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Sample records for pequi fruit caryocar

  1. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and proanthocyanidin content of flours prepared from pequi (Caryocar brasilense Camb.) fruit by-products.

    PubMed

    Leão, Daniela P; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Bastos, Rita; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-06-15

    The potential of pequi by-products as substrates for the production of flours rich in antioxidant dietary fibers was evaluated. Dietary fiber contents ranged from 39.8 to 43.3g/100g with pectic polysaccharide fraction constituted of rhamnogalacturonans and hemicellulose fraction consisted of arabinogalactans, xylans and glucomannans. Total polyphenols, non-extractable proanthocyanidins (NEPA) and carotenoid contents of the flours were determined (respectively, 15.5-17.4g GAE/100g, 215.54-346.84mg/100g and 2116.52-3499.03μg/100g). The antioxidant capacities of pequi by-product flours (986.94-1154.42μM TE/g ABTS; 44.43-48.02g/g DPPH; and 3027.31-3216.27μmol Fe2SO4/g FRAP) were found to be exceptionally higher than those of fruits and fruits by-products reported in the literature. Exocarp removal promoted no significant changes in the technological properties of the flour, except for color. Results showed promising prospects for future exploitation of pequi peel as a potential source of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants.

  2. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Pequi) by "quilombolas" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: subsidies for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, L C L; Morais, L M O; Guimarães, A Q; Almada, E D; Barbosa, P M; Drumond, M A

    2016-06-01

    Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. The most relevant uses of Pequi were family food (97%), soap production (67%), oil production (37%), medical treatments (17%), and trade (3%). Bees were the floral visitors with the highest Salience Index (S=0.639). Among frugivores that feed on unfallen fruits, birds showed a higher Salience (S=0.359) and among frugivores who use fallen fruits insects were the most important (S=0.574). Borers (folivorous caterpillars) that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income.

  3. Safety Assessment of Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): Evaluation of the Potential Genotoxic and Clastogenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Traesel, Giseli Karenina; de Araújo, Flavio Henrique Souza; Castro, Luis Henrique Almeida; de Lima, Fernando Freitas; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Justi, Priscilla Narciso; Kassuya, Candida Aparecida Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Argandoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2017-08-01

    Genotoxic data of medicinal plants and functional foods are required as part of the risk assessment by international regulatory agencies. Due to its food consumption and ethnopharmacological relevance, pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is one of these compounds to be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and clastogenic effects of the oil from the pulp of C. brasiliense (OPCB) in vivo and in vitro. Initially, the Artemia salina in vitro assay was conducted to determine the cells viability rate of different doses of the OPCB. Subsequently, comet assay (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD 489) and micronucleus test (OECD 474) were performed in blood and bone marrow of Wistar rats treated orally with a 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/bw of the OPCB for 4 weeks. The chemical analysis indicated the presence of β-carotene and lycopene in the oil. In the A. salina test, all OPCB doses maintained cell viability rates statistically similar to the negative control. The in vivo tests performed showed that OPCB did not show significant genotoxic or clastogenic effects in cells analyzed with the four doses tested. Altogether, these results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, C. brasiliense fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells.

  4. Influences of convective and vacuum drying on the quality attributes of osmo-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) slices.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Kamilla Soares; Corrêa, Jefferson L G; Junqueira, João Renato de Jesus; Cirillo, Marcelo Angelo; Figueira, Fabiano Vicente; Carvalho, Elisângela Elena Nunes

    2017-06-01

    Pequi is a fruit from Brazilian Cerrado. Despite its ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents, consumption of pequi is restricted to its region of origin. The goal of this work was to study drying of pequi slices (convective or vacuum drying at 40°C and 60°C) preceded or not preceded by osmotic pretreatment (sucrose solution concentrations of 40% and 60%). It was found that osmotic dehydration pretreatment substantially decreased the moisture content, duration of the drying process, and the volumetric ratio of the dried product. However, it also promoted leaching of bioactive constituents, such as ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Vacuum and low temperature drying without osmotic pretreatment were preferable because the ascorbic acid and carotenoids were retained, rehydration coefficients were higher and there were minimal volume and color changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrimination of pulp oil and kernel oil from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by fatty acid methyl esters fingerprinting, using GC-FID and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Faria-Machado, Adelia F; Tres, Alba; van Ruth, Saskia M; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Lopes, Paulo Sergio N; Bizzo, Humberto R

    2015-11-18

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scientific literature concerning the differences between the compositions of pequi kernel and pulp oils. Therefore, in this study, different pequi genotypes were evaluated to determine the fatty acid composition of pulp and kernel oils. PCA and PLS-DA were applied to develop a model to distinguish these oils. For all evaluated genotypes, the major fatty acids of both pulp and kernel oils were oleic and palmitic acids. Despite the apparent similarity between the analyzed samples, it was possible to discriminate pulp and kernel oils by means of their fatty acid composition using chemometrics, as well as the unique pequi genotype without endocarp spines (CPAC-PQ-SE-06).

  6. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, N.B.R.; Rangel, M.P.; Martins, V.; Hage, M.; Gelain, D.P.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Grisolia, C.K.; Parra, E.R.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26200231

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm fruit pulp fixed ethyl acetate extract on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Bezerra; de Araújo, Joana Cláudia Bezerra; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Gondim, Delane Viana; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2015-11-04

    The ethyl acetate extract from the fruit pulp of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (Caryocaraceae), popularly known as pequi, has wide applications in popular medicine. Preclinical tests have demonstrated the therapeutic properties of the oil. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Pequi C. coriaceum Wittm ethyl acetate extract (PCCO) on zymosan-induced arthritis in rat knee joint. The animals were pretreated with PCCO for 7 consecutive days or with a single dose. Paw elevation time (PET), leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and cytokine levels were assessed 4h after zymosan injection. Synovial tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis, edema and vascular permeability. We observed a significant decrease in PET with PCCO pretreatment. PCCO showed a significant reduction of leukocyte migration and a decrease in MPO. Decreases were observed in cytokine release in the synovial fluid and TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-1 immunostaining in synovial tissue. Edema was inhibited by treatment with all doses of PCCO. The data suggest that PCCO exerts antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) almond oil attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucillia R de O; Santana, Fernanda C de; Torres-Leal, Francisco L; Melo, Illana L P de; Yoshime, Luciana T; Matos-Neto, Emidio M; Seelaender, Marília C L; Araújo, Cintia M M; Cogliati, Bruno; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxin, capable of generating free radicals that lead to oxidative stress and the inflammation process. Pequi almond oil (PAO) has been reported to possess unsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant compounds related to beneficial effects on oxidation and inflammatory conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of handmade and coldpressed PAO on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The possible mechanisms underlying the effect on liver injury enzymes, histopathological parameters, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant and detoxification defense systems, as well as inflammatory parameters, were determined. Rats treated with PAO (3 or 6 mL/kg) for 21 days before CCl4 induction (3 mL/kg, 70%) showed significantly decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, milder hepatic lesions and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein compared to CCl4 group. Moreover, PAO enhanced antioxidant capacity by increasing hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities, as well as reducing circulating concentrations of leptin and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6, leukotrienes -4 and -5 and the tumor necrosis factor receptor. In summary, PAO, especially cold-pressed oil, attenuated the CCl4-induced alterations in serum and hepatic tissue in rats due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Identification and quantification, by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the Amazonian fruit Caryocar villosum.

    PubMed

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2012-06-13

    The Amazonian region from Brazil has a wide variety of native and wild noncommercially cultivated fruits. This article reports for the first time the composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from Caryocar villosum fruit pulp, and, in addition, its proximate composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) were determined. According to the nutritional composition, water (52%) and lipids (25%) were the major components found in the pulp, and the total energetic value was 291 kcal/100 g. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS were gallic acid (182.4 μg/g pulp), followed by ellagic acid rhamnoside (107 μg/g pulp) and ellagic acid (104 μg/g pulp). The main carotenoids identified by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS were all-trans-antheraxanthin (3.4 μg/g pulp), all-trans-zeaxanthin (2.9 μg/g pulp), and a lutein-like carotenoid (2.8 μg/g pulp). The antioxidant capacity of the pulp (3.7 mMol Trolox/100 g pulp) indicates that it can be considered a good peroxyl radical scavenger.

  10. Association between interleukin 6 -174 G/C promoter gene polymorphism and runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) oil: a before-after study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Ieler Ferreira; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exercise is a double-edged sword: when practiced in moderation, it increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, but when practiced strenuously it causes oxidative stress and cell damage. In this context, polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-6 gene should be investigated better because they can influence performance, at least in exercise that generates oxidative stress and leads to muscular injuries with consequent inflammation. In this work, we investigated the influence of IL-6 –174 G/C polymorphism on tissue damage and inflammation markers, lipid peroxidation, hemogram and lipid profile of runners before and after ingestion of 400 mg of pequi oil in capsules supplied daily for 14 consecutive days. The IL-6 genotypes were associated with significant differences in lipid peroxidation, with the CC mutant having lower values. There were also significant differences among these genotypes in the response to supplementation with pequi oil, exercise-induced damage and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The best protection against damage was observed with the heterozygous genotype. Although the CC genotype showed an increase in CRP levels after supplementation, the lack of a positive correlation between triglycerides and high-sensitivity CRP in this mutant genotype after supplementation indicated a protective effect of pequi. These findings deserve further investigation, particularly with regard to the quantification of circulating IL-6 concentrations. PMID:27727360

  11. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  12. Caryocar brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties useful for personal care products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have an increasing interest in replacing synthetic antimicrobials in dermatological products due to increased microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is a native fruit tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, specifically used in cosmetics, in the food industry, and for medicinal purposes. Leishmanicidal and antifungal activities have been reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a C. brasiliense extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the classical microdilution method. Antiseptic activity against these organisms was evaluated by the plate diffusion method. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated using a method based on the oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The extract’s chemical profile was analyzed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds according to standard colorimetric methods. Results The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. It also possesses antioxidant activity, when compared to a vitamin E standard. Conclusions The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract may be useful for the development of personal care products, primarily for antiseptic skin products that inactivate, reduce, prevent, or arrest the growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease as well as products that minimize damage caused by free radicals. PMID:24565304

  13. Caryocar brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties useful for personal care products.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Lilian F B; Moriel, Patricia; Foglio, Mary Ann; Mazzola, Priscila G

    2014-02-24

    The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have an increasing interest in replacing synthetic antimicrobials in dermatological products due to increased microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is a native fruit tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, specifically used in cosmetics, in the food industry, and for medicinal purposes. Leishmanicidal and antifungal activities have been reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a C. brasiliense extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the classical microdilution method. Antiseptic activity against these organisms was evaluated by the plate diffusion method. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated using a method based on the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The extract's chemical profile was analyzed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds according to standard colorimetric methods. The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. It also possesses antioxidant activity, when compared to a vitamin E standard. The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract may be useful for the development of personal care products, primarily for antiseptic skin products that inactivate, reduce, prevent, or arrest the growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease as well as products that minimize damage caused by free radicals.

  14. Caryocar brasiliense oil improves cardiac function by increasing Serca2a/PLB ratio despite no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lidiane Guedes; Moreno, Lauane Gomes; Melo, Dirceu Sousa; Costa-Pereira, Liliane Vanessa; Carvalho, Mayara Medeiros de Freitas; Silva, Paulo Henrique Evangelista; Alves, Ana Maria; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Dias-Peixoto, Marco Fabrício; Esteves, Elizabethe Adriana

    2017-02-08

    Caryocar brasiliense (pequi) oil is high in monounsaturated fat acids (MUFA), especially oleic, and in carotenoids, which have been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease. However, this food is poorly studied in this context, especially in the cardiac function. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a long-term intake of pequi oil in systemic cardiovascular risk factors and in the ex vivo cardiac function of rats. Previously, we determined fatty acids and carotenoids in pequi oil. Next, male rats were divided in C - control group feed a standard diet, and PO - pequi oil group fed the same diet added pequi oil (+2.25 g.100 g(-1)). After 15 weeks, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, heart rate, hepatic lipids were accessed and visceral fat pads were harvested. Hearts were used for the ex vivo cardiac function, histologic assays, SERCA2a and phospholanban (PLB) determinations. In agreement with scientific data, pequi oil had expressive amounts MUFA, especially oleic acid, and carotenoids. Hepatic triglycerides (TG) were reduced by pequi oil intake (p < 0.05). All others cardiovascular risk factors were not changed. The intrinsic heart rate was lower in PO group (p < 0.05). SERCA2a content was higher in this group (p < 0.05), without affecting PLB. Also, SERCA2a/PLB ratio increased in PO group (p < 0.05). Pequi oil intake improved cardiac function ex vivo, despite no significant changes in systemic cardiovascular risk factors. The higher lipid offer in pequi oil diet, its composition in oleic acid and carotenoids could be related to those effects.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content. PMID:24106692

  16. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  17. The potential of extracts of Caryocar villosum pulp to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2012-12-01

    Caryocar villosum (piquiá) is a native fruit from the Amazonian region, considered to be an interesting source of bioactive compounds. In this paper, five extracts of C. villosum pulp were obtained, using solvents with different polarities and their in vitro scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was determined. Additionally, the phenolic compounds and carotenoids in each extract were identified and quantified by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The ethanol/water and water extracts, which presented the highest phenolic contents (5163 and 1745μg/g extract, respectively), with ellagic acid as the major phenolic compound, proved to have the highest ROS and RNS scavenging potential. Nevertheless, in general, ellagic acid was less effective in scavenging ROS (IC(50) from 1.7 to 108μg/ml) and RNS (IC(50) from 0.05 to 0.59μg/ml), when compared to gallic acid (IC(50) from 0.4 to 226μg/ml for ROS and IC(50) from 0.04 to 0.12μg/ml for RNS). The results obtained in the present study clearly demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant efficiency of C. villosum extracts was closely related to their contents of phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antigenotoxic effects of piquiá (Caryocar villosum) in multiple rat organs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Darin, Joana D'Arc Castania; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the in vivo genotoxicity of piquiá pulp (Caryocar villosum) and its potential antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage by comet assay and micronucleus test. In addition, the phytochemicals present in piquiá pulp were determined. Piquiá fruit pulp (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 days, and the animals received an injection of saline or DXR (15 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) 24 h before they were euthanized. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carotenoids; phenolic compounds, including flavonoids; tannins and α-tocopherol in piquiá pulp. No statistically significant differences were observed in the evaluated parameters, demonstrating the absence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of piquiá pulp at all tested doses. In liver, kidney, cardiac and bone marrow cells, piquiá significantly reduced the DNA damage induced by DXR. Our results showed that the lowest piquiá dose caused the largest decrease in DNA damage and the highest dose caused the smallest decrease, demonstrating an inverse dose-response of piquiá pulp. Furthermore, we observed a difference in the potential antigenotoxic effects in several tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that piquiá pulp was not genotoxic and inhibited the genotoxicity induced by DXR, but some of the protective effects that were observed depended on the doses and experimental conditions. Therefore, further investigations are needed to clarify how piquiá pulp positively affects human health.

  19. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species.

    PubMed

    Allem, Laísa N; Gomes, Anabele S; Borghetti, Fabian

    2014-12-01

    Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  20. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia combined with preventive antioxidant pequi-oil supplementation: potential use against cancer.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Longo, Joāo Paulo Figueiró; Silva e Cintra, Débora de Oliveira; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Báo, Sônia Nair; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2013-07-01

    This work aimed to test a dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid (DexMF) sample in mediating magnetohyperthermia to treat an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, to verify the effects of oral antioxidant administration of pequi-oil on this treatment and to investigate the potential of these treatments for future use as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Animals received the treatments: (a) filtered water (control); (b) tumor implantation and no treatment (tumor group); (c) tumor implantation followed by intratumoral injection of DexMF and alternating current magnetic field exposure (MHT group) for three consecutive days; (d) oral pequi-oil supplementation followed by tumor implantation and the same treatment as group MHT (PMHT group). Analyses took place 1 and 2 weeks after tumor implantation. Both treatments were effective in increasing the tumor necrosis process and controlling tumor growth, besides keeping lymphocyte-dependent immunity. Although the MHT treatment was more efficient after the first week in reducing DNA damage to blood peripheral leucocytes, PMHT therapy appeared to be more effective with the advance of the carcinogenesis process after the second week. Our findings evidence the potential use of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in cancer treatment and also suggest that the preventive pequi oil administration could increase the efficiency of this process.

  1. Modulation of antibiotic activity by the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of Caryocar coriaceum WITTM.

    PubMed

    de Lacerda Neto, Luís J; Ramos, A G B; Kerntopf, M R; Coutinho, H D M; Quintans-Junior, L J; Almeida, J R G S; Ribeiro-Filho, J; Menezes, I R A

    2017-04-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of tannins, phenols and flavonoids on the hydroalcoholic extract of Caryocar coriaceum leaves (HECCL) and to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of this extract. The extract was tested alone (1024-1 μg/mL) or associated (MIC/8) with several antibiotics in order to identify any antibacterial activity against multiresistant bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The existence of tannins, total phenols (901.31 mg/g) and flavonoids (89.68 mg/g) was confirmed in the HECCL. The presence of rutin and quercetin were confirmed by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antioxidant activity of the extract (9 μg/mL) was determined. Moreover, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value found for HECCL was 1024 μg/mL and the association between HECCL (MIC/8) with benzylpenicillin significantly changed its minimum inhibitory concentration from 2500 to 625 μg/mL against E. coli.

  2. Incubation Temperature, But Not Pequi Oil Supplementation, Affects Methane Production, and the Ruminal Microbiota in a Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec) System

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Andrea C.; Holman, Devin B.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Kiri, Kerstin; Breves, Gerhard; Chaves, Alexandre V.

    2017-01-01

    Lipid supplementation is a promising strategy for methane mitigation in cattle and has been evaluated using several different lipid sources. However, limited studies have assessed the effect of temperature on methane emissions from cattle and changes in incubation temperature have also not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of pequi oil (high in unsaturated fatty acids) and incubation temperature on fermentation characteristics and microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique. A completely randomized experiment was conducted over a 28-day period using a Rusitec system. The experiment was divided into four periods of 7 days each, the first of which was a 7-day adaptation period followed by three experimental periods. The two treatments consisted of a control diet (no pequi oil inclusion) and a diet supplemented with pequi oil (1.5 mL/day) which increased the dietary fat content to 6% (dry matter, DM-basis). Three fermenter vessels (i.e., replicates) were allocated to each treatment. In the first experimental period, the incubation temperature was maintained at 39°C, decreased to 35°C in the second experimental period and then increased again to 39°C in the third. Pequi oil was continuously supplemented during the experiment. Microbial communities were assessed using high-throughput sequencing of the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Methane production was reduced by 57% following a 4°C decrease in incubation temperature. Supplementation with pequi oil increased the dietary fat content to 6% (DM-basis) but did not affect methane production. Analysis of the microbiota revealed that decreasing incubation temperature to 35°C affected the archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness of liquid-associated microbes, but lipid supplementation did not change microbial diversity. PMID:28701999

  3. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous extract of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Flávia A; Fonseca, Leydiana D; da Silva, Rayana B; de Paiva Ferreira, Adriano V; Nery, Patrícia S; Geraseev, Luciana C; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-07-01

    A major problem faced in sheep rearing has been the rapid acquisition of anthelminthic-resistant populations of gastrointestinal nematodes. In the search for alternatives, aqueous extract of the peel of Caryocar brasiliense was evaluated for larval development inhibition, egg-hatching inhibition, and fecal nematode egg count reduction in sheep. For in vivo analysis, the doses were calculated according to a 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity tests in mice, and the efficacy was evaluated for two periods following oral administration of the extract. Egg-hatching inhibition at concentrations of 15 and 7.5 mg/ml was significantly higher than observed in negative controls with distilled water. For larval development inhibition, all concentrations showed anthelminthic activity significantly higher than controls and were not significantly different from ivermectin treatment. The LC(90) of larval development inhibition was 53.19 mg/ml. In vivo analysis for first and second weeks after treatment found 32.2% and 33% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively.

  4. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Caryocar coriaceum: Mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    de Lacerda Neto, Luis Jardelino; Ramos, Andreza Guedes Barbosa; Santos Sales, Valterlucio; de Souza, Severino Denicio Gonçalves; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas; de Oliveira, Larissa Rolim; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; de Albuquerque, Thais Rodrigues; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo Jose; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2017-01-05

    This work aimed to determine the chemical fingerprint of hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Caryocar coriaceum (HELCC) and the gastroprotective activity. The chemical fingerprint of HELCC was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, to quantify total phenols and flavonoids were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride assay, while in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH method. The methods used to determine pharmacological activity were: gastroprotective screening test in classical models of induced acute and chronic gastric lesions and physical barrier test. Further assays were performed to demonstrate the involvement of NO, prostaglandins, ATP-dependent potassium channels, TRPV, noradrenergic α2 receptors, histamines, and opioids. The DPPH method demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the extract, in vitro, explained by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. Oral administration of the extract, previously dissolved in deionized water, at a dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the lesions induced by indomethacin, acidified ethanol, ethanol and acetic acid by 75.0, 72.8, 69.4 and 86.2% respectively. It was demonstrated that opioid receptors, α2-adrenergic receptors and primary afferent neurons sensitive to capsaicin were involved in the mechanism of gastric protection, in addition to the contribution of NO and prostaglandins. The results show that extract is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fruit Flavor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  6. Berry Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Horticulture: Plants for People and Places" co-edited by G.R. Dixon and D.E. Aldous (eds.) will be a three volume set to be published in 2014. It is designed to educate people on horticultural plants. For each fruit crop, different authors wrote overviews of the crops with information on genetic ...

  7. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  8. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  9. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge.

  10. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  11. DEHYDRATED FRUIT AND VEGETABLES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FRUITS , *VEGETABLES, QUALITY CONTROL, DEHYDRATED FOODS, PROCESSING, PACKAGING, STORAGE, TASTE, ODORS, COLORS, ACCEPTABILITY, IMPURITIES, MOISTURE, CONTAMINATION, PEST CONTROL, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, USSR.

  12. Regulation of fruit ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  13. [Fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  14. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  15. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  16. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  17. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  18. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  19. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  20. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ...

  1. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  2. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  3. Airborne Measurements of ATCRBS Fruit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-03

    Airborne measurements of ATCRBS fruit (asynchronous replies from ATCRBS transponders) are described. These measurements were undertaken to provide a...more firm basis for assessing the interference impact of ATCRBS fruit on airborne 1090 MHz receivers (as in BCAS). Fruit rate measurements were...measurements are reported here, with fruit rates given as a function of altitude, geographical location, and receiver threshold, for receptions on both top

  4. Fractions through Fruit Salad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Lisa

    1987-01-01

    The mathematics concept of fractions was taught to a group of learning disabled, dyslexic, and multiply handicapped students (15-20 years old) by preparing a fruit salad. Enthusiastic student participation and enhanced knowledge illustrated the effectiveness of employing several sensory modes in learning activities. (CB)

  5. Dried Fruits and Nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

  6. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  7. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  8. Chemopreventive characteristics of avocado fruit.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiming; Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A Douglas; D'Ambrosio, Steven M

    2007-10-01

    Phytochemicals are recognized as playing an important role in cancer prevention by fruits and vegetables. The avocado is a widely grown and consumed fruit that is high in nutrients and low in calories, sodium, and fats. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with chloroform from avocado fruits target multiple signaling pathways and increase intracellular reactive oxygen leading to apoptosis. This review summarizes the reported phytochemicals in avocado fruit and discusses their molecular mechanisms and targets. These studies suggest that individual and combinations of phytochemicals from the avocado fruit may offer an advantageous dietary strategy in cancer prevention.

  9. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  10. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  12. Kiwi fruit allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S A; Lewis, Stella A; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2003-12-01

    Allergy to kiwi fruit was first described in 1981, and there have since been reports of the allergy presenting with a wide range of symptoms from localized oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The article reviews the available information concerning the clinical features of kiwi fruit allergy and the role of clinical investigations for diagnosis. Work identifying the major allergens in kiwi fruit has resulted in conflicting results, the possible reasons for which are discussed. The clinical associations of kiwi fruit allergy with allergies to pollens or latex are reviewed.

  13. Fruits of neutron research

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1994-12-31

    Car windshields that don`t break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources.

  14. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  15. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  17. Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice.

  18. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way.

  19. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  20. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  1. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  3. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  4. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  5. Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Alain; Hartmann, Claude

    1979-01-01

    Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage. PMID:16661101

  6. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  7. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  9. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  11. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  14. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

  15. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

  16. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

  17. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  18. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  19. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  20. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  1. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  2. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    To help protect yourself and your family from pesticides on fruits and vegetables: Wash your hands with soap and water before you start preparing food. Discard the outer leaves of leafy vegetables such ...

  3. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  4. Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peleg, K

    1985-01-01

    The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed.

  5. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  6. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  7. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  8. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  9. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

  10. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  11. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  12. Flowering and Fruiting Patterns of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars Prime-Jan® and Prime-Jim® were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, Ore. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes. In both ...

  13. Fruits, Veggies May Benefit Your Legs, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165706.html Fruits, Veggies May Benefit Your Legs, Too Healthy diet ... May 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables may help keep your leg arteries ...

  14. The Whole Truth about Whole Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... 31, 2017 WEDNESDAY, May 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Fresh fruits are loaded with fiber, antioxidants and other great nutrients. And studies show that eating fruit whole gives you the most of this food group's ...

  15. Molecular and genetic regulation of fruit ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...

  16. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  17. Regulation of tomato fruit ascorbate content is more highly dependent on fruit irradiance than leaf irradiance.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Hélène; Massot, Capucine; Stevens, Rebecca; Sérino, Sylvie; Génard, Michel

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms involving light control of vitamin C content in fruits are not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of fruit and leaf shading on ascorbate (AsA) accumulation in tomato fruit and to determine how fruit sugar content (as an AsA precursor) affected AsA content. Cherry tomato plants were grown in a glasshouse. The control treatment (normally irradiated fruits and irradiated leaves) was compared with the whole-plant shading treatment and with leaf or fruit shading treatments in fruits harvested at breaker stage. In a second experiment, the correlation between sugars and AsA was studied during ripening. Fruit shading was the most effective treatment in reducing fruit AsA content. Under normal conditions, AsA and sugar content were correlated and increased with the ripening stage. Reducing fruit irradiance strongly decreased the reduced AsA content (-74 %), without affecting sugars, so that sugar and reduced AsA were no longer correlated. Leaf shading delayed fruit ripening: it increased the accumulation of oxidized AsA in green fruits (+98 %), whereas it decreased the reduced AsA content in orange fruits (-19 %), suggesting that fruit AsA metabolism also depends on leaf irradiance. Under fruit shading only, the absence of a correlation between sugars and reduced AsA content indicated that fruit AsA content was not limited by leaf photosynthesis or sugar substrate, but strongly depended on fruit irradiance. Leaf shading most probably affected fruit AsA content by delaying fruit ripening, and suggested a complex regulation of AsA metabolism which depends on both fruit and leaf irradiance and fruit ripening stage.

  18. Regulation of tomato fruit ascorbate content is more highly dependent on fruit irradiance than leaf irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Hélène; Massot, Capucine; Stevens, Rebecca; Sérino, Sylvie; Génard, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms involving light control of vitamin C content in fruits are not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of fruit and leaf shading on ascorbate (AsA) accumulation in tomato fruit and to determine how fruit sugar content (as an AsA precursor) affected AsA content. Methods Cherry tomato plants were grown in a glasshouse. The control treatment (normally irradiated fruits and irradiated leaves) was compared with the whole-plant shading treatment and with leaf or fruit shading treatments in fruits harvested at breaker stage. In a second experiment, the correlation between sugars and AsA was studied during ripening. Key Results Fruit shading was the most effective treatment in reducing fruit AsA content. Under normal conditions, AsA and sugar content were correlated and increased with the ripening stage. Reducing fruit irradiance strongly decreased the reduced AsA content (−74 %), without affecting sugars, so that sugar and reduced AsA were no longer correlated. Leaf shading delayed fruit ripening: it increased the accumulation of oxidized AsA in green fruits (+98 %), whereas it decreased the reduced AsA content in orange fruits (−19 %), suggesting that fruit AsA metabolism also depends on leaf irradiance. Conclusions Under fruit shading only, the absence of a correlation between sugars and reduced AsA content indicated that fruit AsA content was not limited by leaf photosynthesis or sugar substrate, but strongly depended on fruit irradiance. Leaf shading most probably affected fruit AsA content by delaying fruit ripening, and suggested a complex regulation of AsA metabolism which depends on both fruit and leaf irradiance and fruit ripening stage. PMID:19033285

  19. Fruit size, crop mass, and plant height explain differential fruit choice of primates and birds.

    PubMed

    Flörchinger, Martina; Braun, Julius; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schaefer, H Martin

    2010-09-01

    Seed dispersal by animals is an important ecological process shaping plant regeneration. In general, seed dispersers are highly variable and often opportunistic in their fruit choice. Despite much research, the factors that can explain patterns of fruit consumption among different animal groups remain contentious. Here, we analysed the interactions between 81 animal species feeding on the fruits of 30 plant species in Kakamega Forest, Kenya, during 840 h of observations. Our aim was to determine whether plant characteristics, fruit morphology, fruit colours and/or fruit compounds such as water, sugar, phenols and tannins explained the relative importance of fruit consumption by the two most important consumer groups, primates and birds. We found significant differences in fruit choice between both groups. Primates fed on larger fruits and on higher trees that had larger fruit crops, whereas birds were observed feeding on smaller fruits and on smaller plants producing fewer fruits. Fruit colours did not differ between fruits consumed by primates and those consumed by birds. However, differences in the fruit choice among frugivorous birds were associated with differences in fruit colours. Smaller plants with smaller fruits produced red fruits which contrasted strongly with the background; these fruits were dispersed by a distinct set of bird species. The contents of water, sugar, phenols and tannins did not differ between fruits eaten by primates and those eaten by birds. Some phylogenetic patterns were apparent; primates fed preferentially on a phylogenetically restricted subsample of large plants with large fruits of the subclass Rosidae. We discuss why the observed primate dispersal syndrome is most likely explained by a process of ecological fitting.

  20. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  1. The flavor of citrus fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus is the largest cultivated fruit tree crop in the world, with total production of more than 100 million tons per year. The genus Citrus consists of different species, including several producing economically important crops, such as oranges, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, lemons and limes, c...

  2. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  3. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  4. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  5. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  6. Fruit Floating at Cupola Window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    ISS038-E-029073 (12 Jan. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Attached to the Harmony node, the Orbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus commercial cargo craft, which brought the fresh fruit, is visible at center.

  7. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  8. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  9. Geographic patterns in fruit colour diversity: do leaves constrain the colour of fleshy fruits?

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin C; Cazetta, Eliana; Galetti, Mauro; Valido, Alfredo; Schaefer, H Martin

    2009-03-01

    We tested for geographic patterns in fruit colour diversity. Fruit colours are thought to promote detection by seed dispersers. Because seed dispersers differ in their spectral sensitivities, we predicted that fruit colour diversity would be higher in regions with higher seed disperser diversity (i.e. the tropics). We collected reflectance data on 232 fruiting plant species and their natural backgrounds in seven localities in Europe, North and South America, and analysed fruit colour diversity according to the visual system of birds-the primary consumer types of these fruits. We found no evidence that fruit colours are either more conspicuous or more diverse in tropical areas characterised by higher seed disperser diversity. Instead, fruit colour diversity was lowest in central Brazil, suggesting that fruit colours may be more diverse in temperate regions. Although we found little evidence for geographic variation in fruit hues, the spectral properties of fruits were positively associated with the spectral properties of backgrounds. This result implies that fruit colours may be influenced by selection on the reflectance properties of leaves, thus constraining the evolution of fruit colour. Overall, the results suggest that fruit colours in the tropics are neither more diverse nor more conspicuous than temperate fruits, and that fruit colours may be influenced by correlated selection on leaf reflectance properties.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation.

  11. Fruit ripening: physiology, signalling and genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...

  12. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  13. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  14. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  15. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  16. How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-04-01

    The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits.

  17. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  18. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  20. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  1. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

  2. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  3. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  4. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  5. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  6. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  7. Fruit Floating at Cupola Window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    ISS038-E-029068 (12 Jan. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Attached to the Harmony node, the Orbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus commercial cargo craft, which brought the fresh fruit, is visible at center. The bright sun, Earth's horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  8. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    PubMed

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  9. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  10. Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  11. Fruit_Flies_in_Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-25

    Scientists study how astronauts are affected by microgravity, but with a relatively small number of human subjects available to them, they often turn to model organisms for research. Model organisms are living organisms that have a genetic makeup that is relatively well-documented and understood, and is similar to human systems. Fruit flies are reliable model organisms because their systems closely resemble that of larger organisms. They have the benefit of being small in size, well understood, and reproduce quickly so many generations can be studied in a short amount of time. Some of the things we can study using fruit flies are how microgravity affects the immune system. Will the muscle cells of the heart lose strength in microgravity? Are reproduction, lifespan and the aging process affected by microgravity? Do changes in gravity affect the basic metabolic rate and metabolism of living systems? Fruit flies offer a manageable way to study living systems in microgravity. Learn more about other model organisms and how they are being used for microgravity research, and keep up with all the science being conducted aboard your orbiting laboratory by visiting ISS Research Overview on nasa.gov http://www.twitter.com/ISS_Research

  12. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

    PubMed

    Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas

    2006-01-01

    To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha < .05 was considered statistically significant. Sex, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived pros, different self-efficacy expectations, and habit strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.

  13. Why fruits go to the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  14. Automatic Grading of the Post-Harvest Fruit: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Cai, Jinxing; Liu, Xiufeng

    Mechanical fruit grading and automatic fruit grading have been detailed in this paper. The studies and applications of mechanical fruit grading, and computer visual and automatic fruit grading were also particularized. Computer vision technology for detecting fruit size, color, bruise and surface defects and evaluation of fruit overall quality were discussed. The primary problems and development in the future in application of automatic fruit grading in China were pointed out in the end.

  15. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  16. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  18. Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, George A; Goulas, Vlasios; Vicente, Ariel R; Terry, Leon A

    2014-03-30

    Small berry fruits are consumed because of their attractive colour and special taste, and are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of some chronic and degenerative diseases. The term 'berry fruits' encompasses the so-called 'soft fruits', primarily strawberry, currants, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry and cranberry. The objective of this review is to highlight the nutraceutical value of berries and to summarize the factors affecting berry fruit antioxidants. Particular attention is given to postharvest and processing operation factors that may affect fruit phytochemical content. The structure-antioxidant relationships for phenolic compounds - the main group of antioxidants in this fruit group - are presented and major areas for future research are identified.

  19. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies.

  20. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  1. Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition. PMID:19520701

  2. Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus.

    PubMed

    Gauci, R; Otrysko, B; Catford, J-G; Lapointe, L

    2009-09-01

    Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, (14)CO(2) labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and (14)C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition.

  3. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  4. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  5. Bird community response to fruit energy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Valerie E; Mordecai, Rua; Ronald Carroll, C; Cooper, Robert J; Greenberg, Russell

    2010-07-01

    1. The abundance and predictability of food resources have been posited as explanations for the increase of animal species richness in tropical habitats. However, the heterogeneity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to quantify a response of animal species richness to these qualities of food resources. 2. Fruit-frugivore studies are especially conducive for testing such ecological theories because fruit is conspicuous and easily counted. Fruit-frugivore research in some locations has demonstrated a relationship between animal abundance and fruit resource abundance, both spatially and temporally. These studies, which typically use fruit counts as the variable of fruit abundance, have never documented a response of species richness at the community level. Furthermore, these studies have not taken into account factors influencing the detection of an individual within surveys. 3. Using a combination of nonstandard approaches to fruit-frugivore research, we show a response of bird species richness to fruit resources. First, we use uniform and structurally similar, one-ha shade-grown coffee plots as replicated experimental units to reduce the influence of confounding variables. Secondly, we use multi-season occupancy modelling of a resident omnivorous bird assemblage in order to account for detection probability in our analysis of site occupancy, local immigration and local emigration. Thirdly, we expand our variable of fruit abundance, Fruit Energy Availability (FEA), to include not only fruit counts but also fruit size and fruit quality. 4. We found that a site's average monthly FEA was highly correlated (0.90) with a site's average bird species richness. In our multi-season occupancy model 92% of the weight of evidence supported a single model that included effects of FEA on initial occupancy, immigration, emigration and detection. 5. These results demonstrate that fruit calories can broadly influence the richness of a neotropical bird community, and that

  6. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  7. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned fruit...

  8. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned fruit...

  9. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned fruit...

  10. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned fruit...

  11. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  12. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  13. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  14. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type.

  15. Distribution of olive fruit fly in California based on fruit infestations since the 1998 invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was first discovered in Los Angeles, California in 1998. Eradication and containment programs were immediately initiated, but within four years the olive pest was detected throughout the state. Olive fruit fly is not tolerated in canned fruit, and the insec...

  16. Blueberry Fruit Quality and Antioxidants Capacity as Effected by Fruit Ripeness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rabbiteye blueberry fruit are sometimes commercially harvested at onset of ripening as determined visually in order to concentrate harvest, minimize picking times, and increase storage life. These fruit may not be fully ripe at picking, thus fruit quality and antioxidants levels may not have comple...

  17. The use of fruiting synchrony by foraging mangabey monkeys: a 'simple tool' to find fruit.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, K R L; Chapman, C A; Meijer, R; Zuberbühler, K

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a considerable number of primates can remember the location and fruiting state of individual trees in their home range. This enables them to relocate fruit or predict whether previously encountered fruit has ripened. Recent studies, however, suggest that the ability of primates to cognitively map fruit-bearing trees is limited. In this study, we investigated an alternative and arguably simpler, more efficient strategy, the use of synchrony, a botanical characteristic of a large number of fruit species. Synchronous fruiting would allow the prediction of the fruiting state of a large number of trees without having to first check the trees. We studied whether rainforest primates, grey-cheeked mangabeys in the Kibale National Park, Uganda, used synchrony in fruit emergence to find fruit. We analysed the movements of adult males towards Uvariopsis congensis food trees, a strongly synchronous fruiting species with different local patterns of synchrony. Monkeys approached within crown distance, entered and inspected significantly more Uvariopsis trees when the percentage of trees with ripe fruit was high compared to when it was low. Since the effect was also found for empty trees, the monkeys likely followed a synchrony-based inspection strategy. We found no indication that the monkeys generalised this strategy to all Uvariopsis trees within their home range. Instead, they attended to fruiting peaks in local areas within the home range and adjusted their inspective behaviour accordingly revealing that non-human primates use botanical knowledge in a flexible way.

  18. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  19. Competition for Assimilates and Fruit Position Affect Fruit Set in Indeterminate Greenhouse Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, N.

    1995-01-01

    Localization and characterization of fruit set in winter tomato crops was investigated to determine the main internal and external controlling factors and to establish a quantitative relationship between fruit set and competition for assimilates. Individual fruit growth and development was assessed on a beef tomato cultivar during the reproductive period (first nine inflorescences). A non-destructive photograph technique was used to measure fruit growth from very early stages of their development and then calliper measurements were made on big fruits. From these measurements we determined the precise developmental stage at which fruit growth stopped. Fruit potential growth, which is defined as the growth achieved in non-limiting conditions for assimilate supply, was also assessed by this method on plants thinned to one flower per inflorescence. The latter was used to calculate the ratio between actual and potential growth, which was found to be a good index of the competition for assimilates. Time lags of fruit set were observed mainly on distal organs. When more than three flowers were left on each inflorescence, distal organs developed at the same time as proximal organs of the following inflorescence. Consequently they were submitted to a double competition within one inflorescence and among inflorescences. It was shown that, what is commonly named ‘fruit set failure’, is not an irreversible death of the organ and that a small fruit could resume growth after a delay of several weeks as soon as the first fruits ripened and thus ceased to compete for assimilates. In that case proximal fruits resumed growth before distal ones. The delayed fruits contained only few seeds but a germination test confirmed that fertilization took place before fruit set failed. Competition for assimilates was calculated during plant development by the ratio between actual and potential fruit growth. Potential growth of proximal fruits was strongly dependent on the position of the

  20. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  1. Seed germination and seedling fitness in Mesua ferrea L. in relation to fruit size and seed number per fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Latif; Bhuyan, Putul; Shankar, Uma; Todaria, Nagendra P.

    1999-11-01

    Effect of fruit size and seediness (seed number per fruit) was examined on germination and early growth of seedlings in Mesua ferrea L. Fruiting incidence (number of fruited trees in a population) and fruit loading (number of fruits per tree) vary from one year to the other, and were greater in 1997 than in 1998. Seeds from large fruits (> 40 g) are preferred for forestry plantations and those from small fruits (< 40 g) are discarded, despite a greater proportion of small fruits (63.2 %) than large fruits (36.8 %). A fruit, large or small in size, may contain one, two, three or four seeds. The germination percentage of seeds increased from 1-seeded through 4-seeded fruits both in laboratory and greenhouse conditions, and both in case of large and small fruits. Conversely, the mean seed weight and germination time decreased along this gradient, i.e. seeds from 1-seeded fruits were the heaviest and required maximum time for germination, and the seeds from 4-seeded fruits were the lightest and required minimum time for germination. The seeds from small fruits were lighter in weight, achieved lower germination percentages and required greater germination time than the seeds from large fruits in all four seeded categories. Seedlings from seeds from 1-seeded fruits survived better and with stronger vigour after 1 year of growth than seedlings from 2-, 3- and 4-seeded fruits. Further, seedling survival and vigour were greater for seeds from large rather than small fruits.

  2. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  3. Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Chitwood, M. Colter; DePerno, Christopher S.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods to estimate understory fruit biomass (Fruit Count, Stem Density, and Plant Coverage). The Fruit Count method requires visual counts of fruit to estimate fruit biomass. The Stem Density method uses counts of all stems of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. The Plant Coverage method uses land coverage of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. Using linear regression models under a censored-normal distribution, we determined the Fruit Count and Stem Density methods could accurately estimate fruit biomass; however, when comparing AIC values between models, the Fruit Count method was the superior method for estimating fruit biomass. After determining that Fruit Count was the superior method to accurately estimate fruit biomass, we conducted additional analyses to determine the sampling intensity (i.e., percentage of area) necessary to accurately estimate fruit biomass. The Fruit Count method accurately estimated fruit biomass at a 0.8% sampling intensity. In some cases, sampling 0.8% of an area may not be feasible. In these cases, we suggest sampling understory fruit production with the Fruit Count method at the greatest feasible sampling intensity, which could be valuable to assess annual fluctuations in fruit production. PMID:24819253

  4. Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs.

    PubMed

    Korine, C; Kalko, E K V; Herre, E A

    2000-06-01

    We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama. We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences between fig species with fruit that ripen red and those with fruit that remain green(ish). In the red-fruited species, the fruit are small, ripen asynchronously over relatively long periods, produce little scent, and are mainly taken during the day by birds. In contrast, in the green(ish)-fruited species, the fruits are larger, span a range of sizes, ripen relatively synchronously, produce very distinctive aromas, and are mainly taken at night by bats. This dichotomy in fruiting characteristics suggests coadaptive links between groups of dispersers and different species within the genus Ficus. All fig species produce a range of fruit crop sizes (10-155 fuits/m(2) canopy area) of which a high proportion were removed by seed dispersers (>80%). Removal rates (fruit removed per day) were positively correlated with crop size, suggesting that trees with large crop size attract more frugivores. Removal rates of green-fruited figs were significantly lower and persistence and abortion of ripe fruit were significant higher around full moon, apparently due to the reduced activity of bats. We further estimate the number of bats that are sustained by a tree fruit crop and account for the observed fruit removal. We then discuss the evidence for coadaptation between different groups of figs and their seed dispersers, Finally, we consider the conservation implications for figs as keystone resources in tropical forests.

  5. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  6. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee... Agriculture (USDA) Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee and a Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee (Committee). The...

  7. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  8. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  9. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  10. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  11. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  12. Mastracchio watches fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043011 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  13. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satya P; Chung, Hea J; Kim, Hyeon J; Hong, Seong T

    2016-10-14

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  14. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Alborn, Hans T.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant–animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. PMID:20679219

  15. A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

  16. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  17. Flowering and fruiting of southern browse species

    Treesearch

    L.K. Halls

    1973-01-01

    Flowering and fruiting dates are reported for 14 browse species growing in the open and beneath trees in an east Texas pine-hardwood forest. Dates for individual species generally were not influenced by tree cover. In the open, plants generally produced fruit more consistently and abundantly and at an earlier age than beneath the trees.

  18. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  19. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  20. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  1. The meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Willis, Gordon B; Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is a focus of research and nutrition education; yet, there is no universal agreement on the meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'. Our objective was to describe survey respondent perceptions about a set of foods with regard to whether the food is a fruit, vegetable or something else. Three cross-sectional studies. Two small studies involving cognitive interviewing sessions; and one large self-administered population survey. US adults in two small studies (n 55 and 80) and one large survey (n 3312), all with multiple race/ethnicities. Perceptions varied. In the survey, rice was considered a vegetable by about 20 % of respondents. In one small study, Spanish speakers were more likely to consider rice a vegetable, and Chinese speakers less likely, than were English speakers. Black beans were frequently classified as something other than vegetable or fruit. Among Hispanics, Spanish speakers were less likely than English speakers to consider beans a vegetable. Overall, tomatoes were classified as both fruit and vegetable, and these perceptions varied by race/ethnicity. Substantial disagreement among the fruit, vegetable and other food domains highlights the importance of clearly defining the desired constructs. Foods that require specific instruction include rice, dried beans, potatoes, tomatoes and fruits and vegetables in mixtures and condiments. For measurement, additional questions or explanations may be needed to clarify which foods are of interest. For communication, the global message to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables should be reinforced with specific guidance.

  2. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  3. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., semisolid foods each of which is made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the optional fruit...

  4. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., semisolid foods each of which is made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the optional fruit...

  5. A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

  6. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  7. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  8. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  9. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis.

  10. Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

    2015-01-01

    Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed.

  11. A young bud's fruitful journey: The spatial and temporal expression of transcription factors controlling early fruit determination and differentiation in stone fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies in Arabidopsis and tomato have provided insights into the transcriptional regulation of floral organogenesis and fruit development in both a dry dehiscent and a fleshy fruit, respectively. Stone fruits including peaches, plums, cherries, and apricots form a fleshy fruit that contains a hard...

  12. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  13. Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Olivas, G I; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2005-01-01

    The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have living tissue, they undergo enzymatic browning, texture decay, microbial contamination, and undesirable volatile production, highly reducing their shelf life if they are in any way wounded. Edible coatings can be used to help in the preservation of minimally processed fruits, providing a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide, improving mechanical handling properties, carrying additives, avoiding volatiles loss, and even contributing to the production of aroma volatiles.

  14. Fruit growth-related genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Lamia; Deluche, Cynthia; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie; Delmas, Frédéric; Hernould, Michel; Chevalier, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) represents a model species for all fleshy fruits due to its biological cycle and the availability of numerous genetic and molecular resources. Its importance in human nutrition has made it one of the most valuable worldwide commodities. Tomato fruit size results from the combination of cell number and cell size, which are determined by both cell division and expansion. As fruit growth is mainly driven by cell expansion, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid according to the endoreduplication process, reaching a DNA content rarely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Both cell division and cell expansion are under the control of complex interactions between hormone signalling and carbon partitioning, which establish crucial determinants of the quality of ripe fruit, such as the final size, weight, and shape, and organoleptic and nutritional traits. This review describes the genes known to contribute to fruit growth in tomato.

  15. FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

    2014-01-01

    Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

  16. Advances in fruit aroma volatile research.

    PubMed

    El Hadi, Muna Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Feng-Jie; Wu, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jun

    2013-07-11

    Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  17. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  18. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  19. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  20. A Non-Climacteric Fruit Gene CaMADS-RIN Regulates Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Climacteric Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1–3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits. PMID:24751940

  1. Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

  2. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  3. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming.

  4. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates.

  5. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  6. Polysaccharide based edible coating on sapota fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Joslin; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable and have short shelf life at the ambient conditions. The edible coatings have been used on different agricultural products in order to extend their post harvest life. In the present study, the polysaccharide based edible coating made up of sodium alginate and pectin (2%) was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits. The coating of the fruits is done by dipping method with two dipping time (2 and 4 min). The both control and coated sapota fruits were stored at refrigerated temperature (4±1°C). The physico-chemical analysis including acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, weight loss, colour and firmness were measured on 1, 8, 15, 23 and 30th day of storage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in these physico-chemical parameters between control and coated sapota fruits with 2 and 4 min dipping time. The sensory analysis of control and coated sapota fruits showed that, the polysaccharide coating with 2 minutes dipping time was effective in maintaining the organoleptic properties of the fruits.

  7. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  8. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods.

  9. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; von Bergen, Vera; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Mo, Huanbiao; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data.

  10. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    PubMed

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  12. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Polyamine Metabolism in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajeev; Davies, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele a/c) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (A/c) at the ripe stage (ARG Dibble, PJ Davies, MA Mutschler [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 338-340). Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-a/c—a near isogenic line possessing the allele a/c, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in a/c pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and a/c fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal labeled-3H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-a/c fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in a/c fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in a/c fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase. PMID:16667978

  14. Fine-tuning the fruit-tracking hypothesis: spatiotemporal links between fruit availability and fruit consumption by birds in Andean mountain forests.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Ruggera, Román A; Núñez Montellano, M Gabriela; Macchi, Leandro; Zelaya, Patricia V; Álvarez, M Eva; Martín, Eduardo; Acosta, Oriana Osinaga; Sánchez, Rocío; Haedo, Josefina; Boots, Mike

    2012-11-01

    1. The fruit-tracking hypothesis predicts spatiotemporal links between changes in the abundance of fruit-eating birds and the abundance of their fleshy-fruit resources. 2. While the spatial scale of plant-frugivore interactions has been explored to understand mismatches between observed and expected fruit-frugivore patterns, methodological issues such as the consequences of measuring fruit and frugivore abundance rather than fruit availability and fruit consumption have not been evaluated. 3. Here, we explored whether predicted fruit-frugivore spatiotemporal links can be captured with higher accuracy by proximate measurements of interaction strength. We used a 6-ha grided plot in an Andean subtropical forest to study the link between (i) fruit and fruit-eating bird abundances; (ii) fruit availability and frequency of fruit consumption; and (iii) covariation between frugivore abundance and frequency of frugivory. We evaluated these links for the entire frugivore assemblage and for the four most important species using data gathered bimonthly along a 2-year period. 4. Fleshy-fruit availability and abundance varied sharply temporally and were patchily distributed in mosaics that differed in fruit quantity. Fruit availability and abundance also varied along spatial gradients extended over the whole study plot. We found a strong response of the entire frugivorous bird assemblage to fruit availability over time, and a weakly significant relationship over space at the local scale. The main frugivore species widely differed in their responses to changes in fruit abundance in such a way that response at the assemblage level cannot be seen as the sum of individual responses of each species. Our results suggest that fruit tracking in frugivorous-insectivorous birds may be largely explained by species-specific responses to changes in the availability of fruits and alternative resources. 5. In agreement with our prediction, more accurate measurements of interaction strength

  15. [Fruit and berries--interactions with drugs].

    PubMed

    Molden, Espen; Spigset, Olav

    2007-12-13

    Diet is one of many factors that could alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Several fruits and berries have recently been shown to contain agents that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. Grapefruit is the most well-known example, but also Sevillian orange, pomelo and star fruit contain agents that inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), which is the most important enzyme in drug metabolism. The present article reviews published information on potential interactions between drugs and fruits/berries, with main focus on inhibition and induction of metabolizing enzymes.

  16. Laser speckle dynamic for monitoring fruits maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Rana; Pellen, Fabrice; Magne, Christian; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Our study is based on using a non-invasive technique, the bio-speckle technique, in order to follow the ripening of fruits during different stages: before and after the climacteric stage. To assess the impact of the ripening of fruits on their optical properties, speckle grain is measured and the variation of its dimensions is evaluated. In addition, and in order to correlate this observation with the degradation of chlorophylls, both a physical approach based on recording the fluorescence spectrum of chlorophylls, and a biochemical approach based on a pigmentation analysis, are used. We therefore show the efficiency of biospeckle metrology for monitoring fruit maturation.

  17. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  19. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-01-01

    Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

  20. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than plasticulture...

  1. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than plasticulture...

  2. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The coating is applied in...

  3. A Healthier Workplace? Implementation of Fruit Boxes in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Teal, Renee; Slevin, Terry; Ledger, Melissa; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether making fruit boxes available in the workplace is a successful health promotion strategy. Design: A quasi-experimental study involving three conditions--free fruit, 50c per piece of fruit and $1 per piece of fruit--to investigate the effect of a contribution scheme on employees' fruit…

  4. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  5. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  6. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following conditions: (a...

  7. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  9. A Healthier Workplace? Implementation of Fruit Boxes in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Teal, Renee; Slevin, Terry; Ledger, Melissa; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether making fruit boxes available in the workplace is a successful health promotion strategy. Design: A quasi-experimental study involving three conditions--free fruit, 50c per piece of fruit and $1 per piece of fruit--to investigate the effect of a contribution scheme on employees' fruit…

  10. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  12. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

  13. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  14. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  15. Noguchi with Fruit in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-18

    ISS023-E-025895 (18 April 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 23 commander, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  16. Noguchi with Fruit in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-18

    ISS023-E-025896 (18 April 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 23 commander, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  17. Wakata with fruit in Service Module (SM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-29

    ISS018-E-043634 (29 March 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 18 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  18. Kelly in Node 1 with fruit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    ISS025-E-011216 (3 Nov. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Doug Wheelock (background), Expedition 25 commander; and Scott Kelly, flight engineer, are pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  19. Parmitano with fruit in Node 1 module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-28

    ISS036-E-025504 (28 July 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  20. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  1. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  2. Hydraulic resistance of developing Actinidia fruit

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Clearwater, Michael J.; Montanaro, Giuseppe; Xiloyannis, Cristos

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. It has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (RT) contributes to this process. This study examined changes in RT that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase in RT, potentially contributing to decreased mineral accumulation in shaded fruit. Methods RT was measured using pressure chamber and flow meter methods, the two methods were compared, and the flow meter was also used to partition RT between the pedicel, receptacle and proximal and distal portions of the berry. Dye was used as a tracer for xylem function. Artificial shading was used to test the effect of light on RT, dye entry and mineral accumulation. Key Results RT decreased during the early phase of rapid fruit growth, but increased again as the fruit transitioned to a final period of slower growth. The most significant changes in resistance occurred in the receptacle, which initially contributed 20 % to RT, increasing to 90 % later in development. Dye also ceased moving beyond the receptacle from 70 d after anthesis. The two methods for measuring RT agreed in terms of the direction and timing of developmental changes in RT, but pressure chamber measurements were consistently higher than flow meter estimates of RT, prompting questions regarding which method is most appropriate for measuring fruit RT. Shading had no effect on berry growth but increased RT and decreased dye movement and calcium concentration. Conclusions Increased RT in the receptacle zone coincides with slowing fresh weight growth, reduced transpiration and rapid starch accumulation by the fruit. Developmental changes in RT may be connected to changes in phloem functioning and the

  3. Hydraulic resistance of developing Actinidia fruit.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Clearwater, Michael J; Montanaro, Giuseppe; Xiloyannis, Cristos

    2013-07-01

    Xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. It has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (RT) contributes to this process. This study examined changes in RT that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase in RT, potentially contributing to decreased mineral accumulation in shaded fruit. RT was measured using pressure chamber and flow meter methods, the two methods were compared, and the flow meter was also used to partition RT between the pedicel, receptacle and proximal and distal portions of the berry. Dye was used as a tracer for xylem function. Artificial shading was used to test the effect of light on RT, dye entry and mineral accumulation. RT decreased during the early phase of rapid fruit growth, but increased again as the fruit transitioned to a final period of slower growth. The most significant changes in resistance occurred in the receptacle, which initially contributed 20 % to RT, increasing to 90 % later in development. Dye also ceased moving beyond the receptacle from 70 d after anthesis. The two methods for measuring RT agreed in terms of the direction and timing of developmental changes in RT, but pressure chamber measurements were consistently higher than flow meter estimates of RT, prompting questions regarding which method is most appropriate for measuring fruit RT. Shading had no effect on berry growth but increased RT and decreased dye movement and calcium concentration. Increased RT in the receptacle zone coincides with slowing fresh weight growth, reduced transpiration and rapid starch accumulation by the fruit. Developmental changes in RT may be connected to changes in phloem functioning and the maintenance of water potential gradients between the stem

  4. Using Mobile Fruit Vendors to Increase Access to Fresh Fruit and Vegetables for Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren purchased precut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a frutero sold fruits and vegetables at the entrance of an elementary school; 59% of the frutero’s 233 consumers of 248 items were elementary-school students. With each successive day, an average of 1 additional bag of fruits and vegetables was sold by the frutero and 1.5 fewer nonnutritious foods by a competing vendor. Policies encouraging the sale of nutritious foods from mobile food vendors may increase access for schoolchildren. PMID:22632739

  5. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

    2014-01-01

    While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

  6. Using mobile fruit vendors to increase access to fresh fruit and vegetables for schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tester, June M; Yen, Irene H; Laraia, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren purchased precut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a frutero sold fruits and vegetables at the entrance of an elementary school; 59% of the frutero's 233 consumers of 248 items were elementary-school students. With each successive day, an average of 1 additional bag of fruits and vegetables was sold by the frutero and 1.5 fewer nonnutritious foods by a competing vendor. Policies encouraging the sale of nutritious foods from mobile food vendors may increase access for schoolchildren.

  7. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-02-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition are altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3)) for 4 h. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and young fruits at the time of ozone exposure were more affected. Contents of total soluble sugars (total SS), total organic acids (total OA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) increased in fruits harvested from ozone-treated plants. Tomato fruit composition was altered under ozone stress, leading to a lower sugar:acid ratio. These changes were mostly due to increased contents of malic acid, ascorbate and glucose despite a decrease in sucrose. Acute ozone exposure up to 500 µg m(-3) greatly influences tomato fruit quality. As final fruit yield was not significantly reduced, it highlighted that there may be compensatory mechanisms present in the reproductive structures of tomato. Further research would be necessary to determine how reproductive traits are affected by repeated ozone exposure or longer-term exposure. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Fruit removal rate depends on neighborhood fruit density, frugivore abundance, and spatial context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam D; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-03-01

    Fleshy-fruited plants depend fundamentally on interactions with frugivores for effective seed dispersal. Recent models of frugivory within spatially explicit networks make two general predictions regarding these interactions: rate of fruit removal increases (i.e., is facilitated) as densities of conspecific neighborhood fruits increase, and fruit removal rate varies positively with frugivore abundance. We conducted a field experiment that constitutes the first empirical and simultaneous test of these two primary predictions. We manipulated neighborhood abundances of arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum and Viburnum dentatum) fruits in southern New England's maritime shrub community and monitored removal rates by autumn-migrating birds. Focal arrowwood plants in neighborhoods with high conspecific fruit density sustained moderately decreased fruit removal rates (i.e., competition) relative to those in low-density neighborhoods, a result that agrees with most field research to date but contrasts with theoretical expectation. We suggest the spatial contexts that favor competition (i.e., high-abundance neighborhoods and highly aggregated landscapes) are considerably more common than the relatively uniform, low-aggregation fruiting landscapes that promote facilitation. Patterns of arrowwood removal by avian frugivores generally varied positively with, and apparently in response to, seasonal changes in migratory frugivore abundance. However, we suggest that dense stands of arrowwood concentrated frugivore activity at the neighborhood scale, thus counteracting geographic patterns of frugivore abundance. Our results underscore the importance of considering spatial context (e.g., fruit distribution and aggregation, frugivory hubs) in plant-avian frugivore interactions.

  9. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

    2014-07-17

    While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia.

  10. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  11. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  12. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  13. Current Trends of Tropical Fruit Waste Utilization.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Abedin, Nur Hanani Zainal; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2016-05-31

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  14. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic…

  15. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic…

  16. Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →(ii)→ fruit calcium →(iii)→ fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, →(i)→, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm−2 h−1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit

  17. Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →(ii)→ fruit calcium →(iii)→ fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, →(i)→, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm(-2) h(-1)) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit transpiration rate throughout fruit development based on standard

  18. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  19. CaGLK2 regulates natural variation of chlorophyll content and fruit color in pepper fruit.

    PubMed

    Brand, Arnon; Borovsky, Yelena; Hill, Theresa; Rahman, Khalis Afnan Abdul; Bellalou, Aharon; Van Deynze, Allen; Paran, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    We provide multiple evidences that CaGLK2 underlies a quantitative trait locus controlling natural variation in chlorophyll content and immature fruit color of pepper via modulating chloroplast compartment size. Pepper fruit quality is attributed to a variety of traits, affecting visual appearance, flavor, chemical composition and nutritional value. Among the quality traits, fruit color is of primary importance because the pigments that confer color are associated with nutrition, health and flavor. Although gene models have been proposed for qualitative aspects of fruit color, large natural variation in quantitative pigment content and fruit color exists in pepper. However, its genetic basis is largely unknown which hampers its utilization for plant improvement. We studied the role of GLK2, a GOLDEN2-like transcription factor that regulates chloroplast development in controlling natural variation for chlorophyll content and immature fruit color of pepper. The role of GLK2 in regulating fruit development has been studied previously in tomato using ectopic expression and the uniform ripening mutant analyses. However, pepper provides a unique opportunity to further study the function of this gene because of the wide natural variation of fruit colors in this species. Segregation, sequencing and expression analyses indicated that pepper GLK2 (CaGLK2) corresponds to the recently reported pc10 QTL that controls chloroplast development and chlorophyll content in pepper. CaGLK2 exerts its effect on chloroplast compartment size predominantly during immature fruit development. We show that the genetic background, sequence variation and expression pattern confer a complex and multi-level regulation of CaGLK2 and fruit color in Capsicum. The positive effect on fruit quality predominantly at the green stage conferred by CaGLK2 can be utilized to breed green pepper varieties with improved nutritional values and taste.

  20. Host plant range of a fruit fly community (Diptera: Tephritidae): does fruit composition influence larval performance?

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Abir; Facon, Benoit; Ravigné, Virginie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Quilici, Serge; Chermiti, Brahim; Duyck, Pierre-François

    2016-09-20

    Phytophagous insects differ in their degree of specialisation on host plants, and range from strictly monophagous species that can develop on only one host plant to extremely polyphagous species that can develop on hundreds of plant species in many families. Nutritional compounds in host fruits affect several larval traits that may be related to adult fitness. In this study, we determined the relationship between fruit nutrient composition and the degree of host specialisation of seven of the eight tephritid species present in La Réunion; these species are known to have very different host ranges in natura. In the laboratory, larval survival, larval developmental time, and pupal weight were assessed on 22 fruit species occurring in La Réunion. In addition, data on fruit nutritional composition were obtained from existing databases. For each tephritid, the three larval traits were significantly affected by fruit species and the effects of fruits on larval traits differed among tephritids. As expected, the polyphagous species Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis catoirii, C. rosa, and C. capitata were able to survive on a larger range of fruits than the oligophagous species Zeugodacus cucurbitae, Dacus demmerezi, and Neoceratitis cyanescens. Pupal weight was positively correlated with larval survival and was negatively correlated with developmental time for polyphagous species. Canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between fruit nutrient composition and tephritid survival showed that polyphagous species survived better than oligophagous ones in fruits containing higher concentrations of carbohydrate, fibre, and lipid. Nutrient composition of host fruit at least partly explains the suitability of host fruits for larvae. Completed with female preferences experiments these results will increase our understanding of factors affecting tephritid host range.

  1. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study). PMID:26207908

  2. Modeling the response of peach fruit growth to water stress.

    PubMed

    Génard, M; Huguet, J G

    1996-04-01

    We applied a semi-mechanistic model of fresh matter accumulation to peach fruit during the stage of rapid mesocarp development. The model, which is based on simple hypotheses of fluid flows into and out of the fruit, assumes that solution flow into the fruit increases with fruit weight and transpiration per unit weight, and decreases with the maximum daily shrinkage of the trunk, which was used as an indicator of water stress. Fruit transpiration was assumed to increase with fruit size and with radiation. Fruit respiration was considered to be related to fruit growth and to temperature. The model simulates variability in growth among fruits according to climatic conditions, degree of water stress and weight of the fruit at the beginning of the simulation. We used data obtained from well-watered and water-stressed trees grown in containers to estimate model parameters and to test the model. There was close agreement between the simulated and measured values. A sensitivity analysis showed that initial fruit weight partly determined the variation in growth among fruits. The analysis also indicated that there was an optimal irradiance for fruit growth and that the effect of high global radiation on growth varied according to the stage of fruit development. Water stress, which was the most important factor influencing fruit growth, rapidly depressed growth, particularly when applied late in the season.

  3. Evaluating Frugivore-fruit Interactions Using Avian Eye Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Fadzly, Nik; Burns, Kevin C.; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Fruit phenotypes are often hypothesised to be affected by selection by frugivores. Here, we tested two hypotheses concerning frugivore-fruit interactions from the perspective of fruit colours. We measured the spectral properties of 26 fruits and the associated leaves of plants from 2 islands in New Zealand. Visual observations were also performed to record the birds that fed on the fruits. First, we tested the fruit-foliage hypothesis, where fruit colours are assumed to be evolutionarily constrained by their own leaf colour to maximise colour contrast and fruit conspicuousness. We ran a null model analysis comparing fruit colour contrast using an avian eye model. Second, we tested the frugivore specificity hypothesis, where specific fruit colours are thought to be connected with a specific bird frugivore. We performed a regression on the number of bird visits against the fruit colour in tetrahedral colour space based on an avian eye calculation using Mantel’s test. The results show that fruit colours are not constrained by their own leaf colours. There is also no relationship or pattern suggesting a link between a specific fruit colour and specific bird visitors. We suggest that although fruit colour is one of the most highly discussed components, it is not the most important single deciding factor in frugivore fruit selection. PMID:24575247

  4. Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less

  5. Fruit Consumption by Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Branum, Amy M; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the contribution of whole fruit, including discrete types of fruit, to total fruit consumption and to investigate differences in consumption by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from 3129 youth aged 2–19 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) and the What We Eat in America 150 food groups (WWEIA 150), we calculated the contribution of whole fruit, 100% fruit juices, mixed fruit dishes, and 12 discrete fruit and fruit juices to total fruit consumption. We examined differences by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status. Results Nearly 90% of total fruit intake came from whole fruits (53%) and 100% fruit juices (34%) among youth aged 2–19 y. Apples, apple juice, citrus juice and bananas were responsible for almost half of total fruit consumption. Apples accounted for 18.9% of fruit intake. Differences by age were predominantly between youth aged 2–5 y and 6–11 y. For example, apples contributed a larger percentage of total fruit intake among youth 6–11 y (22.4%) than among youth 2–5 y (14.6%), but apple juice contributed a smaller percentage (8.8% v 16.8%), p<0.05. There were race/Hispanic origin differences in intake of citrus fruits, berries, melons, dried fruit, and citrus juices and other fruit juices. Conclusion These findings provide insight into what fruits U.S. youth are consuming and demographic factors that may influence consumption. PMID:26391940

  6. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  7. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  8. Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

    2008-06-01

    We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.

  9. [Effects of bagging on the fruit quality in Litchi chinensis fruit and pesticide residues in it].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwu; Chen, Houbing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Xinming

    2003-05-01

    Different color bags were used to cover Litchi chinensis fruit to study the effects of bagging on its quality and pesticide residues. The results showed that bagging significantly improved the fruit color. Using bagging techniques, the I and II class fruit was accounted for 57.87% to 81.57%, 30% higher than that of control, and the weight per fruit increased significantly. Among the color bags used, white bag was the best. When the end of the bag was opened, it was benefit for decease control, but not good for pest control. When the end of the bag was closed, it was good for pest control, but bad for decease control. Bagging had no effects on the taste of Litchi chinensis fruit, but might increase the residues of fenpropathrin and trichlorphon. More study should to be carried out to select the suitable pesticides accompanied with bagging techniques.

  10. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    PubMed

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  13. Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.

    PubMed

    Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; ...

    2012-12-27

    The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicelular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to Imitations at different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Opticalmore » Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the Internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative nigh and low spore density regions. Here, to make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The Integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight Into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen In other biological systems such as dlctyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.« less

  15. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  16. Predicting adolescents' intake of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Leslie A; Varnell, Sherri; Murray, David M; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Kubik, Martha Y

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential predictors of adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake by expanding on current theory and drawing from other adolescent research. This research reports on baseline and interim data from a school-based intervention study. Data were collected through surveys administered to students at the beginning and end of their 7th grade year. The students attended 16 public schools in Minnesota. Data were collected on 3878 students; approximately half were female and 67% were white. All students in the 7th grade cohort were invited to participate in the surveys and over 94% completed both surveys. Our dependent variable, fruit and vegetable intake, was assessed by a validated fruit and vegetable food frequency scale. Predictive factors assessed included parenting style, spirituality/religiosity, depressive symptoms, and other commonly assessed predictors. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Omnibus test of association using P <.05 is reported. Subjective norms, barriers, knowledge, usual food choice, parenting style, spirituality/religiosity, and depressive symptoms were statistically significant predictors of intake. The model explained about 31% of the variance in fruit and vegetable consumption. To better understand adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, we must explore novel predictors. Our results need to be replicated, and more exploratory research in this field is needed.

  17. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  18. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  19. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-04

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  20. Fruit and vegetable consumption in later life.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A E; Donkin, A J; Morgan, K; Neale, R J; Page, R M; Silburn, R L

    1998-11-01

    to assess levels of fruit and vegetable consumption in elderly people, and to examine the socio-economic, physical and psychological factors which influence this consumption. a three-phase survey: face to face interviews; self-completed dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow-up face-to-face interviews. 445 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists in urban Nottingham and rural Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Leicestershire. the recommended target of five portions of fruit and vegetables a day was achieved by less than half the respondents: 37% of those living in the urban area and 51% of those living in the rural area. Low fruit and vegetable consumption was particularly associated with being male, smoking and having low levels of social engagement. most elderly people consume less than the recommended levels of fruit and vegetables. Health programmes promoting fruit and vegetable consumption may not be successfully reaching elderly people and need to target those particularly at risk of low consumption.

  1. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  2. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  3. Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions. PMID:23300427

  4. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  5. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  6. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious.

  7. Shattering fruits: variations on a dehiscent theme.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Patricia; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Fruits are seed dispersal units, and for that they have evolved different strategies to facilitate separation and dispersal of the progeny from the mother plant. A great proportion of fruits from different clades are dry and dehiscent, opening upon maturity to disperse the seeds. In the last two decades, intense research mainly in Arabidopsis has uncovered the basic network that controls the differentiation of the Arabidopsis fruit dehiscence zone. This review focuses on recent discoveries that have helped to complete the picture, as well as the insights from evo-devo and crop domestication studies that show how the conservation/variation of the elements of this network across species accounts for its evolutionary plasticity and the origin of evolutionary innovations.

  8. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  9. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Reagan, Russell L.; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M.; Gasser, Charles S.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P <0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  10. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, P< 0·01), but did not change in the E1 group (t(16) = 0·29, P= 0·78). No differences were found between E5 and E5+ groups (F(3,87) = 1·22, P= 0·31). Similar effects were also found in fruit and vegetable intakes. No effects were found in other participants. Also, no changes in liking were found. These findings suggest that compared to single exposure, repeated exposure to fruit via fruit-tasting sessions once per week for 5 weeks in a community setting significantly improved fruit intakes, and fruit and vegetable intakes in older low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  11. [Determination and the hygienic-toxicologic significance of patulin in fruit and fruit products].

    PubMed

    Fritz, W; Buthig, C; Engst, R

    1979-01-01

    The combination of extracting, chromatographic and fluorescence densitometric steps permits to determine patulin in fruits and fruit products with great precision and sensitivity. The limit of detection is 10 microgram/kg; the recovery rates range from 86 to 92% with a variation coefficient lying between 5.6 and 13.6%. Interferences due to patulin-simulating substances are widely excluded. Patulin concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 42 mg/kg were found in the brown-rotten portions of apples. Juices domestically prepared from healthy fruits and fruits rid of rotten portions, respectively, contained no patulin. On the contrary, patulin concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.3 mg/l were observed in commercial apple juices. As to products with subsequent mould infection, patulin values up to 50 mg/l were found in apple juices, and up to 0.4 mg/kg in peach preserves. In a further 24 commercial fruit and vegetable juices, patulin was not detectable even not in cider, in cereals which had gone mouldy spontaneously, and in bread samples. The fruits and fruit products were analysed not only for patulin, but also for aflatoxin and ochratoxin; the latter two, however, were found in none of the samples examined. The possibilities of manufacturing patulin-free products are discussed.

  12. Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2011-10-26

    Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species.

  13. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-08-03

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  14. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0.807 to 0.838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  15. Fungal infestation boosts fruit aroma and fruit removal by mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Peris, Josep E; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Fedriani, José María

    2017-07-17

    For four decades, an influential hypothesis has posited that competition for food resources between microbes and vertebrates selects for microbes to alter these resources in ways that make them unpalatable to vertebrates. We chose an understudied cross kingdom interaction to experimentally evaluate the effect of fruit infection by fungi on both vertebrate (mammals and birds) fruit preferences and on ecologically relevant fruit traits (volatile compounds, toughness, etc). Our well-replicated field experiments revealed that, in contrast to previous studies, frugivorous mammals and birds consistently preferred infested over intact fruits. This was concordant with the higher level of attractive volatiles (esters, ethanol) in infested fruits. This investigation suggests that vertebrate frugivores, fleshy-fruited plants, and microbes form a tripartite interaction in which each part could interact positively with the other two (e.g. both orange seeds and fungal spores are likely dispersed by mammals). Such a mutualistic view of these complex interactions is opposed to the generalized idea of competition between frugivorous vertebrates and microorganisms. Thus, this research provides a new perspective on the widely accepted plant evolutionary dilemma to make fruits attractive to mutualistic frugivores while unattractive to presumed antagonistic microbes that constrain seed dispersal.

  16. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  17. Fruit and Food Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology world is brimming with myriad of interesting clinical conditions, signs and syndromes. It is infinite, which has systemic clinical connotations too. Complicated pronunciations of diagnosis have always placed residents in an intricate state. Each one is trying his best to make this cumbersome subject comparatively more acceptable and convenient. The present paper is an attempt to further simplify the subject by correlating difficult conditions with commonly used and seen things such as fruit and food. A total of 45 dermatological conditions were found to be based on fruit and food eponyms. For example, strawberries can remind us of strawberry gums of Wegener's granulomatosis and strawberry nevus. PMID:25814737

  18. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  19. Intraspecific variation in fruit-frugivore interactions: effects of fruiting neighborhood and consequences for seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Tadeu J; Dayrell, Roberta L C; Arruda, André J; Dáttilo, Wesley; Teixido, Alberto L; Messeder, João V S; Silveira, Fernando A O

    2017-09-05

    The extent of specialization/generalization continuum in fruit-frugivore interactions at the individual level remains poorly explored. Here, we investigated the interactions between the Neotropical treelet Miconia irwinii (Melastomataceae) and its avian seed dispersers in Brazilian campo rupestre. We built an individual-based network to derive plant degree of interaction specialization regarding disperser species. Then, we explored how intraspecific variation in interaction niche breadth relates to fruit availability on individual plants in varying densities of fruiting conspecific neighbors, and how these factors affect the quantity of viable seeds dispersed. We predicted broader interaction niche breadths for individuals with larger fruit crops in denser fruiting neighborhoods. The downscaled network included nine bird species and 15 plants, which varied nearly five-fold in their degree of interaction specialization. We found positive effects of crop size on visitation and fruit removal rates, but not on degree of interaction specialization. Conversely, we found that an increase in the density of conspecific fruiting neighbors both increased visitation rate and reduced plant degree of interaction specialization. We suggest that tracking fruit-rich patches by avian frugivore species is the main driver of density-dependent intraspecific variation in plants' interaction niche breadth. Our study shed some light on the overlooked fitness consequences of intraspecific variation in interaction niches by showing that individuals along the specialization/generalization continuum may have their seed dispersed with similar effectiveness. Our study exemplifies how individual-based networks linking plants to frugivore species that differ in their seed dispersal effectiveness can advance our understanding of intraspecific variation in the outcomes of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  20. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 Be creative with your breakfast Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your oatmeal, yogurt, or ... fruit smoothie Blend fresh or frozen berries and bananas with 100% fruit juice for a delicious frozen ...

  1. Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163124.html Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies Many may not ... HealthDay News) -- A quick chat with low-income families about financial incentives to eat more fruits and ...

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  3. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  4. Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-03-18

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size.

  5. Notes on flowering and fruiting of northeastern trees

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1953-01-01

    Most published observations on the flowering and fruiting habits of forest trees have dealt with the periodicity of fruiting in entire species. This is natural since the main reason for making such observations has been the forecasting of seed crops.

  6. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  7. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  8. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  9. Integrating Physiology and Architecture in Models of Fruit Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Cheddadi, Ibrahim; Boudon, Frédéric; Baldazzi, Valentina; Génard, Michel; Godin, Christophe; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1) creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2) generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3) integrating aspects of the fruit's function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit's structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development. PMID:27917187

  10. Integrating Physiology and Architecture in Models of Fruit Expansion.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Cheddadi, Ibrahim; Boudon, Frédéric; Baldazzi, Valentina; Génard, Michel; Godin, Christophe; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1) creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2) generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3) integrating aspects of the fruit's function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit's structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  11. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  12. Evolution: Fruit Fly Clocks on the Edge.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2017-03-20

    Fruit flies evolved in tropical regions under stable light-dark cycles. However, their photosensitive circadian clock had to adapt to extreme seasonal photoperiods during their colonisation of temperate regions. This was achieved by changing the neuronal expression of two key clock-related components.

  13. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND..., commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus nobilis deliciosa, commonly called “tangerines”; (d) Temple oranges; (e) Tangelos; and (f) Honey tangerines....

  14. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND..., commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus nobilis deliciosa, commonly called “tangerines”; (d) Temple oranges; (e) Tangelos; and (f) Honey tangerines....

  15. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND..., commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus nobilis deliciosa, commonly called “tangerines”; (d) Temple oranges; (e) Tangelos; and (f) Honey tangerines....

  16. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND..., commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus nobilis deliciosa, commonly called “tangerines”; (d) Temple oranges; (e) Tangelos; and (f) Honey tangerines....

  17. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND..., commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus nobilis deliciosa, commonly called “tangerines”; (d) Temple oranges; (e) Tangelos; and (f) Honey tangerines....

  18. Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

  19. NRCS-EQIP Tree Fruit IPM Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2008, the WVU Extension Service partnered with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to develop and implement a cost-share IPM program for the commercial tree fruit growers in West Virginia. Fifty percent of implementation costs were paid by NRCS through the Environmental Quality Ince...

  20. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  1. Sterilant gas disinfection of fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commercial aqueous wash treatments for fresh produce are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove human pathogen contaminants. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches on produce wh...

  2. Pop! Go the Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Eleanor

    1974-01-01

    Sparked by a filmstrip on Pop Art and its influence on contemporary sculpture, an eleventh year Art class at Clara Barton Vocational High School decided to create "larger than life" three-dimensional objects inspired by natural patterns and forms of fruits and vegetables. (Author)

  3. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Yogurt Food Gallery Take the Dairy Quiz Oils All About Oils How Are Oils Different from Solid Fats? Nutrients and Health Benefits ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker What’s Cooking? BMI Calculator Daily ...

  4. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  5. Mastracchio holds fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043027 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to eat a fresh orange in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  6. Mastracchio holds fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043015 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to eat a fresh orange in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  7. Plums in temperate fruit crop breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is slanted towards molecular biologists working with fruit crops. The chapter on plums describes the characteristics and biology of European and Japanese type plums. Current status of molecular work on these crops is described. In general plums are amenable to regeneration and transform...

  8. The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

  9. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry is one of the major fresh market commodities in Florida. Strawberry must be harvested at the proper time, to keep its fruit quality and shelf life. Generally, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and/or color are the major indices for fruity quality control. However, the...

  10. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  11. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  12. Detection of phytoplasmas of temperate fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are associated with hundreds of plant diseases globally. Many fruit tree phytoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors or grafting, are considered quarantine organisms and a major economic threat to orchards. Diagnosis can be difficult, but immunochemical and molecular methods have been developed.

  13. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  14. Strategies for improved fruit crop cyropreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit crop collections kept in fields or greenhouses are expensive to maintain. Cryopreservation has been implemented as a method to back-up some of these costly collections, but it is a labor-intensive process. My laboratory has been working toward finding practical approaches to decrease the lab...

  15. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0..., greengage, and prune) 7.0 Pomegranate 5.5 Prickly pear 11.0 Quince 7.5 Raspberry, red raspberry 9.5 Red...

  16. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0..., greengage, and prune) 7.0 Pomegranate 5.5 Prickly pear 11.0 Quince 7.5 Raspberry, red raspberry 9.5 Red...

  17. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0..., greengage, and prune) 7.0 Pomegranate 5.5 Prickly pear 11.0 Quince 7.5 Raspberry, red raspberry 9.5 Red...

  18. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0..., greengage, and prune) 7.0 Pomegranate 5.5 Prickly pear 11.0 Quince 7.5 Raspberry, red raspberry 9.5 Red...

  19. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods.

  20. Micro irrigation of tropical fruit crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In most tropical regions, tropical fruits are grown either in wet-and-dry climates characterized by erratic rainfall patterns and prolonged dry periods or in fertile but semiarid lands under irrigation. Little is known about water requirements of tropical crops grown in the tropics. This book chapt...

  1. Still Life with Fruit and Seashell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojeski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.

  2. The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

  3. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  4. Still Life with Fruit and Seashell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojeski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.

  5. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  6. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  7. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  8. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  9. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  10. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  11. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  12. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  13. Inhibition of pear fruit ripening by mannose.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C B; Frenkel, C

    1987-09-01

    Softening of the flesh and the rise in ethylene evolution and respiration associated with ripening in pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit was delayed when mannose was vacuum infiltrated into intact fruit. The extent of delay could be modified by altering the concentration or the volume of mannose applied to the fruit. Inhibition of ripening was associated with phosphorylation of mannose to mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), and accumulation of M6P was associated with lowered levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and ATP in the fruit tissue. Subsequently, however, as the M6P was metabolized, the levels of Pi, G6P, and ATP increased and ripening processes were concomitantly released from inhibition. Hence, the degree of inhibition by mannose or the release from inhibition was related to the level of M6P in the fruit and its rate of metabolism. The data provide correlative evidence to support a view that one inhibitory effect of mannose is depletion of Pi in the cell as a result of phosphorylation of mannose to M6P. Inhibition of ripening by mannose was not alleviated by co-application of glucose as a competitive substrate for the hexokinase(s), or by Pi, presumably the depleted metabolite. Also, incubation of tissue disks with M6P resulted in inhibition of ethylene production and respiration. The structural analogs of mannose, glucosamine, and 2-deoxyglucose, which have been shown to mimic mannose action in several plant tissues, did not cause inhibition of ripening of pear fruit comparable with that associated with mannose. Both analogs stimulated respiration, and glucosamine caused only a small inhibition of softening and ethylene evolution. Another mannose analog, alpha-methylmannoside, did inhibit fruit ripening though to a lesser extent than mannose. Its influence was also associated with accumulation of M6P and a decrease of Pi levels. We conclude that the mannose effect may, in part, be due to M6P toxicity, as well as by depletion of Pi.

  14. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  15. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  16. Fruit dry matter concentration: a new quality metric for apples.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John W; Harker, F Roger; Tustin, D Stuart; Johnston, Jason

    2010-12-01

    In the fresh apple market fruit must be crisp and juicy to attract buyers to purchase again. However, recent studies have shown that consumer acceptability could be further enhanced by improving taste. This study evaluates the use of fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) as a new fruit quality metric for apple. Fruit samples collected at harvest, in the two main fruit growing regions of New Zealand, showed a variation in mean fruit DMC from 130 to 156 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and with 'Scifresh' from 152 to 176 g kg(-1). Individual fruit DMC showed a larger range, from 108 to 189 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and from 125 to 201 g kg(-1) with 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC proved a more reliable predictor of total soluble solids after 12 weeks of air storage at 0.5 °C than TSS at harvest for both 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC was also positively related to flesh firmness, although this relationship was not as strong as that seen with soluble solids and was more dependent on cultivar. Consumer studies showed that consumer preference was positively related to fruit DMC of 'Royal Gala' apples. Fruit DMC can therefore be measured before or at harvest, and be used to predict the sensory potential for the fruit after storage. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Blackberry fruit quality components, composition, and potential health benefits.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blackberries have long been a popular small fruit. Their chemical composition data was assembled for this invited book chapter. Briefly, primary and secondary metabolites important to blackberry fruit quality were summarized. Metabolites are involved in many critical aspects of fruit quality includi...

  18. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  19. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 45: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  20. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  1. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 47: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  2. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, List 46: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  3. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  4. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  5. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  6. 7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section 906.123... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

  7. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not...

  8. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  9. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  10. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not...

  11. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The...

  12. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  13. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not...

  14. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  15. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not...

  16. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  17. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The...

  18. 7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section 906.123... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

  19. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not...

  20. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The...

  1. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The...

  2. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The...

  3. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 48

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 48th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar is described in terms of its origin, important fruit ...

  4. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease…

  5. The epigenome and transcriptional dynamics of fruit ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit has evolved myriad forms that facilitate seed dispersal in varied environmental and ecological contexts. Because fleshy fruits become attractive and nutritious to seed-dispersing animals, the transition from unripe to ripe fruit represents a dramatic shift in survival strategy—from protecting ...

  6. Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

  7. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit abscission as a response to herbivory is well-documented in many plant species, but its effect on further damage by mobile herbivores that survive fruit abscission is relatively unstudied. Physalis plants abscise fruit containing feeding larvae of their main frugivore, Heliothis subflexa Guen...

  8. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars, List 44: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then fruit and nut variety descript...

  9. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  10. I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shyness I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > For Teens > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? A A A I have braces, ... weight. I read about eating 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. But I can't ...

  11. Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

    2007-08-01

    Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults.

  12. Solubilisation of tomato fruit pectins by ascorbate: a possible non-enzymic mechanism of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Fry, Stephen C

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that endogenous ascorbate, released into the apoplast by membrane permeabilisation early in fruit ripening, could promote the solubilisation and depolymerisation of polysaccharides, and thus contribute to fruit softening. In vitro, ascorbate (1 mM), especially in the presence of traces of either Cu2+ or H2O2, solubilised up to 40% of the total pectin from the alcohol-insoluble residue of mature-green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. Solubilisation was due to the action of ascorbate-generated hydroxyl radicals (*OH), which can cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides. The pectins solubilised by ascorbate in vitro were polydisperse (4-1,000 kDa), partially esterified and galactose-rich. Excised pieces of living tomato fruit released ascorbate into the medium (apoplast); the ability of different tissues to do this increased in the order pericarp < placenta < locule. In all three tissues, but especially in the locule, the ability to release ascorbate increased during ripening. The Cu content of each tissue also increased during ripening, whereas neither Fe nor Mn showed a similar trend. We suggest that progressively increasing levels of Cu and ascorbate in the fruit apoplast would lead to elevated *OH production there and thus to non-enzymic scission of pectins during ripening. Such scission could contribute to the natural softening of the fruit. De-esterified citrus pectin was more susceptible to ascorbate-induced scission in vitro than methylesterified pectin, suggesting a possible new significance for pectin methylesterase activity in fruit ripening. In conclusion, non-enzymic mechanisms of fruit softening should be considered alongside the probable roles of hydrolases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylases and expansins.

  13. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  14. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  15. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  16. The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, E; Tanksley, S D

    2003-06-01

    The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F(2) population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, which produces a small, round fruit typical of most wild species. F(2) plants were analyzed for both fruit size and the degree to which their fruit resembled the bell pepper. Three QTL were determined to influence bell pepper shape and seven QTL influenced fruit mass. The map positions of all three bell shape and six out of seven fruit size QTL appear to be allelic to components of fruit morphology analyzed in this population and to major fruit morphology QTL reported previously, adding support to the hypothesis that the majority of fruit size and shape variation in cultivated tomato is attributable to allelic variation at a limited number of loci. However, novel loci controlling components of fruit morphology, such as elongated fruit shape, bumpiness, number of seed per fruit and flowers per inflorescence were identified in this study as well. The three bell shape loci involved are: bell2.1, bell2.2 and bell8.1, and appear to correspond to locule number2.1 ( lcn2.1) and fruit weight 2.2 ( fw2.2) and fruit shape 8.1 ( fs8.1), respectively. The Yellow Stuffer alleles at lcn2.1 and fw2.2 increase locule number and fruit size, respectively, hence contributing to the overall bell pepper shape. The Yellow Stuffer allele at fs8.1 causes convex locule walls, giving the extended, bumpy shape characteristic of bell peppers. In addition, most fruit size QTL correspond to loci controlling number of flowers per inflorescence and/or stem-end blockiness. Comparisons among previously identified fruit morphology loci in tomato, eggplant and pepper suggest that loci affecting

  17. Prepregnancy Consumption of Fruits and Fruit Juices and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liwei; Hu, Frank B.; Yeung, Edwina; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Cuilin

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Examine the association of prepregnancy habitual consumption of fruits and fruit juices and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective study among women with at least one singleton pregnancy in the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1991 to 2001. RESULTS Among 13,475 women, 860 reported a first diagnosis of GDM. The adjusted relative risks (RRs) for GDM from the lowest to highest quintile of whole fruit consumption were 1.00 (referent), 0.80 (95% CI 0.65–0.98), 0.90 (0.73–1.10), 0.80 (0.64–1.00), and 0.93 (0.76–1.16), respectively. The corresponding RRs for fruit juice were 1.00, 0.82 (0.66–1.01), 0.78 (0.63–0.96), 0.84 (0.68–1.04), and 1.00 (0.81–1.23). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that prepregnancy higher consumption of whole fruits is not associated with an increased GDM risk. The association between fruit juices and GDM risk appears to be nonlinear. PMID:22446174

  18. Early metabolic and transcriptional variations in fruit of natural white-fruited Fragaria vesca genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Härtl, Katja; Denton, Alisandra; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Spornraft, Melanie; Usadel, Björn; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Strawberry fruits (Fragaria vesca) are valued for their sweet fruity flavor, juicy texture, and characteristic red color caused by anthocyanin pigments. To gain a deeper insight into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we performed comparative metabolite profiling and transcriptome analyses of one red-fruited and two natural white-fruited strawberry varieties in two tissues and three ripening stages. Developing fruit of the three genotypes showed a distinctive pattern of polyphenol accumulation already in green receptacle and achenes. Global analysis of the transcriptomes revealed that the ripening process in the white-fruited varieties is already affected at an early developmental stage. Key polyphenol genes showed considerably lower transcript levels in the receptacle and achenes of both white genotypes, compared to the red genotype. The expression of the anthocyanidin glucosyltransferase gene and a glutathione S-transferase, putatively involved in the vacuolar transport of the anthocyanins, seemed to be critical for anthocyanin formation. A bHLH transcription factor is among the differentially expressed genes as well. Furthermore, genes associated with flavor formation and fruit softening appear to be coordinately regulated and seem to interact with the polyphenol biosynthesis pathway. This study provides new information about polyphenol biosynthesis regulators in strawberry, and reveals genes unknown to affect anthocyanin formation. PMID:28327625

  19. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  20. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  1. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl bromide fumigation is a major phytosanitary treatment for a wide variety of quarantine pests, including tephritid fruit flies. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest of a number of fruits, including citrus exported from Texas, Mexico and Central American countries....

  3. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  4. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  5. Effect of fruit load on maturity and carotenoid content of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Bert, Liliane; Urban, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    Citrus fruits contain many secondary metabolites displaying valuable health properties. There is a lot of interest in enhancing citrus quality traits, especially carotenoid contents, by agronomic approaches. In this study the influence of carbohydrate availability on maturity and quality criteria was investigated in clementine fruits during ripening. Fruiting branches were girdled and defoliated after fruit set to obtain three levels of fruit load: high (five leaves per fruit), medium (15) and low (30). Considering the soluble solid content/titratable acidity (SSC/TA) ratio, it was found that fruits of the high and medium fruit load treatments reached maturity 1.5 months later than fruits of the control. At the time of maturity the SSC/TA ratio of fruits of all treatments was about 13.6. At harvest, fruits were 23% smaller and total sugar concentration of the endocarp was 12.6% lower in the high fruit load treatment than in the control. In contrast, the concentrations of organic acids and total carotenoids were 55.4 and 93.0% higher respectively. Total carotenoids were not positively correlated with either soluble sugars or total carbohydrates. Taken together, the results do not support the common view that carbohydrate availability directly determines carotenoid synthesis by influencing precursor availability. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Fruit and vegetable intake during infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Kim, Sonia A; Yaroch, Amy L; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  8. [Reasons that seedless fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii become small].

    PubMed

    Mo, Chang-Ming; Fu, Wei; Xing, Ai-Jia; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Luo, Hong; Tang, Qi

    2014-02-01

    To study the reasons that the seedless fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii developed to smaller ones. The differences of fruit expanding, gene expressing and cell development were investigated between the triploid and diploid fruits from two strains F050 and F049. The results showed the expanding of triploid fruits was stopped about 20 days after artificial pollination, 10 days earlier than the diploid fruits. Meanwhile, it was also investigated that aux expressing level in the triploid fruits was greatly higher than that in diploid fruits, while its ipt, cyt-p450, spds, cycB, cycD1, cycD3, cdkA, cdkB, exp and xth expressing level were greatly lower than that in diploid fruits. The majority of sarcocarp cells of the triploid fruits kept in the stage of small ones comparing with the diploid fruits. The expression of the genes of the proteins involving cell division and expansion was inhibited as the significant reduction of endogenous IAA, CTK, GA and SPDS after bad fertilization and the embryo abortion, which resulted in the end of division and extension of sarcocarp cells. Above reasons induce small fruits of triploid seedless Siraitia grosvenorii.

  9. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  10. Diversification of fruit shape in the Brassicaceae family.

    PubMed

    Łangowski, Łukasz; Stacey, Nicola; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in fruit shape. Angiosperms (flowering plants) evolved during the Cretaceous Period more than 100 million years ago and quickly colonized all terrestrial habitats on the planet. A major reason for their success was the formation of fruits that would protect and nurture the developing seeds. Moreover, a massive range of diversity in fruit shape occurred during a relatively short time, which allowed for the development of ingenious ways of fertilization as well as strategies for efficient seed dispersal. The Brassicaceae family more than any exemplifies the diversity in fruit morphologies, thus providing an ideal group of plants to study how specific shapes are established. Although many genes controlling fruit patterning in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified, the processes of carpel and fruit morphogenesis are still poorly understood. Moreover, Arabidopsis fruits are relatively simple in their structure and are therefore not ideally suited for analyzing processes of morphology determination without comparison to species with differently shaped fruits. Here, we review the diversity of fruit shape within the Brassicaceae family. As an example we describe the close relative of Arabidopsis, Capsella rubella that develops flat, heart-shaped fruits showing and highlighting its potential as a model system for research into organ shape. Recent progress in genomics including fast and cheap genome sequencing and annotation as well as development of mutant populations has opened entirely new and exciting possibilities of studying the mechanisms and processes underlying fruit formation in angiosperms.

  11. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches.

  12. Major Australian tropical fruits biodiversity: bioactive compounds and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, Paul N; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The plant kingdom harbours many diverse bioactive molecules of pharmacological relevance. Temperate fruits and vegetables have been highly studied in this regard, but there have been fewer studies of fruits and vegetables from the tropics. As global consumers demand and are prepared to pay for new appealing and exotic foods, tropical fruits are now being more intensively investigated. Polyphenols and major classes of compounds like flavonoids or carotenoids are ubiquitously present in these fruits, as they are in the temperate ones, but particular classes of compounds are unique to tropical fruits and other plant parts. Bioactivity studies of compounds specific to tropical fruit plants may lead to new drug discoveries, while the synergistic action of the wide range of diverse compounds contained in plant extracts underlies nutritional and health properties of tropical fruits and vegetables. The evidence for in vitro and animal bioactivities is a strong indicator of the pharmacological promise shown in tropical fruit plant biodiversity. In this review, we will discuss both the occurrence of potential bioactive compounds isolated and identified from a selection of tropical fruit plants of importance in Australia, as well as recent studies of bioactivity associated with such fruits and other fruit plant parts.

  13. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  15. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    PubMed

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  16. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  17. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  19. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  20. [Consumption of fruit juices and fruit drinks: impact on the health of children and teenagers, the dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Catteau, C; Trentesaux, T; Delfosse, C; Rousset, M-M

    2012-02-01

    The French dietary guidelines published in 2001 recommend daily consumption of 5 portions of fruit or vegetable. Despite this advice, the consumption of fruit in France, especially in the north of France, is low, whereas sale of 100% fruit juices, fruit drinks, and fruit-flavored beverages is increasing. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns on dental caries has received less attention than the impact on childhood obesity. Nevertheless, the cariogenic potential of soft drinks is known. Drinking fruit juices, fruit drinks, or fruit-flavored beverages over a long period of time and continuous sipping could therefore be harmful for the teeth. The aim of this study was to examine the sugar content of such beverages. Four different major supermarkets were visited to select a representative sample of beverages for sale. Fruit juices, nectars, fruit drinks (water and fruit juices) and fruit-flavored waters were included. Lemonades, teas, and drinks containing artificial sweetener were not included. The data were collected in April 2010 by reading nutrition labels. The variables studied were the sugar content (g/100mL), the presence of added sugar, and the percentage of fruit juices. A descriptive analysis of the variables studied was conducted. The mean sugar content of the French population's favorite juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, apple, and grape) was compared to the sugar content of a corresponding 100-g portion of fresh fruit. The data were processed using Microsoft Excel. Hundred and eighty-seven different beverages were analyzed: 89 fruit juices, 26 nectars, 51 fruit drinks (sparkling or flat), and 21 fruit-flavored waters. Unlike fruit-flavored waters, nectars and fruit drinks contained fruit juices. Nectars and fruit drinks contained an average of 44.5% (± 10.7%) and 10.5% (± 3.8%) fruit juice, respectively. The sugar content varied from 0 g/100mL to 17.5 g/100mL. The average sugar content was 2.4 (± 2.1) g/100mL, 8.8 (± 2.3) g/100m

  1. How fruit developmental biology makes use of flow cytometry approaches.

    PubMed

    Pirrello, Julien; Bourdon, Matthieu; Cheniclet, Catherine; Bourge, Mickaël; Brown, Spencer C; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Chevalier, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Fleshy fruit species such as tomato are important because of their nutritional and economic value. Several stages of fruit development such as ovary formation, fruit set, and fruit maturation have already been the subject of many developmental studies. However, fruit growth per se has been much less addressed. Fruit growth like all plant organs depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will compose the fruit; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by the means of endoreduplication, i.e. genome amplification in the absence of mitosis, appears to be of great importance in fleshy fruits. In tomato fruit, endoreduplication is associated with DNA-dependent cell expansion: cell size can reach spectacular levels such as hundreds of times its initial size (e.g. >0.5 mm in diameter), with as much as a 256-fold increase in nuclear DNA content. Using tomato fruit development as a model, recent investigations combining the use of flow cytometry, cellular imaging and molecular analyses have provided new data in favor of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication acts as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development. In the context of plant breeding, deciphering the mechanisms controlling fruit growth, in particular those connecting the process of nuclear endoreduplication with modulation of gene expression, the regulation of cell size and final fruit size and composition, is necessary to understand better the establishment of fleshy fruit quality traits. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Fruit cuticle lipid composition during development in tomato ripening mutants.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Isaacson, Tal; Lü, Shiyou; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Jenks, Matthew A

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that fruit cuticle is an important contributing factor to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit shelf life and storability. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that variation in fruit cuticle composition may underlie differences in traits such as fruit resistance to desiccation and microbial infection. To gain a better understanding of cuticle lipid composition diversity during fruit ontogeny and to assess if there are common features that correlate with ripening, we examined developmental changes in fruit cuticle wax and cutin monomer composition of delayed-ripening tomato fruit mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin) and non-ripening (nor) and delayed-ripening landrace Alcobaça. Previous reports show that fruit ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production, cell wall degradation and color change are significantly delayed, or do not occur, in these lines. In the study presented here, however, we show that fruits from rin, nor and Alcobaça have cuticle lipid compositions that differ significantly from normal fruits of Ailsa Craig (AC) even at very early stages in fruit development, with continuing impacts throughout ripening. Moreover, rin, nor and the Alcobaça lines show quite different wax profiles from AC and each other throughout fruit development. Although cutin monomer composition differed much less than wax composition among the genotypes, all delayed-ripening lines possessed higher relative amounts of C(18) monomers than AC. Together, these results reveal new genetic associations between cuticle and fruit development processes and define valuable genetic resources to further explore the importance of cuticle in fruit shelf life.

  3. Dried fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Joe A; Zubik, Ligia; Bose, Pratima; Samman, Najwa; Proch, John

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the amount and quality of phenol antioxidants in dried fruits and compare them with the corresponding fresh fruits; to compare the nutrients in fresh and dried fruits; to determine if figs are a source of in vivo antioxidants when eaten. Commercial samples of dried fruits and fresh fruits were compared in the in vitro studies using a colorimetric method to measure phenolic antioxidants. The quality of the antioxidants was measured by inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation. Ten normal free-living subjects were tested in the human study. Fasting subjects were given 40 g of figs with or without a carbonated beverage and the plasma antioxidant capacity was measured for six hours using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. Dates have the highest concentration of polyphenols among the dried fruits. Figs and dried plums have the best nutrient score among the dried fruits, and dates among the fresh fruits. Processing to produce the dried fruit significantly decreases the phenols in the fruits on a dry weight basis. Compared with vitamins C and E, dried fruits have superior quality antioxidants with figs and dried plums being the best. Fig antioxidants can enrich lipoproteins in plasma and protect them from subsequent oxidation. Figs produced a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity for 4 hours after consumption, and overcome the oxidative stress of consuming high fructose corn syrup in a carbonated soft drink. Dried fruits and especially figs, are a convenient and superior source of some nutrients, but in the American diet amount to less than 1% of total fruit consumed. Figs are in vivo antioxidants after human consumption. The findings suggest that dried fruits should be a greater part of the diet as they are dense in phenol antioxidants and nutrients, most notably fiber.

  4. Signal convergence in fruits: a result of selection by frugivores?

    PubMed

    Lomáscolo, S B; Schaefer, H M

    2010-03-01

    The Dispersal Syndrome hypothesis remains contentious, stating that apparently nonrandom associations of fruit characteristics result from selection by seed dispersers. We examine a key assumption under this hypothesis, i.e. that fruit traits can be used as reliable signals by frugivores. We first test this assumption by looking at whether fruit colour allows birds and primates to distinguish between fruits commonly dispersed by birds or primates. Second, we test whether the colours of fruits dispersed by primates are more contrasting to primates than the colours of bird-dispersed fruits, expected if fruit colour is an adaptation to facilitate the detection by seed dispersers. Third, we test whether fruit colour has converged in unrelated plant species dispersed by similar frugivores. We use vision models based on peak sensitivities of birds' and primates' cone cells. We base our analyses on the visual systems of two types of birds (violet and ultraviolet based) and three types of primates (trichromatic primates from the Old and the New Worlds, and a dichromatic New World monkey). Using a Discriminant Function Analysis, we find that all frugivore groups can reliably discriminate between bird- and primate-dispersed fruits. Fruit colour can be a reliable signal to different seed dispersers. However, the colours of primate-dispersed fruits are less contrasting to primates than those of bird-dispersed fruits. Fruit colour convergence in unrelated plants is independent of phylogeny and can be better explained by disperser type, which supports the hypothesis that frugivores are important in fruit evolution. We discuss adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses that can potentially explain the pattern we found.

  5. Wars between microbes on roots and fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Rozen, Daniel E.; Kamilova, Faina

    2017-01-01

    Microbes in nature often live in unfavorable conditions. To survive, they have to occupy niches close to food sources and efficiently utilize nutrients that are often present in very low concentrations. Moreover, they have to possess an arsenal of attack and defense mechanisms against competing bacteria. In this review, we will discuss strategies used by microbes to compete with each other in the rhizosphere and on fruits, with a focus on mechanisms of inter- and intra-species antagonism. Special attention will be paid to the recently discovered roles of volatile organic compounds. Several microbes with proven capabilities in the art of warfare are being applied in products used for the biological control of plant diseases, including post-harvest control of fruits and vegetables. PMID:28408980

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  7. Better fruits and vegetables through sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, Linda M; Klee, Harry J

    2013-05-06

    The flavor quality of many fresh fruits available to consumers today is generally believed to have deteriorated. While agricultural and postharvest practices certainly contribute to poor flavor, a large part of the problem is the challenge of breeding for and accurately assessing such a complex, multigenic trait in a natural product such as a fruit. Here we address the parallel challenges linked to measurement of flavor and human preferences, particularly as it applies to a complex, whole food in which many chemicals and sensations are synthesized into a distinct and recognizable flavor profile. What is flavor? What contributes to the pleasure evoked by flavors? We examine interactions between taste and olfaction as well as psychophysical measurement limitations that confound efforts to understand human flavor preferences. The ability to address these questions in a whole food presents exciting opportunities to understand the basic principles of how we select the foods that we eat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  9. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  10. Effectiveness of Citrus Fruits on Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28408943

  11. Wakata with Fresh Fruit in the Cupola

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-01

    ISS039-E-008095 (1 April 2014) --- Expedition 39 Commander Koichi Wakata, representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), seems very elated that three new members of the crew have brought up food and supplies, especially fresh fruit, as depicted in this photo -- among the first sets of imagery documented with all six Expedition 39 crew members onboard the International Space Station. Wakata is in the orbiting outpost's Cupola module.

  12. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PIGMENTS AS INDICATORS.

    PubMed

    Pratt, O B; Swartout, H O

    1930-05-09

    (1) Solutions of many fruit pigments act as indicators. (2) These solutions are easily prepared and stable, and the pH range of their color changes is in most cases conveniently near the neutral point (3) As liquid indicators they can be used in titrating acids, but not bases (4)Their greatest usefulness depends upon the fact that very satisfactory test papers can be made with them in a simple and inexpensive way.

  13. Inhibition of metalloproteinase activity by fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia; God, Jason; Bibb, Robert; Lu, Qi; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2004-08-30

    While the metalloproteinase enzymes are essential for development and remodeling of tissues, aberrant over expression of these enzymes contributes to several pathologic conditions. In particular, metalloproteinase over expression in cancer plays a significant role in metastasis by providing a mechanism for invasion and spread. The data presented here indicate that water extracts of raspberries, blackberries and muscadine grapes inhibit the activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9. This inhibition could contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in fruit content.

  14. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Takahashi, Sachiko; Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  15. Solar energy assisted fluidized bed fruit drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkis, B.

    The possibility of using the fluidized-bed principle for solar drying of fruits economically and simply is explored. With the aid of computerized design methods, an optimized fluidized bed/packed bed combination was achieved, that in addition functions as a solar air heater. Based on this configuration, a novel aparatus was designed in Turkey for drying Turkish grapes. Comparisons with comparable systems are made.

  16. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffi, Jacques J.; Agnel, Jean-Pierre L.

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (strawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet ( aH≈30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, rapsberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time.

  17. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of ‘Micro-Tom’ fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared ‘Micro-Tom’ results with those from two other varieties, ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of ‘Micro-Tom’, and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared ‘Micro-Tom’ fruits with ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between ‘Micro-Tom’ and ‘Black’/‘White Beauty’. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast. PMID:26371478

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan.

  19. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region.

  20. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  1. Defense tradeoffs in fleshy fruits: effects of resource variation on growth, reproduction, and fruit secondary chemistry in Solanum carolinense.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Martin L; Paulk, Eric; Mink, Kim; Vaughn, Karen; Fischer, Tiffanny

    2004-01-01

    A set of clones of 10 maternal plants was grown for three successive years (1998-2000) under two nitrogen treatments and two water treatments. Path analysis revealed strong direct and indirect effects of nitrogen treatment on growth and reproduction, but fruit morphological and chemical variables were not strongly affected. Fruit pulp chemistry varied only slightly across treatments despite the large differences in growth and reproduction associated with resource variation. Leaf and ripe fruit chemical contents were not significantly correlated across treatments, and maternal plants, and leaf chemical variables did not help explain fruit chemical variation when included as covariates in ANCOVA analyses, suggesting no physiological constraints of leaf chemistry on ripe fruit chemistry. Results suggest that, while maternal plants may vary somewhat in fruit chemistry, and fruit chemistry may vary somewhat depending upon environmental conditions, levels of primary and secondary metabolites within fruits are not best explained by supply-side hypotheses. Ripe fruit chemistry remained relatively constant in the face of drastically changing resource levels, suggesting an adaptive function and supporting the Defense Tradeoff hypothesis. Fruit quality, both in terms of nutritional make-up and putative defensive properties, was maintained despite strong effects on plant growth and reproduction. Because glycoalkaloids are general defense compounds, we conclude that ripe fruit chemistry most likely reflects a balance between selection for attraction of seed dispersers and defense against pests and pathogens.

  2. Water scarcity conditions affect peach fruit size and polyphenol contents more severely than other fruit quality traits.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Mitra; Vercambre, Gilles; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Génard, Michel

    2015-03-30

    The literature abounds with the impacts of drought conditions on the concentration of non-structural compounds (NSC) in peach fruits without distinction as to the direct effect of drought on fruit metabolism and its indirect effect through dilution. Moreover, there is a need to investigate the sensitivity of the fruit composition to progressive water deficit in semi-arid conditions, as well as the origin of variations in fruit composition - not only in carbohydrates and organic acids, but also in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. The increase in stress intensity resulted in smaller fruits and a reduction in yield. Drought increased fruit dry matter content, structural dry matter (SDM) content and firmness due to lower water import to fruits, although drought reduced fruit surface conductance and its transpiration. Drought significantly affected the concentrations of each NSC either through the decrease in dilution and/or modifications of their metabolism. The increase in hexoses and sorbitol concentrations of fruits grown under drought conditions resulted in an increase in the sweetness index but not near harvest. Malic acid concentration and content:SDM ratio increased as drought intensified, whereas those of citric and quinic acids decreased. Polyphenol concentration and content increased under severe drought. The increase in stress intensity strongly affected fruit mass. The concentration of total carbohydrates and organic acid at harvest increased mainly through a decrease in fruit dilution, whereas the concentrations of polyphenols were also strongly affected through an impact on their metabolism. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Cytokinins of the Developing Mango Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The cytokinin activity has been isolated and identified from extracts of immature mango (Mangifera indica L.) seeds. The structures of zeatin, zeatin riboside, and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine riboside were confirmed on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives. Both trans and cis isomers of zeatin and zeatin riboside were also identified by the retention times of high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, an unidentified compound appeared to be a cytokinin glucoside. The concentration of cytokinins in the panicle and pulp of mango reached a maximum 5 to 10 days after full bloom and decreased rapidly thereafter. The cytokinin level in the seed remained high until the 28th day after full bloom. The quantity of cytokinins in pulp per fruit increased from the 10th day after full bloom, the maximum being attained around the 50th day after full bloom. Similarly, the amount of cytokinins per seed increased from the 10th day after full bloom, reaching a peak on the 40th day and decreasing gradually thereafter. A high percentage of fruit set in mango was persistently maintained by supplying 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 × 103 micromolar) onto the panicle at the anthesis stage and by supplying gibberellic acid (7.2 × 102 micromolar) and naphthalene acetamide (3.1 × 10 micromolar) at the young fruit stage. PMID:16662830

  4. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern. PMID:25346743

  5. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

    2006-09-20

    The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate.

  6. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  7. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. However, the results depict that date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  8. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.

  9. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  10. Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J; Rowland, Alice V; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2012-09-25

    Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue.

  11. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

  12. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  13. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  14. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  15. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  16. Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision.

    PubMed

    Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

    2013-01-01

    The spatiochromatic properties of the red-green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and "normal" trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  17. Do Fruit Ripening Volatiles Enable Resource Specialism in Polyphagous Fruit Flies?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John Paul; Carlsson, Mikael A; Villa, Tommaso F; Dekker, Teun; Clarke, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management.

  18. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  19. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  20. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  1. Assessment of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) management practices in deciduous fruit growing areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia

    2014-04-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are important fruit fly pests of deciduous fruit in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The main techniques used for fruit fly control in the Western Cape are the sterile insect technique (SIT) targeting C. capitata and the bait application technique (BAT). We determined the relative success of SIT by comparing adult fly-trap catches and fruit infestation in commercial orchards between three regions under SIT and two regions under BAT in the Western Cape, from 2006 to 2008. Ceratitis capitata was predominant in all regions. In commercial orchards, C. capitata catches peaked towards the end of the fruiting season (March to May) and were low between July and January. During the late season, C. capitata catches were significantly higher in two of the regions under SIT. The sterile to wild male ratio in those regions was found to be mostly <1. SIT is not being properly applied in some regions. SIT should be implemented when the pest population is low. The sterile to wild fly ratios should be increased. Alternatively, BAT should be used to lower the pest population before SIT application. Control methods should be more integrated and applied area-wide. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  3. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Mark I; DeFalco, Lesley A

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-03-30

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  5. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  6. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology

    PubMed Central

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2012-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  7. The comparative characteristics of snake and kiwi fruits.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Haruenkit, Ratiporn; Poovarodom, Sumitra; Park, Yong-Seo; Vearasilp, Suchada; Suhaj, Milan; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Buk-Gu; Cho, Ja-Yong; Jang, Hong Gi

    2009-08-01

    In the time of globalization many of the tropical fruits can be find at the markets of Europe and North America. Most customers are not familiar with the nutritional and proliferative values of these fruits. Therefore, a less known snake fruit was compared with better known kiwi fruit, using fluorometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, several radical scavenging and proliferative assays and statistical evaluation. It was found similarity between snake fruit (cultivar Sumalee) and kiwi fruit (cultivar Hayward) in the contents of polyphenols (8.15-7.91, mg GAE g(-1) DW), antioxidant values by DPPH (11.28-10.24, microMTE g(-1) DW), and antiproliferative activities on both human cancer cell lines (Calu-6 for human pulmonary carcinoma, and SMU-601 for human gastric carcinoma, 90.5-87.6 and 89.3-87.1%, cell survival, respectively). In conclusion, snake fruit cultivar Sumalee is comparable with kiwi fruit cultivar Hayward. Two fruits can be used as supplements to the normal diet. Consumption of a combination of both fruits could be recommended in order to receive the best results.

  8. Fruit color preference by birds and applications to ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Gagetti, B L; Piratelli, A J; Piña-Rodrigues, F C M

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6%) were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.

  9. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  10. Incidence of patulin in fruits and fruit juices marketed in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sylos, C M; Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-02-01

    One hundred and eleven samples of processed fruit juices (apple, grape, pineapple, papaya, guava, banana and mango) and 38 samples of sound fruits (apple, papaya, mango, pear and peach) produced and marketed in Brazil, were analysed for patulin by HPLC. Only one out of 30 samples of apple juice was found positive at 17 micrograms/l. Patulin was not detected in the other foodstuffs. It was found in 14 samples of spoiled fruit samples of apple (150-267 micrograms/kg), pear (134-245 micrograms/kg) and peach (92-174 micrograms/kg). Confirmation of the identity of patulin was based on the UV spectrum obtained by the HPLC diode array detector, compared with that of standard patulin, TLC developed by several solvent systems and sprayed with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, and by acetylation with acetic anhydride.

  11. Fruit characters as a basis of fruit choice and seed dispersal in a tropical forest vertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Gautier-Hion, A; Duplantier, J -M; Quris, R; Feer, F; Sourd, C; Decoux, J -P; Dubost, G; Emmons, L; Erard, C; Hecketsweiler, P; Moungazi, A; Roussilhon, C; Thiollay, J -M

    1985-02-01

    Interactions between a large community of vertebrate frugivore-granivores (including 7 species of large canopy birds, 19 species of rodents, 7 species of ruminants, and 6 species of monkeys), and 122 fruit species they consume, were studied for a year in a tropical rainforest in Gabon.The results show how morphological characters of fruits are involved in the choice and partitioning of the available fruit spectrum among consumer taxa. Despite an outstanding lack of specificity between fruit and consumer species, consideration of simple morphological traits of fruits reveals broad character syndromes associated with different consumer taxa. Competition between distantly related taxa that feed at the same height is far more important than has been previously supposed. The results also suggest how fruit characters could have evolved under consumer pressure as a result of consumer roles as dispersers or seed predators. Our analyses of dispersal syndromes show that fruit species partitioning occurs more between mammal taxa than between mammals and birds. There is thus a bird-monkey syndrome and a ruminant-rodent-elephant syndrome. The bird-monkey syndrome includes fruit species on which there is no pre-dispersal seed predation. These fruits (berries and drupes) are brightly colored, have a succulent pulp or arillate seeds, and no protective seed cover. The ruminant-rodent-elephant syndrome includes species for which there is pre-dispersal predation. These fruits (all drupes) are large, dull-colored, and have a dry fibrous flesh and well-protected seeds.

  12. Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside V and fruit extract of luo han kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract..

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Yan; Ebersole, Jeff; Huang, Chi-fu

    2009-11-01

    Luo han kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside V is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside V isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemic index, and that mogroside V, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion.

  13. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (β-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest β-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid.

  14. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Guo, Shi-Rong; He, Chao-Xing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xian-Chang

    2012-01-01

    By adopting organic substrate culture, and salt-sensitive cucumber variety 'Jinchun No. 2' was used as test material, this paper studied the effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress. AMF-inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, and improve the fruit yield and fruit nutrient quality, compared with ordinary cultivation. Under salt stress, the plant growth was inhibited, and the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents and K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, vitamin C, and nitrate contents decreased, while inoculation with AMF could mitigate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth, made the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents increased by 7.3%, 11.7%, 28.2%, 13.5%, and 9.9%, respectively, and made the plant K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, and vitamin C contents have an obvious increase and the fruit nitrate content have a significant decrease. It was suggested that AMF could promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake of cucumber under salt stress, increase the plant salt-tolerance, and improve the fruit yield and its nutrient quality.

  15. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  16. Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastián F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic

  17. Macro and micro minerals: are frozen fruits a good source?

    PubMed

    Spada, Patricia D S; Bortolin, Giovana V; Prá, Daniel; Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2010-12-01

    Fruits are rich in minerals, which are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. The use of frozen fruits has greatly spread in the last years not only in the preparation of juices, but also as raw material for yogurts, candies, cookies, cakes, ice creams, and children's food. However, up to now there is no data about the mineral profile of frozen fruits. This is the first database to quantify the levels of minerals in 23 samples of frozen fruits, including the most used around the world and some native fruits from the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Considering the Dietary Reference Intakes, 100g of frozen fruits can provide 0.2 to 2.8% of macro and 2.5 to 100% of microminerals for adults (31-50 years old). Although geographical differences should be considered, these data can help to plan diets and to develop population interventions aiming to prevent chronic diseases.

  18. Strawberry Accessions with Reduced Drosophila suzukii Emergence From Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaoyun; Bräcker, Lasse; Bölke, Nadine; Plata, Camila; Zeitlmayr, Sarah; Metzler, Dirk; Olbricht, Klaus; Gompel, Nicolas; Parniske, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females’ ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. Larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. Cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. To search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate of adult D. suzukii emergence from individual fruits (fly emergence) of 107 accessions of Fragaria species that had been exposed to egg-laying D. suzukii females. We found significant variation in fly emergence across strawberries, which correlated with accession and fruit diameter, and to a lesser extent with the strawberry species background. We identified accessions with significantly reduced fly emergence, not explained by their fruit diameter. These accessions constitute valuable breeding material for strawberry cultivars that limit D. suzukii spread. PMID:28066452

  19. Strawberry Accessions with Reduced Drosophila suzukii Emergence From Fruits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoyun; Bräcker, Lasse; Bölke, Nadine; Plata, Camila; Zeitlmayr, Sarah; Metzler, Dirk; Olbricht, Klaus; Gompel, Nicolas; Parniske, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females' ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. Larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. Cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. To search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate of adult D. suzukii emergence from individual fruits (fly emergence) of 107 accessions of Fragaria species that had been exposed to egg-laying D. suzukii females. We found significant variation in fly emergence across strawberries, which correlated with accession and fruit diameter, and to a lesser extent with the strawberry species background. We identified accessions with significantly reduced fly emergence, not explained by their fruit diameter. These accessions constitute valuable breeding material for strawberry cultivars that limit D. suzukii spread.

  20. Sugar metabolism in relation to chilling tolerance of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chilling injury and sugar metabolism was investigated in loquat fruit stored at 1°C for 35days. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit, of 'Ninghaibai' cultivar, during the whole storage whereas, in 'Dahongpao' fruit, severe chilling symptoms were observed after 20days of storage at 1°C. 'Ninghaibai' fruit had higher levels of glucose and fructose and higher activities of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes, such as sucrose synthase-cleavage and invertase, than had 'Dahongpao'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Ninghaibai' fruit also showed higher activities of hexokinase and fructokinase, involved in hexose phoshorylation and sugar signal generation. These results suggest that the higher content of hexoses and activities of hexose sensors were likely part of the mechanism for chilling tolerance of loquat fruit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Natural fruit colour selection by frugivorous birds in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiong; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2012-10-01

    Black and red are the most common colors of fruit, but the reason behind this has been subject to debate. Food preferences of avian frugivores for certain colors of food have been proposed as a selection mechanism that explains these traits, but there is little evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we conducted a lab experiment using four colors of natural fruit to evaluate color preferences of five avian species, and we also conducted this experiment in open area and understory habitats. Our results showed that red and black fruits were selected most often in lab experiment; in field experiment, red and black fruits were also the most preferred food, but the total amount of consumed fruits differed significantly between open areas and understory habitats. Our study suggested that differences in color preferences among frugivores may potentially reflect the diversity of fruit color and frequency in Xishuangbanna.

  2. Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-06-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate.

  3. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  4. Nutrient Enhancement of Fruit and Effects of Storage Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    ENHANCEMENT OF FRUIT AND EFFECTS OF STORAGE CONDITIONS by Joseph Cohen and Jeff Tucker May 1998 FINAL REPORT June 1997-May 1998 Approved for...ENHANCEMENT OF FRUIT AND EFFECTS OF STORAGE CONDITIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph Cohen and Jeff Tucker 5. FUNDING NUMBERS PE 0708045A PR DE71 7...Distribution Unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) In order to study nutrient enhancement of fruit , whole pitted

  5. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  6. Trypanosomatid protozoa in fruit of Solanaceae in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, P; Camargo, E P

    1990-01-01

    Fruits of cultivated and indigenous Solanaceae from Southeastern Brazil have been examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. The 14 species found infected were: Capsicum annuum, C. praetermissum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicandra physaloides, Physalis angulata, Solanum sp., S. americanum, S. concinnum, S. diflorum, S. erianthum, S. gilo, S. robustum, S. variable and S. viarum. The pentatomid hemipteran Arvelius albopunctatus experimentally transmitted flagellates to fruits of some species. Cultures of flagellates were obtained from fruits of eight species of Solanaceae and from A. albopunctatus.

  7. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.

  8. Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Forestell, Catherine A.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. METHODS Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the other was fed green beans and then peaches at the same time of day for 8 consecutive days. Acceptance of both foods, as determined by a variety of measures, was assessed before and after the home-exposure period. RESULTS During the initial exposure, infants ate more calories from peaches than from green beans. Breastfed infants showed greater liking of peaches, as did their mothers, who ate more fruits in general than did mothers who formula fed. Although formula-feeding mothers ate more green beans, there was no difference in their infants’ acceptance of this vegetable. For breastfed and formula-fed infants, repeated dietary exposure to green beans, with or without peaches, resulted in greater consumption of green beans (56.8 vs 93.6 g). Only infants who experienced green beans with peaches displayed fewer facial expressions of distaste during feeding. Mothers were apparently unaware of these changes in acceptance. CONCLUSIONS Breastfeeding confers an advantage in initial acceptance of a food, but only if mothers eat the food regularly. Once weaned, infants who receive repeated dietary exposure to a food eat more of it and may learn to like its flavor. However, because infants innately display facial expressions of distaste in response to certain flavors, caregivers may hesitate to continue offering these foods. Mothers should be encouraged to provide their infants with repeated opportunities to taste fruits and vegetables and should focus not only on their infants’ facial expressions but also on their willingness to continue feeding. PMID:18055673

  9. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Dennison, B A

    1996-10-01

    The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In

  10. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  11. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; Vogel, Erin R; Larsen, Michael D; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P; Brearley, Francis Q; van Schaik, Carel P; Marshall, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  12. Reflective mulch enhances ripening and health compounds in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  14. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  15. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  16. The isolation of RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A

    1997-12-01

    Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.

  17. Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, S A

    2000-01-01

    In central New South Wales, Australia, flowers of Acacia brachybotrya and Eremophila glabra plants growing in linear vegetation remnants received less pollen than conspecifics in nearby reserves. Pollen supplementation increased fruit production by both species, indicating pollen limitation of fruit set. Together these observations explain why fruit production by these species was depressed in linear-strip populations relative to nearby reserves. This study confirms that habitat fragmentation can lead to decline in pollination and subsequent fruit set in wild plant populations. Disrupted pollination interactions of the kind documented in this study may offer a substantial challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. PMID:10885521

  18. Consideration of Design Parameters of Ultrasonic Transducer for Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. B.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S. D.; Choi, M. Y.

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive contact measurement of fruits. The design parameters for ultrasonic transducer such as acoustical impedance of fruits, kinds of piezoelectric materials, ultrasonic wave frequency, and transducer diameter were investigated. In order to match the impedance between piezoelectric material and fruit, various materials were evaluated. And to control the bandwidth of ultrasonic wave of the transducer, various backing materials were fabricated and evaluated. Especially, the wear plate of the transducer was designed and fabricated considering curvature of fruit. Finally, the ultrasonic transducer having 100 kHz of central frequency were fabricated and tested.

  19. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet.

  20. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.