Van Eldere, J; Parmentier, G; Asselberghs, S; Eyssen, H
The strictly anaerobic intestinal Peptococcus niger H4 synthesizes three different steroidsulfatase enzymes: a constitutive arylsulfatase and two inducible alkylsteroidsulfatases. The arylsulfatase desulfates estrogen-3-sulfates and phenylsulfates. The two alkylsteroidsulfatases desulfate, respectively, 3 alpha-sulfates and 3 beta-sulfates of delta 5, 5 alpha, and 5 beta androstanes, pregnanes, and bile acids. Cholesterol-3 beta-sulfate was not desulfated by the alkylsteroidsulfatases nor were steroids or bile acids that were sulfated in positions other than the 3 position. The alkylsteroidsulfatases were induced by their substrates; bile acid sulfates, however, were poor inducers of the 3 beta-sulfatase and did not induce the 3 alpha-sulfatase activity. In intact bacterial cells, taurine and sulfite suppressed the induction of the alkylsteroidsulfatases and inhibited the activity of the arylsulfatase and alkylsteroidsulfatases. In cell homogenates, the arylsulfatase and alkylsteroidsulfatases activities were inhibited by sulfite and sulfate but not by taurine. Our results support the hypothesis that the main function of the steroidsulfatases in P. niger H4 is to provide the bacteria with sulfur for dissimilatory purposes. PMID:2036022
Taylor, A G; Fincham, W J; Golding, M A; Cook, J
In two cases of infected total hip replacements, Peptococcus magnus was isolated in pure culture from the implant when it was removed. Fluorescent antibody and ELISA studies have shown that both patients developed an antibody response to this anaerobic coccus soon after the replacement operation. These results suggest that the organism is a true infective agent, which was probably responsible for the failure of the arthroplasty operation. PMID:372250
Pumarola Suñé, J; Espias Gómez, A; Canalda Sahli, C
We have compared the microbiological activity of the following cavity liners: Life, Dycal II, Calcipulpe, Pure calcium hydroxide and Cavitec; against five different bacterial strains: Veillonella parvula, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus s.p., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus beta hemolytic: The results demonstrate the higher antimicrobial activity of the manufactured cavity liners with calcium hydroxide base in comparison with the pure calcium hydroxide.
Wong, M; Catena, A; Hadley, W K
Antisera against whole cells of each Peptostreptococcus species (P. anaerobius, P. micros, P. parvulus, and P. productus) were produced in rabbits. When these antisera were reacted against sonically disrupted cells and culture supernatant fluids in Ouchterlony tests, lines of identity were obtained among the antigens from all the species and uninoculated culture medium. When the antisera were subsequently absorbed with the dehydrated culture medium used to grow the peptostreptococci, all cross-reactions in heterologous antigen-antibody combinations were eliminated, leaving only species-specific precipitin arcs. These absorbed antisera, specific for each Peptostreptococcus species by Ouchterlony tests, were used for rapid identification studies. Staphylococcus aureus-bearing protein A was sensitized with each absorbed antiserum. These reagents produced specific coagglutination reactions with suspensions of each Peptostreptococcus reference strain and with 16 clinical isolates. No cross-reactions occurred with the Streptococcus intermedius, Peptococcus magnus, or Peptococcus asaccharolyticus strains tested. Images PMID:6769956
Kumar, Purnima S; Mason, Matthew R; Brooker, Michael R; O'Brien, Kelly
Although it is established that peri-implantitis is a bacterially induced disease, little is known about the bacterial profile of peri-implant communities in health and disease. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the microbial signatures of the peri-implant microbiome in health and disease. Subgingival and submucosal plaque samples were collected from forty subjects with periodontitis, peri-implantitis, periodontal and peri-implant health and analysed using 16S pyrosequencing. Peri-implant biofilms demonstrated significantly lower diversity than subgingival biofilms in both health and disease, however, several species, including previously unsuspected and unknown organisms, were unique to this niche. The predominant species in peri-implant communities belonged to the genera Butyrivibrio, Campylobacter, Eubacterium, Prevotella, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Leptotrichia, Propionibacterium, Peptococcus, Lactococcus and Treponema. Peri-implant disease was associated with lower levels of Prevotella and Leptotrichia and higher levels of Actinomyces, Peptococcus, Campylobacter, non-mutans Streptococcus, Butyrivibrio and Streptococcus mutans than healthy implants. These communities also demonstrated lower levels of Prevotella, non-mutans Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Leptotrichia, Actinomyces and higher levels of Peptococcus, Mycoplasma, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Butyrivibrio, S. mutans and Treponema when compared to periodontitis-associated biofilms. The peri-implant microbiome differs significantly from the periodontal community in both health and disease. Peri-implantitis is a microbially heterogeneous infection with predominantly gram-negative species, and is less complex than periodontitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Savolainen, S; Ylikoski, J; Jousimies-Somer, H
The nasal cavity of 97 young healthy men (applicants for the pilot education in the Finnish Air Force) was examined. Bacterial culture demonstrated one or more species of aerobic bacteria in all 194 nasal cavities examined and anaerobic bacteria in 76.5%. In ten per cent of the cultures bacteria were detected after enrichment only. The most common aerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis (79%), diphtheroids (41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (34%). Haemophilus influenzae was found in 5% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 0.5%. Anaerobic culture yielded Propionibacterium acnes in 74.5% and Peptococcus magnus in 3.5%.
dence dence Bacteroides: melaninogenicus 2 7.1 species 3 10.7 Clostridium : difficile 1 3.6 perfringens 2 7.1 Corynebacterium sp. 5 17.9 Peptococcus sp. 1...Ain. J. Med. 21:406). Ps. aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients have been shown to produce a "slime" or "capsular" material chemically...similar to the abnormal, ethanol insoluble mucoid material secreted by the exocrine glands of the cystic fibrosis patient. (Doggett, et al, 1965, J
Agger, W A; Maki, D G
A preponderance of clusters seen on direct Gram stain of blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci was 98% sensitive and 100% specific for identification of staphylococcal species or of Peptococcus. A preponderance of chains, pairs, or both was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for identifying streptococci. Further presumptive identification of either staphylococci or streptococci based on microscopic morphology was unreliable. The direct Gram stain is highly reliable for differentiating staphylococci from streptococci and should be of considerable value to clinicians selecting initial antimicrobial therapy. PMID:75888
Iannotti, E.L.; Fischer, J.R.; Sievers, D.M.
One-hundred thirty bacteria isolated from a swine manure digester were predominately gram-positive anaerobes which were tentatively classified into the following genera: Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Clostridiu, and Streptococcus plus two unidentified groups. The major fermentation products formed by these organisms included acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, and ethanol, singly or in various combinations. Acetate was the sole end product of several groups. Few of the isolates (14%) reduced the pH below 6.0. The predominate bacteria appear to differ from the predominate organisms isolated from other anaerobic ecosystems.
Sutter, V L
In the selection of empiric therapy for infections of the female genital tract and intraabdominal infections in humans, the requisite information includes (1) the frequency of isolation of bacterial species dominant in the normal gastrointestinal and female genital tracts and in intraabdominal and female genital tract infections and (2) the in vitro susceptibilities of the dominant species to drugs that may be used against them (e.g., penicillin G, cefoperazone, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole). The predominant bacteria in fecal contents are not necessarily those most frequently found in infections. Intraabdominal and perirectal infections are usually polymicrobial, resulting from mixtures of facultative species (coliforms and streptococci) and anaerobes. The predominant bacteria of the normal vagina and cervix are lactobacilli, facultative streptococci, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species. Most infections of the female genital tract are due to mixtures of facultative enteric bacilli, streptococci, and anaerobes (Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides disiens, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides bivius, and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus). Of the antibiotics tested, clindamycin appears the most active against many of the groups of bacteria isolated.
Piriz, S; Cuenca, R; Valle, J; Vadillo, S
The agar dilution method was used to determine the inhibitory activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against 35 strains of the genus Peptostreptococcus, 4 strains of the species Peptococcus niger, 20 strains of the species Megasphaera elsdenii, 7 strains from the species Acidaminococcus fermentans, 8 strains of the genus Clostridium, 11 strains of the genus Eubacterium, and 1 strain of the species Propionibacterium acidipropionici, all of which were isolated from 125 clinical cases of ovine foot rot between January 1987 and December 1988. The three unreidopenicillins studied proved to be the most active antimicrobial agents, with a high percentage of strains being susceptible at a concentration of 64 micrograms/ml. Penicillin G, ampicillin, and the three cephalosporins studied also had good activity. Fosfomycin showed a high degree of activity among the 116 anaerobic bacteria tested. PMID:1590689
Yasuda, K; Hayashi, M; Takeda, N; Goshima, E; Miura, K
Nonclostridial gas gangrene in diabetics results in poor prognosis. In this paper, a survived case of diabetic nonclostridial gas gangrene caused by Proteus vulgaris and Streptococcus faecalis is described and microbiological findings of 31 cases of the literatures including our own case were reviewed. Twenty of 31 cases died (64.5%). The microbiological findings in 30 cases revealed an average of 1.8 organism per case. Predominant aerobes were E. Coli (56.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (16.7%), aerobic Streptococcus and Proteus (both 13.3%) in that order. Anaerobes were found in 12 of 20 cases and isolated anaerobes were Bacteroides (8 cases) and Peptococcus (4 cases). The role of specific bacteria in causing severe form of nonclostridial gas gangrene in diabetics was suggested.
Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri
Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977
Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo
To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, P<0.01), Saccharomyces (2.22∓0.27, P<0.05), Bacteriodes (5.57∓0.28, P<0.001), Bifidobacterium (5.08∓0.30, P<0.01), Peptococcus (6.22∓0.25, P<0.001), Lactobacillus (6.00∓0.26, P<0.001), and Clostridium (3.57∓0.30, P<0.05) all increased significantly, while Eubacterium (1.56∓0.24, P<0.01) reduced markedly in patients with ulcerative colitis compared with those in the control subjects. Enterrococcus (6.93∓0.28, P<0.01), Saccharomyces (2.73∓0.37, P<0.01), Bacteriodes (4.32∓0.52, P<0.05), Bifidobacterium (4.88∓0.42, P<0.05), Peptococcus (6.19∓0.32, P<0.01) and Lactobacillus (4.73∓0.47, P<0.001) all increased significantly and Eubacterium (1.01∓0.29, P<0.01) and Clostridium (0.87∓0.31, P<0.01) decreased in patients with Crohn's disease. The positivity rates of bacterial culture were consistent with the results of quantitative analysis of the fecal flora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.
Wikström, M B; Dahlén, G; Linde, A
Samples were taken from blood accumulated in dental alveoli after surgical removal of mandibular third molars, from subgingival plaque of teeth with advanced periodontal destructions, from teeth with infected necrotic pulps, and from subjects suffering from angular cheilitis. Of the microorganisms subcultured from these samples, 116 strains were assayed for enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen were assayed with the thin-layer enzyme assay cultivation technique. This assay involves the cultivation of microorganisms on culture agars applied over fibrinogen-coated polystyrene surfaces. Enzymes degrading fibrin were assayed with both a plate assay and a tube assay, in which fibrin was mixed with a microbial culture medium. Microorganisms degrading fibrinogen or fibrin or both were isolated from all sampling sites. Activity was mainly detected in strains of Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most Fusobacterium strains degraded fibrinogen only. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen as well as enzymes degrading fibrin via activation of plasminogen were revealed in strains of Clostridium, S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. It was generally found that fibrinogen was degraded by more strains than was fibrin, which indicates that different proteases may be involved. PMID:6345573
Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Kang, Alicia Y. H.; Maguire, Anita J.; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V.
Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as ‘shared’ OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales). These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus) was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry. PMID:23626688
Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi
Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.
Chen, Xingdong; Winckler, Björn; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Hongwei; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin
Poor oral health has been linked with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated whether alteration of oral microbiota is associated with ESCC risk. Fasting saliva samples were collected from 87 incident and histopathologicallly diagnosed ESCC cases, 63 subjects with dysplasia and 85 healthy controls. All subjects were also interviewed with a questionnaire. V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing platform. Carriage of each genus was compared by means of multivariate-adjusted odds ratios derived from logistic regression model. Relative abundance was compared using Metastats method. Beta diversity was estimated using Unifrac and weighted Unifrac distances. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was applied to ordinate dissimilarity matrices. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the coordinates between different groups. ESCC subjects had an overall decreased microbial diversity compared to control and dysplasia subjects (P<0.001). Decreased carriage of genera Lautropia, Bulleidia, Catonella, Corynebacterium, Moryella, Peptococcus and Cardiobacterium were found in ESCC subjects compared to non-ESCC subjects. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on PCoA coordinates also revealed that ESCC subjects had significantly different levels for several coordinates compared to non-ESCC subjects. In conclusion, we observed a correlation between altered salivary bacterial microbiota and ESCC risk. The results of our study on the saliva microbiome are of particular interest as it reflects the shift in microbial communities. Further studies are warranted to verify this finding, and if being verified, to explore the underlying mechanisms.
Papaevangelou, Georgios; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P; Flaris, Nikolaos; Iliadis, Charalampos; Tsonidis, Christos
Congenital dermal sinus tract of the spine is an unusual developmental defect which represents a failure of the surface ectoderm and dermal elements to separate from the neuroectoderm. A 15-month-old female presented with high fever, severe right hemiparesis, difficulty breathing and cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a congenital dermal sinus tract at the Th6 level, an intramedullary collection extending up to the brainstem and a probable intramedullary cystic lesion. The child was operated acutely with ligation of the sinus tract, drainage of the abscess and partial removal of the intramedullary lesion. Due to abscess recurrence, she was reoperated with complete excision of the dermal sinus tract, abscess redrainage and subtotal excision of the dermoid cyst (retaining a part of its capsule). Pus culture isolated Corynebacterium species and Peptococcus species and histology of the lesion showed a dermoid cyst. Postoperatively, after an initial neurologic deterioration, she progressively improved. An MRI scan at 15 months neither showed recurrence of the collection nor regrowth of the lesion. Spinal dermal sinus tracts that remain unnoticed or untreated can result in serious complications and should be operated as soon as possible to prevent undesirable sequelae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kanengoni, Arnold T; Chimonyo, Michael; Tasara, Taurai; Cormican, Paul; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Ndimba, Bongani K; Dzama, Kennedy
Faecal microbial communities in South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses were investigated using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA genes. The faecal microbial communities in LW × LR crosses and SAWIPs fed control (CON) and high maize cob (HMC) diets were evaluated through parallel sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. Butrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and Desulfovibrio, although present in LW × LR pigs, were absent from the SAWIP microbial community. Bacteroides, Succiniclasticum, Peptococcus and Akkermansia were found in SAWIPs but not in LW × LR crosses. The ratios of Bacteroidia to Clostridia on the CON and HMC diets were similar (0.37 versus 0.39) in SAWIPs but different (0.24 versus 0.1) in LW × LR crosses. The faecal microbial profiles determined were different between the LW × LR and SAWIP breeds but not between pigs fed the CON and HMC diets. The composition of faecal bacterial communities in SAWIPs was determined for the first time. The differences in microbial communities detected may explain the enhanced ability of SAWIPs to digest fibrous diets compared with the LW × LR crosses.
Gasser, I; Osset, J; Olarte, I; Olsina, M; Arcalís, L
To study the characteristics of bite wounds with unfavorable evolution, developing infectious complications that requires hospital admission. The data from 22 patients admitted to the Ciudad Sanitaria Vall d'Hebron hospital for the above mentioned reason over the last 5 years were reviewed. The patients (8 males, 8 females and 6 children) were bitten by 10 dogs, 6 cats, and 6 men with predominance of the wound site being in the upper limb (10) followed by the lower limbs (6), head or face (5) and exceptionally on the breast (1). The most frequent clinical manifestation was abscess and/or cellulitis (13) and adenopathies or lymphangitis (4); 5 patients presented osteoarticular involvement including 3 bone fractures due to human aggression. With regard to the etiology of infection, the common bucal flora bacteria were isolated in all the cases; Pasteurella multocida in 15/16 animal bites, Eikenella corrodens associated to streptococcus in 5/6 human bites, Fusobacterium spp. (5), Bacteroides spp. (3) and Peptococcus sp. (1). The most frequently administered antibiotics were gentamycin (15), penicillin (13), cloxacillin (5) and clindamycin (4). The evolution was favorable, although slow in many cases, with sequelae in 3 patients. It is very difficult to foresee in which cases infectious complications will develop in bite wounds. According to the authors' experience, in the case of deep wounds the bacteria implied come from the mouth of the aggressor. Careful cleansing, rapid administration of an adequate antibiotic and clinical control being the most recommendable procedure.
Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Kang, Alicia Y H; Maguire, Anita J; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V
Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales). These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus) was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.
Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo
Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.
Abdelhadi, Maha S A; Bukharie, Huda A
Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.
AbdelHadi, Maha S.A; Bukharie, Huda A.
Background: Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. Materials and Methods: This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. Results: The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Conclusion: Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may
Buckel, Wolfgang; Barker, H. A.
Two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—the methylaspartate and the hydroxyglutarate pathways which are used by Clostridium tetanomorphum and Peptococcus aerogenes, respectively. Although these pathways give rise to the same products, they are easily distinguished by different labeling patterns of the butyrate when [4-14C]glutamate is used as substrate. Schmidt degradation of the radioactive butyrate from C. tetanomorphum yielded equally labeled propionate and carbon dioxide, whereas nearly all the radioactivity of the butyrate from P. aerogenes was recovered in the corresponding propionate. This procedure was used as a test for the pathway of glutamate fermentation by 15 strains (9 species) of anaerobic bacteria. The labeling patterns of the butyrate indicate that glutamate is fermented via the methylaspartate pathway by C. tetani, C. cochlearium, and C. saccarobutyricum, and via the hydroxyglutarate pathway by Acidaminococcus fermentans, C. microsporum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and F. fusiformis. Enzymes specific for each pathway were assayed in crude extracts of the above organisms. 3-Methylaspartase was found only in clostridia which use the methylaspartate pathway, including Clostridium SB4 and C. sticklandii, which probably degrade glutamate to acetate and carbon dioxide by using a second amino acid as hydrogen acceptor. High levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase were found exclusively in organisms that use the hydroxyglutarate pathway. The data indicate that only two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate by the bacteria analyzed. The methylaspartate pathway appears to be used only by species of Clostridium, whereas the hydroxyglutarate pathway is used by representatives of several genera. PMID:4813895
Oh-oka, H; Takahashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Saeki, K; Matsubara, H
The 9 kDa polypeptide from spinach photosystem I (PS I) complex was isolated with iron-sulfur cluster(s) by an n-butanol extraction procedure under anaerobic conditions. The polypeptide was soluble in a saline solution and contained non-heme irons and inorganic sulfides. The absorption spectrum of this iron-sulfur protein was very similar to those of bacterial-type ferredoxins. The amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was determined by using a combination of gas-phase sequencer and conventional procedures. It was composed of 80 amino acid residues giving a molecular weight of 8,894, excluding iron and sulfur atoms. The sequence showed the typical distribution of cysteine residues found in bacterial-type ferredoxins and was highly homologous (91% homology) to that deduced from the chloroplast gene, frxA, of liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. The 9 kDa polypeptide is considered to be the iron-sulfur protein responsible for the electron transfer reaction in PS I from center X to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, namely a polypeptide with center(s) A and/or B in PS I complex. It is noteworthy that the 9 kDa polypeptide was rather hydrophilic and a little basic in terms of the primary structure. A three-dimensional structure was simulated on the basis of the tertiary structure of Peptococcus aerogenes [8Fe-8S] ferredoxin, and the portions in the molecule probably involved in contacting membranes or other polypeptides were indicated. The phylogenetic implications of the structure of the present polypeptide as compared with those of several bacterial-type ferredoxins are discussed.
Chen, Xingdong; Winckler, Björn; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Hongwei; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin
Poor oral health has been linked with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated whether alteration of oral microbiota is associated with ESCC risk. Fasting saliva samples were collected from 87 incident and histopathologicallly diagnosed ESCC cases, 63 subjects with dysplasia and 85 healthy controls. All subjects were also interviewed with a questionnaire. V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing platform. Carriage of each genus was compared by means of multivariate-adjusted odds ratios derived from logistic regression model. Relative abundance was compared using Metastats method. Beta diversity was estimated using Unifrac and weighted Unifrac distances. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was applied to ordinate dissimilarity matrices. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the coordinates between different groups. ESCC subjects had an overall decreased microbial diversity compared to control and dysplasia subjects (P<0.001). Decreased carriage of genera Lautropia, Bulleidia, Catonella, Corynebacterium, Moryella, Peptococcus and Cardiobacterium were found in ESCC subjects compared to non-ESCC subjects. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on PCoA coordinates also revealed that ESCC subjects had significantly different levels for several coordinates compared to non-ESCC subjects. In conclusion, we observed a correlation between altered salivary bacterial microbiota and ESCC risk. The results of our study on the saliva microbiome are of particular interest as it reflects the shift in microbial communities. Further studies are warranted to verify this finding, and if being verified, to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26641451
Golubeva, Anna V; Crampton, Sean; Desbonnet, Lieve; Edge, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Orla; Lomasney, Kevin W; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Crispie, Fiona; Moloney, Rachel D; Borre, Yuliya E; Cotter, Paul D; Hyland, Niall P; O'Halloran, Ken D; Dinan, Timothy G; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Cryan, John F
Early-life adverse experiences, including prenatal stress (PNS), are associated with a higher prevalence of neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in affected offspring. Here, in a rat model of chronic PNS, we investigate the impact of late gestational stress on physiological outcomes in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were subjected to repeated restraint stress from embryonic day 14 to day 20, and their male offspring were assessed at 4 months of age. PNS induced an exaggeration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, as well as an elevation of blood pressure and impairment of cognitive function. Altered respiratory control was also observed, as demonstrated by increased variability in basal respiratory frequency and abnormal frequency responses to both hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. PNS also affected gastrointestinal neurodevelopment and function, as measured by a decrease in the innervation density of distal colon and an increase in the colonic secretory response to catecholaminergic stimulation. Finally, PNS induced long lasting alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing revealed a strong trend towards decreased numbers of bacteria in the Lactobacillus genus, accompanied by elevated abundance of the Oscillibacter, Anaerotruncus and Peptococcus genera in PNS animals. Strikingly, relative abundance of distinct bacteria genera significantly correlated with certain respiratory parameters and the responsiveness of the HPA axis to stress. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that PNS induces long-term maladaptive alterations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, accompanied by hyper-responsiveness to stress and alterations in the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerr, K R; Dowd, S E; Swanson, K S
Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1-3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4-V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faeces of cats fed CHI had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of the following bacterial genera: unidentified Lachnospiraceae (15 v. 5 %), Peptococcus (9 v. 3 %) and Pseudobutyrivibrio (4 v. 1 %). Faeces of cats fed EXT had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of Faecalibacterium (1·0 v. 0·2 %) and Succinivibrio (1·2 v. < 0·1 %). Five genera, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were present in a majority of samples (two to three out of three) from cats fed EXT, but were not detected in the samples (zero of five) for cats fed CHI. These shifts in faecal bacterial populations compared with feeding a whole-prey diet may impact the functional capacities of the microbiota and its interaction with the host. Further research is warranted to determine the impacts of these shifts on long-term health of domestic cats.
Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno
Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P < 0.01) and Prevotella (P < 0.05) genera was observed in the MD group while Shannon biodiversity Index significantly increased (3.31 ± 0.15) in comparison to the RD group (2.92 ± 0.31; P < 0.05). The MD diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the Faecal Score and increased the lactic acid concentration in the feces in comparison to the RD treatment (P < 0.01). Faecal acetate was negatively correlated with Escherichia/Shigella and Megamonas (P < 0.01), whilst butyrate was positively correlated with Blautia and Peptococcus (P < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between lactate and Megamonas (P < 0.05), Escherichia/Shigella (P < 0.01) and Lactococcus (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and
Kemper, M A; Stout, C D; Lloyd, S J; Prasad, G S; Fawcett, S E; Armstrong, F A; Shen, B; Burgess, B K; Lloyd, S E; Fawcett, S
Ferredoxins that contain [4Fe-4S]2+/+ clusters often obtain three of their four cysteine ligands from a highly conserved CysXXCysXXCys sequence motif. Little is known about the in vivo assembly of these clusters and the role that this sequence motif plays in that process. In this study, we have used structure as a guide in attempts to direct the formation of a [4Fe-4S]2+/+ in the [3Fe-4S]+/0 location of native (7Fe) Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I (AvFdI) by providing the correct three-dimensional orientation of cysteine ligands without introducing a CysXXCysXXCys motif. Tyr13 of AvFdI occupies the position of the fourth ligating cysteine in the homologous and structurally characterized 8Fe ferredoxin from Peptococcus aerogenes and a Y13C variant of AvFdI could be easily modeled as an 8Fe protein. However, characterization of purified Y13C FdI by UV-visible spectra, circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, and by x-ray crystallography revealed that the protein failed to use the introduced cysteine as a ligand and retained its [3Fe-4S]+/0 cluster. Further, electrochemical characterization showed that the redox potential and pH behavior of the cluster were unaffected by the substitution of Tyr by Cys. Although Y13C FdI is functional in vivo it does differ significantly from native FdI in that it is extremely unstable in the reduced state possibly due to increased solvent exposure of the [3Fe-4S]0 cluster. Surprisingly, the x-ray structure showed that the introduced cysteine was modified to become a persulfide. This modification may have occurred in vivo via the action of NifS, which is known to be expressed under the growth conditions used. It is interesting to note that neither of the two free cysteines present in FdI was modified. Thus, if NifS is involved in modifying the introduced cysteine there must be specificity to the reaction.
A prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the clinical safety, effectiveness, and cost of oral ofloxacin/clindamycin vs intravenous clindamycin/gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endomyometritis.
Pietrantoni; Goss; Gall
Objective: The primary objective of this prospective, randomized, clinical study was to compare the safety, clinical and microbiologic efficacy, and cost of oral ofloxacin in combination with clindamycin vs intravenous (IV) clindamycin/gentamicin in the early empiric treatment for hospitalized patients with mild to moderate postpartum endomyometritis. The secondary objective is to reduce total hospital and patient treatment cost. Postpartum endomyometritis is a major cause of infectious morbidity in the obstetric patient. It is the most common complication associated with cesarean delivery. Careful timing and amniotomy, limited vaginal examinations, and prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section delivery may help to reduce the incidence and severity of endomyometritis. Endomyometritis is caused by bacteria that compose the normal cervicovaginal flora. These are anaerobic gram-positive cocci (Peptostreptococcus and Peptococcus), aerobic streptococci (Group B Streptococci and enterococci), Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides (B. fragilis, B. bivius, and B. disiens), and clostridium species.Ofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for intravenous and oral administration. Following oral administration, the bioavailability in tablet form is 98% with maximum serum concentrations in 1 to 2 hours. Steady state concentrations are achieved after 4 doses. Ofloxacin usually is bactericidal in action. A synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for intravenous and oral administration. Ofloxacin inhibits DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing), commonly referred to as DNA-gyrase. DNA-gyrase causes double-stranded DNA breakage; it inhibits duplication, transcription, and repair of bacterial DNA.Methods: This is a preliminary study that has enrolled 19 evaluable patients towards the overall enrollment of 60 patients for statistical significance. Patients clinically diagnosed as having postpartum endomyometritis who meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria were