 or the activation of its signaling pathways may be a promising strategy to ameliorate the degenerative processes observed in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The antimicrobial peptide sublancin ameliorates necrotic enteritis induced by Clostridium perfringens in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Zeng, X F; Wang, Q W; Zhu, J L; Peng, Q; Hou, C L; Thacker, P; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Sublancin is an antimicrobial peptide produced by 168 containing 37 amino acids. The objective of this study was to investigate its inhibitory efficacy against both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, we determined that sublancin had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 μM against , which was much higher than the antibiotic lincomycin (0.281 μM). Scanning electron microscopy showed that sublancin damaged the morphology of . The in vivo study was conducted on broilers for a 28-d period using a completely randomized design. A total of 252 chickens at 1 d of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments including an uninfected control; an infected control; 3 infected groups supplemented with sublancin at 2.88, 5.76, or 11.52 mg activity/L of water; and an infected group supplemented with lincomycin at 75 mg activity/L of water (positive control). Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broilers by oral inoculation of on d 15 through 21. Thereafter, the sublancin or lincomycin were administered fresh daily for a period of 7 days. The challenge resulted in a significant decrease in ADG ( < 0.05) and a remarkable deterioration in G:F ( < 0.05) during d 15 to 21 of the experiment. There was a sharp increase of numbers in the cecum ( < 0.05). The addition of sublancin or lincomycin reduced caecal counts ( < 0.05). The counts had a tendency to decrease in the lincomycin treatment ( = 0.051) but were the highest in the sublancin treatment (5.76 mg activity/L of water). A higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum as well as a higher villus height in the duodenum were observed in broilers treated with sublancin or lincomycin ( < 0.05) compared with infected control broilers. It was observed that sublancin and lincomycin decreased IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels ( < 0.05) in the ileum compared with the infected control. In conclusion, although sublancin's minimum inhibitory concentration is much higher than lincomycin

  17. Genomic organization of the gene that encodes the precursor to EGF-related peptides, exogastrula-inducing peptides, of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Horii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Gentaroh; Suyemitsu, Takashi; Ishihara, Katsutoshi; Yamasu, Kyo

    2002-04-12

    Exogastrula-inducing peptides (EGIPs) were identified in embryos of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina as polypeptides with structural similarity to epidermal growth factor (EGF) that severely affect gastrulation of sea urchin embryos to induce exogastrulation. Here we have obtained genomic clones for the EGIP precursor gene (EGIP) and determined its genomic organization. The EGIP gene spans the length of 9 kb in the genome and is composed of seven exons and six introns. Each of the four EGF motifs in the precursor protein is encoded by a single exon, and all the exon boundaries are in phase 1, suggesting that EGIP have been generated during evolution by duplication of an exon encoding a single ancient EGIP sequence. The 5'-flanking sequence of EGIP from -4372 to +194 revealed the presence of multiple repeat sequences including direct and inverted repeats as well as two clusters of GGGG/CCCC elements. The function of the upstream flanking region of EGIP was examined by introducing the gene constructs into embryos in which different regions from the flanking DNA were placed upstream to the GFP reporter gene. Systematic deletion of the upstream DNA revealed the presence of potent enhancer activity between -372 and -210.

  18. An HLA-A3-binding prostate acid phosphatase-derived peptide can induce CTLs restricted to HLA-A2 and -A24 alleles.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Yasunobu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Niu, Yamei; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Noguchi, Masanori; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo

    2009-11-01

    We previously reported peptide vaccine candidates for HLA-A3 supertype (-A3, -A11, -A31, -A33)-positive cancer patients. In the present study, we examined whether those peptides can also induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity restricted to HLA-A2, HLA-A24, and HLA-A26 alleles. Fourteen peptides were screened for their binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, -A*0207, -A*2402, and -A*2601 molecules and then tested for their ability to induce CTL activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from prostate cancer patients. Among these peptides, one from the prostate acid phosphatase protein exhibited binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, and -A*2402 molecules. In addition, PBMCs stimulated with this peptide showed that HLA-A2 or HLA-A24 restricted CTL activity. Their cytotoxicity toward cancer cells was ascribed to peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that this peptide could be widely applicable as a peptide vaccine for HLA-A3 supertype-, HLA-A2-, and -A24-positive cancer patients.

  19. The cell aggregating propensity of probiotic actinobacterial isolates: isolation and characterization of the aggregation inducing peptide pheromone.

    PubMed

    Muthu Selvam, Ramu; Vinothini, Gopal; Palliyarai Thaiyammal, Sethuramalingam; Latha, Selvanathan; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Ali Alharbi, Sulaiman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2016-01-01

    The auto-aggregating ability of a probiotic is a prerequisite for colonization and protection of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas co-aggregation provides a close interaction with pathogenic bacteria. Peptide pheromone mediated signaling has been studied in several systems. However, it has not yet been explored in prokaryotes, especially actinobacteria. Hence, in the present study, the diffusible aggregation promoting factor was purified from the culture supernatant of a potent actinobacterial probiont and characterized using 20 different actinobacterial cultures isolated from the gut region of chicken and goat. The results showed that the pheromone-like compound induces the aggregation propensity of treated isolates. The factor was found to be a heat stable, acidic pH resistant, low molecular weight peptide which enhances the biofilm forming ability of other actinobacterial isolates. The aggregation promoting factor represents a bacterial sex factor (pheromone) and its characterization confirms its usage in the probiotic formulation.

  20. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test.

  1. Tuning the autophagy-inducing activity of lanthanide-based nanocrystals through specific surface-coating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Yang, Tianlong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yun; Man, Na; Zhang, Li; Jin, Nan; Dou, Qingqing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhengquan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2012-09-01

    The induction of autophagy on exposure of cells to a variety of nanoparticles represents both a safety concern and an application niche for engineered nanomaterials. Here, we show that a short synthetic peptide, RE-1, identified by means of phage display, binds to lanthanide (LN) oxide and upconversion nanocrystals (UCN), forms a stable coating layer on the nanoparticles’ surface, and effectively abrogates their autophagy-inducing activity. Furthermore, RE-1 peptide variants exhibit a differentially reduced binding capability, and correspondingly, a varied ability to reduce the autophagic response. We also show that the addition of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif to RE-1 enhances autophagy for LN UCN through the interaction with integrins. RE-1 and its variants provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy, and may prove useful for the various diagnostic and therapeutic applications of LN-based nanomaterials and nanodevices.

  2. Evaluation of the Influence of Amino Acid Composition on the Propensity for Collision-Induced Dissociation of Model Peptides Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, William R.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Laskin, Julia

    2007-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of model peptides was evaluated with respect to their ability to form internal proton donor-acceptor pairs using molecular dynamics simulations. The proton donor-acceptor pairs are postulated to be prerequisites for peptide bond cleavage resulting in formation of b and y ions during low energy collision-induced dissociation in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The simulations for the polyalanine pentamer Ala5H+ were compared to experimental data from collision energy-resolved surface induced dissociation (SID) studies. The results of the simulation are insightful into the events that likely lead up to the fragmentation of peptides. 9-mer polyalanine-based model peptides were used to examine the dynamical effect of each of the 20 common amino acids on the probability to form donor-acceptor pairs at labile peptide bonds. A continuous range of probabilities was observed as a function of the substituted amino acid. However, the location of the peptide bond involved in the donor-acceptor pair plays a critical role in the dynamical behavior. This influence of position on the probability of forming a donor-acceptor pair would be hard to predict from statistical analyses on experimental spectra of aggregate, diverse peptides. In addition, the inclusion of basic side chains in the model peptides alters the probability of forming donor-acceptor pairs across the entire backbone. In this case there are still more ionizing protons than basic residues, but the side chains of the basic amino acids form stable hydrogen bond networks with the peptide carbonyl oxygens and thus act to prevent free access of “mobile protons” to labile peptide bonds. It is clear from the work that the identification of peptides from low-energy CID using automated computational methods should consider the location of the fragmenting bond as well as the amino acid composition.

  3. The interplay of T1- and T2-relaxation on T1-weighted MRI of hMSCs induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Limin; Li, Binbin; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Dai, Jianwu; Tan, Bo; Deng, Zongwu

    2014-04-01

    Three Gd-DOTA-peptide complexes with different peptide sequence are synthesized and used as T1 contrast agent to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for magnetic resonance imaging study. The peptides include a universal cell penetrating peptide TAT, a linear MSC-specific peptide EM7, and a cyclic MSC-specific peptide CC9. A significant difference in labeling efficacy is observed between the Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as a control Dotarem. All Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as Dotarem induce significant increase in T1 relaxation rate which is in favor of T1-weighted MR imaging. Gd-DOTA-CC9 yields the maximum labeling efficacy but poor T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-EM7 yields the minimum labeling efficacy but better T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-TAT yields a similar labeling efficacy as Gd-DOTA-CC9 and similar T1 contrast enhancement as Gd-DOTA-EM7. The underlying mechanism that governs T1 contrast enhancement effect is discussed. Our results suggest that T1 contrast enhancement induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides depends not only on the introduced cellular Gd content, but more importantly on the effect that Gd-DOTA-peptides exert on the T1-relaxation and T2-relaxation processes/rates. Both T1 and particularly T2 relaxation rate have to be taken into account to interpret T1 contrast enhancement. In addition, the interpretation has to be based on cellular instead of aqueous longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of Gd-DOTA-peptides.

  4. Predicted peptides from non-structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are able to induce IFN-γ and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Díaz, Ivan; Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Essler, Sabine E; Hernández, Jesús; Mateu, Enric

    2013-02-11

    This work describes peptides from non-structural proteins (nsp) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) predicted as potential T cell epitopes by bioinfornatics and tested for their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 responses. Pigs immunized with either genotype 1 or genotype 2 PRRSV attenuated vaccines (n=5/group) and unvaccinated pigs (n = 4) were used to test the peptides. Swine leukocyte antigen haplotype of each pig was also determined. Pigs were initially screened for IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT) and three peptides were identified; two of them in non-conserved segments of nsp2 and nsp5 and the other in a conserved region of nsp5 peptide. Then, peptides were screened for IL-10 inducing properties. Six peptides were found to induce IL-10 release in PBMC and some of them were also able to inhibit IFN-γ responses on PHA-stimulated cells. Interestingly, the IFN-γ low responder pigs against PRRSV were mostly homozygous for their SLA haplotypes. In conclusion, these results indicate that nsp of PRRSV contain T-cell epitopes inducing IFN-γ responses as well as IL-10 inducing segments with inhibitory capabilities.

  5. Wheat peptides reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NO production through modulating μ-opioid receptor in a rat NSAID-induced stomach damage model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Cai, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Shao-Kang; Yang, Li-Gang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce tissue damage and oxidative stress in animal models of stomach damage. In the present study, the protective effects of wheat peptides were evaluated in a NSAID-induced stomach damage model in rats. Different doses of wheat peptides or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days before the rat stomach damage model was established by administration of NSAIDs (aspirin and indomethacin) into the digestive tract twice. The treatment of wheat peptides decreased the NSAID-induced gastric epithelial cell degeneration and oxidative stress and NO levels in the rats. Wheat peptides significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and decreased iNOS activity in stomach. The mRNA expression level of μ-opioid receptor was significantly decreased in wheat peptides-treated rats than that in in the control rats. The results suggest that NSAID drugs induced stomach damage in rats, wchih can be prevented by wheat peptides. The mechanisms for the protective effects were most likely through reducing NSAID-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of retinal detachment-induced apoptosis in photoreceptors by a small peptide inhibitor of the fas receptor.

    PubMed

    Besirli, Cagri G; Chinskey, Nicholas D; Zheng, Qiong-Duan; Zacks, David N

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To test the effect of a small peptide inhibitor (Met12) of the Fas receptor on the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways after retinal detachment. Methods. Retinal-RPE separation was created in Brown Norway rats by subretinal injection of 1% hyaluronic acid. Met12, derived from the Fas-binding extracellular domain of the oncoprotein Met, was injected into the subretinal space at the time of separation. A mutant peptide and vehicle administered in a similar fashion acted as inactive controls. The extrinsic apoptotic pathway was induced in 661W cells using a Fas-activating antibody in the presence or absence of Met12. Caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 activities were measured with calorimetric and luminescent assays in retinal extracts and cell lysates. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) was performed in retinal sections 3 days after separation. Histology was performed in retinal sections 2 months after retinal detachment. Results. Met12 inhibited Fas-induced caspase 8 activation in 661W cells. Similarly, administration of Met12 into the subretinal space inhibited the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 after retinal detachment. This corresponded to a decreased level of TUNEL-positive staining of photoreceptors after retinal-RPE separation in animals that received Met12, but not inactive mutant, peptide treatment. After 2 months, the outer nuclear layer was significantly thicker, and the photoreceptor count was higher in animals treated with subretinal Met12. Conclusions. The small peptide Met12 may serve as a photoreceptor-protective agent in the setting of retinal-RPE separation.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptide-induced Apoptotic Death of Leishmania Results from Calcium-de pend ent, Caspase-independent Mitochondrial Toxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Robert McMaster, W.; Kamysz, Wojciech; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2009-01-01

    α- and θ-defensin-, magainin-, and cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania. Comparative studies of a panel of AMPs have defined two distinct groups: those that induce nonapoptotic (Class I) and apoptotic (Class II) parasite killing based on their differential ability to induce phosphatidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production, induction of caspase-3/7 and -12 activity, and DNA degradation. Class II AMPs cause rapid influx of the vital stain SYTOX and an increase in intracellular Ca2+, whereas Class I AMPs cause a slow accumulation of SYTOX and do not affect intracellular Ca2+ levels. Inhibitors of cysteine or caspase proteases diminished fast influx of SYTOX through the surface membrane and DNA degradation but do not ablate the annexin V staining or the induction of apoptosis by Class II AMPs. This suggests that the changes in surface permeability in AMP-mediated apoptosis are related to the downstream events of intracellular cysteine/caspase activation or the loss of ATP. The activation of caspase-12-like activity was Ca2+-dependent, and inhibitors of voltage-gated and nonspecific Ca2+ channels diminished this activity. Flufenamic acid, a nonspecific Ca2+ inhibitor, completely ablated AMP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death, indicating the importance of dysregulation of Ca2+ in antimicrobial peptide-induced apoptosis. PMID:19357081

  8. A β-tubulin 5-derived peptide induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes restricted to the HLA-A24 allele in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Nobukazu; Terasaki, Yasunobu; Moriya, Fukuko; Suekane, Shigetaka; Noguchi, Masanori; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo; Shichijo, Shigeki

    2010-09-01

    To facilitate the development of a peptide-based cancer vaccine for prostate cancer patients, we examined whether any of the 13 peptides previously reported to induce HLA-class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in HLA-A3 supertype (-A3, -A11, -A31 and -A33)-positive prostate cancer patients are also capable of inducing CTLs restricted to HLA-A2, HLA-A24 or HLA-A26 alleles. Among the 13 peptides tested, a peptide at positions 309 to 318 of β-tubulin 5 exhibited binding activity to the HLA-A(*)2402 molecule and induced HLA-A24-restricted CTL activity against prostate cancer cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer patients. The CTL activity was determined to be specific to this peptide and was mediated by CD8(+) T cells in an HLA-class I-restricted manner. These results suggest that this peptide could be applicable as a peptide vaccine, not only for HLA-A3 supertype-positive, but also for HLA-A24-positive prostate cancer patients.

  9. Alzheimer's and Danish dementia peptides induce cataract and perturb retinal architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Reddy, P Yadagiri; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2017-03-01

    Familial Danish dementias (FDDs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with visual defects. In some aspects, FDD is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD)- the amyloid deposits in FDD and AD are made of short peptides: amyloid β (Aβ) in AD and ADan in FDD. Previously, we demonstrated an interaction between the dementia peptides and α-crystallin leading to lens opacification in organ culture due to impaired chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Herein, we report the in vivo effects of ADan and Aβ on the eye. ADan [reduced (ADan-red) and oxidized (ADan-oxi)] and Aβ (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42) were injected intravitreally in rats. The onset of cataract was seen after injection of all the peptides, but the cataract matured by 2 weeks in the case of ADan-red, 5 weeks for ADan-oxi and 6 weeks for Aβ1-40, while Aβ1-42 had minimal effect on cataract progression. The severity of cataract is associated with insolubilization and alterations in crystallins and loss of chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Further, disruption of the architecture of the retina was evident from a loss of rhodopsin, increased gliosis, and the thinning of the retina. These results provide a basis for the dominant heredo-otoophthalmo-encephalopathy (HOOE)/FDD syndrome and indicate that ADan peptides are more potent than Aβpeptides in inflicting visual impairment.

  10. A synthetic peptide derived from domain III envelope glycoprotein of Dengue virus induces neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Mary, J Asnet; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Chattanadee, Siriporn; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Shenbagarathai, R

    2017-09-25

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne human pathogen that represents a severe public health threat in both endemic and non-endemic regions. So far, there is no licensed vaccine or specific drugs available for dengue fever. A fifteen-amino-acid-long peptide that includes the NGR motif was chemically synthesized and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A standard immunization protocol was followed for the production of polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits against the synthetic peptide. The immune response elicited high-titer polyclonal antibodies with the reactivity of the anti-peptide antibody against both synthetic peptide and four serotypes of DENV confirmed by DOT-ELISA. Neutralizing activity of anti-peptide antibody was found to be cross-reactive and effective resulting in 60% reduction of infectivity at 1:200 dilution in all four serotypes of DENV. Our findings have the potential to further improve our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new insights into neutralizing antibodies and could also be used as a drug target.

  11. A Tubulin Binding Peptide Targets Glioma Cells Disrupting Their Microtubules, Blocking Migration, and Inducing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Berges, Raphael; Balzeau, Julien; Peterson, Alan C; Eyer, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment regimes, glioma remains a largely fatal disease. Current treatment limitations are attributed to the precarious locations within the brain where such tumors grow, their highly infiltrative nature precluding complete resection and lack of specificity among agents capable of attenuating their growth. Here, we show that in vitro, glioma cells of diverse origins internalize a peptide encompassing a tubulin-binding site (TBS) on the neurofilament light protein. The internalized peptide disrupts the microtubule network, inhibits migration and proliferation, and leads to apoptosis. Using an intracerebral transplant model, we show that most, if not all, of these responses to peptide exposure also occur in vivo. Notably, a single intratumor injection significantly attenuates tumor growth, while neither peptide uptake nor downstream consequences are observed elsewhere in the host nervous system. Such preferential uptake suggests that the peptide may have potential as a primary or supplementary glioblastoma treatment modality by exploiting its autonomous microtubule-disrupting activity or engaging its capacity to selectively target glioma cells with other cell-disrupting cargos. PMID:22491214

  12. Pri sORF peptides induce selective proteasome-mediated protein processing.

    PubMed

    Zanet, J; Benrabah, E; Li, T; Pélissier-Monier, A; Chanut-Delalande, H; Ronsin, B; Bellen, H J; Payre, F; Plaza, S

    2015-09-18

    A wide variety of RNAs encode small open-reading-frame (smORF/sORF) peptides, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila polished-rice (pri) sORF peptides trigger proteasome-mediated protein processing, converting the Shavenbaby (Svb) transcription repressor into a shorter activator. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies an E2-E3 ubiquitin-conjugating complex, UbcD6-Ubr3, which targets Svb to the proteasome in a pri-dependent manner. Upon interaction with Ubr3, Pri peptides promote the binding of Ubr3 to Svb. Ubr3 can then ubiquitinate the Svb N terminus, which is degraded by the proteasome. The C-terminal domains protect Svb from complete degradation and ensure appropriate processing. Our data show that Pri peptides control selectivity of Ubr3 binding, which suggests that the family of sORF peptides may contain an extended repertoire of protein regulators. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Phospholipase C gamma mediates endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor-regulated calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in colitis-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Fiza; Liu, Miao; Shen, Shanwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a complex pathophysiological paradigm with unclear mechanisms. Primary afferent neuronal plasticity marked by alterations in neuroactive compounds such as calcitonin gene-related peptide is suggested to underlie the heightened sensory responses. Signal transduction that leads to calcitonin gene-related peptide expression thereby sensory neuroplasticity during colitis remains to be elucidated. Results In a rat model with colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, we found that endogenously elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor elicited an up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the lumbar L1 dorsal root ganglia. At seven days of colitis, neutralization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with a specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor antibody reversed calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation in the dorsal root ganglia. Colitis-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide transcription was also inhibited by brain-derived neurotrophic factor antibody treatment. Signal transduction studies with dorsal root ganglia explants showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide expression was mediated by the phospholipase C gamma, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt or the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. Application of PLC inhibitor U73122 in vivo confirmed that colitis-induced and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation in the dorsal root ganglia was regulated by the phospholipase C gamma pathway. In contrast, suppression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in vivo had no effect on colitis-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide expression. During colitis, calcitonin gene-related peptide also co-expressed with phospholipase C gamma but not with p-Akt. Calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation during colitis correlated to the activation

  14. Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reits, Eric A; Hodge, James W; Herberts, Carla A; Groothuis, Tom A; Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Camphausen, Kevin; Luiten, Rosalie M; de Ru, Arnold H; Neijssen, Joost; Griekspoor, Alexander; Mesman, Elly; Verreck, Frank A; Spits, Hergen; Schlom, Jeffrey; van Veelen, Peter; Neefjes, Jacques J

    2006-05-15

    Radiotherapy is one of the most successful cancer therapies. Here the effect of irradiation on antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules was studied. Cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules was increased for many days in a radiation dose-dependent manner as a consequence of three responses. Initially, enhanced degradation of existing proteins occurred which resulted in an increased intracellular peptide pool. Subsequently, enhanced translation due to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway resulted in increased peptide production, antigen presentation, as well as cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of irradiated cells. In addition, novel proteins were made in response to gamma-irradiation, resulting in new peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, which were recognized by cytotoxic T cells. We show that immunotherapy is successful in eradicating a murine colon adenocarcinoma only when preceded by radiotherapy of the tumor tissue. Our findings indicate that directed radiotherapy can improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  15. Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Reits, Eric A.; Hodge, James W.; Herberts, Carla A.; Groothuis, Tom A.; Chakraborty, Mala; K.Wansley, Elizabeth; Camphausen, Kevin; Luiten, Rosalie M.; de Ru, Arnold H.; Neijssen, Joost; Griekspoor, Alexander; Mesman, Elly; Verreck, Frank A.; Spits, Hergen; Schlom, Jeffrey; van Veelen, Peter; Neefjes, Jacques J.

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most successful cancer therapies. Here the effect of irradiation on antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules was studied. Cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules was increased for many days in a radiation dose-dependent manner as a consequence of three responses. Initially, enhanced degradation of existing proteins occurred which resulted in an increased intracellular peptide pool. Subsequently, enhanced translation due to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway resulted in increased peptide production, antigen presentation, as well as cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of irradiated cells. In addition, novel proteins were made in response to γ-irradiation, resulting in new peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, which were recognized by cytotoxic T cells. We show that immunotherapy is successful in eradicating a murine colon adenocarcinoma only when preceded by radiotherapy of the tumor tissue. Our findings indicate that directed radiotherapy can improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy. PMID:16636135

  16. Nascent Peptide Side-chains Induce Rearrangements in Distinct Locations of the Ribosomal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianli; Hua, Zhengmao; Kobertz, William R.; Deutsch, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Although we have numerous structures of ribosomes, none disclose side-chain rearrangements of the nascent peptide during chain elongation. This study reports for the first time that rearrangement of the peptide and/or tunnel occurs in distinct regions of the tunnel and is directed by the unique primary sequence of each nascent peptide. In the tunnel mid-region, the accessibility of an introduced cysteine to a series of novel hydrophilic maleimide reagents increases with increasing volume of the adjacent chain residue, a sensitivity not manifest at the constriction and exit port. This surprising result reveals molecular movements not yet resolvable from structural studies. These findings map solvent accessible volumes along the tunnel and provide novel insights critical to our understanding of allosteric communication within the ribosomal tunnel, translational arrest, chaperone interaction, folding, and rates of elongation. PMID:21663746

  17. Covalently attached oligodeoxyribonucleotides induce RNase activity of a short peptide and modulate its base specificity

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Nadezhda L.; Pyshnyi, Dmytryi V.; Ivanova, Eugenya M.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Gross, Hans J.; Vlassov, Valentin V.

    2004-01-01

    New artificial ribonucleases, conjugates of short oligodeoxyribonucleotides with peptides containing alternating arginine and leucine, were synthesized and characterized in terms of their catalytic activity and specificity of RNA cleavage. The conjugates efficiently cleave different RNAs within single-stranded regions. Depending on the sequence and length of the oligonucleotide, the conjugates display either G–X>>Pyr–A or Pyr–A>>G–X cleavage specificity. Preferential RNA cleavage at G–X phosphodiester bonds was observed for conjugate NH2-Gly-[ArgLeu]4-CCAAACA. The conjugates function as true catalysts, exhibiting reaction turnover up to 175 for 24 h. Our data show that in the conjugate the oligonucleotide plays the role of a factor which provides an ‘active‘ conformation of the peptide via intramolecular interactions, and that it is the peptide residue itself which is responsible for substrate affinity and catalysis. PMID:15047859

  18. IKVAV-linked cell membrane-spanning peptide treatment induces neuronal reactivation following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Soheila; Baltzer, Wendy; Schilke, Karl; Mansouri, Hadi; Mata, John Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord regeneration following treatment with a novel membrane-spanning peptide (MSP) expressing the isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine (IKVAV) epitope was assessed in Balb-c mice. After hemilaminectomy and compression injury, mice were treated with IKVAV, IKVAV-MSP, peptide or vehicle control. Functional improvement was assessed using modified Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Scale (mBBB) and spinal cord segments were studied histologically 28 days after injury. IKVAV-MSP group scores increased significantly compared with control groups after 4 weeks of observation (p < 0.05). The number of protoplasmic astrocytes, neurons and muscle bundle size in the IKVAV-MSP mice were significantly increased (p < 0.001; p < 0.05 and p < 0.007; respectively). This study demonstrates that it is possible to promote functional recovery after SCI using bioactive IKVAV presenting cell membrane-spanning peptides. PMID:28031930

  19. Vaccination with tumor cells pulsed with foreign peptide induces immunity to the tumor itself

    PubMed Central

    Schlingmann, Tobias R.; Rininsland, Frauke H.; Bartholomae, Wolf C.; Kuekrek, Haydar; Lehmann, Paul V.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    EMT-6 mammary carcinoma and B16 melanoma (B16M) cells are lethal and barely immunogenic in syngeneic BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We show that mice vaccinated with tumor cells pulsed with a MHC class I-restricted peptide develop a T cell response, not only to the peptide, but also to the unpulsed tumor. These mice display protective immunity against the unpulsed tumor, and their T cells adoptively transfer tumor-specific protection to immunodeficient SCID mice. Our data have implications for cancer vaccine strategies. Grafting a single well-defined foreign peptide on tumor cells might suffice to trigger anti-tumor immunity. PMID:19589730

  20. Secondary structure conversions of Alzheimer's Abeta(1-40) peptide induced by membrane-mimicking detergents.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Anna; Hugonin, Loïc; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Jarvet, Jüri; Gräslund, Astrid

    2008-10-01

    The amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) with 39-42 residues is the major component of amyloid plaques found in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and soluble oligomeric peptide aggregates mediate toxic effects on neurons. The Abeta aggregation involves a conformational change of the peptide structure to beta-sheet. In the present study, we report on the effect of detergents on the structure transitions of Abeta, to mimic the effects that biomembranes may have. In vitro, monomeric Abeta(1-40) in a dilute aqueous solution is weakly structured. By gradually adding small amounts of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or lithium dodecyl sulfate to a dilute aqueous solution, Abeta(1-40) is converted to beta-sheet, as observed by CD at 3 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The transition is mainly a two-state process, as revealed by approximately isodichroic points in the titrations. Abeta(1-40) loses almost all NMR signals at dodecyl sulfate concentrations giving rise to the optimal beta-sheet content (approximate detergent/peptide ratio = 20). Under these conditions, thioflavin T fluorescence measurements indicate a maximum of aggregated amyloid-like structures. The loss of NMR signals suggests that these are also involved in intermediate chemical exchange. Transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy NMR spectra indicate that the C-terminal residues are more dynamic than the others. By further addition of SDS or lithium dodecyl sulfate reaching concentrations close to the critical micellar concentration, CD, NMR and FTIR spectra show that the peptide rearranges to form a micelle-bound structure with alpha-helical segments, similar to the secondary structures formed when a high concentration of detergent is added directly to the peptide solution.

  1. Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2004-11-01

    In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and

  2. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Herrera Diaz, Areli; Kovacs, Izabella; Lindermayr, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus). The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria.

  3. Inducible Expression of the De-Novo Designed Antimicrobial Peptide SP1-1 in Tomato Confers Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Herrera Diaz, Areli; Kovacs, Izabella; Lindermayr, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The peptide SP1-1 was targeted to the apoplast which is the primary infection site for plant pathogens, by fusing SP1-1 peptide to the signal peptide RsAFP1 of radish (Raphanus sativus). The pathogen inducibility of the expression was enabled by using an optimized inducible 4XW2/4XS promoter. As a result, the tomato fruits of independently generated SP1-1 transgenic lines were significantly more resistant to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria than WT tomato fruits. In transgenic lines, bacterial infection was reduced up to 65% in comparison to the infection of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that the combination of the 4XW2/4XS cis-element from parsley with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide SP1-1 is a good alternative to protect tomato fruits against infections with X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. PMID:27706237

  4. Inactivation of T cell receptor peptide-specific CD4 regulatory T cells induces chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Stellrecht, K; Sercarz, E

    1996-11-01

    T cell receptor (TCR)-recognizing regulatory cells, induced after vaccination with self-reactive T cells or TCR peptides, have been shown to prevent autoimmunity. We have asked whether this regulation is involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to myelin basic protein (MBP) in an autoimmune disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Antigen-induced EAE in (SJL x B10.PL)F1 mice is transient in that most animals recover permanently from the disease. Most of the initial encephalitogenic T cells recognize MBP Ac1-9 and predominantly use the TCR V beta 8.2 gene segment. In mice recovering from MBP-induced EAE, regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg) specific for a single immunodominant TCR peptide B5 (76-101) from framework region 3 of the V beta 8.2 chain, become primed. We have earlier shown that cloned B5-reactive Treg can specifically downregulate responses to Ac1-9 and also protect mice from EAE. These CD4 Treg clones predominantly use the TCR V beta 14 or V beta 3 gene segments. Here we have directly tested whether deletion/blocking of the Treg from the peripheral repertoire affects the spontaneous recovery from EAE. Treatment of F1 mice with appropriate V beta-specific monoclonal antibodies resulted in an increase in the severity and duration of the disease; even relapses were seen in one-third to one-half of the Treg-deleted mice. Interestingly, chronic disease in treated mice appears to be due to the presence of Ac1-9-specific T cells. Thus, once self-tolerance to MBP is broken by immunization with the antigen in strong adjuvant, TCR peptide-specific CD4 Treg cells participate in reestablishing peripheral tolerance. Thus, a failure to generate Treg may be implicated in chronic autoimmune conditions.

  5. Cell death of Streptococcus mutans induced by a quorum-sensing peptide occurs via a conserved streptococcal autolysin.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Delphine; Lévesque, Céline M

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a member of the human indigenous oral microbiome, produces a quorum-sensing peptide called the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) pheromone. We previously demonstrated that S. mutans expresses its CSP pheromone under specific stresses and responds to high levels of CSP by inducing cell death in a fraction of the bacterial population. Streptococci lack the classical SOS response, and the induction of the SigX regulon has been proposed to act as a general stress response in Gram-positive bacteria. We show here that inactivation of SigX abolished the CSP-induced cell death phenotype. Among SigX-regulated genes, SMU.836 (now named lytF(Sm)), encoding a conserved streptococcal protein, is a functional peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in CSP-induced cell lysis. We also demonstrated that LytF(Sm) is most likely a self-acting autolysin, since LytF(Sm) produced by attacker cells cannot trigger CSP-induced lysis of LytF(Sm)-deficient target cells present in the same environment. Electron microscopy revealed important morphological changes accompanying autolysis of CSP-induced wild-type cultures that were absent in the LytF(Sm)-deficient mutant. The LytF(Sm) promoter was activated in the physiological context of elevated concentrations of the CSP pheromone under stress conditions, such as exposure to heat, hydrogen peroxide, and acid. In a long-term survival assay, the viability of a mutant deficient in LytF(Sm) autolysin was significantly lower than that observed for the wild-type strain. The results of this study suggest that cell death of S. mutans induced by its quorum-sensing CSP pheromone may represent a kind of altruistic act that provides a way for the species to survive environmental stresses at the expense of some of its cells.

  6. The antimicrobial peptide LL37 induces the migration of human pulp cells: a possible adjunct for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Shiba, Hideki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Uchida, Yuushi; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2010-06-01

    The antimicrobial peptide LL37 has multiple functions, such as the induction of angiogenesis and migration. Pulp cell migration is a key phenomenon in the early stage of pulp-dentin complex regeneration. In this study, we examined the effect of LL37 on the migration of human pulp (HP) cells. HP cells at the sixth passage were exposed to LL37. The migration of HP cells was assessed by a wound-healing assay. The phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was analyzed by immunoblotting. LL37 as well as heparin binding (HB)-EGF, which is an agonist of EGFR, induced HP cell migration. LL37 increased the level of phosphorylated EGFR. An anti-EGFR antibody, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and a JNK inhibitor abolished the migration induced by both LL37 and HB-EGF. Furthermore, the two peptides increased the levels of phosphorylated JNK. LL37 activates EGFR and JNK to induce HP cell migration, and it may contribute to enhancing the regeneration of pulp-dentin complexes. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The American cockroach peptide periplanetasin-2 blocks Clostridium Difficile toxin A-induced cell damage and inflammation in the gut.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Yoon, I Na; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Ho

    2017-02-07

    Clostridium difficile, which causes pseudomembranous colitis, releases toxin A and toxin B. These toxins are considered to be the main causative agents for the disease pathogenesis, and their expression is associated with a marked increase of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells are believed to form a physical barrier between the lumen and the submucosa, and abnormally increased mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be an initial step in gut inflammation responses. Therefore, one approach to treating pseudomembranous colitis would be to develop agents that block the mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis caused by toxin A, thus restoring barrier function and curing inflammatory responses in the gut. We recently isolated an antimicrobial peptide, Periplanetasin-2 (Peri-2, YPCKLNLKLGKVPFH) from the American cockroach, whose extracts have shown great potential for clinical use. Here, we assessed whether Peri-2 could inhibit the cell toxicities and inflammation caused by C. difficile toxin A. Indeed, in human colonocyte HT29 cells, Peri-2 inhibited the toxin A-induced decrease in cell proliferation and ameliorated the cell apoptosis induced by this toxin. Moreover, in the toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model, Peri-2 blocked the mucosal disruption and inflammatory response caused by toxin A. These results suggest that the American cockroach peptide, Peri-2, could be a possible drug candidate for addressing the pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile toxin A.

  8. Large-scale production of soluble recombinant amyloid-β peptide 1-42 using cold-inducible expression system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Jeong Mi; Jeong, Min Seop; Oh, Choongseob; Ahn, Sung-Min; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jang, Ho Hee

    2012-11-01

    Amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), the predominant form in senile plaques, plays important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because Aβ(1-42) has aggregation-prone nature, it has been difficult to produce in a soluble state in bacterial expression systems. In this study, we modified our expression system to increase the soluble fraction of Aβ(1-42) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. The expression level and solubility of recombinant Aβ(1-42) induced at the low temperature (16°C) is highly increased compared to that induced at 37°C. To optimize expression temperature, the coding region of Aβ(1-42) was constructed in a pCold vector, pCold-TF, which has a hexahistidine-tagged trigger factor (TF). Recombinant Aβ(1-42) was expressed primarily as a soluble protein using pCold vector system and purified with a nickel-chelating resin. When the toxic effect of recombinant Aβ(1-42) examined on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, the purified Aβ(1-42) induced cell toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the system developed in this study will provide a useful method for the production of aggregation prone-peptide such as Aβ(1-42).

  9. Comparative effects of two potentiating peptides (KPP and BPP9a) on kinin-induced rat paw edema.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P D; Guimarães, J A; Assreuy, J

    1991-03-01

    We have previously shown that KPP, a kinin potentiating peptide generated by tryptic digestion of human plasma proteins potentiated kinin effects on isolated smooth muscle preparations like guinea-pig ileum with high potency and specificity. We also obtained evidence suggesting that, unlike other potentiating peptides, KPP exerts its effect by a mechanism different from the inhibition of kinin metabolism by angiotensin converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase and kininase I. Here we show the potentiating effect of KPP and of BPP9a, a potentiator derived from snake venom, towards the rat paw edema induced by bradykinin (BK). Our results show that: a) KPP is 25-fold more active than BPP9a in potentiating rat paw edema elicited by BK: b) like BPP9a, KPP is specific in potentiating kinin-induced edema, being ineffective in potentiating edema induced by histamine or serotonin; and c) DesArg9-BK (DABK) elicits a small edematogenic response which can be potentiated by both KPP and BPP9a.

  10. H2-M polymorphism in mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis involves the peptide binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Loos, M.; Maeurer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to develop type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is associated with the major histocompatibility I-A gene and with as yet poorly defined regulatory molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen processing and presentation pathway. H2-M molecules are thought to be involved in the loading of antigenic peptides into the MHC class II binding cleft. We sequenced H2-Ma, H2-Mb1, and H2-Mb2 genes from CIA-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains and identified four different Ma and Mb2 alleles, and three different Mb1 alleles defined by polymorphic residues within the predicted peptide binding groove. Most CIA-resistant mouse strains share common Ma, Mb1, and Mb2 alleles. In contrast, H2-M alleles designated Ma-III, Ma-IV, Mb1-III, and Mb2-IV could be exclusively identified in the CIA-susceptible H2{sup r} and H2{sup q} haplotypes, suggesting that allelic H2-M molecules may modulate the composition of different CII peptides loaded onto MHC class II molecules, presumably presenting {open_quotes}arthritogenic{close_quotes} epitopes to T lymphocytes. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. EWS/FLI-l peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induces the antitumor immunity in a murine Ewing's sarcoma cell model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Huang, Xunwu; Yang, Dazhi

    2014-08-01

    An increasing number of T-cell epitopes derived from various tumor-associated antigens have been reported, and they proved to play significant roles for tumor rejection both in vivo and in vitro. Over 85% of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) express tumor-specific chimeric protein EWS/FLI-1, making it an attractive target for therapeutic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Here, we identified a novel peptide epitope derived from the EWS/FLI-1 protein and demonstrated that effectors induced by the peptide could specifically secrete IFN-γ and lyse the tumor cell line of EWS/FLI-1-positive and HLA-matched cells. In addition, mice treated with dendritic cells pulsed with the EWS/FLI-1 epitope were able to reject a lethal tumor inoculation of the Ewing's sarcoma A673 cells. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the use of the EWS/FLI-l peptide epitope in T cell-based immunotherapeutic concepts against Ewing's sarcoma cell in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family.

  13. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP)-derived peptide (NAP) ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narendra K; Sethy, Niroj K; Meena, Ram Niwas; Ilavazhagan, Govindsamy; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2011-06-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia is a socio-economic problem affecting cognitive, memory and behavior functions. Severe oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia adversely affects brain areas like cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. In the present study, we have investigated the antioxidant and memory protection efficacy of the synthetic NAP peptide (NAPVSIPQ) during long-term chronic hypobaric hypoxia (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, 25,000ft) in rats. Intranasal supplementation of NAP peptide (2μg/Kg body weight) improved antioxidant status of brain evaluated by biochemical assays for free radical estimation, lipid peroxidation, GSH and GSSG level. Analysis of expression levels of SOD revealed that NAP significantly activated antioxidant genes as compared to hypoxia exposed rats. We have also observed a significant increased expression of Nrf2, the master regulator of antioxidant defense system and its downstream targets such as HO-1, GST and SOD1 by NAP supplementation, suggesting activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense response. In corroboration, our results also demonstrate that NAP supplementation improved the memory function assessed with radial arm maze. These cumulative results suggest the therapeutic potential of NAP peptide for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  14. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  15. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family. PMID:25603394

  16. Covalent HLA-B27/peptide complex induced by specific recognition of an aziridine mimic of arginine.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G A; Valentekovich, R J; Collins, E J; Garboczi, D N; Lane, W S; Schreiber, S L; Wiley, D C

    1996-10-01

    The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) glycoprotein HLA-B27 binds short peptides containing arginine at peptide position 2 (P2). The HLA-B27/peptide complex is recognized by T cells both as part of the development of the repertoire of T cells in the cellular immune system and during activation of cytotoxic T cells. Based on the three-dimensional structure of HLA-B27, we have synthesized a ligand with an aziridine-containing side chain designed to mimic arginine and to bind covalently in the arginine-specific P2 pocket of HLA-B27. Using tryptic digestion followed by mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing, the aziridine-containing ligand is shown to alkylate specifically cysteine 67 of HLA-B27. Neither free cysteine in solution nor an exposed cysteine on a class II MHC molecule can be alkylated, showing that specific recognition between the anchor side-chain pocket of an MHC class I protein and the designed ligand (propinquity) is necessary to induce the selective covalent reaction with the MHC class I molecule.

  17. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis of Cu(2+)-induced oligomers of the Alzheimer's amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Timothy M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Roberts, Blaine; Barnham, Kevin J; Cappai, Roberto; Pham, Chi Le Lan; Masters, Colin L; Curtain, Cyril C

    2015-03-01

    Research into causes of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment has produced a tantalising array of hypotheses about the role of transition metal dyshomeostasis, many of them on the interaction of these metals with the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Here, we have used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to study the effect of the molar ratio, Cu(2+)/Aβ, on the early three-dimensional structures of the Aβ1-40 and Cu(2+)/Aβ1-42 peptides in solution. We found that at molar ratios of 0.5 copper to peptide Aβ1-40 aggregated, while Aβ1-42 adopted a relatively monodisperse cylindrical shape, and at a ratio of 1.5 copper to peptide Aβ1-40 adopted a monodisperse cylindrical shape, while Aβ1-42 adopted the shape of an ellipsoid of rotation. We also found, via in-line rapid mixing SAXS analysis, that both peptides in the absence of copper were monodisperse at very short timeframes (<2 s). Kratky plots of these scattering profiles indicated that immediately after mixing both were intrinsically disordered. Ensemble optimisation modelling reflected this, indicating a wide range of structural conformers. These data reflect the ensembles from which the Cu(2+)-promoted oligomers were derived. Our results are discussed in the light of other studies that have shown that the Cu(2+)/Aβ has a marked effect on fibril and oligomer formation by this peptide, with a higher ratio favouring the formation of cytotoxic non-amyloid oligomers. Our results are relatively consistent with previous two-dimensional studies of the conformations of these Cu(2+)-induced entities, made on a much longer time-scale than SAXS, by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, which showed that a range of oligomeric species are formed. We propose that SAXS carried out on a modern synchrotron beamline enables studies on initial events in disordered protein folding on physiologically-relevant time-scales, and will likely provide great insight into the initiating processes of the A

  18. Gas-phase separations of protein and peptide ion fragments generated by collision-induced dissociation in an ion trap.

    PubMed

    Badman, Ethan R; Myung, S; Clemmer, David E

    2002-10-01

    Ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques have been used to examine distributions of fragment ions generated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap. The mobility-based separation step prior to mass-to-charge (m/z) analysis reduces spectral congestion and provides information that complements m/z-based assignments of peaks. The approach is demonstrated by examining fragmentation patterns of insulin chain B (a 30-residue peptide), and ubiquitin (a protein containing 76 amino acids). Some fragments of ubiquitin show evidence for multiple stable conformations.

  19. Receptor-directed inhibition of chemotactic factor-induced neutrophil hyperactivity by pyrazolon derivatives. Definition of a chemotactic peptide antagonist.

    PubMed

    Dahinden, C; Fehr, J

    1980-11-01

    The two pyrazolon derivatives, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone, selectively inhibit chemotactic peptide-induced effects on neutrophils. As they antagonize the induction of acute neutropenia in vivo and of cellular hyperadhesiveness, lysosomal enzyme release, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and superoxide production in vitro, these effects occur with a specificity not shared with other prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition by these drugs resembles the competitive type of antagonism and occurs at concentrations attainable in vivo under clinical conditions. The locomotory machinery, the direction-finding mechanisms, and the basic metabolic machinery of the cell are unaffected. These drugs interfere with specific binding of the formylpeptide to its receptor on neutrophils.

  20. Receptor-directed inhibition of chemotactic factor-induced neutrophil hyperactivity by pyrazolon derivatives. Definition of a chemotactic peptide antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Dahinden, C; Fehr, J

    1980-01-01

    The two pyrazolon derivatives, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone, selectively inhibit chemotactic peptide-induced effects on neutrophils. As they antagonize the induction of acute neutropenia in vivo and of cellular hyperadhesiveness, lysosomal enzyme release, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and superoxide production in vitro, these effects occur with a specificity not shared with other prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition by these drugs resembles the competitive type of antagonism and occurs at concentrations attainable in vivo under clinical conditions. The locomotory machinery, the direction-finding mechanisms, and the basic metabolic machinery of the cell are unaffected. These drugs interfere with specific binding of the formylpeptide to its receptor on neutrophils. PMID:7430350

  1. Inhibition of isoflurane-induced increase of cell-surface redistribution and activity of glutamate transporter type 3 by serine 465 sequence-specific peptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueming; Li, Liaoliao; Washington, Jacqueline M; Xu, Xuebing; Sando, Julianne J; Lin, Daowei; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2011-03-25

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) transport glutamate into cells to regulate glutamate neurotransmission and to maintain nontoxic extracellular glutamate levels for neurons. We showed previously that the commonly used volatile anesthetic isoflurane increases the transporting activity of EAAT3, the major neuronal EAAT. This effect requires a protein kinase C (PKC) α-mediated and S465-dependent EAAT3 redistribution to the plasma membrane. Thus, we hypothesize that specific peptides can be designed to block this effect. We conjugated a 10-amino acid synthetic peptide with a sequence identical to that of EAAT3 around the S465 to a peptide that can facilitate permeation of the plasma membrane. This fusion peptide inhibited the isoflurane-increased EAAT3 activity and redistribution to the plasma membrane in C6 cells and hippocampus. It did not affect the basal EAAT3 activity. This peptide also attenuated isoflurane-induced increase of PKCα in the immunoprecipitates produced by an anti-EAAT3 antibody. A scrambled peptide that has the same amino acid composition as the S465 sequence-specific peptide but has a random sequence did not change the effects of isoflurane on EAAT3. The S465 sequence-specific peptide, but not the scrambled peptide, is a good PKCα substrate in in vitro assay. These peptides did not affect cell viability. These results, along with our previous findings, strongly suggest that PKCα interacts with EAAT3 to regulate its functions. The S465 sequence-specific peptide may interrupt this interaction and is an effective inhibitor for the regulation of EAAT3 activity and trafficking by PKCα and isoflurane.

  2. CopA3 peptide prevents ultraviolet-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Yu, Jae-Myo; Lee, Eun-Su; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Dong-In; An, Bong-Jeun

    2014-05-20

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3) was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging