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Sample records for perceived human health

  1. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  2. CWD prevalence, perceived human health risks, and state influences on deer hunting participation.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jerry J; Lyon, Katie M

    2011-03-01

    This study examined factors predicted by previous research to influence hunters' decisions to stop hunting deer in a state. Data were obtained from mail surveys of resident and nonresident deer hunters in Arizona, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin (n = 3,518). Hunters were presented with six scenarios depicting hypothetical CWD prevalence levels and human health risks from the disease (e.g., death), and asked if they would continue or stop hunting deer in the state. Bivariate analyses examined the influence of five predictor variables: (a) CWD prevalence, (b) hypothetical human death from CWD, (c) perceived human health risks from CWD, (d) state, and (e) residency. In the bivariate analyses, prevalence was the strongest predictor of quitting hunting in the state followed by hypothetical human death and perceived risk. The presence of CWD in a state and residency were weak, but statistically significant, predictors. Interactions among these predictors increased the potential for stopping hunting in the state. Multivariate analyses suggested that 64% of our respondents would quit hunting in the worst-case scenario.

  3. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  4. Perceived barriers to Internet-based health communication on human genetics.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Lariscy, Ruth Ann Weaver; Parrott, Roxanne L; Silk, Kami J; Felter, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as potential vehicle for distributing health communication to millions of individuals because it is interactive, user controlled, and offers breadth and depth of information. However, its widespread use by the public may be limited due to three overarching concerns: privacy and confidentiality, information accuracy and perceptions of credibility, including limited credibility of some government-sponsored web sites. To explore the potential of using the Internet, especially for delivering information on human genetics communication, 15 focus groups and one interview were conducted with African American and European American adult males and females in a southeastern town. We found that the participants recognized great potential in the Internet for health communication on human genetics, but they also voiced concerns about the credibility and accuracy of online information, lack of trust in many web sites, and fear of safeguarding privacy. Their concerns are summarized here, along with potential remedies health communicators could implement and should research further. The Internet cannot achieve its full potential for human genetics communication until the public's concerns are addressed and resolved.

  5. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  6. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  7. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  8. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    PubMed Central

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Otten, Leila S; de Kruijff, Deborah; van de Loo, Aurora JAE; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ), and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001), perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002), and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001). Conclusion A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. PMID:28356753

  9. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health.

    PubMed

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Otten, Leila S; de Kruijff, Deborah; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ), and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001), perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002), and IFQ score (r=-0.185, p=0.0001). A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health.

  10. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress and health.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Irina L G; Falcón, Luis M; Lincoln, Alisa K; Price, Lori Lyn

    2010-09-01

    Racism and discrimination can have significant implications for health, through complex biopsychosocial interactions. Latino groups, and particularly Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population in the United States in terms of the prevalence of discrimination and its relevance to health. Participants in our study were 45- to 75-year-old (N = 1122) Puerto Ricans. The measures were perceived discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D), perceived stress (PSS), self-rated health, medical conditions, blood pressure, smoking and drinking behaviours, demographics. Our findings show that 36.9 per cent of participants had at some time experienced discrimination, with men, those with more years of education, currently employed and with higher incomes being more likely to report it. Experiences of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. When controlling for covariates, perceived discrimination was predictive of the number of medical conditions, of ever having smoked and having been a drinker, and having higher values of diastolic pressure. Depressive symptoms are a mediator of the effect of perceived discrimination on medical conditions, confirmed by the Sobel test: z = 3.57, p < 0.001. Mediating roles of perceived stress, smoking and drinking behaviours were not confirmed. Increased depressive symptoms might be the main pathway through which perceived discrimination is associated with a greater number of medical diagnoses.

  11. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  12. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Tandel, Kirtida R

    2011-10-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  13. Technology versus humanism: how patients perceive the use of electronic health records in physicians' offices--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mwachofi, Ari K; Khaliq, Amir A; Carrillo, Estevan R; Winfree, William

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have the potential to improve the quality of care. In view of the accelerated adoption of EHRs, there is a need to understand conditions necessary for their effective use. Patients are the focus of healthcare and their perceptions and expectations need to be included in developing and implementing EHRs. The purpose of this study was to gather exploratory qualitative information from patients about their experiences and perceptions regarding the effects of EHRs on healthcare quality in physicians' offices. We conducted five focus groups with patients representing a random mix of diverse socio-demographic backgrounds in Oklahoma. Related to EHRs, patients reported improvements on the technical side of care but no change on the human side. They expressed concerns about the potential for breach of confidentiality and security of medical records. They were also concerned about the possibility of governmental agencies or insurance companies having unauthorized access to patient records. Patients differentiated between the human and technical sides of care and reported no change or improvement in the doctor-patient interaction. Patients have an important perspective on the use of EHRs and their perceptions and experiences should be considered in the development, adoption and implementation of EHRs. Otherwise, the use of EHRs may not be fully effective. There is also a need to educate patients about the potential benefits and risks of EHRs and the steps being taken to mitigate such risks.

  14. Assessing the twinning model in the Rwandan Human Resources for Health Program: goal setting, satisfaction and perceived skill transfer.

    PubMed

    Ndenga, Esperance; Uwizeye, Glorieuse; Thomson, Dana R; Uwitonze, Eric; Mubiligi, Joel; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Wilkes, Michael; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2016-01-28

    Because of the shortage of health professionals, particularly in specialty areas, Rwanda initiated the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. In this program, faculty from United States teaching institutions (USF) "twin" with Rwandan Faculty (RF) to transfer skills. This paper assesses the twinning model, exploring USF and RF goal setting, satisfaction and perceptions of the effectiveness of skill transfer within the twinning model. All USF and RF in the HRH Program from August 2012-May 2014 were invited to participate. An 85-item questionnaire for USF and 71-item questionnaire for RF were administered via Survey Monkey in April and May 2014. Associations among primary outcomes were assessed and factors related with outcomes were modeled using logistic regression. Most RF and USF reported setting goals with their twin (89% and 71%, respectively). Half of RF (52%) reported effective skill transfer compared to 10% of USF. Only 38% of RF and 28% of USF reported being very satisfied with the twinning model. There was significant overlap in the three operational outcomes. For RF, the following factors were associated with outcomes: for effective skill transfer, being able to communicate in a common language and working at a nursing site outside of Kigali; and for satisfaction, 7+ years of professional experience and being part of a male RF-female USF twin pair. For USF, the following factors were associated with outcomes: for setting goals, prior teaching experience; and for satisfaction, experience in low resource settings for one month or less and feeling that HRH promotes a culture of respect. Twinning is the cornerstone of the HRH Program in Rwanda. These findings helped the HRH team identify key areas to improve the twinning experience including better recruitment and orientation of USF and RF, consideration of additional factors during the twinning process, provide language training support, facilitate joint twin activities and cross-cultural training and

  15. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  17. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  18. Self-perceived health in institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes de; Lima, Bartolomeu Fagundes de; Medeiros, Rafaela Jordânia de; Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas de; Cabral, Sadote Macêdo; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to verify health self-perception, its prevalence and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted in 10 Long-Term care Institutions for the Elderly (LTIE) in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), between October and December 2013. Sociodemographic variables were analyzed, along with institution-related and health state variables. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out (Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or linear trend Chi-squared test), as well as multivariate analysis (logistic regression). The final sample consisted of 127 elderly. The prevalence of negative self-perceived health was 63.19% (CI 95%: 55.07-70.63), and was associated with weight loss (PR: 1.54; CI 95%: 1.19-1.99), rheumatic disease (PR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.05-2.01) and not-for-profit LTIE (PR: 1.37; CI 95%: 1.03-1.83), adjusted by sex. More than half of the elderly reported negative self-perceived health, which was associated with weight loss, rheumatic disease and type of institution. Actions must be developed to promote better health conditions in LTIE, such as nutrition consulting and physical therapy, to improve quality of life.

  19. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  20. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  1. Humans perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lee, Hung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Humans perceive a stable average intensity image without flicker artifacts when a television or monitor updates at a sufficiently fast rate. This rate, known as the critical flicker fusion rate, has been studied for both spatially uniform lights, and spatio-temporal displays. These studies have included both stabilized and unstablized retinal images, and report the maximum observable rate as 50-90 Hz. A separate line of research has reported that fast eye movements known as saccades allow simple modulated LEDs to be observed at very high rates. Here we show that humans perceive visual flicker artifacts at rates over 500 Hz when a display includes high frequency spatial edges. This rate is many times higher than previously reported. As a result, modern display designs which use complex spatio-temporal coding need to update much faster than conventional TVs, which traditionally presented a simple sequence of natural images.

  2. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart

    2009-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect health, including through psychological and physiological stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134 samples suggests that when weighting each study’s contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a significant negative effect on both mental and physical health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly heightened stress responses and is related to participation in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors. These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived discrimination to negative health outcomes. PMID:19586161

  5. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Glòria; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine

    2010-04-01

    The goals of the present study are to explore the association between perceived sexism and self-perceived health, health-related behaviors, and unmet medical care needs among women in Spain; to analyze whether higher levels of discrimination are associated with higher prevalence of poor health indicators and to examine whether these relationships are modified by country of origin and social class. The study is based on a cross-sectional design using data from the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. We included women aged 20-64 years (n = 10,927). Six dependent variables were examined: four of health (self-perceived health, mental health, hypertension, and having had an injury during the previous year), one health behavior (smoking), and another related to the use of the health services (unmet need for medical care). Perceived sexism was the main independent variable. Social class and country of origin were considered as effect modifiers. We obtained the prevalence of perceived sexism. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to study the association between sexism and poor health outcomes. The prevalence of perceived sexism was 3.4%. Perceived sexism showed positive and consistent associations with four poor health outcomes (poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, injuries in the last 12 months, and smoking). The strength of these associations increased with increased scores for perceived sexism, and the patterns were found to be modified by country of origin and social class. This study shows a consistent association between perceived sexism and poor health outcomes in a country of southern Europe with a strong patriarchal tradition.

  6. Dimensions of Racial Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2016-10-20

    Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, both dimensions of racial/ethnic identity contributed independently to perceived discrimination in health care. After controlling for self-identified race/ethnicity, respondents who reported being classified as Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American had higher likelihood of perceived discrimination than respondents who reported being classified as White. Similarly, after taking perceived attributed race/ethnicity into account, self-identified Blacks, Native Americans, and multiracial respondents were more likely to report perceived discrimination than counterparts who self-identified as White. The model using only perceived attributed race/ethnicity to predict perceived discrimination showed a superior fit with the data than the model using only self-identified race/ethnicity. Perceived attributed race/ethnicity captures an aspect of racial/ethnic identity that is correlated, but not interchangeable, with self-identified race/ethnicity and contributes uniquely to perceived discrimination in health care. Applying the concept of multidimensionality of race/ethnicity to health disparities research may reveal understudied mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to health risks.

  7. The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and perceived co-worker support on safety and health compliance.

    PubMed

    Puah, Lee Na; Ong, Lin Dar; Chong, Wei Ying

    2016-09-01

    Although knowledge is cumulating, very little is known about the effects of various sources of support on safety and health compliance. This study goes beyond previous research by investigating the relationships among perceived support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers, and employees' safety and health compliance behaviour at chemical and petroleum process plants. The results of this study show that the support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers was significantly related to employees' safety and health compliance. Also, the findings reveal that perceived supervisor support has the strongest influence in ensuring employees' safety and health compliance behaviour.

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart

    2009-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which…

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart

    2009-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which…

  10. Paternal mental health following perceived traumatic childbirth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Christian; Sharman, Rachael; Reed, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    the objective behind the current study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of fathers after childbirth trauma, an area of minimal research. This is part two of a two-part series conducted in 2014 researching the mental health of fathers after experiencing a perceived traumatic childbirth. qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews and reporting of qualitative questions administered in part one's online survey (Inglis, 2014). interviews conducted face-to-face at an Australian University or on Skype. sixty-nine responded to the online qualitative questions and of these seven were interviewed. thematic analysis of verbal and written qualitative responses. thematic analysis of qualitative survey data and interviews found a global theme 'standing on the sideline' which encompassed two major themes of witnessing trauma: unknown territory, and the aftermath: dealing with it, and respective subthemes. according to the perceptions and experiences of the fathers, there was a significant lack of communication between birthing teams and fathers, and fathers experienced a sense of marginalisation before, during, and after the traumatic childbirth. The findings of this study suggest that these factors contributed to the perception of trauma in the current sample. Whilst many fathers reported the negative impact of the traumatic birth on themselves and their relationships, some reported post-traumatic growth from the experience and others identified friends and family as a valuable source of support. improved communication between midwifery staff and fathers before, during and after childbirth may reduce the rates of paternal postpartum mental health difficulties and experiences of trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived health status in urban minority young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Honig, Judy

    2002-01-01

    To describe perceptions of health status among a sample of urban minority adolescents and the contribution of demographics, intrinsic motivation, general self-efficacy, risk taking, and stressful life experiences on the adolescent's perception of health status. Correlational design. A total of 71 adolescents were studied using the Adolescent Health Chart for perceived health status, the Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Risk Taking Instrument, and the Life Events Checklist. There were no statistically significant effects of demographics on perceived health status. Scores of Perceived Health Status correlated with scores of self-efficacy (r = 0.56; p <.0001), risk-taking (r = 0.39; p <.001), negative events (r = 0.32; p <.01) and violent events (r = -0.41; p <.001). The study findings suggest that self-efficacy, risk taking, and life events are predictive of perceived health status in urban minority adolescents. The results contribute to the present body of knowledge about patterns of adolescent health as perceived by the adolescent. In addition to expanding the understanding of the minority adolescent experience in relation to health promotion attributes and health compromising behaviors, the results identify antecedents that are predictive of improved perceived health status for the urban adolescent.

  12. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  13. Effect of Personality on the Use and Perceived Utility of Web-Based Health Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Studies document numerous threats to human health exacerbated by multiple factors, including inadequate access to health-related information. The Internet has developed as one resource to provide health information; however, there remains a significant gap in understanding how personality differences influence the use and perceived utility of the…

  14. Effect of Personality on the Use and Perceived Utility of Web-Based Health Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Studies document numerous threats to human health exacerbated by multiple factors, including inadequate access to health-related information. The Internet has developed as one resource to provide health information; however, there remains a significant gap in understanding how personality differences influence the use and perceived utility of the…

  15. Perceived job insecurity and worker health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Brand, Jennie E; House, James S

    2009-09-01

    Economic recessions, the industrial shift from manufacturing toward service industries, and rising global competition have contributed to uncertainty about job security, with potential consequences for workers' health. To address limitations of prior research on the health consequences of perceived job insecurity, we use longitudinal data from two nationally-representative samples of the United States population, and examine episodic and persistent perceived job insecurity over periods of about three years to almost a decade. Results show that persistent perceived job insecurity is a significant and substantively important predictor of poorer self-rated health in the American's Changing Lives (ACL) and Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) samples, and of depressive symptoms among ACL respondents. Job losses or unemployment episodes are associated with perceived job insecurity, but do not account for its association with health. Results are robust to controls for sociodemographic and job characteristics, negative reporting style, and earlier health and health behaviors.

  16. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  17. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously.

  18. Social Disconnectedness, Perceived Isolation, and Health among Older Adults*

    PubMed Central

    CORNWELL, ERIN YORK; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However, multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together, making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously. PMID:19413133

  19. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  20. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  1. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers’ perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  2. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology.

  3. On self-perceived oral health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena

    2002-01-01

    Aiming to investigate adolescents' perceptions of oral health, with a focus on gender differences, quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Adolescents (13-18 years; n = 17,280) answered a school questionnaire, epidemiological indices on oral health were collected, and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most adolescents perceived their oral health as good, girls more often than boys. The oral behavior of girls was also more often healthy (floss usage: girls 31%, boys 21%), and they were consistently less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth than boys. Girls considered their own consumption of candy to be too high more often than boys. Acknowledging the importance of sound teeth was strongly associated with self-perceived oral health: boys, odds ratio (OR) 8.58 [confidence interval (CI) 7.12-10.34]; girls, OR 5.56 [CI 4.23-7.30]. Adolescents living with a single mother (13-15-yr-olds OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], 16-18-yr-olds OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]), or with neither parent, more often reported bleeding gums than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Weak correlations between epidemiological indices and self-perceived oral health were found at the school level. In the interviews, adolescents perceived the possibilities to influence their own oral health as limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support, social impact, and external factors such as time and economy. Support from the mother--more than from the father--was emphasized. This thesis showed that positive oral health attitudes and parental support are of great importance if oral health is to be perceived as good. There were gender differences in all issues related to self-perceived oral health.

  4. Health Conditions and Perceived Quality of Life in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effects of specific health conditions on perceived quality of life for retirees (n=451). Pulmonary disease was a predictor of dissatisfaction for both sexes. Pulmonary disease and heart attack were the strongest predictors of dissatisfaction with health for men, followed closely by stroke. Arthritis was the strongest predictor of…

  5. Health Conditions and Perceived Quality of Life in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effects of specific health conditions on perceived quality of life for retirees (n=451). Pulmonary disease was a predictor of dissatisfaction for both sexes. Pulmonary disease and heart attack were the strongest predictors of dissatisfaction with health for men, followed closely by stroke. Arthritis was the strongest predictor of…

  6. "Sufficient health" as perceived by Thai villagers: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Arpanantikul, Manee; Phuphaibul, Rutja; Khuwatsumrit, Kusuma

    2017-01-05

    Globalization has led to the rapid modernization of Thai villagers' traditional lifestyle, with significant consequential changes in health. The integration of the sufficiency economy philosophy with health - a concept known as "sufficient health" - can improve health and wellbeing; however, little is known of the actual meaning of "sufficient health." This qualitative study explored the meaning of sufficient health as perceived by Thai villagers. Data were collected from 122 villagers living in a rural Thai community and analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed five themes reflecting the meaning of sufficient health: being healthy and not having an illness, having regular health check-ups, performing self-care, living sufficiently, and avoiding risks. Understanding the meaning attributed to sufficient health can help nurses provide appropriate health care for villagers while retaining concern and respect for their cultural backgrounds. Importantly, providing opportunities to villagers to participate in health activities could help them recognize and sustain sufficient health.

  7. Impact of hospital atmosphere on perceived health care outcome.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ritu; Polsa, Pia; Soneye, Alabi; Fuxiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare service quality studies primarily examine the relationships between patients' perceived quality and satisfaction with healthcare services, clinical effectiveness, service use, recommendations and value for money. These studies suggest that patient-independent quality dimensions (structure, process and outcome) are antecedents to quality. The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative by looking at the relationship between hospital atmosphere and healthcare quality with perceived outcome. Data were collected from Finland, India, Nigeria and the People's Republic of China. Regression analysis used perceived outcome as the dependent variable and atmosphere and healthcare service quality as independent variables. Findings - Results showed that atmosphere and healthcare service quality have a statistically significant relationship with patient perceived outcomes. The sample size was small and the sampling units were selected on convenience; thus, caution must be exercised in generalizing the findings. The study determined that service quality and atmosphere are considered significant for developing and developed nations. This result could have significant implications for policy makers and service providers developing healthcare quality and hospital atmosphere. Studies concentrate on healthcare outcome primarily regarding population health status, mortality, morbidity, customer satisfaction, loyalty, quality of life, customer behavior and consumption. However, the study exposes how patients perceive their health after treatment. Furthermore, the authors develop the healthcare service literature by considering atmosphere and perceived outcome.

  8. Acculturation and perceived mental health need among older Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy

    2011-10-01

    The demographic landscape of the United States is changing as the general population ages and the size of racial/ethnic minority groups grows. Most prior studies on mental health service use among Asians in America have overlooked older adults. A deeper understanding of the way acculturation factors impact help-seeking behaviors among older Asian Americans will inform behavioral health practice and program planners as they address the disparities affecting a diverse racial group. The California Health Interview Survey was used to examine the correlates of perceived mental health need among 980 older Asian immigrants. The study found that English proficiency and other covariates affected how Asian Americans perceived mental health need. Implications for understanding the help-seeking behaviors of older Asian immigrants are discussed.

  9. The development and validation of the Perceived Health Competence Scale.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Wallston, K A; Smith, C A

    1995-03-01

    A sense of competence or self-efficacy is associated with many positive outcomes, particularly in the area of health behavior. A measure of a sense of competence in the domain of health behavior has not been developed. Most measures are either general measures of a general sense of self-efficacy or are very specific to a particular health behavior. The Perceived Health Competence Scale (PHCS), a domain-specific measure of the degree to which an individual feels capable of effectively managing his or her health outcomes, was developed to provide a measure of perceived competence at an intermediate level of specificity. Five studies using three different types of samples (students, adults and persons with a chronic illness) provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the PHCS. The eight items of the PHCS combine both outcome and behavioral expectancies. Results from the five studies indicate that the scale has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale is demonstrated through the support obtained for substantive hypotheses regarding the correlates of perceived health competence, such as health behavior intentions, general sense of competence and health locus of control.

  10. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  11. Jordanian Nurses' involvement in health policy: perceived benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    AbuAlRub, R F; Foudeh, F N

    2017-03-01

    To examine (1) the level of involvement of Jordanian nurses in health policy development and (2) perceived benefits, barriers and impacts on health outcomes of involvement in health policy process. Lack of nurses' political involvement may result in self-serving policies by policymakers who are in power and passing policies that are less than optimum. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. A convenience sample of 231 nurses was recruited with a response rate of 77%. The instrument of Registered Nurses' Involvement in Health Policies was used in this study. The results revealed that participants were most frequently involved in the health policy activity 'voting for a candidate or a health policy proposal'. The mean scores for involvement of participants as nurses and as citizens were low. The most perceived frequent barrier to involvement in health policy was lack of time. The low rate of Jordanian nurses' involvement in health policy could be explained by the fact that most participants had family roles in addition to work roles, which might leave little time for health policy activities. Lack of mentoring for nurses by nursing leaders could also negatively affect their involvement in health policy development. Results of this study could be baseline information for Jordanian nurse leaders to enhance the level of nurses' involvement in health policy development. Such findings could also add knowledge to the existing literature about nurses' involvement in health policy. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  13. Poverty and health: the mediating role of perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Evans, Gary W; Ong, Anthony D

    2012-07-01

    Social-class discrimination is evident in many societies around the world, but little is known about its impact on the poor or its role as an explanatory variable in the link between socioeconomic status and health. The current study tested the extent to which perceived discrimination explains socioeconomic gradients in physical health. Participants were 252 adolescents (51% male, 49% female; mean age = 17.51 years, SD = 1.03 years) who participated in Wave 3 of an ongoing longitudinal study focusing on the developmental consequences of rural poverty. Physical health was operationalized as allostatic load, a measure of cumulative wear and tear on the body caused by overactivation of physiological systems that respond to stress. Mediation analyses suggested that 13% of the effect of poverty on allostatic load is explained by perceived discrimination. The findings suggest that social-class discrimination is one important mechanism behind the influence of poverty on physical health.

  14. Longitudinal correlated changes in conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W; Jackson, Joshua J; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Longitudinal Correlated Changes in Conscientiousness, Preventative Health-related Behaviors, and Self-perceived Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Method Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately 3 years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. Conclusion This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. PMID:23072269

  16. The mediating roles of perceived stress and health behaviors in the relation between objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of (a) SES on health through stress and (b) SES on health through stress and health-compromising behaviors. Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals.

  17. Internal Motivation, Perceived Health Competency, and Health Literacy in Primary and Secondary Cancer Prevention

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui Sug; Oh, Hyung Won

    2016-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify associations of internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy with primary and secondary cancer prevention. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 2,700, 30-69 year olds, proportionally extracted from Gangwon Province, South Korea. The dependent variables were actions in primary and secondary prevention and the explanatory variables were 13 questions in three areas: internal motivation (4 items), perceived health competency (4 items), and health literacy (5 items). Result: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy positively impacted primary prevention after controlling for gender and age. As internal motivation, perceived health competency, and perceived literacy increased by 1 point, primary prevention scores increased by 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 points, respectively. In addition, logistic regression results for secondary prevention showed that health literacy had a positive impact on secondary behavior. As health literacy increased by 1 point, the odds ratio of the practice of secondary prevention was 1.4 times higher. Conclusion: This study suggests that primary and secondary prevention of cancer are significantly related to intrinsic motivation factors, perceived health competency, and actual health literacy. Health literacy concepts that cover the capacity of health management in comprehensive areas need to be applied to education and promotion for improvement of primary and secondary prevention of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. Perceived occupational stress and related factors in public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2002-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore perceived occupational stress and related factors in public health nurses (PHNs). A convenient sampling method was used to recruit the subjects. Seven out of 12 district health centers in Taipei City and all 11 district health centers in Kaohsiung City agreed to participate in this study. Of the 171 PHNs invited to participate, 167 (97.7%) completed all mailing questionnaires. Findings showed that (1) the major sources of occupational stress in PHNs were personal responsibility and workloads, and (2) PHNs with younger age, shorter length of current working experience, longer past clinical experience, higher level of education, and less pre-job or on-job continuous education perceived more occupational stress. The findings indicate that it is necessary to develop stress-alleviating programs to reduce occupational stress in PHNs. Designing a systematic in-service training program to enhance working competency and performance of PHNs is also suggested.

  19. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Núria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Ismet Taib, Nezar; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS) score (0, worst to 100, best) measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities), family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions) effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1). Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8), depression (8.2) and bipolar disorder (8.1). Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2–51.5%) of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions). Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. Conclusions More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation

  20. Disability mediates the impact of common conditions on perceived health.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Núria D; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Ormel, J Hans; Hormel, J; Posada-Villa, Jose A; Ismet Taib, Nezar; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS) score (0, worst to 100, best) measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities), family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions) effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1). Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8), depression (8.2) and bipolar disorder (8.1). Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5%) of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions). Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation is different. Research is needed on the

  1. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  2. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O’Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83–2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41–1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42–2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. PMID:26635600

  3. Oxygenated-Blood Colour Change Thresholds for Perceived Facial Redness, Health, and Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Re, Daniel E.; Whitehead, Ross D.; Xiao, Dengke; Perrett, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygenation level is associated with cardiovascular fitness, and raising oxygenated blood colouration in human faces increases perceived health. The current study used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychophysics design to quantify the oxygenated blood colour (redness) change threshold required to affect perception of facial colour, health and attractiveness. Detection thresholds for colour judgments were lower than those for health and attractiveness, which did not differ. The results suggest redness preferences do not reflect a sensory bias, rather preferences may be based on accurate indications of health status. Furthermore, results suggest perceived health and attractiveness may be perceptually equivalent when they are assessed based on facial redness. Appearance-based motivation for lifestyle change can be effective; thus future studies could assess the degree to which cardiovascular fitness increases face redness and could quantify changes in aerobic exercise needed to increase facial attractiveness. PMID:21448270

  4. Oxygenated-blood colour change thresholds for perceived facial redness, health, and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Whitehead, Ross D; Xiao, Dengke; Perrett, David I

    2011-03-23

    Blood oxygenation level is associated with cardiovascular fitness, and raising oxygenated blood colouration in human faces increases perceived health. The current study used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychophysics design to quantify the oxygenated blood colour (redness) change threshold required to affect perception of facial colour, health and attractiveness. Detection thresholds for colour judgments were lower than those for health and attractiveness, which did not differ. The results suggest redness preferences do not reflect a sensory bias, rather preferences may be based on accurate indications of health status. Furthermore, results suggest perceived health and attractiveness may be perceptually equivalent when they are assessed based on facial redness. Appearance-based motivation for lifestyle change can be effective; thus future studies could assess the degree to which cardiovascular fitness increases face redness and could quantify changes in aerobic exercise needed to increase facial attractiveness.

  5. Perceived weight discrimination, changes in health, and daily stressors.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether perceived weight discrimination is associated with change in health markers over time and whether it is associated with daily stressors, physical symptoms, and affect. Participants were selected from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study if they had data on perceived weight discrimination and health markers at MIDUS II (2004-2006), health markers at MIDUS III (2013-2014), and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (N = 1,841). A subset of these participants (N = 1,153) reported on their experiences daily for 8 days as part of the second National Study of Daily Experiences. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with declines in mental and physical health over time (median β = 0.06). Participants who reported weight discrimination experienced more daily stressors (β = 0.13), physical symptoms (β = 0.13), and negative affect (β = 0.13) and less positive affect (β = -0.12) over the 8 days of the second National Study of Daily Experiences. Weight discrimination was most strongly associated with interpersonal stressors (median β = 0.14), feelings of anger (β = 0.16) and frustration (β = 0.14), lower attention (β = -0.14) and activity (β = -0.16), and more nonspecific physical symptoms (e.g., fatigue; β = 0.10). This research replicates the association between perceived weight discrimination and worse health over time and extends this literature to show that people who experience weight discrimination have more daily stressors, physical symptoms, and negative emotions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Health-Promoting Lifestyle, Perceived Health Competence, Barriers to Health Promotion, and Asthma-Related Knowledge in Persons with Chronic Asthma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-15

    5 2 | £ ja | 1) A ft ’S S 00 .3 c .a a o ■■0 1 2 I ON •3 0H I •8 O i i HH Status, perceived benefits of health -promoting... benefits of health - promoting behaviors, and perceived barriers to health-promoting behaviors. The modifying factors include demographic...health, perceived health status, perceived benefits of health -promoting behaviors, perceived barriers to health-promoting behaviors, clients

  7. On human health.

    PubMed

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  8. Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah; Moore, Lisa; Gruskin, Sofia; Krieger, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of violence’s health consequences and the World Health Organization’s recent classification of police officers’ excessive use of force as a form of violence, public health investigators have produced scant research characterizing police-perpetrated abuse. Using qualitative data from a study of a police drug crackdown in 2000 in 1 New York City police precinct, we explored 40 injection drug using and 25 non–drug using precinct residents’ perceptions of and experiences with police-perpetrated abuse. Participants, particularly injection drug users and non–drug using men, reported police physical, psychological, and sexual violence and neglect; they often associated this abuse with crackdown-related tactics and perceived officer prejudice. We recommend that public health research address the prevalence, nature, and public health implications of police violence. PMID:15226128

  9. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  10. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  11. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C

    2013-06-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  13. The Pathophysiology of Perceived Social Isolation: Effects on Health and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Anwar ul

    2017-01-01

    Perceived social isolation (PSI) is a deficit in normal human social interaction, which has been associated with negative health outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms through which PSI influences human health are not fully known. This review aims at bringing out what is known about these pathways through which social isolation affects human health. We searched PubMed, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Psychological Information Database (PsycINFO), and Cochrane Library in addition to secondary references from primary journal articles for the most relevant and recent information concerning the research topic. The keywords used were perceived social isolation, loneliness, health outcomes, cardiovascular effects, neuroendocrine effects, depression, and cognitive decline, in animal and human populations. There are clear linkages between PSI and the cardiovascular system, neuroendocrine system, and cognitive functioning. PSI also leads to depression, cognitive decline, and sleep problems. The mechanisms through which PSI causes these effects are neural, hormonal, genetic, emotional, and behavioral. The effects of PSI on health are both direct and indirect. There is a complex interconnected network of pathways through which PSI negatively influences health. These hypothetical pathways using which the effects of PSI have been explained form the base on which further analyses can be carried out. PMID:28382237

  14. Behavioral and Psychosocial Health of New Mothers and Associations With Contextual Factors and Perceived Health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lorraine O; Xie, Bo; Hendrickson, Sherry G; Sterling, Bobbie S

    2016-01-01

    To test the association of behavioral and psychosocial health domains with contextual variables and perceived health in ethnically and economically diverse postpartum women. Mail survey of a stratified random sample. Southwestern community in Texas. Non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic women (N = 168). A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 600 women. The adjusted response rate was 32.8%. The questionnaire covered behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use) and psychosocial (depression symptoms and body image) health, contextual variables (race/ethnicity, income, perceived stress, and social support), and perceived health. Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regression. Body image, dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and depression symptoms were all significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = -.15 to .47). Higher income was associated with increased odds of higher alcohol use (more than 1 drink on 1 to 4 days in a 14-day period). African American ethnicity was correlated with less healthy dietary behaviors and Hispanic ethnicity with less physical activity. In multivariable regressions, perceived stress was associated with less healthy dietary behaviors, increased odds of depression, and decreased odds of higher alcohol use, whereas social support was associated with less body image dissatisfaction, more physical activity, and decreased odds of depression. All behavioral and psychosocial domains were significantly correlated with perceived health, with higher alcohol use related to more favorable perceived health. In regressions analyses, perceived stress was a significant contextual predictor of perceived health. Stress and social support had more consistent relationships to behavioral and psychosocial variables than race/ethnicity and income level. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  17. The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison

    2013-09-01

    The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

  18. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

  19. A prospective study of return to work across health conditions: perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6-12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Perceived social support was measured with a self-constructed standardized scale reflecting a person's perception of social support regarding RTW. Self-efficacy was measured with the standardised Dutch version of the General self-efficacy scale, assessing the subjects' expectations of their general capacities. The sample was divided into three subgroups: musculoskeletal health conditions, other physical health conditions and mental health conditions. Anova analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify differences in association between the three factors and the time to RTW between different subgroups. The associations between the perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and the time to RTW vary across different health condition subgroups, not only with regard to the strength of the association but also for the type of factor. In the multivariate model, hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, and 1.26 (95% CI 0.89-1.78) in the other physical subgroup were found in perceived work attitude. With regard to perceived social support HRs of 1.39 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) respectively 1.51 (1.05-2.17) in the same subgroups were found. Only self-efficacy remained in the multivariate model in all subgroups with HRs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, 1.53 (95% CI 1

  20. Roles of Perceived Sexist Events and Perceived Social Support in the Mental Health of Women Seeking Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Funderburk, Jamie R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women's mental health by examining the sexism-distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and…

  1. Roles of Perceived Sexist Events and Perceived Social Support in the Mental Health of Women Seeking Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Funderburk, Jamie R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women's mental health by examining the sexism-distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and…

  2. [Health inequalities in self-perceived health among older adults in Spain].

    PubMed

    Morcillo Cebolla, Victoria; de Lorenzo-Cáceres Ascanio, Antonio; Domínguez Ruiz de León, Paloma; Rodríguez Barrientos, Ricardo; Torijano Castillo, María José

    2014-01-01

    Recent publications have concluded that there are social health inequalities in people older than 65 years in Spain, especially among women and people with low socioeconomic status. Self-perceived health is an indicator that is related to the possibility of chronic disease, the use of health services, and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess inequalities in self-perceived health in relation to age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and functional dependence. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA criteria. An exhaustive search was performed in PubMed, WOK, Science Direct, EMBASE, IME, Cochrane, JSTOR, Ovid, Proquest, the BMJ Group and in Spanish doctoral theses up to April 2013. The quality of the studies was assessed by two independent editors through the Berra Tool. A total of 20 documents were selected. These studies were in agreement in the deterioration of self-perceived health among older people (except the oldest), in those with functional dependence, lower socioeconomic status, and in women. This review shows that, among older people, inequalities in self-perceived health due to socioeconomic status and gender have persisted in time. Future research is needed to cast light on the factors determining the persistence of these inequalities among older people, so that specific health policies can be designed for this sector of the population. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  3. Energy and human health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  4. Perceived Health Risks of Snus and Medicinal Nicotine Products.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Vogel, R I; Severson, Herb H; Jensen, Joni A; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Perceived health risk (PHR) of a tobacco product may influence both uptake and continued use. In this study, we examined PHRs of snus and medicinal nicotine using the PHR scale and the relationship of PHR responses to use of these products in smokers seeking an alternative to smoking. Smokers were randomly assigned to snus or to medicinal nicotine for a period of 12 weeks and asked to only use the assigned product. The PHR scale involves rating the extent of perceived risk of a product for different diseases and was given at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 during treatment. Relationships between PHR scale scores and study attrition, compliance with only using the product, and continued use of the product after treatment were determined. Response to the PHR scale showed no significant differences between the snus and medicinal nicotine for perceived risks for lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchitis. However, significant differences were observed for other cancers, heart disease, stroke and risk for addiction, particularly after product use, with higher scores among those assigned to snus. Scores on the PHR scale were not related to any of the trial outcome variables. Among smokers seeking an alternative to smoking in a clinic setting, PHR of a product changes after product use but may not be related to product use patterns. PHRs of snus or medicinal nicotine in smokers assigned to these products become more accurate after product use. PHR does not appear to be associated with patterns of product use; rather satisfaction with a product is a better indicator as to whether a smoker is compliant with only using the product or continues to use the product. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  6. [Human health sciences].

    PubMed

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  7. Perceived discrimination and poor health: Accounting for self-blame complicates a well-established relationship.

    PubMed

    Blodorn, Alison; Major, Brenda; Kaiser, Cheryl

    2016-03-01

    Past research has reliably demonstrated that both perceiving oneself as a target of discrimination and a tendency to blame negative events on oneself undermine psychological and physical health. These two literatures, however, have evolved largely independently of one another. The present research sought to develop a deeper understanding of the health effects of perceived discrimination by taking into account the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-blame. In two correlational studies, we examined perceived ethnic-based discrimination, self-blame, and psychological and physical health among White and ethnic minority adults residing in the United States. Contrary to the hypothesis that attributing negative events to discrimination leads to the discounting of self-blame, perceived discrimination and self-blame were positively related. Replicating past research, perceived discrimination was negatively related to health when examined as an independent predictor. When perceived discrimination and self-blame were examined as simultaneous predictors of health, however, the negative health effects of perceived discrimination were weakened. Furthermore, an alternative model revealed that perceived discrimination indirectly predicted decreased health through increased self-blame. The present findings highlight the importance of taking self-blame into account when assessing and interpreting the negative health effects of perceived discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research conducted on Caribbean women's perceived human immunodeficiency virus risks: A narrative review and methodological critique

    PubMed Central

    Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caribbean women have the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates among women in the Americas; however, their self-assessment of HIV risk is alarmingly low. This reflects a low perceived risk for HIV. English-speaking Caribbean countries are typically understudied in this area. It is important for health researchers and practitioners to understand the underlying perceptions of women who are now driving this epidemic. This review discusses and critiques the published literature that examines Caribbean women's perceived HIV risks. Methods: Medline, PsycINFO, Global Health, Women's Studies International, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched using various combinations of the following keywords: Caribbean, women, HIV, STD, AIDS, risk, perceived risk, risk perception, and sex. Searches were restricted to English. A total of 69 peer-reviewed studies were obtained from the initial 239 records. The reviewer screened the peer-reviewed articles and excluded 50 studies that did not directly assess perceived HIV risks in Caribbean women. An additional 12 studies were excluded based on the following exclusion criteria: an undetermined proportion or more than 50% of the sample consisted of pregnant women, sex workers, drug users, Latinas, and/or people living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Seven studies on perceived HIV risk in Caribbean women were reviewed. Jamaican women were the most represented ethnic demographic (43%). All studies assessed perceived risk as a subset of HIV psychosocial factors, sexual-risk behaviors, HIV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Four studies used cross-sectional research design and two studies used qualitative methodology. Only one study described items used to measure perceived risk. General findings indicate overall perceptions of invulnerability among Caribbean women, despite high sexual-risk behaviors. Conclusions: Published studies that specifically assess Caribbean women's HIV risk perceptions are

  9. Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Perceived Attributes of eHealth Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess perceived attributes of technology-based health education innovations. Methods: College students in 12 personal health courses reviewed a prototype eHealth intervention using a 30-item instrument based upon diffusion theory's perceived attributes of an innovation. Results:…

  10. Neural responses to perceiving suffering in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Robert G; Nelson, Anthony J; Baker, Michelle; Beeney, Joseph E; Vescio, Theresa K; Lenz-Watson, Aurora; Adams, Reginald B

    2013-01-01

    The human ability to perceive and understand others' suffering is critical to reinforcing and maintaining our social bonds. What is not clear, however, is the extent to which this generalizes to nonhuman entities. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people may engage in empathy-like processes when observing suffering nonhuman entities, but psychological research suggests that we more readily empathize with those to whom we are closer and more similar. In this research, we examined neural responses in participants while they were presented with pictures of human versus dog suffering. We found that viewing human and animal suffering led to large overlapping regions of activation previously implicated in empathic responding to suffering, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula. Direct comparisons of viewing human and animal suffering also revealed differences such that human suffering yielded significantly greater medial prefrontal activation, consistent with high-level theory of mind, whereas animal suffering yielded significantly greater parietal and inferior frontal activation, consistent with more semantic evaluation and perceptual simulation.

  11. Impact of Polypharmacy on Seniors' Self-Perceived Health Status.

    PubMed

    Rasu, Rafia; Agbor-Bawa, Walter; Rianon, Nahid

    2017-08-01

    Polypharmacy is common among older patients and is linked to increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to explore the association of polypharmacy and self-perceived health status (SPHS) among geriatric patients. This cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal observational research used national survey data from 2005-2008. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the likelihood of having a good/poor SPHS and polypharmacy. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data provided by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used in this study. Overall, SPHS was assessed using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey health and well-being variable. Polypharmacy status was defined when patients were taking ≥5 medications. The study included a total of 102,309,656 weighted individuals reported from the survey of 4775 actual individuals from 2005-2008. Patients' mean age was 74.7 years (standard error ± 0.138), and 58.1% were women, 87.3% were white, 55.2% were married, and 37.3% were from the southern region of the United States. Approximately 69.4% of patients reported polypharmacy. The most prevalent disease reported was hypertension (62.7%). We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics based on SPHS and polypharmacy status. Overall, 78.09% of seniors reported their SPHS as good, whereas 21.91% reported their SPHS as poor. Among polypharmacy users, 72.52% reported good SPHS and 27.48% reported poor SPHS. Among older adults who were nonpolypharmacy users, 90.8% reported good and 9.02% reported poor SPHS. Logistic regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors showed that nonpolypharmacy users are approximately three times more likely to report their SPHS as good (odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 2.12-3.57, P < 0.001). Nonpolypharmacy users perceived their health status to be better than did polypharmacy users. Interventions to reduce polypharmacy may improve SPHS. One such intervention, medication reconciliation, may have a

  12. Health conditions, physical disabilities, perceived burdensomeness, and depressive symptoms influence suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Khazem, Lauren R; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Anestis, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    The roles of perceived burdensomeness and depressive symptoms in the relationship between physical disabilities or health conditions and suicidal ideation warrant examination. The authors examined indirect effects using cross-sectional data from adults who answered questions online. The serial indirect effect of the number of physical disabilities on suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness and depressive symptoms was not significant, but the serial indirect effects of the combined number of physical disabilities and health conditions and number of health conditions on suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness and depression were each significant. For those with disabilities or health conditions, perceived burdensomeness may precede depressive symptoms in the development of suicidal ideation.

  13. Perceived mental health and needs for mental health services following trauma with and without brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lavoie, André

    2009-02-01

    To compare self-reported mental health in trauma survivors with and without brain injury; to describe factors associated with lower mental health; and to compare needs in terms of mental health services and perceived access limitations to such services. Cross-sectional community survey. A total of 405 trauma survivors (239 with traumatic brain injury and 166 without) interviewed 2-4 years post-injury. Short Form-12 mental health scales and a survey measuring perceived needs for mental health services, and access limitations. Injury survivors with and without traumatic brain injury are similarly affected on subjective reports of global mental health, vitality, role changes, and social functioning except for cognitive complaints. Variables associated with lower mental health in trauma survivors include younger age, being a woman, shorter time since injury, higher pain, lower social support, and presence of cognitive problems. Although individuals with traumatic brain injury report slightly more mental health problems and more need for mental health services, proportionally to their needs, more individuals without traumatic brain injury report access limitations to mental health services. Mental health problems affect important proportions of trauma survivors, either with or without traumatic brain injury. More effort should be made to facilitate access to mental health services for all trauma survivors.

  14. Implications for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, L

    1979-01-01

    To analyze the implications for human health, the toxicologist requires four sets of data: the results of toxicity and other studies in animals; quantitative data on actual or potential human exposure; whatever information is available on effects of exposure in man; and the statistical extrapolations from the dose-response relationships in animals to the (usually) much lower levels of human exposure. Professional expertise in toxicology is essential to assess the nature and severity of the toxic effects observed in animals, including such characteristics as potential for progression, irreversibility and production of incapacity. Given sufficient data, an estimate can be arrived at of the likelihood that such effects will be elicited in human populations of differing susceptibilities. The criteria by which the overall implications for human health can be judged comprise both the direct effects on man, as well as the indirect consequences stemming from environmental impacts. PMID:540600

  15. Factors associated with differences in perceived health among German long-term unemployed

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unemployment is associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being. Perceived health is an important factor influencing health outcomes as well as successful returns to work. This study aims to determine the extent to which perceived health correlates with mental health, various health risk characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics in a setting-selected sample of long-term unemployed persons. Methods Using SF-12, 365 long-term unemployed persons were assessed for self-perceived health and various socio-demographic and health characteristics. Perceived health data of the sample was compared to the German SF-12 reference population. Bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify those variables significantly associated with perceived health. Results The study population reported poorer perceived health compared with the general population. Analyses showed that perceived mental health was significantly worse in women, among persons with heightened depression and anxiety scores, and in participants reporting reduced levels of physical activity. Perceived physical health was significantly lower among older persons, participants with a higher BMI, and participants with heightened depression and anxiety scores. Both mental and physical health were worse among the unemployed assigned to an employment center as compared to those engaged in the secondary labor market. In total, 36% of the variance in the SF-12 mental score and 20% of the variance in the SF-12 physical score were explained by the factors included in the final multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Perceived health among a select group of long-term unemployed is reduced to a clinically relevant extent compared to the general population. The preliminary findings underline an association between mental health and perceived health. Negative self-perceptions of health were also associated with the labor market setting and some of the

  16. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). Results South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Conclusions Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries. PMID:28605887

  17. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Armenta, Bianca; Nourian, Maziar; Assasnik, Nushean; Nourian, Kimiya; Chernenko, Alla

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  18. Perspectives on health policy dialogue: definition, perceived importance and coordination.

    PubMed

    Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Ousman, Kevin; Estrelli, Yolanda; Rene, Adzodo K M; Yakouba, Zina; Gebrikidane, Mesfin; Mamoud, Drave; Kwamie, Aku

    2016-07-18

    Countries in the World Health Organization African Region have witnessed an increase in global health initiatives in the recent past. Although these have provided opportunities for expanding coverage of health interventions; their poor alignment with the countries' priorities and weak coordination, are among the challenges that have affected their impact. A well-coordinated health policy dialogue provides an opportunity to address these challenges, but calls for common understanding among stakeholders of what policy dialogue entails. This paper seeks to assess stakeholders' understanding and perceived importance of health policy dialogue and of policy dialogue coordination. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using qualitative methods. Interviews were conducted with 90 key informants from the national and sub-national levels in Lusophone Cabo Verde, Francophone Chad, Guinea and Togo, and Anglophone Liberia using an open-ended interview guide. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and then put through inductive thematic content analysis using QRS software Version 10. There were variations in the definition of policy dialogue that were not necessarily linked to the linguistic leaning of respondents' countries or whether the dialogue took place at the national or sub-national level. The definitions were grouped into five categories based on whether they had an outcome, operational, process, forum or platform, or interactive and evidence-sharing orientation. The stakeholders highlighted multiple benefits of policy dialogue including ensuring stakeholder participation, improving stakeholder harmonisation and alignment, supporting implementation of health policies, fostering continued institutional learning, providing a guiding framework and facilitating stakeholder analysis. Policy dialogue offers the opportunity to improve stakeholder participation in policy development and promote aid effectiveness. However, conceptual clarity is needed to ensure

  19. Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks.

    PubMed

    Vozikis, Athanassios; Drivas, Kyriakos; Milioris, Kostantinos

    2014-01-01

    Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems' costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. The study was carried out during the period 15-30 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span.

  20. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  1. The Role of Perceived Employability, Core Self-Evaluations, and Job Resources on Health and Turnover Intentions.

    PubMed

    Vîrga, Delia; De Witte, Hans; Cifre, Eva

    2017-10-06

    According to Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study investigated the explanatory role of perceived employability, over and above core self-evaluations (CSE) and job resources, in relation to different aspects of health (physical and mental) and turnover intentions. Based on data obtained from a sample of 274 Romanian blue-collar employees (59.5% men), hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that perceived employability adds a significant variance compared to variance due to CSE and job resources with respect to aspects of health and turnover. The results highlight the role of perceived employability in health - on an individual level, and in decisions to leave the organization - on an organizational level. The findings are of value because they inform organizations how to design human resources strategies in order to retain a healthy workforce.

  2. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p value<0.001) related to nuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/<0.001) and the participants' concerns about nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/<0.001) and potential health effects (aOR/ p value: 2.95/ <0.001; 2.56/<0.001) were found to be commonly associated with the PRRs of "cancer incidence" and "perceived risk of death" related to nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/<0.001) to predict their perceived risk of death related to nuclear power. These factors are considered as

  3. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  4. Periodontal health, perceived oral health, and dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Taichman, L Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-01-01

    This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the United States. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50 and 85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health, and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes while controlling for confounding factors. Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, nonsmokers, have higher levels of education and income, and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (P = 0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis [odds ratio (OR):  1.32; 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 0.53-3.63], periodontitis (OR: 1.82; 95 percent CI:  0.89-4.01), or poor self-perceived oral health (OR: 0.89; 95 percent CI: 0.61-1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health, and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Oceans and Human Health Center

    MedlinePlus

    ocean and human health science can help prevent disease outbreaks and improve public health through a deeper understanding of the causes ... our Center and the field of oceans and human health science. More Research Learn about the research ...

  6. The Association Between Perceived Health Status and Health Information Communication Channels.

    PubMed

    Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright; Crum, Anthony Bryan; Hung, Man

    2016-11-01

    Varying types of health information sources may influence health outcomes, but not much is known about their impact. The purpose of our study was to explore the association between health information sources and individuals' health status. A total of 14,966 participants who responded to the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey between 2005 and 2012 were included. Controlling for demographics, comorbidities, communication patterns, and socioeconomic status, we utilized regression analysis to examine the relationship between sources of health information and perceived health status. Included in the study were a total of 8,103 females and 6,863 males between 18 and 101 years old (M = 49.14, SD = 16.13). Health information from the Internet and pharmaceutical companies was significantly associated with better health status (p < .05), whereas information from social media, health care apps, news outlets, and health care companies was not. Information from the Internet was significantly associated with better health status, suggesting that health information from the Internet may have benefits. However, use of social media and health care apps did not relate to better health status, which may indicate that these sources are not as useful to consumers or that these sources have not yet saturated the health information marketplace.

  7. Association between burnout and cortisol secretion, perceived stress, and psychopathology in palliative care unit health professionals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, José Carlos; Pérez-Mármol, José Manuel; Blásquez, Antonia; Santos-Ruiz, Ana María; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-04-24

    A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population. A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL-90-R Symptoms Inventory. There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI-HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15-30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it. A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.

  8. Dietary intake of fibers: differential effects in men and women on perceived general health and immune functioning.

    PubMed

    Fernstrand, Amanda M; Bury, Didi; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To investigate potential gender differences in the effects of dietary fiber intake on perceived health and immune status of healthy young adults. Design: A survey was conducted among university students in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Data were collected on perceived general health status and perceived immune functioning. Dietary intake of fibers was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Perceived general health status and immune functioning were associated with daily intake of fibers using nonparametric (Spearman) correlations. Statistical analyses were conducted for the group as a whole, and for men and women separately. Results: N = 509 subjects completed the survey. Mean (SD) age was 20.8 (2.6) years old. 71.9% of the samples were females. Mean daily dietary fiber intake was 15.5 (6.9) g. Daily dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with general health rate (r = 0.171, p = 0.0001) and perceived immune functioning (r = 0.124, p = 0.008). After controlling for total caloric intake, the partial correlation between fiber intake and general health remained significant (r = 0.151, p = 0.002). In men, dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with perceived general health status (r = 0.320, p = 0.0001) and immune functioning (r = 0.281, p = 0.002). After controlling for caloric intake, the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health (r = 0.261, p = 0.005) remained significant. Remarkably, no significant correlations were observed in women. Conclusion: A significant association between daily dietary fiber intake and perceived general health status and immune rate was found in men, but not in women. Future studies

  9. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination.

  10. Racially mixed neighborhoods, perceived neighborhood social cohesion, and adolescent health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Hou, Feng; Ram, Bali

    2007-11-01

    Using data from the Canadian Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, we examine the effects of neighborhood concentration of racial minorities on general health status and depressive symptoms of Canadian adolescents. We also examine the role of perceived neighborhood cohesion and the extent to which it contributes to adolescent health. Our findings show that the racial concentration of ethnic minorities represents a health disadvantage for visible minority youth while perceived neighborhood cohesion is found to be a protective factor for both health outcomes. Perceived neighborhood cohesion is beneficial for the general health status (but not depression) of adolescents residing in neighborhoods with a high concentration of racial minorities.

  11. Body Mass Index, Perceived Health, and Happiness: Their Determinants and Structural Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Antonides, Gerrit; Van Ophem, Johan A. C.; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on…

  12. Human health and groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  13. Anxiety and self-perceived health status in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pontone, Gregory M.; Williams, James R.; Anderson, Karen E.; Chase, Gary; Goldstein, Susanne R.; Grill, Stephen; Hirsch, Elaina S.; Lehmann, Susan; Little, John T.; Margolis, Russell L.; Rabins, Peter V.; Weiss, Howard D.; Marsh, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and depression are associated with lower self-perceived health status (HS) in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the high co-morbidity with depression and other non-motor symptoms, it is unclear whether anxiety disorders, in general, versus specific anxiety subtypes have an independent effect on HS in PD. To examine this question, comprehensive assessments of motor and non-motor symptoms from 249 subjects with idiopathic PD followed in three community-based movement disorders neurology practices were analyzed. HS was measured using the 8-item PD Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Psychiatric diagnoses were established by consensus using a panel of six psychiatrists with expertise in geriatric psychiatry and movement disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used, with the PDQ-8 score as the dependent variable, to identify independent predictors of HS among motor, psychiatric, and other non-motor variables. Among the anxiety disorders, only anxiety associated with motor fluctuations was an independent predictor of HS after accounting for co-morbid depression and other clinical features. In addition, depressive disorders were also an independent predictor of lower HS. Prevention or treatment of state-dependent anxiety may improve HS in persons with PD. PMID:21292531

  14. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use.

  15. Perceived determinants of mental health for bisexual people: a qualitative examination.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Dobinson, Cheryl; Eady, Allison

    2010-03-01

    We examined the determinants of mental health, as perceived by bisexual people, in order to begin understanding the disparities in the rates of mental health problems reported by bisexual people versus those reported by heterosexual people, and, in many studies, gay men and lesbians. Our community-based participatory action research project comprised focus groups and semistructured interviews with 55 bisexual people across the province of Ontario, Canada. Perceived determinants of emotional well-being identified by participants could be classified as macrolevel (social structure), mesolevel (interpersonal), or microlevel (individual). In the context of this framework, monosexism and biphobia were perceived to exert a broad-reaching impact on participants' mental health. Like other marginalized populations, bisexual people perceive experiences of discrimination as important determinants of mental health problems. Additional research is required to examine the relationships between these perceived determinants of emotional well-being and specific mental health outcomes and to guide interventions, advocacy, and support for bisexual people.

  16. Perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Gong, Huanyu; Yang, Guoli; Yan, Jin

    2014-07-01

    To determine the relationship among perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS. Cross-sectional research was used to interview people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from April 2012 to March 2013 in Changsha, China. The questionnaires included General Questionnaire, Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Psychometric Assessment of the HIV Stigma Scale. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS18.0. The total score of perceived stigma and its 4 dimensions were positively correlated with anxiety and depression. The total score of perceived stigma and its dimensions were associated with disclosure, but no significantly correlated with other sexual behaviors. Hierarchical regression showed perceived stigma had an effect on anxiety. The stigma perceived by PLWHA is above the average level. Perceived stigma has an effect on mental health, especially anxiety, but no effect on unsafe sexual behaviors.

  17. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption.

    PubMed

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Stronks, Karien

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of society. World Health Survey data were analysed on 72 524 adults from 20 African countries. The main outcome was self-reported poor general health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between poor health and perceived corruption, while jointly accounting for individual- and country-level human development factors. In this research, we use Transparency International's corruption perception index (CPI), which measures 'both administrative and political corruption' on a 0-10 scale. A higher score pertains to a higher rate of perceived corruption within society. We also examined effect modification by gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher national corruption perception was consistently associated with an increase in poor health prevalence, also after multivariable adjustments, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60). Stratified analyses by age and gender suggested this same pattern in all subgroups. Positive associations between poor health and perceived corruption were evident in all socio-economic groups, with the association being somewhat more positive among less educated people (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) than among more educated people (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.37). This study is a cautious first step in empirically testing the general health consequences of corruption. Our results suggest that higher perceived national corruption is associated with general health of both men and women within all socio-economic groups across the lifespan. Further research is needed using more countries to assess the magnitude of the health consequences of corruption. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Perceived health status is associated with hours of exercise per week in older adults independent of physical health.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

  19. Perceived control in health care: a conceptual model based on experiences of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Claassens, L; Widdershoven, G A; Van Rhijn, S C; Van Nes, F; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H; Huisman, M

    2014-12-01

    Frail older adults are increasingly encouraged to be in control of their health care, in Western societies. However, little is known about how they themselves perceive control in health care. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concept of health care-related perceived control from the viewpoint of frail older adults. A qualitative interview study was conducted following a Grounded Theory approach. Thirty-two Dutch frail older adults, aged 65 and over, participated in 20 in-depth interviews (n=20) and three focus group discussions (n=12). Data were analysed according to techniques of coding and constant comparison. From this analysis constituting factors of perceived control emerged, providing elements of a conceptual model. Perceived control reflects the feeling or belief that health care is under control, which is constituted by five, either internal or external, factors: (I) self-confidence in organising professional and/or informal care, (II) self-confidence in health management in the home setting, (III) perceived support from people in the social network, (IV) perceived support from health care professionals and organisations, and (V) perceived support from (health care) infrastructure and services. Therefore, the concept does not only consist of people's own perceived efforts, but also includes the influence of external sources. Our conceptual model points out what external factors should be taken into consideration by health care professionals and policy makers when enhancing older people's perceived control. Moreover, it can serve as the basis for the development of a measurement instrument, to enable future quantitative research on health care-related perceived control among older adults.

  20. Mental health in the Family Health Strategy as perceived by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jacqueline de; Almeida, Letícia Yamawaka de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Nievas, Andreia Fernanda; Veloso, Tatiana Maria Coelho; Barbosa, Sara Pinto; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Assad, Francine Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    to analyze the management of mental health needs in primary care as perceived by Family Health Strategy professionals. this was a qualitative descriptive exploratory study developed within the coverage area of five family health teams. The data were collected using observation, group interviews, individual semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. Content analysis was conducted using text analysis software and interpretation was based on the corresponding analytical structures. numerous and challenging mental health demands occur in this setting, for which the teams identified care resources; however, they also indicated difficulties, especially related to the operationalization and integration of such resources. there is a need for a care network sensitive to mental health demands that are better coordinated and more effectively managed. analisar o manejo das necessidades de saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde de acordo com a percepção dos profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. estudo qualitativo, descritivo exploratório, desenvolvido no território de abrangência de cinco equipes de saúde da família. Os participantes foram cinco enfermeiras, cinco coordenadores e 17 agentes comunitários de saúde. Os dados foram coletados utilizando observação, entrevistas grupais, entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas e grupos focais. Fez-se a análise de conteúdo com o auxílio de um Software de análise textual, e a interpretação baseou-se nas estruturas analíticas correspondentes. inúmeras e desafiadoras demandas de saúde mental têm sido acolhidas nesse setting, para as quais as equipes identificaram recursos de atendimento; no entanto, apontaram dificuldades, sobretudo relacionadas à operacionalização e integração destes recursos. destaca-se a necessidade de uma rede de cuidados sensível a tais demandas, mais articulada e gerida de modo eficaz.

  1. Gender differences in factors associated with perceived need and use of Korean adolescents mental health services.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Ki Young; Chung, Young Ki; Noh, Jae Sung; Shin, Yun Mi

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the socio-demographic characteristics and emotional and behavioral factors associated with the perceived need and actual use of adolescent mental health services according to genders in Korea. We assessed 1,857 middle school students aged 14-16 years. We administered a self-reported questionnaire including questions on their socio-demographic data, Korean Youth Self Report, and self perceived need and actual use of mental health services. Overall, 11.6 % of the adolescents demonstrated a self perceived need for mental health services regarding their emotional or behavioral problems, while 2.1 % had sought mental health services. There were discrepancies between the perceived need and actual use. Most adolescents (81.6 %) used mental health services without self-perceived need, and only 3.3 % of adolescents with self-perceived need utilized mental health services. The perceived need of mental health services is positively influenced by the adolescent's anxious/depressed problems in both genders. The use of them is negatively influenced by the withdrawn problem in adolescent boys, while positively influenced by the aggressive behavior in adolescent girls. To increase the actual use of mental health services more attention needs to be focused on their internalizing problems, such as anxious/depressed and withdrawn problems, in addition to externalizing problems in both genders.

  2. [Prediction of perceived health status on job stress and family stress with middle school teachers].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Sook; Jeong, Seong Hee; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among job stress, family stress and perceived health status of middle school teachers and to present basic information about promoting health and coping with stress. Participants(N=547) was recruited in B city from November 2005 to December 2005. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and multiple regression. The degree of job stress of the middle school teachers was 54.47 out of a total score of 88; that of family stress was 46.57 out of a total score of 96; and that of perceived health status was 78.59 out of the perfect score 100. There was a significantly negative relationship between job stress and perceived health status (r=-.274, p<.001), and family stress and perceived health status(r=-.408, p<.001). However, there was a positive relationship between job stress and family stress(r=.298, p<.001). Family stress, gender, charging subject, job stress, charging grade and number of family member was 27.1% of the variance in perceived health status of middle school teachers. Family stress has the most important impact on perceived health status with middle school teachers. Based on the finding, we could conclude that both job stress and family stress management should be required to improve perceived health status.

  3. Climate change: a review of its health impact and perceived awareness by the young citizens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mohamad, Osman Bin; Zarim, Zainal bin Abu

    2014-04-16

    In recent time climate change and its impact on human health and awareness constitute a set of complex and serious consequences to be tackled by an individual country. Climate change is not merely an environmental issue, but also it is a threat that goes beyond national borders. The purpose of this study is to identify the awareness and the impact of climate change, perceived by the young citizens in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences. Based on a survey of 200 respondents from different public and private University's students in Malaysia, this research used descriptive statistics and T-test to look into the research objective. The results revealed media can play an important role in the awareness of climate change. Meanwhile the male respondents have shown considerable attention on the physical impact of climate change like heat related stress. On the other hand female respondents have shown considerable attention to the psychological impact by the climate change. From a pragmatic perspective, the findings from this research will assists the policy makers to understand more about the perceived awareness on the climate change issues of the young citizens which ultimately assist them to inaugurate new initiatives to confront the challenges of climate changes. This research is among the pioneer study on the issue of the perceived awareness in regards to climate change in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences.

  4. Inequalities in perceived health in the Russian Federation, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Paul, Pavitra; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-02-17

    Individual characteristics and socioeconomic strata (SES) are important determinants of health differences. We examine health inequalities in Russia and estimate the association of demography (gender and age) and SES (working status, income, geography of residence, living standard, wealth possession, and durable asset-holding) with perceived health over the period 1994-2012. This study uses nationally representative datasets from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS: 1994-2012). We apply a random effect GLS model to examine the association of individual characteristics and individual heterogeneity in explaining self-perceived health status. In addition, we estimate a regression-based concentration index, which we decompose into the determinants of health inequalities. The self-perceived health differences between the better-off and the worse-off is reduced over the 18 year period (1994 - 2012). The individual variances in self-perceived health status are higher compared to the variances between the individuals over the period. The measure of health inequality index (concentration index) indicates a change for better health for the better-off Russians. Being employed matters in perceiving a better health status for the Russians in 2012. Self-perceived health differences in the Russian Federation has changed over time. Such differences in changes are attributable to both changes in the distribution of the determinants of health as well as changes in the association between the determinants of health with the self-perceived health status. Though this study identifies the determinants of health inequalities for the Russians, the future research is to examine the in-country distribution of these determinants that produce health differences within the Russian Federation.

  5. Perceiving Group Behavior: Sensitive Ensemble Coding Mechanisms for Biological Motion of Human Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Haroz, Steve; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented…

  6. Perceiving Group Behavior: Sensitive Ensemble Coding Mechanisms for Biological Motion of Human Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Haroz, Steve; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented…

  7. Perceived needs for mental health care and barriers to treatment across age groups.

    PubMed

    Forbes, M K; Crome, E; Sunderland, M; Wuthrich, V M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess responses to a structured measure of perceived need for treatment to understand whether differences in treatment uptake across age groups are related to differences in: (1) perceived need for mental health care; (2) perceptions of treatment needs being met; and/or (3) perceived attitudinal and structural treatment barriers. Data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population (2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing) were analysed using logistic and multinomial regression. All participants potentially benefiting from mental health services were included in analyses; including those reporting symptoms of mental disorders, using mental health services, or self-reporting significant mental health problems in the past 12 months (n = 5733). All regression analyses were adjusted for gender, the presence of chronic physical health conditions, disorder type, and disorder severity. Older adults were the least likely to report any perceived need for mental health care, and specifically reported lower needs for psychotherapy, information about available services, and support improving their ability to work. Older adults perceiving a need for mental health care were also the most likely to report having these needs met. There were no differences in attitudinal and structural barriers to treatment across age groups. These results highlight that age needs to be considered in strategies for improving engagement and efficacy of mental health services, as well as the need for further research to understand what drives age differences in perceived need for mental health care.

  8. Using personal health records to scaffold perceived self-efficacy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    According to Bandura (1977), believing in one's ability to achieve a goal is one of the best predictors that a goal will be accomplished. Given its predictive power, the concept of belief in one's ability to succeed, or perceived self-efficacy, is well researched for its influence on health promotion. It has been argued that a paradigm shift must occur away from illness treatment towards illness prevention and health promotion, for healthcare to accommodate the needs of the population. Personal Health Records (PHRs) may be a tool to help facilitate this paradigm shift. PHRs are repositories of information that individuals can use to access, manage, and share their personal health information. An extension of Bandura's model of self-efficacy will be presented here which identifies opportunities for PHRs to enhance perceived self-efficacy through mastery, social modeling, social persuasion, and physiological state. Bolstering self-efficacy through PHR tools will expand the utility of PHRs beyond self-management to also facilitate health promotion and illness prevention and gains in self-efficacy are also likely to transcend into other areas of consumers' lives.

  9. Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Cohidon, Christine; Morisseau, Patrick; Derriennic, Francis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of the meat industry employees--i.e., working in the slaughtering, cutting, and boning of large animals and poultry--and its relation to their organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. This postal survey included all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in four districts in Brittany, France, whose companies were affiliated with the agricultural branch of the national health insurance fund. The questionnaire asked for social and demographic data and information describing their job and the organisation of their work. The psychosocial factors at work were described according to Karasek's questionnaire (demand, latitude and social support at work). Perceived health was measured with the Nottingham Health Profile perceived health indicator. This study shows the high prevalence of poor health reported by the workers in this industry. This poor perceived health was worse in women and increased regularly with age. Among the psychosocial factors studied, high quantitative and qualitative demand at work, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion appear especially associated with poor perceived health. Other factors often associated with poor perceived health included young age at the first job and work hours that disrupt sleep rhythms (especially for women). Our results show that this population of workers is especially vulnerable from the point of view of perceived physical and psychological health and is exposed to strong physical, organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. They also demonstrate that poor perceived health is associated with some psychosocial (such as high psychological demand and insufficient resources) and organisational factors at work. These results, in conjunction with those from other disciplines involved in studying this industry, may help the companies to develop preventive

  10. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  11. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  12. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  13. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  14. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  15. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  16. Perceived social support moderates the link between attachment anxiety and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne

    2014-01-01

    Two literatures have explored some of the effects intimate relationships can have on physical and mental health outcomes. Research investigating health through the lens of attachment theory has demonstrated that more anxiously attached individuals in particular consistently report poorer health. Separate research on perceived social support (e.g., partner or spousal support) suggests that higher support has salutary influences on various health outcomes. Little to no research, however, has explored the interaction of attachment anxiety and perceived social support on health outcomes. The present study examined the attachment-health link and the moderating role of perceived social support in a community sample of married couples. Results revealed that more anxious persons reported poorer overall physical and mental health, more bodily pain, more medical symptoms, and impaired daily functioning, even after controlling for age, relationship length, neuroticism, and marital quality. Additionally, perceived social support interacted with attachment anxiety to influence health; more anxious individuals' health was poorer even when perceived social support was high, whereas less anxious individuals' health benefited from high support. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings and the importance of considering attachment anxiety in future studies of poor health in adulthood are discussed.

  17. Relationship between Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Malakouti, Jamile; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nahangi, Rogaiyyeh

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle during pregnancy has long-term effects on health of mother and child. Having previous illness or unexpected maternal or fetal conditions such as preeclampsia can complicate pregnancy and interfere with health-promoting behaviors and cause stress might interfere with health-promoting behaviors. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and perceived stress in women with preeclampsia. This study is a descriptive correlation design that was conducted on 182 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending in the high risk clinics of Al-Zahra and Talegani hospitals in Tabriz 2014. Data gathering tools were three: demographics, health-promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II), and perceived stress questionnaires. SPSS Ver. 13 was used for data analysis. The mean (SD) of health promoting lifestyle among pregnant women with preeclampsia was 2.4 (0.4). Among the dimensions of health promoting life style, the highest mean score was for sub domain of nutrition, i.e. 2.8 (0.5), and the lowest score was achieved by the sub-domains of physical activity, i.e. 1.5 (0.5).The mean (SD) score of perceived stress was 27.3 (7.1). There was reverse relationship between perceived stress and health -promoting behaviors. Based upon the results, health promoting behaviors were decreased by increment of perceived stress. Therefore, midwives can help women with preeclampsia by promoting health behaviors to reduce their stress and increase health-promoting behaviors.

  18. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  19. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina; Ingre, Michael; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Lekander, Mats

    2010-12-14

    To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Experimental study. Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were photographed and 65 untrained observers (age 18-61) who rated the photographs. Participants were photographed after a normal night's sleep (eight hours) and after sleep deprivation (31 hours of wakefulness after a night of reduced sleep). The photographs were presented in a randomised order and rated by untrained observers. Difference in observer ratings of perceived health, attractiveness, and tiredness between sleep deprived and well rested participants using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). Sleep deprived people were rated as less healthy (visual analogue scale scores, mean 63 (SE 2) v 68 (SE 2), P<0.001), more tired (53 (SE 3) v 44 (SE 3), P<0.001), and less attractive (38 (SE 2) v 40 (SE 2), P<0.001) than after a normal night's sleep. The decrease in rated health was associated with ratings of increased tiredness and decreased attractiveness. Our findings show that sleep deprived people appear less healthy, less attractive, and more tired compared with when they are well rested. This suggests that humans are sensitive to sleep related facial cues, with potential implications for social and clinical judgments and behaviour. Studies are warranted for understanding how these effects may affect clinical decision making and can add knowledge with direct implications in a medical context.

  20. Social capital and its relationship to self-perceived health: National health survey in Colombia 2007

    PubMed Central

    Amed-Salazar, Eustorgio José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the self-reported perceived health related to socio-demographic characteristics, social health inequalities and social capital in Colombia. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional design; data was obtained from the National Health Survey of Colombia 2007. Independent variables: socio-demographic characteristics; component variables: social health inequality and social capital. Dependent variable: self-reported health. Analysis of the relationship used logistic regression through OR and its confidence interval. Results: The determinant factors for a negative health perceptions are related to being a female (OR: 0.49 [0.47 to 0.52]), and in both genders being older than 37 years of age (OR: 0.72 [0.61 to 0.85]), living without a partner, black ethnicity, indigenous women (0.80 [0.69 to 0.94] and low economic incomes. Discussion: The relationship between social determinants and social capital in the perception of health shows inequities and indirectly reflects the level of health. Given the policies and the model of health, requires a rational adjustment of the goals, programs, and national and regional strategies with the object of improving the demand and quality of services. PMID:24970954

  1. Lifestyle course as an investment in perceived improved health among newly arrived women from countries outside Europe.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Persson-Valenzuela, Ulla-Britt

    2014-10-15

    Family reunification was the most common reason (34%) for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants' perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: "the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health", and four categories: "perceived increased health literacy", "strength, empowerment and security", "finding a new lifestyle", and "the key to entry into Swedish society is language". An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications.

  2. Perceived discrimination outside health care settings and health care utilization of Turkish and Moroccan GP patients in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lamkaddem, Majda; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Devillé, Walter; Foets, Marleen; Stronks, Karien

    2012-08-01

    Problematic interethnic relationships, expressed by feelings of discrimination, may contribute to ethnic variations in health and health care utilization. The impact of daily perceived discrimination on (mental) health has been shown. Less is known about the effect of everyday discrimination on the health care utilization. We examined the relationship between perceived discrimination of Turkish and Moroccan patients on GP health care utilization in the Netherlands and on health services use in the home country. Cohort study within the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2001). Interviews were conducted with 416 Turkish and 381 Moroccan respondents, and repeated in 2005 among respectively 118 and 102 participants. Linear, logistic and zero-inflated binomial regression models were used for the analyses. Perceived discrimination was associated with non-attendance to the GP. Perceived quality of GP care was not a mediator in this relationship. No evidence was found for substitution of health care utilization in the home country to health care in the host country. GP attenders had higher odds of using health care in the home country than non-attenders. Over time, a lasting discrimination feeling was related to persistent non-attendance at the GP practice. Ethnic minority patients who feel discriminated may avoid GP health care. Further research is warranted on magnitude and health effects of such potential underutilization. Information on perceived discrimination within health care settings would increase insight into the profile of non-attenders, and on possible measures to better target interventions at a group at risk of underutilization.

  3. Associations between perceived discrimination and health status among frequent Emergency Department users.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Hugli, Olivier; Burnand, Bernard; Ruggeri, Ornella; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Moschetti, Karine; Staeger, Philippe; Alary, Séverine; Canepa Allen, Marina; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Frequent Emergency Department (ED) users are vulnerable individuals and discrimination is usually associated with increased vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate frequent ED users' perceptions of discrimination and to test whether they were associated with increased vulnerability. In total, 250 adult frequent ED users were interviewed in Lausanne University Hospital. From a previously published questionnaire, we assessed 15 dichotomous sources of perceived discrimination. Vulnerability was assessed using health status: objective health status (evaluation by a healthcare practitioner including somatic, mental health, behavioral, and social issues - dichotomous variables) and subjective health status [self-evaluation including health-related quality of life (WHOQOL) and quality of life (EUROQOL) - mean-scores]. We computed the prevalence rates of perceived discrimination and tested associations between perceived discrimination and health status (Fischer's exact tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests). A total of 35.2% of the frequent ED users surveyed reported at least one source of perceived discrimination. Objective health status was not significantly related to perceived discrimination. In contrast, experiencing perceived discrimination was associated with worse subjective health status (P<0.001). Frequent ED users are highly likely to report perceived discrimination during ED use, and this was linked to a decrease in their own rating of their health. Hence, discrimination should be taken into account when providing care to such users as it may constitute an additional risk factor for this vulnerable population. Perceived discrimination may also be of concern to professionals seeking to improve practices and provide optimal care to frequent ED users.

  4. Determinants of perceived sexism and their role on the association of sexism with mental health.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Katherine; Pérez, Glòria; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study sought to compare the socioeconomic factors related to perceived sexism in employed and non-employed Spanish women and to examine whether the relationship of perceived sexism with mental health outcomes is reduced when such factors are taken into account. Data were taken from the 2006 Spanish Health Survey, including women aged 20-64 years (n=10,927). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the independent relationships between socioeconomic variables and perceived sexism and also between perceived sexism and poor mental health. In this latter case, socioeconomic variables were included by blocks in the logistic models. Perceived sexism was higher among employed women (3.9% vs. 2.8% among non-employed) and mainly among those in a managerial position (11.35%; adjusted OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.30-5.67) and having irregular working hours (5.5%; adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.34). Socioeconomic and family characteristics were associated with perceived sexism among women. Perceived sexism was associated with poor mental health, and this remained the case when different independent variables were taken into account. These results highlight the importance of taking into account gender discrimination in different aspects of our society, such as work and family organization, and in planning mental health interventions.

  5. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  6. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2017-05-22

    Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.

  7. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    PubMed

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  9. High Tech, High Touch, as Perceived by Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Mary Lou

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of health professionals to determine their perceptions of "high tech, high touch" in health occupations education. Health professionals' concerns related to five major questions are presented. (CT)

  10. Frequency of positive states of mind as a moderator of the effects of stress on psychological functioning and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Bränström, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that individuals reporting more positive affect are healthier and live longer. The aim of this study was to examine if positive states of mind moderates the effect of perceived stress on psychological functioning and perceived health. A cross-sectional sample, n = 382, responded to questions regarding perceived stress, depression, anxiety, perceived health, and frequency of positive states of mind. Using a series of regression analyses, the results confirmed a moderating role of positive states of mind on the association between perceived stress and psychological outcomes. Among people experiencing a high frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress seems to have a low correspondence with depression, anxiety, and perceived health. But among those reporting a low frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress was more strongly related and depression, anxiety, and perceived health suggesting a buffering effect of positive states of mind against the negative influence of stress.

  11. Perceived Continuing Education Needs and Job Relevance of Health Education Competencies among Health Education and Promotion Practitioners in College Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric Sean

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The author conducted this study to determine college health education and promotion practitioners' perceived continuing education needs and perceived job relevance in relation to national health education responsibilities and competencies. Methods: In Spring 2006, the author invited college health education and…

  12. Lifestyle Course as an Investment in Perceived Improved Health among Newly Arrived Women from Countries outside Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ekblad, Solvig; Persson-Valenzuela, Ulla-Britt

    2014-01-01

    Family reunification was the most common reason (34%) for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants’ perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: “the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health”, and four categories: “perceived increased health literacy”, “strength, empowerment and security”, “finding a new lifestyle”, and “the key to entry into Swedish society is language”. An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications. PMID:25321877

  13. Cocoa and human health.

    PubMed

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  14. Perceived and Performed eHealth Literacy: Survey and Simulated Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Neter, Efrat; Brainin, Esther

    2017-01-17

    Electronic health (eHealth) literacy of consumers is essential in order to improve information and communication technology (ICT) use for health purposes by ordinary citizens. However, performed eHealth literacy is seldom studied. Therefore, the present study assessed perceived and performed eHealth literacy using the recent conceptualization of health literacy skills. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between perceived and performed eHealth literacies. In total, 82 Israeli adults participated in the study, all 50 years and older, with a mean age of 67 (SD 11). Of the participants, 60% (49/82) were women and 72% (59/82) had a post-secondary education. The participants were first surveyed and then tested in a computer simulation of health-related Internet tasks. Performed, perceived (eHealth Literacy Scale, eHEALS), and evaluated eHealth literacy were assessed, and performed eHealth literacy was also recorded and re-evaluated later. Performance was scored for successful completion of tasks, and was also assessed by two researchers for motivation, confidence, and amount of help provided. The skills of accessing, understanding, appraising, applying, and generating new information had decreasing successful completion rates. Generating new information was least correlated with other skills. Perceived and performed eHealth literacies were moderately correlated (r=.34, P=.01) while facets of performance (ie, digital literacy and eHealth literacy) were highly correlated (r=.82, P<.001). Participants low and high in performed eHealth literacy were significantly different: low performers were older and had used the Internet for less time, required more assistance, and were less confident in their conduct than high performers. The moderate association between perceived and performed eHealth literacy indicates that the latter should be assessed separately. In as much, the assessment of performed eHealth literacy in clinical settings should entail the

  15. Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders: The South African Stress and Health study

    PubMed Central

    Moomal, Hashim; Jackson, Pamela B; Stein, Dan J; Herman, Allen; Myer, Landon; Seedat, Soraya; Madela-Mntla, Edith; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the demographic correlates of perceived discrimination and explore the association between perceived discrimination and psychiatric disorders. Design A national household survey was conducted between 2002 and 2004 using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to generate diagnoses of psychiatric disorders. Additional instruments provided data on perceived discrimination and related variables. Setting A nationally representative sample of adults in South Africa. Subjects 4 351 individuals aged 18 years and older. Outcomes 12-month and lifetime mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Results In the multivariate analyses, acute and chronic racial discrimination were associated with an elevated risk of any 12-month DSM-IV disorder when adjusted for socio-demographic factors, but this association was no longer statistically significant when adjusted for other sources of social stress. In fully adjusted models, acute racial discrimination was associated with an elevated risk of lifetime substance use disorders. Acute and chronic non-racial discrimination were associated with an elevated risk of 12-month and lifetime rates of any disorder, even after adjustment for other stressors and potentially confounding psychological factors. The association of chronic non-racial discrimination and 12-month and lifetime disorder was evident across mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the fully adjusted models. Conclusion The risk of psychiatric disorders is elevated among persons who report experiences of discrimination. These associations are more robust for chronic than for acute discrimination and for non-racial than for racial discrimination. Perceived discrimination constitutes an important stressor that should be taken into account in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19588802

  16. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  17. Oral health-related quality of life and perceived dental needs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seirawan, Hazem; Sundaresan, Santosh; Mulligan, Roseann

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in the US population by sociodemographic factors, perception of dental needs, reported dental visits, and saliva indicators. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 were used. NHANES measured OHRQOL by a modified version of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The study had 6,183 subjects who averaged an OHRQOL score of 2.8 points. About 40% had painful aching in the mouth during the last year on at least one occasion. Perceived need to relieve dental pain was the strongest risk factor for poor OHRQOL (resulting in a higher score by 5.2 points), followed by perceived need for a denture or feeling of dry mouth (each resulting in a higher score by about 2 points). OHRQOL is the poorest among those with perceived dental needs especially those with the perceived need to relieve dental pain.

  18. Effects of Perceived Discrimination and Length of Residency on the Health of Foreign-Born Populations.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Shauna K; Stone, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between chronic conditions, perceived discrimination, and length of residency among three racial groups of foreign-born respondents: Afro-Caribbean, Asian, and Latino Americans. Analysis utilized Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) merged data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Afro-Caribbean subgroups were more likely than Asian and Latino American subgroups to report perceived discrimination. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which groups within the model were more likely to report chronic health conditions. Perceived discrimination was found to vary by race and was inversely associated with chronic respiratory conditions for Afro-Caribbeans. In general, years of US residency were associated with health across all chronic conditions where those in the USA longer were more likely to experience health-related problems. Perceived discrimination revealed mixed results.

  19. Perceived need for mental health care: findings from the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Graham N; Burgess, Philip M

    2009-07-01

    To provide an overview of perceived need for mental health care and response of services to those needs as assessed by the general Australian adult population. The Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire was administered to respondents of the Australian 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. This instrument allows for self assessment of needs for five kinds of intervention from mental health services as needed in the last year. Specific needs assessed included: medication, information, counselling including psychotherapy, social interventions and skills training: Needs for care may be rated as unmet, partially met and met. Approximately 14% of the population perceived a need for mental health care and between 7% and 8% perceived a met need for either counselling or medication. Need for care was less likely to be perceived by people with substance use disorders than among those with anxiety or affective disorders. For just under half of the population with perceived need (45%), all perceived needs were rated as met, and for around one in five of those with perceived needs, none of their perceived needs were met. Proportionally, needs for medication are most likely to be rated as met at 84%, needs for counselling and information are met at a rate of between 50% and 60%, skills training approximately 40%, and social interventions needs are those least likely to be rated as fully met, at 25%. Mental health care is delivered in large volume and often with high levels of acceptability to the Australian community, although major gaps still remain. It appears that the disparity between need and care may be proportionally larger in the areas described as skills training and social interventions than areas outside of conventional mental health service domains of provision and medication and psychotherapy or counselling.

  20. [Health and human rights: perceptions of health professionals and human rights defenders].

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, E; Chastonay, P

    2005-09-01

    A self-administered questionnaire served as the basis for a study carried out between February and June 2003 covering a panel of 125 experts from 33 countries spread over 5 continents. The objective of this study was to identify the human rights problems perceived as having a very negative health impact from approximately fifty proposals. This study also aimed at identifying the variables which could explain the differences in the perceptions observed. At the global level, the threats to physical integrity and attacks on human life, economic problems of a health or social nature, questions of political or democratic origin, as well as a wide spectrum of other problems are perceived as having very harmful effects on health with an average adhesion rate of severity (TMAG) ranging from 90-75%. For the same categories of problems at the national level, the TMAG varies from 67-40%: The observed consensus around the severity of human rights problems is tempered by the differences in perceptions according to profession, sex, and the level of the country's and continent's development. Other than the fact that these results corroborate the shared international concerns with regard to the state of the world's human rights, they suggest that the experts' opinions constitute a complementary source of information necessary for work on the international mechanisms for the surveillance of the implementation of international treaties; while at the same time, they indicate priorities for action in the field of public health and human rights.

  1. Perceived discrimination and mental health symptoms among Black men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J; Sticklor, Laurel A

    2011-07-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, than do members of the general public. We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales; all p values < .05). The multivariate model for depression yielded a three-way interaction among all three discrimination types (p < .01), indicating that perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p < .05). Findings suggest that some types of perceived discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmata when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH.

  2. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in the immigrant population of the Basque Country, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Elena; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Borrell, Luisa N; Lanborena, Nerea

    To examine the effect of perceived discrimination and self-rated health among the immigrant population in the Basque Country, Spain, and determine whether this effect varies according to region of origin, age, sex and education. Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included immigrants aged 18 and older residing in the Basque Country. Data from the 2014 Foreign Immigrant Population Survey (n=3,456) were used. Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between perceived discrimination and self-rated health before and after checking for the selected characteristics. Almost 1 in 10 immigrant adults reports perceiving discrimination. In adjusted analyses, the immigrants perceiving discrimination were almost were 1.92 more likely to rate their health as poor (prevalence ratio: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.44-2.56) than those who did not report discrimination. This association did not vary according to region of origin, age, sex or educational level. Perceived discrimination shows a consistent relationship with perceived health. Moreover, this association did not depend on the region of origin, age, sex or educational level of immigrants. These results show the need for implementing inclusive policies to eliminate individual and institutional discrimination and reduce health inequalities between the immigrant and native populations. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students.

    PubMed

    Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F

    2013-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.

  4. Self-perceived oral health in adolescents associated with family characteristics and parental employment status.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, A L; Lindblad, U; Halling, A

    2003-09-01

    To investigate self-perceived oral health and its associations with family characteristics and parental employment status in an adolescent population from a gender perspective. A cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires answered anonymously in classrooms. All senior (13-15 years) and upper secondary (16-18 years) level schools in Skaraborg County, Sweden. 17,035 students, participation rate 88.5%. A single-item rating of self-perceived oral health; satisfaction with the appearance of the teeth; self-assessed gingival bleeding; a perceived oral health index. Independent of family characteristics and parental employment status, girls, more often than boys, perceived their oral health to be good and had less self-assessed gingival bleeding but were less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. Adolescents living with a single mother (senior level odds ratios OR 0.71 [Confidence Interval CI 0.59,0.84], upper secondary level OR 0.76 [CI 0.62,0.92]) or with neither parent were less likely to perceive their oral health as good when single-item rated and reported more gingival bleeding (living with a single mother: senior level OR 1.37 [CI 1.20.1.57], upper secondary level OR 1.51 [CI 1.28,1.77]) than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Associations between parental employment status and self-perceived oral health were weak and inconsistent. Family characteristics were important for adolescents' self-perceived oral health while parental employment status was not. Children living in single-parent households should be supported and recognised in strategies for oral health promotion and prevention. Gender differences should also be taken into consideration.

  5. Perceived health risks of manganese in the Molango Mining District, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Schilmann, Astrid; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2010-04-01

    A series of investigations, using an ecosystem approach to human health, have been conducted in the Molango Mining District in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Given that risk perception plays a key role in the public response to environmental exposures, it is important to recognize the perceived health risks of manganese (Mn). The aim of this study was to analyse the Mn risk perception by describing the attitudes of adult residents toward their communities, assessing the importance they give to environmental problems, including Mn, and their recognition of the links established between Mn and health-illness-death. A quantitative study based on interviewer-administered questionnaires was conducted. A sample of 402 residents was randomly selected from six communities at different distances from the mines and/or Mn processing plants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify Mn risk perception predictors. The results show that roughly 30% of the residents identified mining activities and the resultant pollution as their most important concern. This proportion is greater in communities that have processing plants within them. More than 70% perceive a high Mn pollution regionally, but this proportion decreases when the residents attribute the pollution to their home area. More than 20% of the adults interviewed associated Mn exposure with their own illness, mainly "lungs" and "sight." Factors influencing Mn risk perception are community of residence, age group (41-60), and the report of having a chronic illness. The risk management plan for the mining district must take into account these differences to have a greater local impact.

  6. Perceived Cognitive Impairment among African American elders: health and functional impairments in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Lysack, Cathy L.; Hanna, Mena; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Center for Disease Control began to assess Perceived Cognitive Impairment in 2009, yet there has been no in-depth study of how perceived decline in thinking or memory skills may be associated to the health and lifestyle of an independent community-dwelling older person. Among urban-dwelling older African Americans who are at elevated risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, we know even less regarding the interaction of these risk factors. Method Five hundred and one African American elders (n = 501) between the ages of 55 and 95 with an average age of 70.73 years (SD = 8.6 years) participated in telephone interviews. Results Approximately one-third of the elders reported that their memory, thinking skills, or ability to reason was worse than a year ago (n = 150; 29.9%) and 25% of this group (n = 38) reported that this Perceived Cognitive Impairment impacted their daily activities and/or warranted a consultation with their doctor. Bivariate analyses indicated that Perceived Cognitive Impairment was associated with increased health problems, mobility limitations, depressed mood, and lower social functioning. Conclusion Elders who reported that cognitive problems impacted their daily functioning reported the greatest health and mental health problems. Perceived Cognitive Impairment is an important health variable with implications for an older adult’s overall health, mobility, and mental health. PMID:24328435

  7. The relationship of perceived campus culture to mental health help-seeking intentions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason I; Romero, Gabriela D; Karver, Marc S

    2016-11-01

    Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Predicting homeless people's perceived health after entering the social relief system in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jorien; van Straaten, Barbara; Boersma, Sandra N; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2017-08-18

    We explored whether changes in the perceived health of homeless people after entering the social relief system (SRS) in The Netherlands were predicted by housing, income, hours of work, social support, unmet care needs, arrests, physical and mental health, substance use, and experiences of autonomy, competence and relatedness, in addition to perceived health at baseline, demographics, suspected intellectual disability, the duration of homelessness and the company of children in the shelter facility. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore the significant predictors of the perceived health of 344 homeless persons 18 months after entering the social relief system. A decrease in psychological distress and an increase in hours of (paid/voluntary) work as well as competence predicted a better perceived health. Perceived health is not only influenced by objective circumstances related to work and mental health, but also self-determination, as shown by the influence of competence. Services should aim to reduce psychological distress of homeless people, support them in increasing their working hours and focus on strengthening their competence.

  9. Relationship among patients' perceived capacity for communication, health literacy, and diabetes self-care.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela Yee Man; Cheung, Mike Kwun Ting; Chi, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relations among health literacy, perceived capacity for communication, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care are unclear. This study tested this relation using structural equation modeling with a sample of 137 Chinese patients 65 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes. The model showed that health literacy, knowledge, communication capacity, and diabetes self-care formed complex relations. After adjusting for age, education, and Chinese cultural influence, health literacy affected diabetes self-care indirectly through perceived capacity for communication (standardized estimate coefficient=.641, p<.001) but not diabetes knowledge. To enhance self-care, interventions should be tailored to increase patient health literacy and perceived capacity for communication with health care providers. Training should be provided to patients to enhance their communication abilities.

  10. Perceived affordability of health insurance and medical financial burdens five years in to Massachusetts health reform.

    PubMed

    Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Sayah, Assaad; McCormick, Danny

    2015-10-29

    Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments. We conducted face to face surveys in four languages with a convenience sample of 976 patients seeking care at three hospital emergency departments five years after Massachusetts reform. We compared perceived affordability of insurance, financial burden, and satisfaction among low cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of Medicaid and insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums), high cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments) and the commercially insured. We found that despite having higher incomes, higher cost-sharing plan recipients were less satisfied with their insurance plans and perceived more difficulty affording their insurance than those with low cost-sharing plans. Higher cost-sharing plan recipients also reported more difficulty affording medical and non-medical health care as well as insurance premiums than those with commercial insurance. In contrast, patients with low cost-sharing public plans reported higher plan satisfaction and less financial concern than the commercially insured. Policy makers with responsibility for the benefit design of public insurance available under health care reforms in the U.S. should calibrate cost-sharing to income level so as to minimize difficulty affording care and financial burdens.

  11. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  12. Links among human health, animal health, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Conti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In the face of growing world human and animal populations and rapid environmental change, the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health are becoming more evident. Because animals and humans have shared risk to health from changing environments, it seems logical to expand the perspective of public health beyond a single species to detect and manage emerging public health threats. Mitigating the effects of climate change, emerging pathogens, toxicant releases, and changes in the built environment requires a retooling of global public health resources and capabilities across multiple species. Furthermore, human and animal health professionals must overcome specific barriers to interprofessional collaboration to implement needed health strategies. This review outlines the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health and the public health challenges and opportunities that these links present.

  13. Human Health and Contaminated Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  14. Correlates of perceived need for mental health care among active military personnel.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Stein, Murray B; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing concern about mental health problems and need for mental health care among soldiers after deployment. This study examined correlates of self-perceived need for mental health care among active military personnel. Data were from a 2002 cross-sectional population-based survey of 8,441 active Canadian military personnel (2,592 women) aged 16 to 54 (response rate 81%). A fully structured lay-administered interview for past-year DSM-IV mental disorders and perceived need for mental health care was conducted. Five domains of self-perceived need were assessed: information, medication, counseling, social intervention, and skills training. Several deployment factors were assessed (length of deployment, number of deployments, and exposure to deployment-related traumatic events), as were long-term restriction in activities because of disability and suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine correlates of perceived need. After adjustment for mental disorders, the strongest and most consistent correlates of perceived need were long-term restriction in activities, suicidal ideation, female gender, and regular service status (versus reserve status) (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.28 to 4.37). Deployment and exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities were moderately associated with an increase in self-perceived need for mental health care. The findings suggest that a range of issues beyond the presence of common mental disorders need to be considered in understanding the factors that contribute to a sense of need for mental health treatment. Postdeployment screening programs should consider systematically assessing self-perceived need for mental health treatment.

  15. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.

  16. Subjective Well-Being Among People with Spinal Cord Injuries: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the joint contributions of demographic variables, perceived health, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceived social support to subjective well-being (SWB) in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). One hundred twenty-seven individuals with SCI participated in the study. The results indicated that general…

  17. Subjective Well-Being Among People with Spinal Cord Injuries: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the joint contributions of demographic variables, perceived health, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceived social support to subjective well-being (SWB) in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). One hundred twenty-seven individuals with SCI participated in the study. The results indicated that general…

  18. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-08-31

    Discrimination harms immigrants' health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 women). The dependent variables were self-reported health, symptoms of depression, and limitation of activity. The independent variables were perceived group discrimination, immigrant background and national immigrant integration policy. We tested for association between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes by fitting robust Poisson regression models. We only observed significant associations between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes in first generation immigrants. For example, depression was associated with discrimination among both men and women (Prevalence Ratio-, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.16-2.07) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15-1.89) in the multivariate model, respectively), and mainly in countries with assimilationist immigrant integration policies. Perceived group discrimination is associated with poor health outcomes in first generation immigrants from low-income countries who live in European countries, but not among their descendants. These associations are more important in assimilationist countries.

  19. Perceived Racial Discrimination in Health Care: A Comparison of Veterans Affairs and Other Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwonho; Bost, James E.; Kressin, Nancy R.; Ibrahim, Said A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of perceived racial discrimination in health care settings for veteran and nonveteran patients and for veterans who used the Veterans Affairs health care system and those who did not. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used logistic regression to examine whether perceived racial discrimination in health care was associated with veteran status or use of Veterans Affairs health care, after adjusting for patient characteristics. Results. In this sample of 35 902 people, rates of perceived discrimination were equal for veterans and nonveterans (3.4% and 3.5%, respectively; crude odds ratio [OR] = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.28; adjusted OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.66, 1.28). Among veterans (n = 3420), perceived discrimination was more prevalent among patients who used Veterans Affairs facilities than among those who did not (5.4% vs 2.7%; OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.04, 4.18). However, this difference was not significant after adjustment for patient characteristics (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.54, 3.13). Conclusions. Perceived racial discrimination in health care was equally prevalent among veterans and nonveterans and among veterans who used the Veterans Affairs health care system and those who did not. PMID:19443818

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination harms immigrants’ health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Methods: Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 women). The dependent variables were self-reported health, symptoms of depression, and limitation of activity. The independent variables were perceived group discrimination, immigrant background and national immigrant integration policy. We tested for association between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes by fitting robust Poisson regression models. Results: We only observed significant associations between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes in first generation immigrants. For example, depression was associated with discrimination among both men and women (Prevalence Ratio-, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.16–2.07) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15–1.89) in the multivariate model, respectively), and mainly in countries with assimilationist immigrant integration policies. Conclusion: Perceived group discrimination is associated with poor health outcomes in first generation immigrants from low-income countries who live in European countries, but not among their descendants. These associations are more important in assimilationist countries. PMID:26334284

  1. Perceived control across the second half of life: The role of physical health and social integration.

    PubMed

    Drewelies, Johanna; Wagner, Jenny; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Heckhausen, Jutta; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Perceived control is a key component of successful aging and may serve as a protective factor against age-related declines in central domains of functioning. However, it is a largely open question whether and how perceived control changes from midadulthood to very old age and how such change is shaped by health and social contexts. To examine these questions, we apply growth models to up to 15-year 4-wave longitudinal data from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS; N = 10,081; aged 40-85 years at baseline; 49% women). Results revealed that perceived control is relatively stable in midlife, but starts to decline after midlife. Starting at 70, perceived control declines an average of a quarter of a SD per 10 years. Suffering from comorbidity and functional limitations were each associated with considerably lower perceived control. Volunteering and less loneliness were each uniquely associated with higher perceived control, over and above the other social factors as well as sociodemographic and health variables. Surprisingly, less social support was associated with stronger perceived control. We also found significant interaction effects suggesting that the combination of functional limitations with older age and loneliness with lower education were each associated with particularly compromised perceived control. Overall we found little evidence for correlates of change in perceived control, with only the loneliness-control association becoming slightly weaker over time. We take our findings to suggest that various different facets of social integration later in life are uniquely relevant for perceived control and suggest routes for further inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.

  3. Representation of perceived sound valence in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Viinikainen, Mikko; Kätsyri, Jari; Sams, Mikko

    2012-10-01

    Perceived emotional valence of sensory stimuli influences their processing in various cortical and subcortical structures. Recent evidence suggests that negative and positive valences are processed separately, not along a single linear continuum. Here, we examined how brain is activated when subjects are listening to auditory stimuli varying parametrically in perceived valence (very unpleasant-neutral-very pleasant). Seventeen healthy volunteers were scanned in 3 Tesla while listening to International Affective Digital Sounds (IADS-2) in a block design paradigm. We found a strong quadratic U-shaped relationship between valence and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal strength in the medial prefrontal cortex, auditory cortex, and amygdala. Signals were the weakest for neutral stimuli and increased progressively for more unpleasant or pleasant stimuli. The results strengthen the view that valence is a crucial factor in neural processing of emotions. An alternative explanation is salience, which increases with both negative and positive valences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M; Dimas, Juanita M; Pasch, Lauri A; de Groat, Cynthia L

    2010-07-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California. Mediational analyses indicated that adolescents who perceived more discrimination reported worse posttraumatic stress symptoms, controlling for covariates. In turn, adolescents who experienced heightened posttraumatic stress symptoms reported more alcohol use, more other drug use, involvement in more fights, and more sexual partners. Perceived discrimination was also directly related to involvement in more fights. Results provide support for the notion of race-based traumatic stress, specifically, that perceived discrimination may be traumatizing for Mexican American adolescents. Counseling psychologists and counselors in schools and community settings should assess Mexican American adolescents for the effects of discrimination and provide appropriate interventions to reduce its negative emotional impact.

  5. Happiness and health: environmental and genetic contributions to the relationship between subjective well-being, perceived health, and somatic illness.

    PubMed

    Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Neale, Michael C; Harris, Jennifer R

    2003-12-01

    The aim was to identify genetic and environmental influences on the covariances between subjective well-being (SWB), perceived health, and somatic illness. Analyses were based on 6576 Norwegian twins aged 18-31. Heritabilities ranged from .24 to.66. SWB correlated .50 with perceived health, -.25 with musculoskeletal pain, and -.07 with allergy. Common genetic factors accounted for 45%-60% of associations. SWB and perceived health was to a high extent influenced by the same genes (r(g)=.72 and.82 for males and females, respectively). For SWB and musculoskeletal pain, r-sub(g) =-.29 and -.42 for males and females, respectively. Effects were partly sex specific. Environmental factors shared by twins did not affect the covariances. Results support a differentiated view of SWB-health relations, and imply that both genes and environment play important roles in the associations between well-being and health.

  6. Black women's health: the effect of perceived racism and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Waltermaurer, Eve; Watson, Carole-Ann; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2006-12-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these exposures interact to affect the mental and physical health of Black women. The exposures of lifetime perceived racial discrimination and IPV were found to be highly associated. Furthermore, women who reported both exposures showed a notably higher prevalence of anxiety and nonspecific physical health symptoms compared with women who reported either or neither exposure. To appropriately respond to the health needs of Black women, it is essential that women's many stressors be considered simultaneously.

  7. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  8. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  9. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  10. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  11. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  12. Determinants of Self-Perceived Changes in Health Status among Pre- and Early-Retirement Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), this study described reasons reported by pre- and early-retirement populations for perceived changes in global health status over a 2-year period. It then analyzed the association between self-perceptions of change and the actual changes in objective health…

  13. Overweight and Perceived Health in Mexican American Children: A Pilot Study in a Central Texas Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Diane O.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…

  14. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  15. An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…

  16. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  17. An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…

  18. Overweight and Perceived Health in Mexican American Children: A Pilot Study in a Central Texas Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Diane O.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…

  19. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  20. Relationship between Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Jamile; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nahangi, Rogaiyyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lifestyle during pregnancy has long-term effects on health of mother and child. Having previous illness or unexpected maternal or fetal conditions such as preeclampsia can complicate pregnancy and interfere with health-promoting behaviors and cause stress might interfere with health-promoting behaviors. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and perceived stress in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation design that was conducted on 182 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending in the high risk clinics of Al-Zahra and Talegani hospitals in Tabriz 2014. Data gathering tools were three: demographics, health-promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II), and perceived stress questionnaires. SPSS Ver. 13 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of health promoting lifestyle among pregnant women with preeclampsia was 2.4 (0.4). Among the dimensions of health promoting life style, the highest mean score was for sub domain of nutrition, i.e. 2.8 (0.5), and the lowest score was achieved by the sub-domains of physical activity, i.e. 1.5 (0.5).The mean (SD) score of perceived stress was 27.3 (7.1). There was reverse relationship between perceived stress and health -promoting behaviors. Conclusion: Based upon the results, health promoting behaviors were decreased by increment of perceived stress. Therefore, midwives can help women with preeclampsia by promoting health behaviors to reduce their stress and increase health-promoting behaviors. PMID:26161369

  1. Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being. PMID:20033772

  2. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  3. Perceived discrimination among racial and ethnic minority drug users and the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Shumway, Martha; Masson, Carmen L; Pouget, Enrique R; Jordan, Ashly E; Des Jarlais, Don C; Sorensen, James L; Perlman, David C

    2017-03-17

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104). The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Race, Ethnicity, and Medical Care questionnaire was utilized to assess perceived institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination. Perceived institutional discrimination was examined across race/ethnicity and by regular use of ERs, having a regular doctor, and consistent health insurance. Perceived interpersonal discrimination was examined by race/ethnicity. Perceived interpersonal drug use discrimination was the most common type of discrimination experienced in health care settings. Perceptions of institutional discrimination related to race/ethnicity and drug use among non-Hispanic Whites did not significantly differ from those among non-Hispanic Blacks or Hispanics. A perception of less frequent institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings was associated with increased odds of having a regular doctor. Awareness of perceived interpersonal and institutional discrimination in certain populations and the effect on health care service utilization should inform future intervention development to help reduce discrimination and improve health care utilization among PWUDs.

  4. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  5. Perceived Determinants of Mental Health for Bisexual People: A Qualitative Examination

    PubMed Central

    Dobinson, Cheryl; Eady, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the determinants of mental health, as perceived by bisexual people, in order to begin understanding the disparities in the rates of mental health problems reported by bisexual people versus those reported by heterosexual people, and, in many studies, gay men and lesbians. Methods. Our community-based participatory action research project comprised focus groups and semistructured interviews with 55 bisexual people across the province of Ontario, Canada. Results. Perceived determinants of emotional well-being identified by participants could be classified as macrolevel (social structure), mesolevel (interpersonal), or microlevel (individual). In the context of this framework, monosexism and biphobia were perceived to exert a broad-reaching impact on participants' mental health. Conclusions. Like other marginalized populations, bisexual people perceive experiences of discrimination as important determinants of mental health problems. Additional research is required to examine the relationships between these perceived determinants of emotional well-being and specific mental health outcomes and to guide interventions, advocacy, and support for bisexual people. PMID:20075326

  6. Self-perceived health status of hostel residents: use of the SF-36D health survey questionnaire. Hanover Project Team.

    PubMed

    Usherwood, T; Jones, N

    1993-12-01

    As part of a project to assess the health needs of homeless people in Sheffield, a survey of hostel residents was undertaken with the aim of measuring self-perceived health and health service use among respondents. The survey instrument incorporated the SF-36D short-form health survey questionnaire. One hundred and four (56 per cent) adult hostel residents responded. Respondents reported high levels of health service use, and poor average perceived health in comparison with the general population. Three-quarters of respondents were identified as being at risk of major depressive illness. There was a strong association between risk of major depression and recent hospital contact, current use of prescribed medication, and low scores on the social function, mental health, energy/vitality, pain and general health dimensions of the SF-36. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior among school-going adolescents in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Tepirou, Chher; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior, as well as their correlates, among adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3806 Cambodian school children (mean age 15.7 years, SD=1.8 years) who took part in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. Overall, 7.8% of the students reported poor perceived teeth status, 18.0% had missed school in the past year because of a toothache, 26.7% engaged in combined oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often = 79.8%, using fluoride toothpaste = 59.9%, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day = 53.6%), and 59.9% had never visited a dentist for a routine examination or other dental work. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, being female, missing school because of a toothache, having a toothache in the past 12 months, poor oral health behavior and sedentary leisure time were associated with poor perceived teeth status. Older age, good perceived teeth status, having had a dental check-up, washing hands before eating and after toilet use, and not eating fast food were associated with a positive oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often, using fluoride toothpaste, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day). Significant proportions of poor perceived teeth status and poor oral health behavior were found among school children in Cambodia. Various risk factors (sociodemographic, dental variables, general health risk behaviors) for perceived poor teeth status, oral health behavior and never having had a dental check-up were identified, which can be utilized for intervention programs. PMID:28008205

  8. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.

  9. The Impact of Perceived Stress and Coping Adequacy on the Health of Nurses: A Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stress and coping abilities influence the health and work performance of nurses. However, little is known about the combined influence of stress perception and perceived coping adequacy and its impact on the health of nurses. This study examined the relationship between stress, coping, and the combined influences of perceived stress and coping abilities on health and work performance. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed by 120 nurses in a Midwestern hospital in the USA. In general, the nurses were not healthy: 92% had moderate-to-very high stress levels; 78% slept less than 8 hours of sleep per night; 69% did not exercise regularly; 63% consumed less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day; and 22% were classified as binge drinkers. When confronted with workplace stress, 70% of nurses reported that they consumed more junk food and 63% reported that they consumed more food than usual as a way of coping. Nurses in the “high stress/poor coping” group had the poorest health outcomes and highest health risk behaviors compared to those in other groups. The combined variables of perceived stress and perceived coping adequacy influenced the health of nurses. Therefore, worksite health promotion programs for nurses should focus equally on stress reduction, stress management, and the development of healthy coping skills. PMID:27882246

  10. Perceived safety and benefit of community water fluoridation: 2009 HealthStyles survey.

    PubMed

    Mork, Nathan; Griffin, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To describe perceived benefits and safety of community water fluoridation (CWF) and investigate factors associated with those perceptions of CWF among respondents to a proprietary survey in the United States. We obtained data from the 2009 HealthStyles survey, a convenience sample of 4,556 respondents. Pearson's chi-squared and logistic regression were used to determine the associations between certain socio-demographic factors and perceptions regarding the safety and health benefits of CWF. The majority of respondents (55.3 percent) strongly agreed/agreed that CWF was safe, while 31.5 percent were neutral, and 13.2 percent disagreed/strongly disagreed. Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported CWF had no health benefit, 57.3 percent reported some benefit, and 15.5 percent reported great benefit. Perceived CWF safety and benefit in the bivariate analyses were associated with gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, sealant knowledge, CWF knowledge, past year dental utilization, and perceived vaccine safety. Respondents with knowledge of CWF (47.9 percent) were more likely to agree that it was safe (69.8 percent) than those who reported no knowledge (41.3 percent). Among respondents who said childhood vaccines were not safe (4.0 percent), almost half disagreed that CWF was safe. Logistic regression results indicated that perceived CWF safety and benefits increased with CWF knowledge, perceived vaccine safety, and income. Although only a minority of the US population perceived CWF as unsafe or providing no benefit to health, perceptions regarding CWF varied by knowledge of CWF and socio-demographic factors. Oral health promotion activities should consider these differing perceptions of CWF among groups to tailor oral health messaging appropriately. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Self-care agency and perceived health among people using advanced medical technology at home.

    PubMed

    Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-04-01

    This article reports a study of self-care agency and perceived health in a group of people using advanced medical technology at home. An increasing number of people are using medical technology for self-care. Few studies describe daily life in this context at an overriding level, irrespective of the specific sort of technology. A connection between self-care, perceived health and sense of coherence has previously been implied. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional quantitative design was used. Data were collected from a questionnaire during the winter of 2009/2010. The questionnaire addressed perceived health and daily life with medical technology. Swedish versions of the Appraisal of Self-care Agency scale and the 13-item version of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale were included. The questionnaire was answered by 180 adults performing self-care at home involving long-term oxygen, a ventilator, or peritoneal- or haemo-dialysis. Health-related and technology-related variables in daily life were mostly highly satisfactory. Perceived health was rated significantly lower among participants using long-term oxygen. Sufficient sense of coherence, knowledge of how to use technology, close contact with others and not feeling helpless contributed positively to self-care agency. Positive contributing factors for perceived health were being satisfied with life, having an active life and not feeling helpless, whereas age was a negative factor. Daily life is manageable for people in this context. Long-term oxygen treatment and advanced age can be regarded as risk factors for perceiving ill health. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Infants Perceive Human Point-Light Displays as Solid Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Derek G.; Goodwin, Julia E.; George, Rachel; Axelsson, Emma L.; Braddick, Fleur M. B.

    2007-01-01

    While five-month-old infants show orientation-specific sensitivity to changes in the motion and occlusion patterns of human point-light displays, it is not known whether infants are capable of binding a human representation to these displays. Furthermore, it has been suggested that infants do not encode the same physical properties for humans and…

  13. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society. PMID:21849020

  14. Humans perceive object motion in world coordinates during obstacle avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Fajen, Brett R.; Parade, Melissa S.; Matthis, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question about locomotion in the presence of moving objects is whether movements are guided based upon perceived object motion in an observer-centered or world-centered reference frame. The former captures object motion relative to the moving observer and depends on both observer and object motion. The latter captures object motion relative to the stationary environment and is independent of observer motion. Subjects walked through a virtual environment (VE) viewed through a head-mounted display and indicated whether they would pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle that was on course to cross their future path. Subjects' movement through the VE was manipulated such that object motion in observer coordinates was affected while object motion in world coordinates was the same. We found that when moving observers choose routes around moving obstacles, they rely on object motion perceived in world coordinates. This entails a process, which has been called flow parsing (Rushton & Warren, 2005; Warren & Rushton, 2009a), that recovers the component of optic flow due to object motion independent of self-motion. We found that when self-motion is real and actively generated, the process by which object motion is recovered relies on both visual and nonvisual information to factor out the influence of self-motion. The remaining component contains information about object motion in world coordinates that is needed to guide locomotion. PMID:23887048

  15. Dynamics of contextual modulation of perceived shape in human vision

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiu, Elena; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In biological vision, contextual modulation refers to the influence of a surround pattern on either the perception of, or the neural responses to, a target pattern. One studied form of contextual modulation deals with the effect of a surround texture on the perceived shape of a contour, in the context of the phenomenon known as the shape aftereffect. In the shape aftereffect, prolonged viewing, or adaptation to a particular contour’s shape causes a shift in the perceived shape of a subsequently viewed contour. Shape aftereffects are suppressed when the adaptor contour is surrounded by a texture of similarly-shaped contours, a surprising result given that the surround contours are all potential adaptors. Here we determine the motion and temporal properties of this form of contextual modulation. We varied the relative motion directions, speeds and temporal phases between the central adaptor contour and the surround texture and measured for each manipulation the degree to which the shape aftereffect was suppressed. Results indicate that contextual modulation of shape processing is selective to motion direction, temporal frequency and temporal phase. These selectivities are consistent with one aim of vision being to segregate contours that define objects from those that form textured surfaces. PMID:28230085

  16. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Health/Fitness Status and Health Behavior on Perceived Life Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Indicators Research . Accepted May 26, 1992. HEALTH AND PERCEIVED LIFE QUALITY 13 APPENDIX A QUAUHY-OF-I.FE It.MS 1. 1low do you feel about your own...Military Psycholugy, 2, 79-94. WOVDsITxri, S. I.. & (ONWAY. T. L. (in press) Impact of health and fitness-rela&ed behavior on LIualitk of life. Social

  17. Perceived discrimination and impaired mental health in Turkish immigrants and their descendents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Ricarda; Asbrock, Frank; Laskawi, Johanna

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between different forms of perceived ethnic discrimination, stress, and depressive and somatoform symptoms in Turkish immigrants and their descendents. Moreover, it was tested whether ethnic identification buffers the effect of discrimination on stress. Variables were assessed via online and paper-pencil questionnaires (e.g., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotype Treatment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale) in Turkish immigrants and their descendents (N=214) from the general population in Germany. Mediation and moderated mediation models were tested. Open aggression and discrimination in everyday situations showed large effects on depressive and somatoform symptoms. Also, paternalism showed a large indirect effect on impaired mental health via perceived stress, but only for persons lowly identified with being Turkish. This study reveals the large detrimental effects of different forms of discrimination on mental health in Turkish immigrants. However, a high ethnic identification can act as a buffer against stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediator role of experiential avoidance in relationship of perceived stress and alexithymia with mental health.

    PubMed

    Zakiei, Ali; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin; Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Reshadat, Sohyla; Sharifi, Kasra; Mohammadi, Omid

    2017-07-16

    This cross-sectional study investigated the mediatory role of experiential avoidance in the relationship between perceived stress and alexithymia with mental health. We enrolled 440 students (age 18-30 years) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences through stratified random sampling method. The study tools were demographic checklist, GHQ-28, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Perceived Stress Scale. Data were analysed by SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using Pearson correlation, hierarchical regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and experiential avoidance, and alexithymia and mental health problems (P < 0.001). SEM showed that the relationship between perceived stress and mental health problems by experiential avoidance was 0.19 [(β = 0.19; standard error (SE) = 0.09; P = 0.001], and the relationship between alexithymia and mental health problems through experiential avoidance was 0.09 (β = 0.09; SE = 0.43; P = 0.01). The mediatory role of experiential avoidance was confirmed in such a way that the effects of alexithymia and perceived stress decreased.

  19. Emotion regulation predicts change of perceived health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    van Middendorp, H; Geenen, R; Sorbi, M; van Doornen, L J P; Bijlsma, J

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Sixty six patients (44 female, 22 male; mean (SD) age 57.7 (11.6) years) participated in a prospective study. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to predict change of perceived health between study entry and follow up (1½ years later) from the emotion regulation styles ambiguity, control, orientation, and expression at study entry. Results: Valuing and intensely experiencing emotions (emotional orientation) predicted a decrease of positive affect. Difficulty recognising and expressing emotions (ambiguity) predicted an increase of perceived disease activity. Emotion regulation showed no associations with change of negative affect and social and physical functioning. Conclusions: Two styles of emotion regulation were shown to have a significant though modest role in the prediction of perceived health change in patients with RA. This suggests that the monitoring of emotion regulation may help to identify patients who are at risk for a reduction of perceived health. If our findings were confirmed by experimental research, improving emotion regulation skills might favourably affect perceived health. PMID:15958762

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities, health damaging behavior, and self-perceived health in Serbia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Janko; Janević, Teresa; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of socioeconomic factors with self-perceived health in Serbia and examine whether this association can be partly explained by health behavior variables. Methods We used data from the 2007 Living Standards Measurement Study for Serbia. A representative sample of 13 831 persons aged ≥20 years was interviewed. The associations between demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, and type of settlement), socioeconomic factors (education, employment status, and household consumption tertiles), and health behavior variables (smoking, alcohol consumption) and self-perceived health were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results A stepwise gradient was found between education and self-perceived health for the total sample, men, and women. Compared to people with high education, people with low education had a 4.5 times higher chance of assessing their health as poor. Unemployed (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.10), inactive (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.49-3.19), and the most deprived respondents (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health than employed persons and the most affluent group. After adjustment for demographic and health behavior variables, the magnitudes of all associations decreased but remained clearly and significantly graded. Conclusions This study revealed inequalities in self-perceived health by socioeconomic position, in particular educational and employment status. The reduction of such inequalities through wisely tailored interventions that benefit people’s health should be a target of a national health policy in Serbia. PMID:22661139

  1. Wilderness, biodiversity, and human health

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Dustin; Keri A. Schwab; Kelly S. Bricker

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates how wilderness, biodiversity, and human health are intertwined. Proceeding from the assumption that humankind is part of, rather than apart from, nature, health is re-imagined as a dynamic relationship that can best be conceived in broad ecological terms. Health, from an ecological perspective, is a measure of the wellness of the individual and...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and War-Zone Exposure as Correlates of Perceived Health in Female Vietnam War Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Participants responded to a series of psychological, exposure and health questionnaires. Results suggest that effects of traumatic exposure on perceived health are partially mediated by increases in PTSD after exposure, supporting studies on the effects of stress on health. (BF)

  3. The Perceived Impact of Privatization on Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Christopher; Marx, John; Ricci, Edmund; Barron, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This article presents nationally representative data on the effects of privatization on local health departments (LHDs). Methods. A stratified representative national sample of 380 LHDs was drawn from a national list of 2488 departments. Telephone interviews were conducted with 347 LHD directors. Results. One half of the directors of LHDs with privatized services reported that privatization helped the performance of core functions. Privatization often resulted in increased time needed for management and administration. More than a third of LHD directors reported concern about loss of control over the performance of privatized functions and services. Conclusions. Privatization is part of a broader shift toward “managing” rather than directly providing public health services, yet privatization often reduces LHDs' control over the performance of services. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1178–1180) PMID:12084705

  4. Nutritional screening and perceived health in a group of geriatric rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Ek, Anna-Christina

    2007-11-01

    (i) To perform a nutritional screening using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly and relate the results to perceived health in a group of geriatric rehabilitation patients; and (ii) to compare the screening results and nurses' nutritional notes in the nursing documentation. Undernutrition is an under-recognized problem among older patients. Using a screening instrument is a way to detect patients at risk for undernutrition. A cross-sectional study conducted in Sweden. A sample of 147 geriatric rehabilitation patients was consecutively included and was interviewed with the screening instrument, questions about background variables, perceived health and health-related issues. Higher screening scores indicate higher risk for undernutrition. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were used. When nurses' nutritional notes in the nursing documentation were corresponding to the content in any of the response alternatives for each screening item, the notes were marked as existent. The screening results showed that 55% of the patients were at medium risk and 14% at high risk for undernutrition. Patients in perceived ill health had higher screening scores than those in perceived good health. Associations were also found between receiving help, perceiving helplessness, not being active and not feeling satisfied and higher screening scores. The content of nine of 15 items in the instrument was mentioned in a number of nursing records. The prevalence of older patients at medium or high risk for undernutrition was high. To be at high risk for undernutrition was associated with perceived ill health. Nurses' nutritional notes in the nursing documentation showed deficiencies, indicating that all patients at medium or high risk for undernutrition were not identified. The results suggest that nurses need a screening instrument to highlight older nutritional at-risk patients in need of further awareness and investigation.

  5. Perceived availability of culturally and demographically diverse photographs for health education materials, Colorado, 2010.

    PubMed

    Buller, Mary K; Bettinghaus, Erwin; Buller, David B; Liu, Xia; Fluharty, Lyndsay

    2015-02-26

    An online survey was conducted with health educators in Colorado to ascertain their needs and ability to access relevant stock art photographs for their print and electronic educational media. Health educators were dissatisfied with the cultural and demographic diversity of photographs available from their own sources or from commercial stock art websites. There was a perceived need for more photographs that would better represent their target populations. The health educators believed, furthermore, that representative visual images can help improve their message effectiveness.

  6. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2004-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  7. Association between perceived health status and satisfaction with quality of care: evidence from users of primary health care in Oman.

    PubMed

    al-Mandhari, Ahmed S; Hassan, Amir A; Haran, D

    2004-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the influence of perceived health status, as measured by SF-12, on the client's views of service quality. A structured interview of patients was carried out in six primary health care centres in Adh Dhahira region health authority in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 1226 patients aged 15 and over attending the different health care services within the health centres took part in the study. The main outcome measures were patients' satisfaction with the different aspects of health care and their perceived physical and mental health status. When adjusted for the relevant background factors such as age and gender, poor perceived health status has been found to predict less positive judgements of various aspects of health care quality. Poor mental health status, for example, predicts less positive judgements of aspects that are linked to the accessibility of the service and interpersonal aspects of care such as the working hours of the centre, GP's attitude and time spent with the GP (P < 0.05, <0.05 and <0.01, respectively). Poor physical health status, on the other hand, predicts less positive judgements of aspects such as cleanliness of the building, confidentiality of consultation with the GP, explanation about the visit to the antenatal clinic and standard of antenatal clinic in general (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05 and <0.05, respectively). Users' perceived health status has to be evaluated concurrently with assessing satisfaction with the quality of health care services. This would provide more valid results with regard to the patients' views on their level of satisfaction with health care quality.

  8. Perceived Health Status and Utilization of Specialty Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…

  9. Perceived Health Status and Utilization of Specialty Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…

  10. The Association between Perceived Spirituality, Religiosity, and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; Horn, Thelma

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of self-perceived health between perceived spirituality, religiosity, and life satisfaction among a stratified, random sample of college students, while controlling for gender. Although both models displayed excellent fit criteria, the perceived spirituality and life satisfaction model was fully mediated by…

  11. Health literacy, self-perceived health and self-reported chronic morbidity among older people in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Our findings provide valuable evidence on the independent and inverse association between health literacy levels and self-perceived health and chronic morbidity in this post-war European population. The putative link with chronic morbidity and lower adherence to health services is hard to establish through this cross-sectional study. Prospective population-based studies should be conducted in Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status.

  12. The perceived impact of privatization on local health departments.

    PubMed

    Keane, Christopher; Marx, John; Ricci, Edmund; Barron, Gerald

    2002-07-01

    This article presents nationally representative data on the effects of privatization on local health departments (LHDs). A stratified representative national sample of 380 LHDs was drawn from a national list of 2488 departments. Telephone interviews were conducted with 347 LHD directors. One half of the directors of LHDs with privatized services reported that privatization helped the performance of core functions. Privatization often resulted in increased time needed for management and administration. More than a third of LHD directors reported concern about loss of control over the performance of privatized functions and services. Privatization is part of a broader shift toward "managing" rather than directly providing public health services, yet privatization often reduces LHDs' control over the performance of services.

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values < .05). The multivariate model for depression yielded a three-way interaction among all three discrimination types (p < .01), indicating that perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p < .05). Conclusion Findings suggest that some types of perceived discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  14. Coping with perceived discrimination: does ethnic identity protect mental health?

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2003-09-01

    Using data (N = 2,109) from a large-scale epidemiological study of Filipino Americans, this study examines whether ethnic identity is linked to mental health and reduces the stress of discrimination. The strength of identification with an ethnic group is found to be directly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. In other words, having a sense of ethnic pride, involvement in ethinic practices, and cultural commitment to one's racial/ethnic group may protect mental health. Self-reports of racial/ethnic discrimination over a lifetime and everyday discrimination in the past month not due to race/ethnicity are associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Yet ethnic identity buffers the stress of racial/ethnic discrimination. This suggests that ethnic identity is a coping resource for racial/ethnic minorities that should not be overlooked. The strong link between ethnic identity and better mental health has implications for social-psychological theories on race/ethnicity and assimilation in the United States.

  15. Perceived and Performed eHealth Literacy: Survey and Simulated Performance Test

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic health (eHealth) literacy of consumers is essential in order to improve information and communication technology (ICT) use for health purposes by ordinary citizens. However, performed eHealth literacy is seldom studied. Therefore, the present study assessed perceived and performed eHealth literacy using the recent conceptualization of health literacy skills. Objective The aim of this paper was to examine the association between perceived and performed eHealth literacies. Methods In total, 82 Israeli adults participated in the study, all 50 years and older, with a mean age of 67 (SD 11). Of the participants, 60% (49/82) were women and 72% (59/82) had a post-secondary education. The participants were first surveyed and then tested in a computer simulation of health-related Internet tasks. Performed, perceived (eHealth Literacy Scale, eHEALS), and evaluated eHealth literacy were assessed, and performed eHealth literacy was also recorded and re-evaluated later. Performance was scored for successful completion of tasks, and was also assessed by two researchers for motivation, confidence, and amount of help provided. Results The skills of accessing, understanding, appraising, applying, and generating new information had decreasing successful completion rates. Generating new information was least correlated with other skills. Perceived and performed eHealth literacies were moderately correlated (r=.34, P=.01) while facets of performance (ie, digital literacy and eHealth literacy) were highly correlated (r=.82, P<.001). Participants low and high in performed eHealth literacy were significantly different: low performers were older and had used the Internet for less time, required more assistance, and were less confident in their conduct than high performers. Conclusions The moderate association between perceived and performed eHealth literacy indicates that the latter should be assessed separately. In as much, the assessment of performed eHealth

  16. Play@home in practice: health visitors' views of perceived facilitators and barriers to programme implementation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Irene; Barton, Gil

    2013-07-01

    Health visitors in Scotland gift 'play@home', a book-based early intervention programme, to parents as part of the universal health visiting service. The provision of health improvement information to parents is recognised as a core function of health visiting and yet evidence shows that not every family receives the play@home resources. This paper discusses the perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing this programme through exploring the views of ten health visitors and four health visiting managers in two health board areas in Scotland. The findings conclude that increasingly vulnerable families, supported by fewer qualified health visitors, present challenges to the health visiting service. The play@home programme is valued by health visitors as a flexible tool with which to engage with families. Collaborative working with other services enhances provision and play@home does become embedded in practice over time. Strategic policy links to raise the profile of play@home are improving.

  17. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health and Perceived Unmet Needs for Healthcare among the Elderly in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Jens; Rommel, Alexander; Schröder, Sara Lena; Fuchs, Judith; Nowossadeck, Enno; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-09-26

    Research into health inequalities in the elderly population of Germany is relatively scarce. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in health and perceived unmet needs for healthcare and explores the dynamics of health inequalities with age among elderly people in Germany. Data were derived from the Robert Koch Institute's cross-sectional German Health Update study. The sample was restricted to participants aged 50-85 years (n = 11,811). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured based on education, (former) occupation, and income. Odds ratios and prevalence differences were estimated using logistic regression and linear probability models, respectively. Our results show that self-reported health problems were more prevalent among men and women with lower SES. The extent of SES-related health inequalities decreased at older ages, predominantly among men. Although the prevalence of perceived unmet needs for healthcare was low overall, low SES was associated with higher perceptions of unmet needs in both sexes and for several kinds of health services. In conclusion, socioeconomic inequalities in health exist in a late working age and early retirement but may narrow at older ages, particularly among men. Socially disadvantaged elderly people perceive greater barriers to accessing healthcare services than those who are better off.

  18. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: moderating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L

    2014-07-01

    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

    PubMed

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Virviciute, Dalia; Vensloviene, Jone; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bobak, Martin; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use <4hrs/week and use of the park ≥4 h/week. The study received approval from the Kaunas Regional Research Ethics Committee. Multiple logistic regression assessed the associations controlling for confounding variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and poor and or very poor perceived general health was higher in women than in men. The association between the use of the park and residential proximity to the park revealed that women living >300 m from a green space and who used the space ≥4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park <4 hrs/week and residential proximity was >300 m. The results of our study confirmed an association between use of the green space, residential proximity, and depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health among women only. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Adverse health effects of low levels of perceived control in Swedish and Russian community samples

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Johanna; Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Kristenson, Margareta; Pikhart, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study of two middle-aged community samples from Sweden and Russia examined the distribution of perceived control scores in the two populations, investigated differences in individual control items between the populations, and assessed the association between perceived control and self-rated health. Methods The samples consisted of men and women aged 45–69 years, randomly selected from national and local population registers in southeast Sweden (n = 1007) and in Novosibirsk, Russia (n = 9231). Data were collected by structured questionnaires and clinical measures at a visit to a clinic. The questionnaire covered socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, societal circumstances, and psychosocial measures. Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives. Results 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women. Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations. Sub-item analysis of the control questionnaire revealed substantial differences between the populations both in the perception of control over life and over health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (OR) of poor self-rated health were significantly increased in men and women with low perceived control in both countries (OR between 2.61 and 4.26). Conclusion Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health. PMID:17980033

  1. [Quality as perceived by people using hospitals in the Colombian health service network restructuring programme].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo A; Bello-Parías, León D; Londoño-Pimienta, Jaime L

    2008-01-01

    Establishing a quality base-line as perceived by hospital users, subject to intervention by the health-service restructuring, redesign and modernisation programme. 4 021 users were interviewed face-to-face in August 2006 from a sample of hospitals from the programme using an instrument already validated for measuring health service users' perception of quality (PECASUSS). The interviewees (38,7 % mean age, 70 % women, 60 % affiliated to the subsided system, 55 % from stratum 1 and 53 % attended in general consultation) scored mostly as good or very good 16 different aspects perceived of the quality of services. Mean user quality score was 3,98 (0,8 SD) on a score ranging from 0,0 (bad) to 5,0 (excellent). Quality was generally rated as good as perceived by people using the hospital programme. The humanised treatment received from the medical staff was given the highest score regarding quality of attention received by the interviewees.

  2. Conceptualizing perceived racism and its effect on the health of African-Americans: implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Dawn E

    2008-07-01

    The focus on racial health inequities has resurged. Although the reasons are complex, the consequences of racism are potentially contributing factors. This article aims to advance the concept of perceived racism as an area of focus for health inequity research by describing a framework within which to examine health outcomes that are associated with perceived racism. Perceived racism is defined as the subjective interpretation by the effected individual of an event, situation, or experience as negative, unjust, or undignified and one that solely occurs due to one's racial background. The framework establishes race as a determinant in health outcomes and it depicts the multidimensional contexts of racism. The model identifies physical, psychological, and behavioral pathways affecting health outcomes and personal, cultural, and social resources as mediating factors. Perceived racism can potentially permeate the lives of African-Americans and can profoundly impact their health and well being. The principles of concept clarification were applied to explore the association between perceived racism and health.

  3. Perceived morbidity and health behaviour in a Dogon community.

    PubMed

    Coppo, P; Pisani, L; Keita, A

    1992-06-01

    The episodes of morbidity over a 6 month period were recorded at 179 households comprising 1715 people living in the district of Bandiagara (Mali). This population was subdivided into groups according to their distances from the nearest district health centre and educational services, their scholarization, socio-economic and hygiene levels. The subjects interviewed were asked to report illnesses using their vernacular names, the type of therapy selected, the decision process, the time-lapse between onset and remedial action, the treatment undergone and its effect. Subsequent analysis of the data recorded indicates that the frequency of morbidity episodes is inversely proportionate to the household's level of hygiene. It also appears that factors such as the household's hygienic, socio-economic and educational levels along with the type of illness and its duration, are more decisive when resorting (or not resorting) to treatment than is the proximity factor. This seems particularly true in the case of traditional medicine, chosen even where cosmopolitan resources are available and by people with a relatively high socio-economic, hygienic and educational level. In the specific situation under study this paper indicates those areas for further study with a view to improving public health education.

  4. Courtship feeding in humans? The effects of feeding versus providing food on perceived attraction and intimacy.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Brubaker, Lauren W; Fox, Olivia M

    2013-12-01

    Food sharing may be used for mate attraction, sexual access, or mate retention in humans, as in many other species. Adult humans tend to perceive more intimacy in a couple if feeding is observed, but the increased perceived intimacy may be due to resource provisioning rather than feeding per se. To address this issue, 210 university students (66 male) watched five short videos, each showing a different mixed-sex pair of adults dining together and including feeding or simple provisioning or no food sharing. A survey concerning attraction and intimacy in the dyad was completed after each video. Both provisioning and feeding produced higher ratings of "Involvement," with feeding producing the highest ratings. Similarly, the perceived attraction of each actor to the other was lowest when no food sharing was shown and highest when feeding was displayed. These findings are consistent with a view of feeding as a courtship display in humans.

  5. Nighttime Insomnia Symptoms and Perceived Health in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS)

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James K.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Hajak, Goeran; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Roth, Thomas; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia; Stephenson, Judith J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the distribution of the 4 cardinal nighttime symptoms of insomnia—difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—in a national sample of health plan members and the associations of these nighttime symptoms with sociodemographics, comorbidity, and perceived health. Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional telephone survey of 6,791 adult respondents. Intervention: None. Measurements/Results: Current insomnia was assessed using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ)—a fully structured validated scale generating diagnoses of insomnia using DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and RDC/ICSD-2 inclusion criteria. DMS (61.0%) and EMA (52.2%) were more prevalent than DIS (37.7%) and NRS (25.2%) among respondents with insomnia. Sociodemographic correlates varied significantly across the 4 symptoms. All 4 nighttime symptoms were significantly related to a wide range of comorbid physical and mental conditions. All 4 also significantly predicted decrements in perceived health both in the total sample and among respondents with insomnia after adjusting for comorbid physical and mental conditions. Joint associations of the 4 symptoms predicting perceived health were additive and related to daytime distress/impairment. Individual-level associations were strongest for NRS. At the societal level, though, where both prevalence and strength of individual-level associations were taken into consideration, DMS had the strongest associations. Conclusions: The extent to which nighttime insomnia symptoms are stable over time requires future long-term longitudinal study. Within the context of this limitation, the results suggest that core nighttime symptoms are associated with different patterns of risk and perceived health and that symptom-based subtyping might have value. Citation: Walsh JK; Coulouvrat C; Hajak G; Lakoma MD; Petukhova M; Roth T; Sampson NA; Shahly V; Shillington A

  6. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  7. Mental health court and assisted outpatient treatment: perceived coercion, procedural justice, and program impact.

    PubMed

    Munetz, Mark R; Ritter, Christian; Teller, Jennifer L S; Bonfine, Natalie

    2014-03-01

    Mandated community treatment has been proposed as a mechanism to engage people with severe and persistent mental disorders in treatment. Recently, two approaches to mandate treatment through the courts have been highlighted: assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) and mental health court programs. This study examined levels of perceived coercion, procedural justice, and the impact of the program (mental health court or AOT) among participants in a community treatment system. Data were analyzed from interviews with former AOT participants who were no longer under court supervision (N=17) and with graduates of a mental health court program (N=35). The MacArthur Admission Experience Survey, created to measure perceived coercion, procedural justice, and program impact on hospital admission, was modified to include judges and case managers. Mental health court graduates perceived significantly less coercion and more procedural justice in their interactions with the judge than did AOT participants. No significant difference was found between mental health court and AOT participants in perceptions of procedural justice in interactions with their case managers. Mental health court participants felt more respected and had more positive feelings about the program than did AOT participants. Both mental health courts and AOT programs have potentially coercive aspects. Findings suggest that judges and case managers can affect participants' perceptions of these programs by the degree to which they demonstrate procedural justice, a process that may affect the long-term effects of the programs on individuals.

  8. Mental disorders, perceived health and quality of life of older prisoners in France.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Ferrand, Claude; Pennequin, Valérie; Keita, Moussa; Geffray, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    People serving prison sentences have major needs in terms of their physical and mental health. However, little is known about the prevalence of mental disorders affecting older prisoners and about how they evaluate their state of health and their quality of life. The aim of our study is to identify whether there is a link between mental disorders and the level of perceived health and quality of life of older prisoners. For the group 1, we recruited 138 male prisoners aged 50 and over in 7 French prisons. The control group was composed of 138 community-dwelling men aged 50 and over. The research protocol comprised four scales (The mini international neuropsychiatric interview, The French version of the Nottingham health profile, The scale of the subjective state of mental health, The WHOQOL-BREF). The results reveal a very high prevalence of mental disorders among older prisoners, notably depression and anxiety. The evaluation of perceived health and quality of life is also significantly lower in the group of older prisoners. We discuss the link between having one or more mental disorders and a negative evaluation of perceived health and quality of life.

  9. Relationship between various physical activity domains and self-perceived health and obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Kull, Merike; Matsi, Jorgen; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between self-perceived health and obesity and recreational, occupational, commuting, and total physical activity in women. The sample included 956 Estonian women aged 18-50. Cross-sectional data were collected in the Estonian Women Physical Activity Study via a mail-out survey in 2008 using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and self-reported measures of health indicators. The associations between physical activity and health indicators were examined using multiple logistic regression and were adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, education, and income). The women in the highest occupational physical activity group were significantly less likely to have good health (OR 0.51; CI 0.33-0.77) compared to women with no occupational physical activity. A significant association was observed, however, between being in the highest recreational physical activity group and having better self-perceived health (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.36-3.21) and not being obese (BMI ≥ 30) (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.21-0.86). A higher total amount of physical activity was not related to better health status or obesity. These findings suggest that the specific domains of physical activity may be more important for self-perceived health and obesity among women than the total amount of physical activity.

  10. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in Low-income Urban-dwelling Whites

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income urban dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.60 – 4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b=2.02, SE: 0.55, p=0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination which is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness. PMID:23821905

  11. Perceived racial discrimination and mental health in low-income, urban-dwelling whites.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income, urban-dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.60-4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b = 2.02, SE 0.55, p = 0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income, urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination that is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness.

  12. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  13. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure.

  14. Measuring Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating in Obese, Treatment-Seeking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Flood, Andrew P.; Jaeb, Melanie A.; Laqua, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize perceived barriers to healthful eating in a sample of obese, treatment-seeking adults and to examine whether changes in barriers are associated with energy intake and body weight. Design: Observational study based on findings from a randomized, controlled behavioral weight-loss trial. Participants: Participants were 113…

  15. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  16. A Comparison of American and Chinese Students' Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Health Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…

  17. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among Students Participating in University Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed…

  18. Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS): Reliability, Validity and Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Edwin; Hill, Eddie; Zhu, Xihe; Freidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS). Data for PHORS were collected from three different trail sites (Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, and First Landing State Park) during three separate time periods, allowing for cross-validation and invariance testing. Exploratory…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  20. Mental Health of Somali Adolescent Refugees: The Role of Trauma, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, B. Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Cabral, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S.…

  1. University Professors' Stress and Perceived State of Health in Relation to Teaching Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cladellas, Ramon; Castello, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of time management, particularly in connection with university teachers' assigned class hours, on psychosocial factors relating to perceived health and stress symptoms. Special attention is given to the effect of very early and very late class hours. Method: The sample comprised…

  2. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  3. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  4. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  5. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  6. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  7. Self-Perceived Health and Life Outlook Among the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth, Diana M.; And Others

    Differences in life outlook and self-perceived health often attributed to age differences among the elderly were found to be more accurately explained by education. The young-old (62-74 years) and the old-old (75 years and older) were compared among 495 elderly in two rural counties in western Arkansas during 1977. The respondents had a median…

  8. Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services: A Mixed-Method Study with Ukrainian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlaka, V.; Churakova, I.; Aavik, O. A.; Goldstein, D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined perceived barriers to professional help among Ukrainian college students, psychologists and psychiatrists. Students from eight universities and psychologists participated in qualitative stage. A survey of barriers to mental health treatment was developed based on qualitative data and used with psychiatrists to validate understanding of…

  9. Lifestyle and perceived health in subjects with chronic bronchitis or emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study aim was to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI) and perceived health in subjects with and without chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and to explore if these comparisons differed between demographic subgroups. Methods A stratified two-stage sample of the population of Serbia was used; 14.522 adults aged ≥20 years were interviewed. Results Compared with controls, respondents with chronic bronchitis or emphysema reported a 23% increased likelihood of eating fresh vegetables every day (CI 1.02-1.48), 58% increased likelihood of currently smoking (CI 1.32-1.88) and more likely to perceive their health as very bad or bad (OR 4.67, CI 3.64-5.98). After stratification for sex, education, and type of settlement, smoking was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema in all subgroups except males. The increased likelihood of very bad or bad perceived health in respondents with chronic bronchitis or emphysema was significant in all subgroups, and was highest for respondents ≤65 years of age (adjusted OR 6.51; CI 4.87-8.72) and lowest for respondents >65 years of age (adjusted OR 3.25; CI 2.12-4.97). Conclusion Efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy lifestyle behaviors in subjects with chronic bronchitis or emphysema are necessary. Special attention should be paid to smoking cessation in almost all demographic subgroups. PMID:20828414

  10. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  11. A Comparison of American and Chinese Students' Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Health Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…

  12. University Professors' Stress and Perceived State of Health in Relation to Teaching Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cladellas, Ramon; Castello, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of time management, particularly in connection with university teachers' assigned class hours, on psychosocial factors relating to perceived health and stress symptoms. Special attention is given to the effect of very early and very late class hours. Method: The sample comprised…

  13. Current Levels of Perceived Stress among Mental Health Social Workers Who Work with Suicidal Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…

  14. Measuring Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating in Obese, Treatment-Seeking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Flood, Andrew P.; Jaeb, Melanie A.; Laqua, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize perceived barriers to healthful eating in a sample of obese, treatment-seeking adults and to examine whether changes in barriers are associated with energy intake and body weight. Design: Observational study based on findings from a randomized, controlled behavioral weight-loss trial. Participants: Participants were 113…

  15. The Impact of Concussion Education on the Knowledge and Perceived Expertise of Novice Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Tamerah N.; Harris, Laura; Way, David

    2017-01-01

    Context: Concussion legislation mandates that health care providers have experience in concussion management. Unfortunately, standards for current continuing and clinician education are ill defined. Objective: (1) Determine if a didactic-based educational intervention would increase knowledge and perceived expertise and (2) examine the…

  16. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  17. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  18. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  19. Perceived messages about bone health after a fracture are not consistent across healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Sale, Joanna E M; Hawker, Gillian; Cameron, Cathy; Bogoch, Earl; Jain, Ravi; Beaton, Dorcas; Jaglal, Susan; Funnell, Larry

    2015-01-01

    To examine messages perceived by members of an osteoporosis (OP) patient group from various healthcare providers regarding bone health. We conducted a phenomenological (qualitative) study in members of an OP patient group who resided in Canada, had sustained a fragility fracture at 50+ years old, and were not taking antiresorptive medication at the time of that fracture. Participants were interviewed for approximately 1 h by telephone and responded to questions about visits to healthcare providers for their bone health and what was discussed during those visits. We analyzed the data guided by Giorgi's methodology. We interviewed 28 members (2 males, 26 females; 78 % response rate), aged 51-89 years old. Most participants perceived that their specialist was more interested than their primary care physician in bone health and took the time to discuss issues with them. Participants perceived very few messages from the fracture clinic and other providers. We found many instances where perceived messages within and across various healthcare providers were inconsistent, suggesting there is a need to raise awareness of bone health management guidelines to providers who treat fracture patients.

  20. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  1. Perceived risk of preterm and low-birthweight birth in the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H.; Green, Michael J.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Ural, Serdar H.; Weisman, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Engaging women in preconception prevention may be challenging if at-risk women do not perceive increased risk. This study examined predictors of perceiving increased risk for preterm/low birth-weight birth. STUDY DESIGN Using the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study, a population-based sample of reproductive-age women, we analyzed whether sociodemographics, health and pregnancy history, health behaviors, attitudes, or health care utilization predicted risk perception of preterm/low-birthweight birth. RESULTS Of the 645 women analyzed, 157 (24%) estimated their risk of preterm/low-birthweight birth to be very or somewhat likely. Higher perceived risk was associated with being underweight, previous preterm/low-birthweight birth, having a mother with previous preterm/low-birthweight birth, lower perceived severity of preterm/low birth-weight, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS Several factors known to predict preterm/low birth-weight did influence risk perception in this study, whereas others did not. Further research on how these factors have an impact on participation in preconception care programs is warranted. PMID:18455138

  2. Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS): Reliability, Validity and Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Edwin; Hill, Eddie; Zhu, Xihe; Freidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS). Data for PHORS were collected from three different trail sites (Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, and First Landing State Park) during three separate time periods, allowing for cross-validation and invariance testing. Exploratory…

  3. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  4. Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services: A Mixed-Method Study with Ukrainian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlaka, V.; Churakova, I.; Aavik, O. A.; Goldstein, D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined perceived barriers to professional help among Ukrainian college students, psychologists and psychiatrists. Students from eight universities and psychologists participated in qualitative stage. A survey of barriers to mental health treatment was developed based on qualitative data and used with psychiatrists to validate understanding of…

  5. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  6. Perceiving emotions in human-human and human-animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Balconi, Michela

    2015-09-25

    In the last years social neuroscience research attempted to identify the neural networks underlying the human ability to perceive others' emotions, a core process in establishing meaningful social bonds. A large amount of papers arose and identified common and specific empathy-based networks with respect to stimulus type and task. Despite the great majority of studies focused on human-human contexts, we do not establish relations with only other humans, but also with non-human animals. The aim of the present work was to explore the brain mechanisms involved in empathic concern for people who interacts with both peers and other species. Participants have been assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing pictures depicting humans interacting with both other men and women (human-human condition: HH), or with dogs and cats (human-animal: HA). Results showed that aggressive HH interactions elicited greater prefrontal activity (PFC) than HA ones while, when considering HA interactions, friendly ones were related to higher cortical activity. Finally, oxy (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) increasing related to the processing of aggressive interactions positively correlated with different empathic measures, within more specific brain regions. Results were elucidated with respect to available evidence on emotion perception, empathic neural mechanisms and their functional meaning for human-animal contexts.

  7. How older workers with coronary heart disease perceive the health effects of work.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan

    2013-11-01

    More than 3.4 million workers have coronary heart disease (CHD) with significant work limitations and disability. Although the cohort of aging workers with CHD is growing, little is known about how older workers with CHD perceive the relationship between the work environment, including job stress, and their health. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of the health effects of work among older workers with CHD and describe how they cope with work stress. The sample was 47% female and 33% African American. Their mean age was 59.21 (± 5.4) years, and most (55%) worked in professional or managerial jobs. Themes emerged about perceptions of the health effects of work and coping strategies. Because older employees are a vulnerable work group, understanding the perceived health effects of work may guide future workplace program development and policy.

  8. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  9. The Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Computer Technology Attitude: an Application on Health Sciences Students

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurek, Pakize; Oztasan, Nuray; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to define attitudes of students in health sciences towards perceived personal stress and computer technologies, and to present the relationship between stress and computer technology attitudes. Methods: In this scope, this study has a descriptive nature and thus a questionnaire has been applied on 764 students from Afyon Kocatepe University Health Sciences High School, Turkey for data gathering. Descriptive statistics, independent samples, t test, one way ANOVA, and regression analysis have been used for data analysis. Findings: In the study, it is seen that female (=3,78) have a more positive attitude towards computer technology than male students (=3,62). according to the results of regression analysis of the study, the regression model between computer technology attitude (CTA) and perceived stress (PS) has been found meaningful (F=16,291; p<0,005). There was a negative relationship between computer technology attitude and perceived stress (when computer technology altitude increases, perceived stress decreases), and an increase of one unit in computer attitude results in 0.275 decrease in perceived stress. Conclusions: it can be concluded that correct and proper use of computer technologies can be accepted as a component of overcoming stress methods. PMID:25870489

  10. To What Extent do Sleep Quality and Duration Mediate the Effect of Perceived Discrimination on Health? Evidence from Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Park, Kiwoong

    2015-12-01

    Little research investigates whether sleep mediates the adverse effect of perceived discrimination on health and even less is known about whether sleep quality and sleep duration mediate the relationships in the same fashion. We applied a recently developed mediation analysis approach to a survey administered in 2008 in Philadelphia, PA, that includes 9042 adults. Health was measured with self-rated health, stress, and mental illness. Perceived discrimination was operationalized with self-reported discriminatory experience in two social contexts, namely health care system and housing market. Sleep quality and duration were measured with a five-point Likert scale and the self-reported sleep time at night, respectively. After controlling for one's demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related characteristics, the mediation analysis quantified how much sleep quality and duration can account for the effect of perceived discrimination on these health outcomes. The key findings are: (a) sleep quality and duration accounted for approximately 15 to 25% of the adverse effect of perceived discrimination. (b) Sleep quality is more important than sleep duration in mediating the relationship between perceived discrimination and health. (c) The proportion of the effect mediated by sleep differs by the social context where perceived discrimination occurred. It was confirmed that sleep mediates the relationship between perceived discrimination and health and the interventions to improve sleep, particularly sleep quality, should help to attenuate the effect of perceived discrimination on health.

  11. Perceived Stigma among Recipients of Mental Health Care in the General Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeanne V.A.; Lavorato, Dina H.; Bulloch, Andrew G.M.; Charbonneau, Manon; Gautam, Mamta; Moss, Pippa; Abbey, Susan; Stuart, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Mental Health Experiences Scale is a measure of perceived stigma, the perception of negative attitudes and behaviours by people with mental disorders. A recent Canadian survey (Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health) included this scale, providing an opportunity to describe perceived stigma in relation to diagnosis for the first time in the Canadian general population. Methods: The survey interview began with an assessment of whether respondents had utilised services for an “emotional or mental health problem” in the preceding 12 months. The subset reporting service utilisation were asked whether others “held negative opinions” about them or “treated them unfairly” for reasons related to their mental health. The analysis reported here used frequencies, means, cross-tabulation, and logistic regression, all incorporating recommended replicate sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimation procedures. Results: Stigma was perceived by 24.4% of respondents accessing mental health services. The frequency was higher among younger respondents (<55 years), those who were not working, those reporting only fair or poor mental health, and the subset who reported having received a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Sex and education level were not associated with perceived stigma. People with schizophrenia reported stigmatization only slightly more frequently than those with mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions: Stigmatization is a common, but not universal, experience among Canadians using services for mental health reasons. Stigmatization was a problem for a sizeable minority of respondents with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders as well as bipolar and psychotic disorders. PMID:27310227

  12. Ebola: Emergency preparedness and perceived response of Malaysian health care providers.

    PubMed

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Binti Samsudin, Sarah Zakiah; Tan, Choo Lin; Tan Yen Pei, Adeline; Wong San Ying, Audrey

    2016-12-01

    We studied the emergency preparedness and perceived response for Ebola virus disease among various health care providers in Malaysia using a self-report questionnaire. Most of the health care providers felt that they were able to respond to Ebola virus disease and were aware of the level of preparedness needed during emergency. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived Risk of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Jung; Fan, Lir-Wan; Tu, Yu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are a critical etiologic factor behind cervical cancer. Adolescents are a vulnerable group for HPV infection. However, the literature on adolescent women for HPV infection and cervical cancer is limited. This study was to investigate HPV-related knowledge and perceived risk of HPV infection and cervical cancer among Taiwanese adolescent women in order to assess intervention strategies for prevention of cervical cancer and maintenance of reproductive health. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was implemented. There were 610 adolescent women from three colleges in Southern Taiwan who participated in this study. Data were collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey. The results showed that the percentage of appropriate answers to HPV-related knowledge questions was only 36.8%, and smoking as the leading cause of cervical cancer received the lowest mean score for appropriate answers among the HPV-related knowledge items. The perceived risk of HPV infection and cervical cancer were moderate, with relatively lower susceptibility to infection with HPV than to cervical cancer (p < .001). Only 11.5% of the participants reported that they had received information about HPV vaccination from healthcare professionals. Participants lacked a comprehensive understanding of cervical cancer prevention and were not aware of their susceptibility to HPV infection. Adolescent women rarely obtained HPV-related information from healthcare professionals. Appropriate education strategies should be developed and conducted by healthcare professionals to reduce the risk of cervical cancer threat from adolescence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Perceived stress and health complaints: an examination of the moderating roles of personality and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lochbaum, Marc R; Lutz, Rafer S; Sell, Susan; Ready, Ashley; Carson, Tyler

    2004-12-01

    275 undergraduate university students were asked to complete a battery concerning their health complaints, perceived stress, strenuous physical activity, and personality ("Big Five" traits). An hierarchical regression showed that Stress and Strenuous Physical Activity Participation, but not Personality, predicted the Number of Health Complaints in this sample. Also, there was a significant interaction for Stress by Strenuous Activity indicating individuals who did not frequently engage in strenuous leisure-time physical activity reported more health complaints than those who did. This finding corroborates the notion that physical activity (or fitness) may serve to attenuate the relation between stress and health complaints.

  15. Effect of Concentrated Psychiatric Education on Perceived Competence to Care for Behavioral Health Patients.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Elizabeth J; Loucks, Jeannine; Rutledge, Dana N

    2017-09-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of behavioral patients are presenting to emergency departments, where competency of staff to care for this group is unknown. This pre-post study measured the effects of a 7-hour conference on perceived competency of nurses and allied health professionals to care for behavioral health (BH) patients, as measured by the 23-item Behavioral Health Care Competency (BHCC) survey. Of 102 participants, most were emergency nurses (72%), acute care nurses and case managers (20%), and allied health personnel (trauma technicians and paramedics) (8%). Before the conference, participants had moderate average perceived competency in caring for BH patients. BHCC scores differed significantly by job category, with emergency nurses scoring higher than did nonemergency nurses and allied health personnel. Overall competence of participants increased significantly after the conference. The effect size, as reflected by partial eta squared, was 0.265. Significant increases in scores from before to after the conference occurred for the total BHCC and 2 competencies: practice/intervention and resource adequacy. This study provides needed research demonstrating improved perceived competency of nurses and allied health professionals to care for BH patients in emergency departments after brief concentrated education. Improvements occurred despite the fact that participants had initial baseline competencies that were higher than those of general hospital nurses from a historical sample. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Sia, Kah-Ling; Veitch, Jenny; Staiger, Petra K; Davidson, Penny; Nicholls, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews) to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks. PMID:28505123

  17. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Sia, Kah-Ling; Veitch, Jenny; Staiger, Petra K; Davidson, Penny; Nicholls, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews) to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.

  18. Engagement in patterns of daily occupations and perceived health among women of working age.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Carita; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Sonn, Ulla

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine how subjective experiences of engagement in patterns of daily occupations (gainful employment, domestic work, enjoyable and recreational occupations) were associated with perceived health among women of working age. The sample (n=488) was drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of women of working age in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were women 38 (n=202) and 50 (n=286) years of age. They completed a questionnaire including questions about occupational experiences in relation to their patterns of daily occupations, perceived health, and socioeconomic factors. The results of the present study showed that a combination of different experience dimensions of patterns of daily occupations was associated with perceived health among women of working age, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors and age. The results provided occupational pattern-related health indicators, i.e. manageability, personally meaningful occupations, and occupational balance. To combine these health indicators can be a way for occupational therapists to enable women to develop strategies to promote health and to prevent stress and sick leave.

  19. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  20. Social status as a mediator of self-perceived health, quality of life and health-related behaviour in obesity.

    PubMed

    Burkert, N T; Freidl, W; Muckenhuber, J; Großschädl, F; Stronegger, W J; Rásky, E

    2013-07-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and associated with a high health risk. Unfavourable psychological factors, lower self-ratings of health and worse health-related behaviour can be found in individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight vs. obese subjects with a high vs. low socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to self-perceived health, quality of life and health-related behaviour. Data of the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, precisely of 8015 subjects were analysed stratified by sex and adjusted by age concerning these outcomes. The results have shown that men and women with a low SES differ significantly from those with a high SES in terms of self-perceived health, quality of life, intensity of physical activities, alcohol consumption, and eating behaviour (men: p <0.001; women: p<0.001). A significant interaction between the body mass index (BMI) and SES occurred in men concerning quality of life in the domains physical (p<0.05) and psychological health (p<0.01), in women as to self-perceived health (p<0.01), quality of life in the domains physical health (p<0.01) and environment (p<0.05), as well as physical activities (p<0.01). The SES has a strong negative impact on health-related variables, especially in obese subjects, and therefore risk assessment in the primary health-care setting should include socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, a continued strong public health programme is required with an absolute priority placed on obese subjects of low SES. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Personal meaning, social support, and perceived stigma in individuals receiving HIV mental health services.

    PubMed

    Farber, Eugene W; Lamis, Dorian A; Shahane, Amit A; Campos, Peter E

    2014-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma represents a significant source of stress among individuals living with HIV disease, prompting interest in research to identify factors that may help to ameliorate the stress burden associated with HIV stigma. Consistent with this research line, the current study was conducted as a cross-sectional investigation examining associations between positive global personal meaning, social support, and perceived HIV stigma. Global personal meaning refers to beliefs and aspirations through which one ascribes value and purpose in living. The study sample was comprised of individuals living with HIV disease who presented for an initial visit in a specialty HIV mental health services program. In bivariate analyses, social support was negatively correlated with multidimensional aspects of HIV stigma that included distancing, blaming, and discrimination stigma, whereas personal meaning was negatively associated only with blaming stigma. In further analyses using structural equation modeling, social support significantly mediated the association between personal meaning and both distancing and blaming stigma. Interactions between positive personal meaning and social support may be useful to consider in future research on psychological resource factors and HIV stigma. Understanding these interactions may also inform clinical efforts to address HIV stigma concerns.

  2. Exploring awareness, attitudes, and perceived role among oral health providers regarding HPV-related oral cancers.

    PubMed

    Daley, Ellen; DeBate, Rita; Dodd, Virginia; Dyer, Karen; Fuhrmann, Hollie; Helmy, Hannah; Smith, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV), the most common STI in the United States, is increasingly being associated with a number of cancers, including oral cancers (OC). This may change the approach of oral health providers (OHP) towards screening and identifying OC in their patients. Five focus groups were conducted in February and March 2009 with dentists and dental hygienists. Participants were recruited via presentations at monthly meetings of local dental and dental hygiene professional associations, and through association mailing and telephone lists. A total of 38 OHP participated in the focus groups (17 dentists and 21 hygienists). Analysis of focus group data was framed by three general content areas regarding HPV-related OC and the HPV vaccine, including: (a) knowledge; (b) attitudes; and (c) perceived roles. Sub-themes that emerged included issues related to the HPV vaccine, the role of professional organizations, and concerns with gender roles and confidentiality. As public awareness of the link between HPV and OC increases, OHP play an important role in addressing this issue with their patients. The current study clearly identified areas that must be addressed among OHP in order for effective and comfortable communication regarding the HPV-OC link and the potential uses of the HPV vaccines to take place, including: (a) increasing knowledge of the HPV-OC link and HPV vaccine; and (b) clarifying screening procedures, role, and expectations.

  3. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Canada: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2016-08-08

    Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types and self-reported health status defined as excellent/good versus fair/poor. The prevalence of experiencing any discrimination in the past five years was higher among those who rated their health as fair or poor (21.8 %) compared to those who rated their health as excellent or good (14.5 %, p < 0.0001). After controlling for all other covariates, there was a positive association between poorer self-rated health and two of the six specific discrimination variables entered into the model: perceived discrimination based on physical appearance (other than skin colour) (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.24, 2.58) and perceived discrimination based on a having a disability (OR = 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.04, 2.41). Our main findings indicate that perceived discrimination based on physical appearance and disability may have an adverse impact on health. The results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to improving health outcomes that should include policies that are targeted against specific types of discrimination.

  4. Perceived Health, Life Satisfaction, and Activity in Urban Elderly: A Controlled Study of the Impact of Part-Time Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soumerai, Stephen B.; Avorn, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Assessed whether part-time employment affects the perceived health, life satisfaction, and activity of urban retirees (N=55). Program participants were hired to perform park maintenance. Interviews after the 6-month program revealed significant, positive effects of paid employment on measures of perceived health and life satisfaction. (Author/JAC)

  5. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  6. Perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people through the provision of a computer and Internet health education intervention.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christie; Graham, Joy

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people before and after an Internet health information educational intervention. We developed a 50-min educational intervention on basic computer skills and online health information evaluation. We administered a demographic survey and a validated health literacy survey (eHEALS) at baseline, immediately after, and 3 months the class. Changes in scores between the surveys were analysed. Eighteen HIV-positive participants were included in the final analysis. Before the intervention, most respondents' assessment of their ability to access Internet health information was unfavourable. Post-intervention, the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were able to access and identify Internet health information resources. The increase in self-assessed skill level was statistically significant for all eight items eHEALS (P < 0.05). Scores for the 3-month follow-up survey remained higher than pre-intervention scores for most items. Providing an interdisciplinary brief introductory Internet health information educational intervention HIV-positive people with baseline low perceived Internet health literacy significantly improves confidence in finding and using Internet health information resources. Studies with larger numbers of participants should be undertaken to determine if brief interventions improve self-care, patient outcomes and use of emergency services. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Self-perceived health, quality of life, and health-related behavior in obesity: is social status a mediator?

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Freidl, Wolfgang; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J; Rásky, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is associated with a high health risk. Unfavorable psychological factors, lower self-ratings of health, and worse health-related behavior can be found in individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether obese subjects with a high SES differ from those with a low SES depending on these outcomes. Data of the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/2007-precisely of 760 obese subjects with a low SES and 851 with a high SES-were analyzed stratified by sex and adjusted by age with regard to differences in self-perceived health, quality of life (regarding physical and psychological health, environment, and social relationships), and health-related behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, eating behavior, physical exercise). The results have shown that obese subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those with a high SES in terms of self-perceived health, quality of life, and intensity of physical activities. Furthermore, differences were found in obese women as to smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, and continuance of physical exercise. It seems that not only obesity but also the socioeconomic status plays a role in health, and the risk assessment of obese individuals in the primary health care setting should include socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, public health programs which focus on obese subjects with a low SES are urgently needed.

  8. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  9. Determinants of self-perceived changes in health status among pre- and early-retirement populations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), this study described reasons reported by pre- and early-retirement populations for perceived changes in global health status over a 2-year period. It then analyzed the association between self-perceptions of change and the actual changes in objective health conditions, controlling for demographics, emotional health status, and the changes in work status and health-affecting habits. The results were compared to the determinants of self-ratings of health at wave 2. Existing or increasing impairments in functional abilities were found to contribute to self-perceptions of decline. However, a diagnosis of new chronic disease and the experience of a major medical event per se did not universally contribute to self-perception of decline. The relationship between cross-sectional self-ratings of health and objective health conditions was more straightforward. Self-perception of improvement among people with serious health problems most likely owed to medical interventions and improvement in symptoms, the most frequently mentioned reasons for perceived improvement, and reflected the subjects' selective optimization and resiliency.

  10. Influence resistance on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  11. Health Care Engagement and Follow-up After Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2017-09-01

    Negative experiences in the health care system, including perceived discrimination, can result in patient disengagement from health care. Four million US women give birth each year, and the perinatal period is a time of sustained interaction with the health care system, but potential consequences of negative experiences have not been examined in this context. We assessed whether perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization were associated with postpartum follow-up care. Data were from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a nationally drawn sample of 2400 women with singleton births in US hospitals in 2011-2012. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds of having a postpartum visit in the 8 weeks following birth by perceptions of discrimination due to (1) race/ethnicity; (2) insurance type; and (3) a difference of opinion with a provider about care. Women who experienced any of the 3 types of perceived discrimination had more than twice the odds of postpartum visit nonattendance (adjusted odds ratio=2.28, P=0.001), after adjusting for socioeconomic and medical characteristics. The postpartum visit is an opportunity for a patient and clinician to address continuing health problems following birth, discuss contraception, and screen for chronic disease. Forgoing this care may have negative health effects. The findings from this study underscore the need to reduce discrimination and improve maternity care experiences.

  12. Perceived health problems in swimmers according to the chemical treatment of water in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; del Corral, Julio; García-Unanue, Jorge; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which chemical treatment used for disinfecting water in indoor swimming pools had the least impact on users' perceptions of health problems, and which generated the greatest satisfaction with the quality of the water. A survey on satisfaction and perceived health problems was given to 1001 users at 20 indoor swimming pools which used different water treatment methods [chlorine, bromine, ozone, ultraviolet lamps (UV) and salt electrolysis]. The findings suggest that there is a greater probability of perceived health problems, such as eye and skin irritation, respiratory problems and skin dryness, in swimming pools treated with chlorine than in swimming pools using other chemical treatment methods. Pools treated with bromine have similar, although slightly better, results. Other factors, such as age, gender, time of day of use (morning and afternoon) and type of user (competitive and recreational), can also affect the probability of suffering health problems. For all of the above, using combined treatment methods as ozone and UV, or salt electrolysis produces a lower probability of perceived health problems and greater satisfaction.

  13. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole.

  14. Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Viktoria; Knefel, Matthias; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    Many trauma survivors seem to be reluctant to seek professional help. The aim of the current review was to synthesize relevant literature, and to systematically classify trauma survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators regarding mental health service utilization. The systematic search identified 19 studies addressing military personnel and 17 studies with trauma survivors of the general population. The data analysis revealed that the most prominent barriers included concerns related to stigma, shame and rejection, low mental health literacy, lack of knowledge and treatment-related doubts, fear of negative social consequences, limited resources, time, and expenses. Perceived facilitators lack attention in research, but can be influential in understanding mental health service use. Another prominent finding was that trauma survivors face specific trauma-related barriers to mental health service use, especially concerns about re-experiencing the traumatic events. Many trauma survivors avoid traumatic reminders and are therefore concerned about dealing with certain memories in treatment. These perceived barriers and facilitators were discussed regarding future research and practical implications in order to facilitate mental health service use among trauma survivors.

  15. Predictors of self-perceived cultural competence among children's mental health providers.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Victoria; Gamst, Glenn; Meyers, Lawrence S; Der-Karabetian, Aghop; Morrow, Gloria

    2014-07-01

    Based on empirical research and predictions from the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model, the racial attitudes, ethnic identity, and acculturation of a national sample of 371 child mental health service providers were assessed as possible predictors of practitioner self-perceived cultural competence. It was hypothesized that ethnic identity and racial attitudes would each directly affect self-perceived cultural competence and that acculturation and racial attitudes would mediate the effect of ethnic identity. The results indicated that ethnic identity exerted a direct effect on self-perceived cultural competence and that this effect was partially mediated by respondents' racial attitudes; however, acculturation had no significant role as a mediator. The results are discussed within the context of the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model and implications for providing culturally competent services to children.

  16. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health With Alcohol Consumption Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD = 0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health status were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Ordinal regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Truancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-3.77) and poorer mental health (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07) were associated with binge drinking more often. Truancy (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.14-3.16) and poorer mental health (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) were also associated with drinking (more) alcohol on week days. Furthermore, truancy (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.76-3.83) and having an average (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.19-2.77) or less than average (OR = 3.65; 95% CI, 1.93-6.90) perceived school performance were associated with drinking (more) alcohol on the weekend. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents who are truant and/or have a poor mental health status are at increased risk of binge and week drinking. Furthermore, adolescents who are truant and/or have an average or less than average perceived school performance are at increased risk of weekend drinking. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verheij, Robert A; Wiesman, Floris J; Friele, Roland D

    2011-10-07

    Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care providers' attitude towards the n-EPR, by investigating their perceptions of the benefits and problems of electronic information exchange in health care and the n-EPR in particular. The study was conducted in three Dutch health care settings: acute care, diabetes care, and ambulatory mental health care. Two health care organisations were included per setting. Between January and June 2010, interviews were conducted with 17 stakeholders working in these organisations. Relevant themes were deduced by means of thematic qualitative analysis. Health care providers perceived electronic information exchange to promote the efficiency and quality of care. The problems they perceived in electronic information exchange mainly concerned the confidentiality and safety of information exchange and the reliability and quality of patient data. Many problems perceived by health care providers did not specifically apply to the n-EPR, but to electronic information exchange in general. The implementation of the Dutch n-EPR has mainly followed a top-down approach, thereby neglecting the fact that the perceptions and preferences of its users (health care providers) need to be addressed in order to achieve successful implementation. The results of this study provide valuable suggestions about how to promote health care providers' willingness to adopt electronic information exchange, which can be useful for other countries currently implementing an n-EPR. Apart from providing information about the benefits and usefulness of electronic information exchange, efforts should be focused on minimising the problems as perceived by health care providers. The safety and confidentiality of electronic information exchange

  18. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care providers' attitude towards the n-EPR, by investigating their perceptions of the benefits and problems of electronic information exchange in health care and the n-EPR in particular. Methods The study was conducted in three Dutch health care settings: acute care, diabetes care, and ambulatory mental health care. Two health care organisations were included per setting. Between January and June 2010, interviews were conducted with 17 stakeholders working in these organisations. Relevant themes were deduced by means of thematic qualitative analysis. Results Health care providers perceived electronic information exchange to promote the efficiency and quality of care. The problems they perceived in electronic information exchange mainly concerned the confidentiality and safety of information exchange and the reliability and quality of patient data. Many problems perceived by health care providers did not specifically apply to the n-EPR, but to electronic information exchange in general. Conclusions The implementation of the Dutch n-EPR has mainly followed a top-down approach, thereby neglecting the fact that the perceptions and preferences of its users (health care providers) need to be addressed in order to achieve successful implementation. The results of this study provide valuable suggestions about how to promote health care providers' willingness to adopt electronic information exchange, which can be useful for other countries currently implementing an n-EPR. Apart from providing information about the benefits and usefulness of electronic information exchange, efforts should be focused on minimising the problems as perceived by health care providers. The safety and

  19. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  20. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  1. Differences in the Community Built Environment Influence Poor Perceived Health Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Botticello, Amanda L; Rohrbach, Tanya; Cobbold, Nicolette

    2015-09-01

    To assess the association between characteristics of the built environment and differences in perceived health among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) using objective measures of the local community derived from Geographic Information Systems data. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data. Community. Persons with chronic SCI enrolled in the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems database (N=503). All cases were residents of New Jersey, completed an interview during the years 2000 through 2012, had a complete residential address, and were community living at the time of follow-up. Not applicable. Perceived health. Bivariate tests indicated that persons with SCI residing in communities with more (vs less) mixed land use and small (vs large) amounts of open space were more likely to report poor perceived health. No associations were found between perceived health and differences in the residential or destination density of the community. Adjusting for variation in demographic, impairment, quality of life, and community socioeconomic characteristics accounted for the gap in the odds of reporting poor health between persons living in areas with large versus small amounts of open space (odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-1.02). However, even after accounting for individual background differences, persons living in communities characterized by more heterogeneous land use were twice as likely to report poor health compared with persons living in less mixed areas (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.12-4.08). Differences in the built characteristics of communities may be important to the long-term health and well-being of persons with SCI who may have greater exposure to the features of their local area because of limited mobility. The results of this study suggest living in a community with more heterogeneous land use was not beneficial to the perceived health of persons with chronic SCI living in New Jersey. Further investigation is needed to assess if the

  2. Selenium and human health.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-03-31

    Selenium is incorporated into selenoproteins that have a wide range of pleiotropic effects, ranging from antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects to the production of active thyroid hormone. In the past 10 years, the discovery of disease-associated polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes has drawn attention to the relevance of selenoproteins to health. Low selenium status has been associated with increased risk of mortality, poor immune function, and cognitive decline. Higher selenium status or selenium supplementation has antiviral effects, is essential for successful male and female reproduction, and reduces the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Prospective studies have generally shown some benefit of higher selenium status on the risk of prostate, lung, colorectal, and bladder cancers, but findings from trials have been mixed, which probably emphasises the fact that supplementation will confer benefit only if intake of a nutrient is inadequate. Supplementation of people who already have adequate intake with additional selenium might increase their risk of type-2 diabetes. The crucial factor that needs to be emphasised with regard to the health effects of selenium is the inextricable U-shaped link with status; whereas additional selenium intake may benefit people with low status, those with adequate-to-high status might be affected adversely and should not take selenium supplements.

  3. Perceived instrumental support and children's health across the early life course.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin

    2013-10-01

    A large, venerable literature demonstrates the importance of social relationships and social support for health, though much less research examines whether the benefits of social support to mothers extend to children. This paper examines the relationship between mothers' perceptions of instrumental support and children's health using longitudinal data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4342), a cohort of American children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents. Results suggest mothers' perceptions of instrumental support is positively associated with children's overall health, and this finding persists despite controlling for a host of individual-level characteristics of mothers and children (including a lagged indicator of children's health) and in fixed-effect models. Mothers' economic security and mothers' wellbeing attenuate some, but not all, of the association between perceived instrumental support and children's overall health. In addition, the link between perceived instrumental support and three specific indicators of health - asthma, overweight/obese, and number of emergency room visits - falls to statistical insignificance after accounting for individual-level characteristics, suggesting these associations result from social selection processes. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial health consequences of social support may extend to children across the early life course and demonstrate the need to better understand mothers' reports of children's overall health.

  4. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stressors among students at nine Libyan universities.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-11-25

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%-60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64-2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population.

  5. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  6. Relation of perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in middle-aged women. 99 middle-aged Spanish women, who studied in two adult schools, volunteered to participate. 49 were premenopausal and 45 were postmenopausal. These women completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and Health Survey SF-36. Scores were analyzed according to social, physical, and mental health, menopausal status, and scores on perceived emotional intelligence. Then, the data regarding the mental and physical health of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women were compared after controlling for age. No associations between menopausal status and health-related quality of life were found. Perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middle-aged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms.

  7. Differences in perceived fairness and health outcomes in two injury compensation systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Nieke A; Collie, Alex; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Lippel, Katherine; Lockwood, Keri; Cameron, Ian D

    2016-07-29

    Involvement in a compensation process following a motor vehicle collision is consistently associated with worse health status but the reasons underlying this are unclear. Some compensation systems are hypothesised to be more stressful than others. In particular, fault-based compensation systems are considered to be more adversarial than no-fault systems and associated with poorer recovery. This study compares the perceived fairness and recovery of claimants in the fault-based compensation system in New South Wales (NSW) to the no-fault system in Victoria, Australia. One hundred eighty two participants were recruited via claims databases of the compensation system regulators in Victoria and NSW. Participants were > 18 years old and involved in a transport injury compensation process. The crash occurred 12 months (n = 95) or 24 months ago (n = 87). Perceived fairness about the compensation process was measured by items derived from a validated organisational justice questionnaire. Health outcome was measured by the initial question of the Short Form Health Survey. In Victoria, 84 % of the participants considered the claims process fair, compared to 46 % of NSW participants (χ(2) = 28.54; p < .001). Lawyer involvement and medical assessments were significantly associated with poorer perceived fairness. Overall perceived fairness was positively associated with health outcome after adjusting for demographic and injury variables (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.4 - 5.7, p = .004). The study shows large differences in perceived fairness between two different compensation systems and an association between fairness and health. These findings are politically important because compensation processes are designed to improve recovery. Lower perceived fairness in NSW may have been caused by potential adversarial aspects of the scheme, such as liability assessment, medical assessments, dealing with a third party for-profit insurance

  8. Change in Health Insurance Coverage in Massachusetts and Other New England States by Perceived Health Status: Potential Impact of Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Strine, Tara W.; Druss, Benjamin G.; Simoes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Massachusetts health reform and its public health component (enacted in 2006) on change in health insurance coverage by perceived health. Methods. We used 2003–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine the experience in Massachusetts to predict the outcomes of national health care reform. Results. The proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years with health insurance coverage increased more in Massachusetts than in other New England states (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5%, 5.6%). For those with higher perceived health care need (more recent mentally and physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days [ALDs]), the postreform proportion significantly exceeded prereform (P < .001). Groups with higher perceived health care need represented a disproportionate increase in health insurance coverage in Massachusetts compared with other New England states—from 4.3% (95% CI = 3.3%, 5.4%) for fewer than 14 ALDs to 9.0% (95% CI = 4.5%, 13.5%) for 14 or more ALDs. Conclusions. On the basis of the Massachusetts experience, full implementation of the Affordable Care Act may increase health insurance coverage especially among populations with higher perceived health care need. PMID:23597359

  9. Change in health insurance coverage in Massachusetts and other New England States by perceived health status: potential impact of health reform.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Satvinder S; Zack, Matthew M; Strine, Tara W; Druss, Benjamin G; Simoes, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    We examined the impact of Massachusetts health reform and its public health component (enacted in 2006) on change in health insurance coverage by perceived health. We used 2003-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine the experience in Massachusetts to predict the outcomes of national health care reform. The proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years with health insurance coverage increased more in Massachusetts than in other New England states (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5%, 5.6%). For those with higher perceived health care need (more recent mentally and physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days [ALDs]), the postreform proportion significantly exceeded prereform (P < .001). Groups with higher perceived health care need represented a disproportionate increase in health insurance coverage in Massachusetts compared with other New England states--from 4.3% (95% CI = 3.3%, 5.4%) for fewer than 14 ALDs to 9.0% (95% CI = 4.5%, 13.5%) for 14 or more ALDs. On the basis of the Massachusetts experience, full implementation of the Affordable Care Act may increase health insurance coverage especially among populations with higher perceived health care need.

  10. Perceived discrimination among Maghrebi users of health services in Tarragona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rubio-Rico, Lourdes; Roca-Biosca, Alba; de Molina-Fernández, Inmaculada

    2015-12-03

    Discrimination in health services for reasons of nationality or ethnicity is not a rare occurrence. This work aims to qualitatively analyse the perceived discrimination among Maghrebi community in Tarragona (Spain) with regard to the healthcare services they receive. A qualitative study was carried by means of 12 semi-structured interviews and 10 focus groups with Maghrebi adults living in Tarragona. The scope of the study was public health services in the area. A content analysis was performed using open coding. Our results show that perceived discrimination is greater than actual discrimination because the deficiencies of the healthcare system are often interpreted as unfairness. However, our subjects also recounted incidents of clear discrimination against Maghrebi users of the healthcare system. The tendency to feel discriminated against is the culmination of an interaction between the group's low self-esteem and locals' often negative sentiments towards the group. We suggest addressing the shortcomings of the healthcare system in order to reduce this level of perceived discrimination and thus improve patient satisfaction. To improve this group's self-esteem and change how they are perceived, public policies should be put into effect which promote social inclusion and the respect for Maghrebis' rights as people, with actions taken on both fronts: in the host society and within the Maghrebi community itself. Furthermore, an active role for the patient with regard to his or her rights should be encouraged in order to minimize abuse from professionals and to facilitate institutional control of individual actions.

  11. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of perceived discrimination on mental health and mental health services utilization among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana; Tran, Alisia; Lee, Richard; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are at risk for a variety of mental health disorders. We examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons. Data were derived from a cross-sectional strata-cluster survey of adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who identified as LGBT (n=472) or heterosexual (n=7,412). Compared to heterosexuals, LGBT individuals had poorer mental health (higher levels of psychological distress, greater likelihood of having a diagnosis of depression or anxiety, greater perceived mental health needs, and greater use of mental health services), more substance use (higher levels of binge drinking, greater likelihood of being a smoker and greater number of cigarettes smoked per day), and were more likely to report unmet mental healthcare needs. LGBT individuals were also more likely to report having experienced a major incident of discrimination over the past year than heterosexual individuals. Although perceived discrimination was associated with almost all of the indicators of mental health and utilization of mental health care that we examined, adjusting for discrimination did not significantly reduce mental health disparities between heterosexual and LGBT persons. LGBT individuals experienced more major discrimination and reported worse mental health than heterosexuals, but discrimination did not account for this disparity. Future research should explore additional forms of discrimination and additional stressors associated with minority sexual orientation that may account for these disparities.

  13. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; Mäkinen, Juha; Helenius, Hans; Korkeila, Katariina; Sundell, Jari; Rautava, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS) and performance impairment (PI) are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response) stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years). In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women. PMID:16686959

  14. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  15. Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of whole and processed organic food.

    PubMed

    Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David

    2017-03-23

    The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.

  16. Cognitive impairment, self-perceived health and quality of life of older prisoners.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Pennequin, Valérie; Ferrand, Claude; Armand, Marine; Anselme, Morgane; Geffray, Brigitte

    2017-03-09

    There is a wealth of studies of somatic and mental illness among prisoners, but little on older prisoners and their cognitive aging. Our study examines the cognitive performance of older male prisoners and its effect on their perceived health and quality of life. A total of 138 men aged 50 or over were recruited in seven French prisons and 138 men of similar ages from the general population. Two assessments of executive cognitive functions - the mini-mental state examination and the frontal assessment battery - were administered to each participant, together with self rating schedules of health (Nottingham Health Profile), subjective state of mental health and quality of life (the brief World Health Organisation Quality of Life Questionnaire). There were very significant differences between the two groups in terms of cognitive performance, perceived health and quality of life. There was, however, no significant association between cognitive impairment and perceived health or quality of life. We found evidence that about a fifth of male prisoners in France had executive function test scores suggestive of at least moderately severe dementia and many others some evidence of cognitive impairments. Prisoners suffering from cognitive impairment do not necessarily seek help, perhaps not even considering that their health or quality of life to be affected. Communication deficits may also prevent their participation in prison activities which could prevent, slow or halt cognitive decline. Consequently, it is important that systematic screening for cognitive disorders is offered to men over 50 in prison. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  18. Frontline health care workers and perceived career mobility: do high-performance work practices make a difference?

    PubMed

    Dill, Janette S; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Weiner, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) related to career development (e.g., tuition remission, career ladders) is becoming more common in health care organizations, where skill shortages and concerns about quality of care have led to increasing investment in the frontline health care workforce. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these policies in shaping the career trajectories of health care workers. The aim of this study is to examine how HPWPs that focus on career development are related to an individuals' perceived mobility with their current employer. We will also examine the relationships between perceived mobility, job satisfaction, and turnover intent. We use confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between HPWPs and perceived mobility in a sample of 947 frontline health care workers in 22 health care organizations across the United States. The findings suggest that tuition remission and educational release time positively predict perceived mobility. Measures of perceived organizational support in one's current position (e.g., financial rewards, workload, and autonomy) and perceived supervisor support for career development are also significant predictors of perceived mobility. Finally, perceived mobility is a significant predictor of job satisfaction and intent to stay with current employer. Our findings suggest that HPWPs related to career development may be effective tools in improving workers' assessments of their own career potential and improving overall job satisfaction of frontline health care workers. Consequently, HPWPs related to career development may help employers both retain valuable workers and fill worker shortages.

  19. Perceived attributes of health-promoting laughter: a cross-generational comparison.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Diana L; Burroughs, W Jeffrey; Lippman, Louis G

    2002-03-01

    A small but growing body of empirical data support the popular belief that laughter benefits health. However, there are many varieties of laughter and no reason to assume all varieties should be, or would be, perceived as equally beneficial. The authors examined which types of laughter and which characteristics of laughter people associate with health and whether there are generational differences in this perception. Young adults and older participants rated 12 laughter terms (e.g., chuckle, giggle, belly laugh) on their contribution to health and assessed various aspects of each laughter type on 11 scales. The young adults characterized health-promoting laughter as strong, active, uninhibited, and involving movement; the older participants characterized it as socially appropriate. Both groups associated health-promoting laughter strongly with positive emotion and absence of malice. Implications for placebo effects in laughter interventions are discussed. Differences between humor and laughter and among the proposed mechanisms by which they affect health are clarified.

  20. Perceived conflict in the couple and chronic illness management: Preliminary analyses from the Quebec Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Soubhi, Hassan; Fortin, Martin; Hudon, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background The quality of the relationship with the spouse/partner appears crucial among patients with multiple chronic conditions where illness management is complex and multifaceted. This study draws on data from the Quebec Health Survey (QHS) to examine, among patients with one or more chronic conditions, the relation between marital status, the perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and what the patients do to manage their illness as well as how they perceive their health. Methods Data from the QHS 1998 were used. The sample included 7547 coupled adults who had one or more chronic health problems lasting more than 6 months. Independent variables included marital status, perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and the number of chronic conditions. Illness management was defined broadly as a measure of the patient's efforts at self-care and an illness status indicator, including visits to the generalist and the specialist, the use of telephone health line in the last 12 months, self-rated general health, mental health, and a measure of psychological distress. Linkages between the independent variables and illness management were assessed for males and females separately with logistic regressions, while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results Female patients who did not live with their partner and had never been married were more likely to report a negative perception of their general health and a higher psychological distress than those who were married. Perceived conflict with the partner was linked to a negative perception of mental health and a higher psychological distress among both men and women. Compared to patients with only one chronic condition, males who reported more than one chronic condition were more likely to have consulted a generalist prior to the survey and used the telephone health line, whereas females were more likely to have consulted a specialist. Both males and females with more than one

  1. Soil biodiversity and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  2. Perceived support from a caregiver's social ties predicts subsequent care-recipient health.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dannielle E; Lewis, Megan A; Southwell, Brian G

    2017-12-01

    Most social support research has examined support from an individual patient perspective and does not model the broader social context of support felt by caregivers. Understanding how social support networks may complement healthcare services is critical, considering the aging population, as social support networks may be a valuable resource to offset some of the demands placed on the healthcare system. We sought to identify how caregivers' perceived organizational and interpersonal support from their social support network influences care-recipient health. We created a dyadic dataset of care-recipient and caregivers from the first two rounds of the National Health and Aging Trends survey (2011, 2012) and the first round of the associated National Study of Caregivers survey (2011). Using structural equation modeling, we explored how caregivers' perceived social support is associated with caregiver confidence to provide care, and is associated with care-recipient health outcomes at two time points. All data were analyzed in 2016. Social engagement with members from caregivers' social support networks was positively associated with caregiver confidence, and social engagement and confidence were positively associated with care-recipient health at time 1. Social engagement positively predicted patient health at time 2 controlling for time 1. Conversely, use of organizational support negatively predicted care-recipient health at time 2. Care-recipients experience better health outcomes when caregivers are able to be more engaged with members of their social support network.

  3. Perceiving group behavior: sensitive ensemble coding mechanisms for biological motion of human crowds.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Haroz, Steve; Whitney, David

    2013-04-01

    Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented crowds of point-light walkers that differed in the number and headings of their members (i.e., people in differently sized crowds had identical or increasingly variable directions of walking). We found that observers rapidly pooled information from multiple walkers to estimate the heading of a crowd. This ensemble code was precise; observer's perceived the behavior of a crowd better than the behavior of an individual. We also showed that this pooling provided tolerance against crowd variability and may cause a chaotic group to cohere into a unified Gestalt. Sensitive perception of a crowd's behavior required integration of human form and motion, suggesting that the ensemble code was generated in high-level visual areas. Overall, these mechanisms may reflect the prevalence of crowd behavior in nature and a social benefit for perceiving crowds as unified entities.

  4. Soil biodiversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Wall, Diana H; Nielsen, Uffe N; Six, Johan

    2015-12-03

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  5. Soil biodiversity and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  6. Human health monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  7. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that

  8. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and

  9. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    PubMed

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  10. Impact of perceived racial discrimination on health screening in black women.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Charles P; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Makambi, Kepher H; Taylor, Teletia R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2010-02-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women's Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a Pap smear in the previous year, 52.7% had a mammogram, and 20.0% had received a colonoscopy. Both everyday and major discrimination were associated with not having received a Pap smear, even after adjusting for other variables. Discrimination was not associated with mammography or colonoscopy utilization. In conclusion, perceived everyday and major discrimination is associated with poorer utilization of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening among Black women.

  11. Self-perceived oral health, dental care utilization and satisfaction with dental care.

    PubMed

    Ståhlnacke, Katri

    2007-01-01

    From an outline of a general model of inequalities in oral health, three main issues are addressed: (1) Self-perceived oral health; (2) Utilization of dental care; and (3) Satisfaction with dental care. The aim was to study these aspects in relation to each other as well as aspects such as socio-economic factors, health factors, and attitudes to teeth and care organization. Another aim was to study changes between the two study years. The study is a questionnaire study of a longitudinal sample: people born in 1942 and at the time of the studies living in Orebro or Ostergötland county in Sweden. A cohort (5363 persons) was established with those who completed the questionnaire in both 1992 and 1997. The main results were that there were social differences in self-perceived oral health, with those born outside Sweden, those living single, those with lower level of education and those being blue-collar worker perceiving worse oral health. Changes between the two study years were moderate despite major cutbacks in dental care insurance during this period. Socio-economic factors affected dental care utilization as well. Having a private care provider gave higher utilization and higher cost for care. Health perception, both oral and general health, and dental anxiety also affected utilization. Increasing patient cost for care did not appreciably affect utilization. The overall satisfaction with dental care was high, both in general terms and with the most recent dental visit. Differences between the two studied years were small. Persons not visiting dental care within the last year were more dissatisfied, both generally and with the most recent visit. A large number of regular attenders had no feelings of anxiety, pain or unpleasantness at all. Oral health related factors and dental care factors such as cost for care and care organization were related to satisfaction with dental care. So were experiences from the most recent dental visit and, to some extent, past care

  12. A closer look at the developmental interplay between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health.

  13. Effects of Lip Color on Perceived Lightness of Human Facial Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip color influences facial skin’s perceived lightness. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects are more assimilative than contrastive. Second, the inducing area (i.e., lips) is much smaller than the influenced area (facial skin). Experiment 2 showed that the assimilative lightness induction was caused by holistic processing of faces. This is the first study to scientifically substantiate the claim of cosmetics manufacturers and makeup artists that lip colors can alter perceived facial skin color. Implications for face perception, lightness illusion, and perceptual effects of cosmetics are discussed. PMID:28835809

  14. Effects of Lip Color on Perceived Lightness of Human Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip color influences facial skin's perceived lightness. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects are more assimilative than contrastive. Second, the inducing area (i.e., lips) is much smaller than the influenced area (facial skin). Experiment 2 showed that the assimilative lightness induction was caused by holistic processing of faces. This is the first study to scientifically substantiate the claim of cosmetics manufacturers and makeup artists that lip colors can alter perceived facial skin color. Implications for face perception, lightness illusion, and perceptual effects of cosmetics are discussed.

  15. Oral health and self-perceived oral treatment need of adults in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundegren, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to study the oral health and the self-perceived oral treatment need of adults in Sweden. The first step was to analyse the self-perceived oral treatment need in a random national sample of young adults (20 to 25-year-olds). This study used one patient and one dentist questionnaire. The patient questionnaire was sent to 611 young adults and the response rate was 78%. After permission from 377 of these individuals, a questionnaire was sent to their dentists and answers were received from 85% (321 dentists). How the individuals perceived their oral treatment need was used as a dependent variable in a multivariate logistic regression model. Independent variables were self-assessed socio-economic situation, general health and dental attitudes together with information from the dentists on their patient's dental status. The results showed that having a high educational level, poorer oral health compared to one's peers, and being concerned about one's oral health significantly increased the odds for a high perceived oral treatment need. In this group of young adults, 33% perceived a high oral treatment need. In order to study if the oral treatment need was the same in all adult age groups and how the perceived oral health was in an adult Swedish population, a new questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 9 690 individuals, 20 to 89-year-olds, living in Skåne, Sweden. The response rate was 63%. The results showed that a majority of the adult population in Skåne had a positive perception of their oral health, in particular the individuals in the youngest age group. Most individuals had lost few teeth and removable dentures were uncommon. One third rated their dental treatment need as high. The highest proportion of individuals with a perceived high oral treatment need was found in the age group 70-79. In order to study the perceived oral treatment need in all adult age groups, the questionnaire was further analysed. The Andersen

  16. Measuring perceived quality of measuring quality health care services in India.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ritu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the perception of patients towards health care services in Lucknow based on the 20-item scale. The 20-item scale was administered to 500 users of health care centres comprising a tertiary health centre, a state medical university and two missionary hospitals in Lucknow, India. The scale was found to be reliable to a great extent with an overall Cronbach alpha value of 0.74. "Health personnel and practices" and "health care delivery" were found to be statistically significant in impacting the perception. Respondents were relatively less positive on items related to "access to services" and "adequacy of doctors for women". The tertiary health centre was rated poorer than the medical university and missionary hospitals. This tool may be applied for qualitative assessment of the services of health care programmes as well as health care centres of India. The paper draws the attention of health policy makers in considering the requirements and opinions of patients to effect substantial change and significant improvement in the quality of the health care services for better and increased utilization of the services. The paper fulfils the need of measuring perceived quality of health care services and points out that the improvement in health care services requires immediate and urgent attention from policy makers.

  17. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups.

  18. The m-Health revolution: Exploring perceived benefits of WhatsApp use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Rashid, Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2017-01-01

    The dawn of m-Health facilitates new horizons of professional communication through WhatsApp, allowing health professionals to interact fast and efficiently for effective patient management. This preliminary study aimed to investigate perceived benefits, if any, of WhatsApp use across general medical and emergency teams during clinical practice in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 307 health professionals comprising of nurses, medical assistants, medical residents, medical officers and physicians across medical and casualty departments in a Malaysian public hospital. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of items on socio-demographics, WhatsApp usage characteristics and the type of communication events during clinical practice. The majority of respondents (68.4%) perceived WhatsApp as beneficial during clinical practice. In multivariate analysis, perceived benefits was significantly higher amongst the clinical management group (aOR=2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6, p=0.001), those using WhatsApp for >12months (aOR=1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, p=0.047), those receiving response ≤15min to a new communication (aOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, p=0.017), and frequent information giving events (aOR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.016). Perceived benefits of WhatsApp use in clinical practice was significantly associated with usage characteristics and type of communication events. This study lays the foundation for quality improvement innovations in patient management delivered through m-Health technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  20. Oral hygiene behavior, smoking, and perceived oral health problems among university students

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Altaf Hussain; ElHaddad, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral aspects play a major role in the prevention of oral diseases. Moreover, not many people are aware of the relationship of smoking with potential oral diseases. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze oral hygiene behavior, smoking habits, and perceived oral health problems among a sample of university students in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire about oral hygiene behavior, smoking, and perceived oral health problems was developed. The questionnaires were mainly distributed in Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy colleges of the university. Questionnaires completed at other colleges were included under the term “other colleges.” Results: Overall, 380 questionnaires were returned. Majority of the students (92.4%) reported cleaning their teeth. Most of the students reported cleaning teeth once daily (48.7%). Just over a half (55.8%) reported having a dental check-up in the last 6 months, and a significantly higher number of dental students reported having a dental check-up (P < 0.05). Regarding smoking, the majority (63.4%) reported to have never smoked while 17.3% reported that they were smoking frequently. About 17.6% perceived oral health problems, including a significant proportion of those who reported frequent smoking. Conclusions: Oral hygiene behavior exhibited by the university students sample was similar. Majority cleaned their teeth, although only once. Smoking habit was not exhibited by the vast majority of students. Frequent smokers perceived oral health problems more than other students. PMID:26312233

  1. Self-esteem and socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health.

    PubMed

    Locker, David

    2009-01-01

    To determine if psychosocial factors explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health that persist after controlling for oral status variables. Data came from the participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who were residents in the city of Toronto. Oral health variables included self-rated oral health, a 13-item oral health scale, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. The last two measures were regarded as proxy indicators of tooth loss. Psychosocial variables included a self-esteem scale, a depression scale, and single items measuring life satisfaction, life stress, and sense of cohesion. Socioeconomic status was assessed using total annual household income. Interviews were completed with 2,754 dentate persons aged 20 years and over. Bivariate analyses confirmed that there were income gradients in self-rated oral health and scores on the oral health scale. Linear regression analyses confirmed that these persisted after controlling for age, gender, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. In the model predicting self-rated oral health self-esteem, life satisfaction, stress, a sense of cohesion, and depression also contributed to the model, increased its explanatory power, and reduced the strength of but did not eliminate the association between income and self-rated oral health. Broadly, similar results were obtained when the oral health scale score was used as the dependent variable. In both analyses and all models, denture wearing had the strongest and most enduring effect. Psychosocial factors partly but do not wholly explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health in this population after controlling for tooth loss and denture wearing. Other variables need to be added to the models to increase their explanatory power.

  2. Perceived experiences of discrimination in health care: a barrier for cancer screening among American Indian women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kelly L; Harding, Anna K; Lambert, William E; Fu, Rongwei; Henderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancer-mortality disparities are prominent among American Indian women. These disparities, in part, may result from patients perceived experiences of discrimination in health care. This report evaluates the impact of perceived discrimination on screening for breast and cervical cancer in a sample of 200 American Indian women with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from patient report and medical records. Prevalence of breast and cervical cancer screening were assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between perceived discrimination, cancer screening status, and patients' health care-seeking behaviors. Substantial proportions of AI women in our sample were behind the recommended schedules of screening for breast and cervical cancer. Adjusted estimates revealed that perceived discrimination was significantly associated with not being current for clinical breast examination and Pap test, and was close to statistical significance with not being current for mammography. The number of suboptimal health care-seeking behaviors increased with higher mean levels of perceived discrimination. Among AI women, perceived discrimination in health care may negatively influence use of breast and cancer screening services, and health care-seeking behaviors. More research is needed among AIs to examine features of health care systems related to the phenomenon patients perceived experience of discrimination. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived health status and cardiometabolic risk among a sample of youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Morales, Leo S; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M; Edwards, Todd C; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-08-01

    To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status, as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life, perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL, and LDL). Nearly 50 % of participants were female, 21 % had a normal BMI, 39 % were overweight, and 40 % were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of perceived health status (PHS) and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared with normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference, and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels, and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Job satisfaction and perceived autonomy for nurse practitioners working in nurse-managed health centers.

    PubMed

    Pron, Ann Linguiti

    2013-04-01

    More primary care providers are needed to deliver health care to Americans living in poverty and those soon to be insured under the Affordable Care Act. Nurse practitioners (NPs) in nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs) are poised to meet this need. This research study examined the characteristics of NPs working in NMHCs and measured job satisfaction and perceived level of autonomy. No studies about job satisfaction or autonomy for NPs working in NMHCs had been previously reported. This descriptive, quantitative study surveyed primary care NPs working in NMHCs that are part of the National Nursing Centers Consortium (NNCC). NP e-mail addresses were obtained from NNCC center directors. Of 198 NPs invited to the electronic survey, 99 completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, demographic questionnaire, questions about perceived autonomy, and whether they would recommend working in an NMHC. Participants came from 16 states and 46 NMHCs. NPs working in NMHCs have job satisfaction, perceive their role as autonomous, and are satisfied with the autonomy they have. NMHCs can provide access to primary health care for many Americans. More NPs may choose employment in NMHCs for job satisfaction and autonomy. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment.

    PubMed

    Lukersmith, Sue; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The value of creative employees to an organisation's growth and innovative development, productivity, quality and sustainability is well established. This study examined the perceived relationship between creativity and work environment factors of 361 practicing health professionals, and whether these factors were present (realised) in their work environment. Job design (challenges, team work, task rotation, autonomy) and leadership (coaching supervisor, time for thinking, creative goals, recognition and incentives for creative ideas and results) were perceived as the most important factors for stimulating creativity. There was room for improvement of these in the work environment. Many aspects of the physical work environment were less important. Public health sector employers and organisations should adopt sustainable strategies which target the important work environment factors to support employee creativity and so enhance service quality, productivity, performance and growth. Implications of the results for ergonomists and workplace managers are discussed with a participatory ergonomics approach recommended. Creative employees are important to an organisation's innovation, productivity and sustainability. The survey identified health professionals perceive a need to improve job design and leadership factors at work to enhance and support employee creativity. There are implications for organisations and ergonomists to investigate the creative potential of work environments.

  6. Welfare state regimes and differences in self-perceived health in Europe: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Bambra, Clare; Judge, Ken; Ringdal, Kristen

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which welfare state regime characteristics explained the proportional variation of self-perceived health between European countries, when individual and regional variation was accounted for, by undertaking a multilevel analysis of the European Social Survey (2002 and 2004). A total of 65,065 individuals, from 218 regions and 21 countries, aged 25 years and above were included in the analysis. The health outcomes related to people's own mental and physical health, in general. The study showed that almost 90% of the variation in health was attributable to the individual-level, while approximately 10% was associated with national welfare state characteristics. The variation across regions within countries was not significant. Type of welfare state regime appeared to account for approximately half of the national-level variation of health inequalities between European countries. People in countries with Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon welfare regimes were observed to have better self-perceived general health in comparison to Southern and East European welfare regimes.

  7. Relationship between subjective social status and perceived health among Latin American immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Gastaldo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and subjective social status and explain how subjective social status predicts health in immigrant women. cross-sectional study based on data from 371 Latin American women (16-65 years old) from a total of 7,056 registered immigrants accessed through community partners between 2009-2010. Socioeconomic status was measured through education, income and occupation; subjective social status was measured using the MacArthur Scale, and perceived health, using a Likert scale. a weak correlation between socioeconomic and subjective social status was found. In the bivariate analysis, a significantly higher prevalence of negative perceived health in women with no education, low income, undocumented employment was observed. In the multivariate analysis, higher odds of prevalence of negative perceptions of health in the lower levels of the MacArthur scale were observed. No significant differences with the rest of the variables were found. the study suggests that subjective social status was a better predictor of health status than the socioeconomic status measurements. Therefore, the use of this measurement may be relevant to the study of health inequalities, particularly in socially disadvantaged groups such as immigrants.

  8. Cohesion, leadership, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care in UK military personnel.

    PubMed

    Jones, Norman; Campion, Ben; Keeling, Mary; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-06-20

    Military research suggests a significant association between leadership, cohesion, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care (stigma/BTC). Most studies are cross sectional, therefore longitudinal data were used to examine the association of leadership and cohesion with stigma/BTC. Military personnel provided measures of leadership, cohesion, stigma/BTC, mental health awareness and willingness to discuss mental health following deployment (n = 2510) and 4-6 months later (n = 1636). At follow-up, baseline leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with stigma/BTC; baseline cohesion alone was significantly associated with awareness of and willingness to discuss mental health at follow-up. Over time, changes in perceived leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with corresponding changes in stigma/BTC levels. Stigma/BTC content was similar in both surveys; fear of being viewed as weak and being treated differently by leaders was most frequently endorsed while thinking less of a help-seeking team member and unawareness of potential help sources were least common. Effective leadership and cohesion building may help to reduce stigma/BTC in military personnel. Mental health awareness and promoting the discussion of mental health matters may represent core elements of supportive leader behaviour. Perceptions of weakness and fears of being treated differently represent a focus for stigma/BTC reduction.

  9. Anxiety Mediates Perceived Discrimination and Health in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Simons, Ronald L; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-11-01

    We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = .03, SE = .01, p < .001) and chronic health problems (β = .33, SE = .09, p < .001) and significantly mediated the discrimination-health association (β = -.01, SE = .01, p = .16). These findings highlight the potentially vital role of symptoms of anxiety in the process that occurs from an individual's perception of discrimination to reported chronic health outcomes. Future research expanding our understanding of the interconnection of psychosocial stressors, discrimination, and their biological sequelae is needed.

  10. Human health and transgenic crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under the joint auspices of the Agrochemical and the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisions of the American Chemical Society, we organized a short symposium on “Human Health and Transgenic Crops” at the 244th ACS national meeting, held August 19-23, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA, to examine an array o...

  11. Human health and transgenic crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under the joint auspices of the Agrochemical and the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisions of the American Chemical Society, we organized a short symposium on “Human Health and Transgenic Crops” at the 244th ACS national meeting, held August 19-23, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA, to examine an array o...

  12. Latina and Non-Latina Mothers' Perceived Health Barriers and Benefits and Their Relationship to Children's Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Highland, Krista B; Lundahl, Alyssa; Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Caballos, Miguel; McChargue, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Disparities exist in rates of overweight/obesity between Latino and non-Latino populations. Attention should be given to risk factors that may be modifiable through interventions involving both the parent and child. The current study sought to identify ethnic differences in parental health beliefs and their relation to children's health behaviors. Methods Latina and non-Latina mothers (N = 203) at rural and urban clinics and health departments completed self-report questionnaires. Key information included beliefs about barriers and benefits to health practices and children's health behaviors. Results Children of Latina mothers consumed significantly more soda and fried foods and exercised less than children of non-Latina mothers. Latina mothers were significantly more likely to perceive barriers to healthy eating and significantly less likely to perceive benefits to healthy eating and physical activity than non-Latina mothers. Ethnicity mediated the relationship between maternal views of health benefits and soda consumption. Conclusions Policy changes are needed to promote health education and increase the accessibility of healthy foods and safe places to exercise for Latino families.

  13. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  14. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Malecki, Kristen M.; Hoormann, Kelly A.; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics – particularly area level socioeconomic factors – have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008–2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n=1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  15. Association between psychological status with perceived social support in pregnant women referring to Tabriz health centers.

    PubMed

    Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Rahmati, Mahbubeh; Nouri, Parviz; Bagherinia, Marzieh

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the psychological status of pregnant women with perceived social support. In this cross-sectional study, 372 Iranian women were selected randomly via a two-stage cluster sampling method at the third trimester of pregnancy in healthcare centers of Tabriz-Iran. Data were collected using the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, perceived social support (PRQ-85) and the short form of depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21). The statistical tests including Spearman's correlation, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, and linear regression model were used for data. The mean (SD) score of perceived social support 131.5 (18.9) with a range of 25-175 was achieved. In terms of the scale of mental health, median (25-75 percentile) of the score of anxiety 4.0 (3.0-7.0), depression 1.0 (0.0-6.0), and stress 8.0 (0.6-10.0) was achieved. There was a significant negative correlation between perceived social support with anxiety (r = -.355, p < .001), depression (r = -.541, p < .001), and stress in women (r = -.302, p < .001). The results of this study showed that social support affects the mental state of women in the third trimester of pregnancy and the levels of anxiety, depression, and stress decrease in pregnant women with increasing of social support.

  16. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  17. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  18. Reasons and Determinants for Perceiving Unmet Needs for Mental Health in Primary Care in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Dezetter, Anne; Duhoux, Arnaud; Menear, Matthew; Roberge, Pasquale; Chartrand, Elise; Fournier, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mental health care needs perceived as unmet by adults in Quebec who had experienced depressive and (or) anxious symptomatology (DAS) in the previous 2 years and who used primary care services, and to identify the reasons associated with different types of unmet needs for care (UNCs) and the determinants of reporting UNCs. Method: Longitudinal data from the Dialogue Project were used. The sample consisted of 1288 adults who presented a common mental disorder and who consulted a general practitioner. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure DAS, and the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire facilitated the assessment of the different types of UNCs and their motives. Results: About 40% of the participants perceived UNCs. Psychotherapy, help to improve ability to work, as well as general information on mental health and services were the most mentioned UNCs. The main reasons associated with reporting UNCs for psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions are “couldn’t afford to pay” and “didn’t know how or where to get help,” respectively. The factors associated with mentioning UNCs (compared with met needs) are to present a high DAS or a DAS that increased during the past 12 months, to perceive oneself as poor or to not have private health insurance. Conclusions: To reduce the UNCs and, further, to reduce DAS, it is necessary to improve the availability and affordability of psychotherapy and psychosocial intervention services, and to inform users on the types of services available and how to access them. PMID:26175326

  19. Employment status and perceived health status in younger and older people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (<45 years) and an older (≥45 years) age group. Respondents underwent an interview, a neurological examination on disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)], and completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Of the respondents (mean age 40.5±6.2 years), 43.5% were employed. Significant differences between younger and older patients were found in employment, EDSS, disease duration, and five Short Form-36 Health Survey dimensions. Block-step multiple regression explained 32.4% of the variance in physical health and 14.5% in mental health in the younger group. Being employed was significantly related to good physical health, whereas EDSS diminished the effect of being employed on physical health. The most important variable for mental health was employment status in the younger group. For the older age group, 19.1% of the variance in physical health and 14.0% of the variance in mental health was explained by the studied variables. Male gender and a lower EDSS were significant explanatory variables of better physical health. Male gender significantly explained mental health in the older age group. In conclusion, employment status was an explanatory variable for physical health and mental health in the younger patients. EDSS played a significant role in physical health for all patients. A vocational rehabilitation program could prevent eventual nonemployment and improve health outcomes in older MS people.

  20. Associations of physical symptoms with perceived need for and use of mental health services among Latino and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Amy M; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2012-09-01

    Although many believe that low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among racial/ethnic minorities are due, in part, to somatization, data supporting this notion are lacking. This study examined two hypotheses: (1) increased physical symptoms are associated with lower perceived need for mental health services and actual service use; and (2) physical symptoms are most strongly associated with perceived mental health need and service use among first-generation individuals. Data come from the National Latino and Asian-American Study, a nationally-representative household survey in the United States conducted from 2002 to 2003. Participants reported on the presence of fourteen physical symptoms within the past year. Perceived mental health need was present for individuals who endorsed having an emotional or substance use problem or thinking they needed treatment for such a problem within the past year. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates, the number of physical symptoms was positively associated with perceived mental health need and service, an effect that differed by generation. Among first-generation individuals, physical symptoms were associated with increased perceived need and service use. Physical symptoms were not significantly associated with perceived need or service use among third-generation Latinos, but were associated with service use among third-generation Asian-Americans. Physical symptoms do not appear to interfere with mental health problem recognition or service use. In contrast, individuals, especially of the first-generation, with more physical symptoms were more likely to perceive need for and utilize mental health services. Our findings do not support the notion that physical symptoms account for low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among Latino and Asian-Americans.

  1. Perceived challenges for adopting the Personal Health Record (PHR) at Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA)- Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Personal Health Record (PHR) is an electronic record that allows patients to maintain, manage and access their health information in one secure location. However, despite these potential capabilities, the adoption rate of the PHR has been slow due to various challenges. Objectives This study, being the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, investigates the perceived barriers and /or challenges for PHR adoption in the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA). The study explored perceived barriers and /or challenges from two different perspectives; a technical perspective and a social perspective. Methods The study was conducted using a mixed methods approach. A cross-sectional study design using a questionnaire was used to measure patients' perceptions of the PHR and a qualitative approach through focus groups was used to capture comments and opinions from technical personnel for perceived technical barriers to PHR adoption. Result Results from 424 patients revealed a positive perception for PHR adoption with almost all of the participants (96.7%) indicating interest in using the PHR and the majority (73.3%) expressing no confidentiality concerns for the online accessibility of their health information. Patients with higher levels of education indicated higher interest in using the PHR and expressed more concern with confidentiality than patients with lower levels of education. However, the majority of patients (78.3%) expressed their lack of awareness of existing patient e-services on the MNGHA website. The themes that emerged from the focus groups reinforced lack of awareness of e-services as a potential barrier for PHR adoption as well as the role of policy in the regulation and business process for PHR adoption. Conclusion This study has highlighted the perceived challenges and barriers for adoption of the PHR in MNGHA-Riyadh. In order to ensure an efficient PHR with a strong adoption rate, effective steps need to be undertaken by building

  2. Perceived Income Adequacy among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends…

  3. Perceived Income Adequacy among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends…

  4. Mental Health Professionals with a Specialty in Anxiety Disorders: Knowledge, Training, and Perceived Competence in Smoking Cessation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Baker, Kristin; Yartz, Andrew R.; Gregor, Kristin; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Feldner, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge and perceived competence regarding smoking cessation was examined among mental health professionals who specialize in the treatment of anxiety disorders (n = 75). Results indicated that therapists assess smoking behavior in less than 30% of clients, perceive themselves as "definitely unprepared" to deliver smoking cessation treatment,…

  5. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  6. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  7. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face.

  8. Perceived health in lung cancer patients: the role of positive and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Floyd, Andrea R; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association of affective experience and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients, we hypothesized that negative affect would be positively, and positive affect would be negatively, associated with perceived health. A sample of 133 English-speaking lung cancer patients (33% female; mean age = 63.68 years old, SD = 9.37) completed a battery of self-report surveys. Results of our secondary analysis indicate that trait negative affect was significantly associated with poor physical and social functioning, greater role limitations due to emotional problems, greater bodily pain, and poor general health. Positive affect was significantly associated with adaptive social functioning, fewer emotion-based role limitations, and less severe bodily pain. In a full model, positive affect was significantly associated with greater levels of social functioning and general health, over and above the effects of negative affect. Reduction of negative affect is an important therapeutic goal, but the ability to maintain positive affect may result in greater perceived health. Indeed, engagement in behaviors that result in greater state positive affect may, over time, result in dispositional changes and enhancement of quality of life.

  9. The Paradoxical Role of Perceived Control in Late Life Health Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Judith G.; Perry, Raymond P.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Barchfeld, Petra; Lang, Frieder R.; Hamm, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Research has established the health benefits of psychological factors, including the way individuals appraise outcomes. Although many studies confirm that appraising outcomes as controllable is adaptive for health, a paradoxical possibility is largely ignored: Perceived control may be detrimental under some conditions. Our premise was that appraising health as controllable but at the same time ascribing little value to it might signal a dysfunctional psychological mindset that fosters a mistaken sense of invincibility. During face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of older adults (age range = 72–99), we identified individuals with such a potentially maladaptive “invincible” mindset (high perceived control and low health value) and compared them to their counterparts on several outcomes. The findings were consistent with our hypotheses. The invincibles denied future risks, they lacked the activating emotion of fear, and they visited their physicians less often over a subsequent five-year period. Moreover, in contrast to their counterparts, the invincibles did not appear strategic in their approach to seeking care: Even poor health did not prompt them to seek the counsel of a physician. The recognition that psychological appraisals are modifiable highlights the promise of remedial methods to alter maladaptive mindsets, potentially improving quality of life. PMID:26974153

  10. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  11. Mental health recovery for psychiatric inpatient services: perceived importance of the elements of recovery.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Ng, B F L; Li, V C K; Yeung, Y M; Lee, M K L; Leung, A Y H

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. To develop a questionnaire for measuring the perceived importance of the elements of mental health recovery in psychiatric inpatients in Hong Kong and to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. METHODS. Thematic content analysis of identified literature on mental health recovery was performed to identify the elements related to mental health recovery. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceived importance of the identified elements. An expert panel was set up to evaluate the content validity and patient focus group's face validity of the questionnaire. Participants were recruited from medium-stay and rehabilitation wards of Castle Peak Hospital. RESULTS. A total of 101 psychiatric inpatients completed the questionnaire, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia (75%). Having meaning in life was rated by 91% of the participants as an important element of recovery, followed by hope (86%) and general health and wellness (85%). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.91. Explorative factor analysis yielded 7 factors and intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a fair-to-good test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS. The results supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaire for measurement of mental health recovery and serve as a basis for the future development of recovery-oriented services in the psychiatric inpatient settings in this locality.

  12. The association between perceived social support, socio-economic status and mental health in young Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H

    2011-06-01

    To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p < 0.05). There were gender differences for perceived social support, but not for mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.

  13. Perceived health in a population based sample of victims of the 1956 polio epidemic in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Nollet, F; Ivanyi, B; Beelen, A; de Haan, R J; Lankhorst, G; de Visser, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate perceived health and its relation to residual paresis from polio, late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis (LSP), and sex, in a population based sample of polio survivors. Methods: 350 subjects traced from the notification records of the Dutch 1956 polio epidemic received a mailed questionnaire on residual polio paresis and new neuromuscular symptoms. Perceived health was measured using the Nottingham health profile. Respondents with new muscle weakness and new neuromuscular symptoms were considered as cases with LSP. Results: Health problems were perceived by 151 of the 260 respondents. Respondents with residual paresis had significantly more health problems than clinically recovered respondents for the Nottingham health profile category of physical mobility. The perceived health of respondents with LSP (45.5%) was significantly worse than that of respondents without LSP for all the health profile categories. Among the respondents with LSP, health status did not differ between those with residual paresis and those who had recovered, except for physical mobility. Female respondents with LSP reported worse health status than male respondents with regard to physical mobility and social isolation. Conclusions: In this population based sample, health problems were frequently reported. They were mainly related to late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis, which were perceived by a substantial proportion of all polio survivors—not only subjects with polio residuals but also individuals who (subjectively) had recovered from polio. PMID:12438472

  14. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform.

  15. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: an investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood social capital, and health behaviors and health conditions. Applying SEM to 9880 adults (aged between 18 and 100) in the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, we not only confirmed the positive and direct association between discrimination and poor or fair SRH, but also verified two underlying mechanisms: 1) perceived discrimination is associated with lower neighborhood social capital, which further contributes to poor or fair SRH; and 2) perceived discrimination is related to risky behaviors (e.g., reduced physical activity and sleep quality, and intensified smoking) that lead to worse health conditions, and then result in poor or fair SRH. Moreover, we found that perceived discrimination is negatively associated with health care system distrust, but did not find a significant relationship between distrust and poor or fair SRH.

  16. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: An investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood social capital, and health behaviors and health conditions. Applying SEM to 9,880 adults (aged between 18 and 100) in the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, we not only confirmed the positive and direct association between discrimination and poor or fair SRH, but also verified two underlying mechanisms: 1) perceived discrimination is associated with lower neighborhood social capital, which further contributes to poor or fair SRH; and 2) perceived discrimination is related to risky behaviors (e.g., reduced physical activity and sleep quality, and intensified smoking) that lead to worse health conditions, and then result in poor or fair SRH. Moreover, we found that perceived discrimination is negatively associated with health care system distrust, but did not find a significant relationship between distrust and poor or fair SRH. PMID:24581063

  17. Provider stakeholders' perceived benefit from a nascent health information exchange: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Pevnick, Joshua M; Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Asch, Steven M; Stutman, Harris R; Tomines, Alan; Fu, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We sought to better understand the perceived costs and benefits of joining a nascent health information exchange (HIE) from the perspective of potential provider organization participants. We therefore conducted semi-structured interviews with organizational representatives. Interview transcriptions were thematically coded, and coded text was subsequently aggregated to summarize the breadth and depth of responses. Although no respondents expected HIE to result in net financial benefit to their organization, all respondents recognized some potential benefits, and some respondents expected HIE to result in overall organizational benefit. Disproportionate benefit was expected for the poorest, sickest patients. Many respondents had concerns about HIE increasing the risk of data security breaches, and these concerns were most pronounced at larger organizations. We found little evidence of organizational concern regarding loss of patients to other organizations or publication of unfavorable quality data. If HIE's greatest benefactors are indeed the poorest, sickest patients, our current health care financing environment will make it difficult to align HIE costs with benefits. To sustain HIE, state and federal governments may need to consider ongoing subsidies. Furthermore, these governments will need to ensure that policies regulating data exchange have sufficient nationwide coordination and liability limitations that the perceived organizational risks of joining HIEs do not outweigh perceived benefits. HIE founders can address organizational concerns by attempting to coordinate HIE policies with those of their largest founding organizations, particularly for data security policies. Early HIE development and promotional efforts should not only focus on potential benefits, but should also address organizational concerns.

  18. Adolescents with congenital heart disease: the importance of perceived parenting for psychosocial and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip

    2011-11-01

    : Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.

  19. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Mackinnon, Andrew; Curci, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    An inventory of institutional constraints perceived as limiting therapeutic choices was developed and completed by psychiatrists working in Italian public mental health services. Constraints considered most limiting were social and institutional pressures toward social control, violence risk assessment and prevention, and lack of control over workload. The total mean score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85). Addressing perceived constraints may result in more choice options to reach therapeutic goals in a collaborative framework with patients, and improve job satisfaction.

  20. Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Discrimination, Social Status, and Mental Health*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status. PMID:22900235

  1. Social desirability, psychological symptoms, and perceived health in burn injured patients.

    PubMed

    Willebrand, Mimmie; Wikehult, Björn; Ekselius, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    Social desirability was previously seen as a nuisance in assessment, but today it is regarded as a personality trait with an influence on health. The aim was to explore relations between social desirability and health in former burn patients. Eighty-four burn patients injured on average 3.8 years ago responded to a questionnaire booklet. Social desirability was assessed with the social desirability subscale of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, which is standardized in a normative sample. The results showed that a subgroup with high degree of social desirability displayed significantly poorer perceived health on the burn-specific health subscales heat sensitivity, work, and body image than normal responders did. There were no differences regarding age, education, injury-related variables, sick leave, or symptoms of anxiety and depression. In conclusion, participants with high social desirability were characterized by postburn problems in outdoor and work-related situations, and more self-consciousness about appearance.

  2. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  3. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  4. Children's delayed development and behavior problems: impact on mothers' perceived physical health across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Eisenhower, Abbey Severance; Baker, Bruce L; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with developmental delays may experience poorer psychological well-being than other mothers; however, little research has examined how delayed development in children might predict mothers' perceived physical well-being. Children with delayed development manifest heightened behavior problems, which may negatively affect maternal well-being. We examined the associations between developmental delay and behavior problems at child age 3 and mothers' self-perceived physical health at child ages 3, 4, and 5, in families of 218 children with and without developmental delays. The study sample comprised 218 families from central Pennsylvania and Southern California, USA who were recruited through community agencies that provide diagnostic and intervention services for individuals with development difficulties. We found that mothers of children with delayed development at age 3 reported poorer concurrent and later physical health than mothers of children with typical development. Broadening the analyses to include not only child development status (delayed development versus typical development) but also child behavior problems at age 3, only child behavior problems and the interaction of development status and behavior problems, but not development status itself, predicted maternal health. Early child behavior problems contributed to later maternal health above and beyond early maternal health, suggesting a possible causal association between child behavior problems and mothers' physical health. The relation between child behavior problems and maternal health was moderated by mothers' parenting stress and mediated by depressive symptoms. Mothers of children with both delayed development and high behavior problems are a particular risk group that may be especially in need of early intervention. Further research should examine the behavioral and biological pathways by which these child-related stressors influence mothers' physical health.

  5. The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health

    PubMed Central

    Liljegren, Mats; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Background The main purpose of the present study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between job mobility and health and burnout. A second aim was to elucidate the effects of perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions on the relationship between job mobility (non-, internally and externally mobile), and health (SF-36) and burnout (CBI). Methods The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants and the data were analysed with Structural Equation Modeling statistical methods. Results The results showed that job mobility was a better predictor of health and burnout, than health and burnout were as predictors of job mobility. The predictive effects were most obvious for psychosocial health and burnout, but negligible as far as physical health was concerned. Organizational justice was found to have a direct impact on health, but not on job mobility; whereas turnover intentions had a direct effect on job mobility. Conclusion The predictive relationship between job mobility and health has practical implications for health promotive actions in different organizations. PMID:18489747

  6. [Satisfaction and perceived quality of people insured by the Social Health Protection in Mexico. Methodological foundations].

    PubMed

    Saturno-Hernández, Pedro J; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Juan Pablo; Vieyra-Romero, Waldo Ivan; Romero-Martínez, Martín; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel Jaime; Lozano-Herrera, Javier; Tavera-Martínez, Sonia; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the conceptual framework and methods for implementation and analysis of the satisfaction survey of the Mexican System for Social Protection in Health. We analyze the methodological elements of the 2013, 2014 and 2015 surveys, including the instrument, sampling method and study design, conceptual framework, and characteristics and indicators of the analysis. The survey captures information on perceived quality and satisfaction. Sampling has national and State representation. Simple and composite indicators (index of satisfaction and rate of reported quality problems) are built and described. The analysis is completed using Pareto diagrams, correlation between indicators and association with satisfaction by means of multivariate models. The measurement of satisfaction and perceived quality is a complex but necessary process to comply with regulations and to identify strategies for improvement. The described survey presents a design and rigorous analysis focused on its utility for improving.

  7. Sclera color changes with age and is a cue for perceiving age, health, and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Sweda, Jennifer R; Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Redness or yellowness of the sclera (the light part of the eye) are known signs of illness, as is looking older than one's actual age. Here we report that the color of the sclera is related to age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. Specifically, older faces have sclera that are more dark, red, and yellow than younger faces. A subset of these faces were manipulated to increase or decrease the darkness, redness, or yellowness of the sclera. Faces with decreased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness were perceived to be younger than faces with increased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness. Further, these manipulations also caused the faces to be perceived as more or less healthy, and more or less attractive. These findings show that sclera coloration is a cue for the perception of age, health, and attractiveness that is rooted in the physical changes that occur with age.

  8. California teachers perceive school gardens as an effective nutritional tool to promote healthful eating habits.

    PubMed

    Graham, Heather; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed elementary school teachers' perceived attitudes and barriers associated with school gardens, as well as the purpose and use of gardens in schools, specifically in relation to the link between gardens and nutrition. The questionnaire was mailed to California fourth-grade teachers at schools with gardens (N = 1,665). The response rate was 36% (n = 592). Teachers perceived the garden to be somewhat to very effective at enhancing academic performance, physical activity, language arts, and healthful eating habits. Nutrition was taught with the use of the garden by 47% of responding teachers. This research provides evidence for needed standards-based curricula materials and teacher training in relation to gardening and nutrition. The results from this study will contribute to development of needed resources and methods by which to encourage the use of gardens and nutrition education in schools.

  9. Perceived job stress and mental health in precision machine workers of Japan: a 2 year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Shigemi, J; Tsuda, T; Yasuda, N; Bebbington, P

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether perceived job stress affects mental health in occupational settings. A 2 year cohort study was conducted. Initially, a survey including the general health questionnaire (GHQ) and a questionnaire about perceived job stress was carried out. Of 462 workers who initially showed a GHQ score of < or = 7,310 were successfully followed up for 2 years. The 2 year risks of developing mental ill health (a GHQ score > or = 8) were assessed relative to perceived job stress. To control for potential confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. The overall 2 year risk for developing mental ill health was high at 57.7%. Workers who reported aspects of perceived job stress showed a greater 2 year risk than those without stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that some components of perceived job stress were associated with a higher 2 year risk, among which "not allowed to make mistakes" showed the largest adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.37 (1.32 to 4.29). "Poor relationship with superior" had a significant effect on mental health only in women, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.79 (1.65 to 8.73). Certain specific items of perceived job stress seem to be associated with mental ill health in workers. These could broadly be described as job strain, or job demand items. The type of job stress that predicts mental health may be dependent on the characteristics of the workplace investigated.

  10. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  11. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Monica; Abdallah, Oraib; Aden, Suad; Major, Stella; White, Diana; El-Awaisi, Alla

    2017-01-01

    Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorts achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as a major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  12. Interprofessional collaboration in primary health care: a review of facilitators and barriers perceived by involved actors.

    PubMed

    Supper, I; Catala, O; Lustman, M; Chemla, C; Bourgueil, Y; Letrilliart, L

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition calls for redefining the roles of the various professionals involved in primary health care towards greater collaboration. We aimed to identify facilitators of, and barriers to, interprofessional collaboration in primary health care as perceived by the actors involved, other than nurses. Systematic review using synthetic thematic analysis of qualitative research. Articles were retrieved from Medline, Web of science, Psychinfo and The Cochrane library up to July 2013. Quality and relevance of the studies were assessed according to the Dixon-Woods criteria. The following stakeholders were targeted: general practitioners, pharmacists, mental health workers, midwives, physiotherapists, social workers and receptionists. Forty-four articles were included. The principal facilitator of interprofessional collaboration in primary care was the different actors' common interest in collaboration, perceiving opportunities to improve quality of care and to develop new professional fields. The main barriers were the challenges of definition and awareness of one another's roles and competences, shared information, confidentiality and responsibility, team building and interprofessional training, long-term funding and joint monitoring. Interprofessional organization and training based on appropriate models should support collaboration development. The active participation of the patient is required to go beyond professional boundaries and hierarchies. Multidisciplinary research projects are recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Imprinting evolution and human health.

    PubMed

    Das, Radhika; Hampton, Daniel D; Jirtle, Randy L

    2009-01-01

    Genomic imprinting results in parent-of-origin-dependent, monoallelic expression of genes. The functional haploid state of these genes has far-reaching consequences. Not only has imprinting been implicated in accelerating mammalian speciation, there is growing evidence that it is also involved in the pathogenesis of several human conditions, particularly cancer and neurological disorders. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms govern the parental allele-specific silencing of imprinted genes, and many theories have attempted to explain the driving force for the evolution of this unique form of gene control. This review discusses the evolution of imprinting in Therian mammals, and the importance of imprinted genes in human health and disease.

  14. Perceived importance and self-assessment of the skills of Canada's health-system pharmacy managers.

    PubMed

    Axworthy, Sheri; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between the perceived importance of managerial skills and self-assessed proficiency in each skill among health-system pharmacy managers in Canada was examined, and the demographic characteristics associated with pharmacy managers who lack these skills were analyzed. Surveys were mailed to 514 health-system pharmacy managers in Canada in July 2000. The survey listed 61 specific managerial skills, under seven general categories. The respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each of the skills had in their job and rate their proficiency in each skill. Ratings were based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from very high importance or skill level to very low importance or skill level. The response rate was 52.7%. Of the 61 specific managerial skills considered, the majority of respondents identified "Demonstrating ethical conduct" as both the most important skill and their greatest strength. "Understand the operating principles of managed care" was viewed as the least important skill, while "Participating in the implementation of a marketing program" was respondents' greatest weakness. There were significant differences in the mean self-assessed skill levels of the respondents according to their educational background, size of the institution in which they work, and years of managerial experience. Health-system pharmacy managers with a master of business administration degree had a significantly higher overall mean perceived skill level than managers in all other "Education" categories. Managers with a bachelor of science degree in pharmacy had a significantly lower overall mean perceived skill level than those with a bachelor of science degree in pharmacy plus "other" degrees, while managers employed in institutions of 500 or more inpatient beds had a significantly higher overall self-rated mean skill level than managers employed in institutions of 51-100 inpatient beds. A national survey of health-system pharmacy managers in Canada

  15. Perceived discrimination is associated with health behaviours among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gebreab, Samson Y; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-02-01

    Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviours among African-Americans (AA). The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat and sleep were examined among 4925 participants aged 35-84 years after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28 and 1.19, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<0.05 and 0.43, p<0.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: -0.08, p<0.05 and -0.18, p<0.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: -0.08, p<0.05 and -0.24, p<0.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviours among men and women. Health behaviours offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    PubMed

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  17. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  18. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures - population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, David G; Zack, Mathew M; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2003-09-02

    To promote the health and quality of life of United States residents, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - with 54 state and territorial health agencies - has supported population surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL was defined as "perceived physical and mental health over time." Commonly-used measures of health status and activity limitation were identified and a set of "Healthy Days" HRQOL measures was developed and validated. A core set of these measures (the CDC HRQOL-4) asks about self-rated general health and the number of recent days when a person was physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or limited in usual activities. A summary measure combines physically and mentally unhealthy days. From 1993 to 2001, more than 1.2 million adults responded to the CDC HRQOL-4 in each state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) telephone interview. More than one fifth of all BRFSS respondents also responded to a set of related questions - including five items that assess the presence, main cause and duration of a current activity limitation, and the need for activity-related personal and routine care; as well as five items that ask about recent days of pain, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and vitality. The Healthy Days surveillance data are particularly useful for finding unmet health needs, identifying disparities among demographic and socioeconomic subpopulations, characterizing the symptom burden of disabilities and chronic diseases, and tracking population patterns and trends. The full set of 14 Healthy Days Measures (the CDC HRQOL-14) has shown good measurement properties in several populations, languages, and settings. The brief standard CDC HRQOL-4 is now often used in surveys, surveillance systems, prevention research, and population health report cards.

  19. Perceived Discrimination and Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Health in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Carretta, Henry; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether perceived discrimination based on multiple personal characteristics is associated with physical, emotional, and cognitive health concurrently, prospectively, and with change in health over time among older adults. Design : Longitudinal Setting Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Participants Participants (N=7,622) who completed the Leave-Behind Questionnaire as part of the 2006 HRS assessment (mean age 67); participants (n=6,450) completed the same health measures again in 2010. Measurements Participants rated their everyday experience with discrimination and attributed those experiences to eight personal characteristics: race, ancestry, sex, age, weight, physical disability, appearance, and/or sexual orientation. At both the 2006 and 2010 assessments, participants completed measures of physical health (subjective health, disease burden), emotional health (life satisfaction, loneliness), and cognitive health (memory, mental status). Results Discrimination based on age, weight, physical disability, and appearance was associated with poor subjective health, greater disease burden, lower life satisfaction and greater loneliness at both assessments and with declines in health across the four years. Discrimination based on race, ancestry, sex, and sexual orientation was associated with greater loneliness at both time points, but not with change over time. Discrimination was mostly unrelated to cognitive health. Conclusions The detrimental effect of discrimination on physical and emotional health is not limited to young adulthood but continues to contribute to health and well-being in old age. These effects were driven primarily by discrimination based on personal characteristics that change over time (e.g., age, weight) rather than discrimination based on more stable characteristics (e.g., race, sex). PMID:24745563

  20. Explaining differences in perceived health-related quality of life: a study within the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Del Cura-González, Isabel

    2017-09-25

    To assess the burden of several determinants on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to study its heterogeneity among the different Spanish regions. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Spanish National Health Survey (2012), and HRQOL was measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (utility and visual analogue scale -VAS- scores). Demographic variables, physical health condition, social variables, mental health status, and lifestyle were also analysed. Tobit regression models were employed to study the relationships between expressed HRQOL and personal characteristics. A total of 20,979 surveys were obtained. Of them, 62.4% expressed a utility score of 1, corresponding to perfect health (95%CI: 61.8%-63.2%), and 54.2% showed VAS scores ≥80 (95%CI: 53.5%-54.9%). HRQOL was mainly described as a function of age, chronic limitation in daily activities, and mental health status. Belonging to a higher-class strata and physical activity were related to better self-perceived HRQOL. Ageing worsened perceived HRQOL, but did not influence its determinants, and differences in HRQOL by regions were also not significant after model adjustment. HRQOL perception in the Spanish population varied slightly depending on the measure used (utilities index or VAS). Age, chronic limitations in daily life, and mental health status best explained the variability in perception, and no meaningful differences in HRQOL perception among regions were found after adjustment. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation between perceived health and sick leave in employees with a chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Cécile R L; Koppes, Lando L J; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2011-06-01

    To improve work participation in individuals with a chronic illness, insight into the role of work-related factors in the association between health and sick leave is needed. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the contribution of work limitations, work characteristics, and work adjustments to the association between health and sick leave in employees with a chronic illness. All employees with a chronic illness, between 15 and 65 years of age (n = 7,748) were selected from The Netherlands Working Conditions Survey. The survey included questions about perceived health, working conditions, and sick leave. Block-wise multivariate linear regression analyses were performed and, in different blocks, limitations at work, work characteristics, and work adjustments were added to the model of perceived health status. Changes in regression coefficient (B) (%) were calculated for the total group and for sub-groups per chronic illness. When work limitations were added to the model, the B between health and sick leave decreased by 18% (5.0 to 4.1). Adding work characteristics did not decrease the association between health and sick leave, but the B between work limitations and sick leave decreased by 14%, (5.3 to 4.5). When work adjustments were added to the model, the Bs between sick leave and work limitations and work characteristics changed from 4.5 to 3.4 for work limitations and from 2.1 to 1.9 for temporary contract and from -0.8 to -1.0 for supervisor support. The association between health and sick leave was explained by limitations at work, work characteristics, and work adjustments. Paying more attention to work limitations, characteristics and adjustments offers opportunities to reduce the negative consequences of chronic illness.

  2. Associations Between Fetal Growth and Self-Perceived Health Throughout Adulthood: A Co-twin Control Study.

    PubMed

    Mosing, Miriam A; Cnattingius, Sven; Gatz, Margaret; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2016-05-01

    The literature shows evidence for long-lasting effects of low birth weight (LBW) on many health outcomes, but little is known about effects on self-perceived health. Findings are mixed and studies are small, mostly focusing on LBW effects on health outcomes before adulthood. Further, as LBW and most health conditions including self-perceived health are partly heritable, associations between birth weight (BW) and adverse health outcomes may also be due to shared genetic as well as other (pre- and postnatal) unmeasured environmental influences. We explored LBW effects on self-perceived health in early and later adulthood using a very large and genetically informative sample of more than 50,000 Swedish twins. In addition, analyses within twin pairs (the co-twin control design) were used to examine potential associations between BW and the offspring's risk for poor self-perceived health independent of shared environmental or genetic factors, evidence which is critical for the understanding of underlying mechanisms. Results showed that lower BW was significantly associated with poorer self-perceived health during adulthood, although the effect size was small. Co-twin control analyses suggested that this increased risk may be due to shared underlying liability (environmental or genetic) rather than a direct effect of BW, but findings were not conclusive.

  3. Perceived Discrimination in Health Care and Mental Health/Substance Abuse Treatment Among Blacks, Latinos, and Whites.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Jones, Audrey L; Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Coles, Courtney; Cochran, Susan D

    2017-02-01

    Experiences of discrimination in health care settings may contribute to disparities in mental health outcomes for blacks and Latinos. We investigate whether perceived discrimination in mental health/substance abuse visits contributes to participants' ratings of treatment helpfulness and stopped treatment. We used data from 3 waves of the California Quality of Life Survey, a statewide population-based telephone survey assessing mental health/substance disorders and their treatment. In a sample of 1099 adults (age 18-72) who indicated prior year mental health/substance abuse visits, we examined: experiences of discrimination that occurred during health care and mental health/substance abuse visits, ratings of treatment helpfulness, and reports of stopping treatment early. Fifteen percent of California adults reported discrimination during a health care visit and 4% specifically during mental health/substance abuse visits. Latinos, the uninsured, and those with past year mental disorders were twice as likely as others to report health care discrimination [adjusted odds ratio (AORs)=2.08, 2.77, and 2.51]. Uninsured patients were 7 times more likely to report discrimination in mental health/substance abuse visits (AOR=7.27, P<0.01). The most commonly reported reasons for health care discrimination were race/ethnicity for blacks (52%) and Latinos (31%), and insurance status for whites (40%). Experiences of discrimination in mental health/substance abuse visits were associated with less helpful treatment ratings for Latinos (AOR=0.09, P<0.05) and whites (AOR=0.25, P<0.01), and early treatment termination for blacks (AOR=13.38, P<0.05). Experiences of discrimination are associated with negative mental health/substance abuse treatment experiences and stopped treatment, and could be a factor in mental health outcomes.

  4. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  5. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  6. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear.

  7. [Influence of double workload in perceived health and health services utilization of immigrants and Murcian natives, Spain].

    PubMed

    Moreno López, Ana Belén; Ballesta Ruiz, Mónica; Salmerón Martínez, Diego; Navarro Sánchez, Carmen; Tormo Díaz, María José

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequalities in health have been largely documented. The main objective of this study is to assess whether there are gender differences in perceived health and health services utilization, and their relation with double workload in a representative sample of immigrants and Murcian natives. We used data from the NHS 2006 and Health and Culture Study, 1,303 immigrants and 1,303 Spanish, both residents in the Region of Murcia. With the combination of reproductive work and paid work we built up the variable 'double workload' (DW). We estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) for positive self-perceived health, chronic morbidity, activity limitation, doctor's visits, hospitalization, emergency and drug use, by origin, using regression methods. Two models were constructed by adding double burden to the basic model adjusted by sociodemographic variables. Analyses were performed between and within sex. After adjusting for DW, no changes were seen in the differences by gender [RP women/men of positive perception health: 0.70 (0.54-0.89) East European; 0.87 (0.79-0.95) autochthonous / chronic morbidity: 1.44 (1.14-1.82) Hispanic; 1.36 (1.19-1.55) autochthonous / activity limitation: 2.23 (1.29-3.83) Hispanic; 1.45 (1.01-2.10) autochthonous / doctor's visits: 1.93 (1.50-2.48) Hispanic; 1.74 (1.06-2.86) Moroccan; 1.32 (1.09-1.59) autochthonous / hospitalization: 1.80 (1.02-3.17) Hispanic], almost the same than unadjusted. Women used more drugs than men. Within sexes, both autochthonous men (1.19; 1.06-1.33) and women (1.18; 1.01-1.40) with shared DW had more positive self-perceived health than those without DW. Hispanic men with DW without assistance: 0.67 (0.47-0.94). Women have worse health indicators and greater use of health services regardless of origin. Consideration of the double workload does not explain gender inequalities in health.

  8. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  9. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  10. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  11. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  12. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  13. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  14. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  15. The perceived health risks of cannabis use in an Australian household survey.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Bianca; Swift, Wendy; Slade, Tim; Hall, Wayne; Copeland, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Perceived risks of cannabis use have rarely been researched in Australia. This paper reports on the beliefs about the adverse effects of cannabis use on health, social well-being, driving, mental health and changes in cannabis over time. Survey of 918 Australian adults was conducted as part of a quarterly omnibus self-report survey of an established panel. Respondents believed that cannabis use can cause health and social problems, can adversely affect a person's ability to drive a car, can be addictive, and can lead to use of other illicit drugs. They were uncertain as to whether cannabis can cause schizophrenia and depression, and whether cannabis had become more potent over time. Prevention efforts should focus on educating the Australian people about the nature of cannabis-related harms. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. The Perceived Stigma of Mental Health Services Among Rural Parents of Children With Psychosocial Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stacey L.; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine parents’ perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. Methods 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Results Parents endorsed low levels of stigma around services. Greater perceived stigma was related to less willingness to seek services in a mental/behavioral health center or schools but not in other settings, even when other barriers were considered. Having a younger child and a history of prior services was associated with greater willingness to seek services. Conclusions Stigma does appear to present as a barrier, but only for some parents. Providing mental health services to young children and their parents in some nontraditional settings may increase access. PMID:26071754

  17. Barriers to Health Care Access Among the Elderly and Who Perceives Them

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Powe, Neil R.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Ives, Diane G.; Robbins, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated self-perceived access to health care in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods. We identified patterns of use and barriers to health care from self-administered questionnaires collected during the 1993–1994 annual examination of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Results. The questionnaires were completed by 4889 (91.1%) participants, with a mean age of 76.0 years. The most common barriers to seeing a physician were the doctor’s lack of responsiveness to patient concerns, medical bills, transportation, and street safety. Low income, no supplemental insurance, older age, and female gender were independently related to perceptions of barriers. Race was not significant after adjustment for other factors. Conclusions. Psychological and physical barriers affect access to care among the elderly; these may be influenced by poverty more than by race. PMID:15451751

  18. Exploring the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Montes-Berges, B; Augusto, J-M

    2007-04-01

    Studies conducted with nurses or nursing students have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. The present work examines the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, in the use of stress-coping strategies, in the quantity and quality of social support and in the mental health of nursing students. The results indicated positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and mental health. Hierarchy regression analysis pointed out that clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support, and emotional repair is the main predictor of mental health. These results show the importance of PEI in stress coping within the nursing framework.

  19. Perceived Impacts of Health Care Reform on Large Urban Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Russo, Pamela; Hearne, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Context: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is changing the landscape of health systems across the United States, as well as the functioning of governmental public health departments. As a result, local health departments are reevaluating their roles, objectives, and the services they provide. Objective: We gathered perspectives on the current and future impact of the ACA on governmental public health departments from leaders of local health departments in the Big Cities Health Coalition, which represents some of the largest local health departments in the country. Design: We conducted interviews with 45 public health officials in 16 participating Big Cities Health Coalition departments. We analyzed data reflecting participants' perspectives on potential changes in programs and services, as well as on challenges and opportunities created by the ACA. Results: Respondents uniformly indicated that they expected ACA to have a positive impact on population health. Most participants expected to conduct more population-oriented activities because of the ACA, but there was no consensus about how the ACA would impact the clinical services that their departments could offer. Local health department leaders suggested that the ACA might create a broad range of opportunities that would support public health as a whole, including expanded insurance coverage for the community, greater opportunity to collaborate with Accountable Care Organizations, increased focus on core public health issues, and increased integration with health care and social services. Conclusions: Leaders of some of the largest health departments in the United States uniformly acknowledged that realignments in funding prompted by the ACA are changing the roles that their offices can play in controlling infectious diseases, providing robust maternal and child health services, and more generally providing a social safety net for health care services in their communities. Health departments

  20. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  1. The prevalence and perceived health consequences of hunger in emergency department patient populations.

    PubMed

    Biros, Michelle H; Hoffman, Pamela L; Resch, Karen

    2005-04-01

    Hunger is associated with chronic poor health and may force patients to make choices that acutely impact their health. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hunger, some of the choices it forces, and its perceived health effects among emergency department (ED) patients. A validated survey about hunger, choosing between food and medicine, and perceived adverse health outcomes was administered in English, Spanish, and Somali to non-critically ill ED patients or their parents. Demographics, rates of hunger, numbers of yearly ED visits, and decisions between buying commodities or medications were assessed. Relationships between variables were summarized with odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals, and logistic regression. Of 930 respondents, 23.7% screened positive for hunger and 17.6% bought food instead of medications. Among the hunger-positive respondents, 44% believed this choice caused illness, and of these, 69% sought ED assessment and 35% believed they were hospitalized because of this choice. Predictors of hunger were low income (OR = 3.3), illicit drug use (OR = 5.5), chronic illness (OR = 2.1), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.9), and lack of insurance (OR = 1.8). Buying food instead of medicine was predicted by low income (OR = 2.5), chronic illness (OR = 2.4), and lack of insurance (OR = 3.4). Predictors of illness were chronic illness (OR = 1.8), lack of insurance (OR = 2.8), African American race (OR = 2.0), and "poor" health (OR = 1.9). These ED patients have high rates of hunger and often choose to buy food instead of medications. Many believe that this choice results in ED visits and hospitalizations. Socioeconomic factors may predict hunger and subsequent ill health.

  2. Knowledge, Perceived Ability and Practice Behaviors Regarding Oral Health among Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Perry, Antiana D; Iida, Hiroko; Patton, Lauren L; Wilder, Rebecca S

    2015-08-01

    Oral complications are common in children undergoing head and neck radiation and chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge, perceived ability and practice behaviors of pediatric oncology and hematology nurses in assisting with the various oral health care needs of pediatric oncology patients and to identify pediatric oncology nurses' previous training/education, practice types and other demographic characteristics that are related to their oral health competencies. A survey of a convenience sample of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Nurses was conducted during the Association of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Nurses' (APHON) 36(th) Annual Conference and Exhibit. Descriptive analysis and the exploratory factor analyses were performed using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Among the 300 surveys that were distributed, 235 surveys were completed (78% response rate) by pediatric oncology or hematology nurses who provide direct patient care in the U.S. Approximately 75% reported receiving less than 3 hours of oral health related education/training. Sixty percent did not have a clinical requirement regarding the assessment of the teeth and gums during their nursing school education. Bivariate analyses indicated that nurses who had clinical requirements regarding oral health assessment during nursing education/training presented greater overall oral health competencies including having greater confidence in examining oral complications than those who did not. Pediatric oncology nurses' knowledge, perceived ability and practice in assisting patient's oral hygiene care, preventing and managing oral complications vary by topic and might reflect their educational preparedness. This study may provide valuable information pertaining to the need and opportunity for interprofessional oral health care education and collaboration with nursing and dental professionals, in order to increase access to comprehensive oral care for pediatric

  3. Personality traits predict perceived health-related quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Falautano, Monica; Demontis, Silvia; Carpentras, Giovanni; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-04-01

    Personality traits can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS), personality traits can determine patients' willingness to take on more risky treatment options, predispose to neuropsychiatric symptoms and affect coping strategies. We investigated the role of personality traits as possible predictors of HRQoL in a large cohort of persons with MS (PwMS). In total, 253 consecutively recruited PwMS were screened for intellectual deficits with Raven Colour Progressive Matrices (RCPM), state anxiety with STAI-X1 and major depression on a clinical basis. PwMS' self-perceived mental and physical health status was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the personality profile with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). The correlation between HRQoL and personality traits was investigated by means of analysis of variance, adjusting for possible confounders. Of the 253 MS patients, 195 (F:M=2.75), aged 41.7±10.2 years were included in the analysis. The variance of SF-36 mental and physical composite score was largely explained by extraversion and neuroticism. Our data confirm that PwMS' HRQoL is largely influenced by personality traits, which may therefore act as predictors of perceived quality of life and should be included in clinical and experimental settings focusing on HRQoL. © The Author(s), 2015.

  4. Measuring community leaders' perceived ownership of health education programs: initial tests of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B S

    1995-03-01

    Development of community ownership is often identified as an important intermediate objective of community health education programs. Community ownership is assumed to be important to program effectiveness and long-term maintenance, but validated measures of this construct have not been available to test this proposition. A measure of community leaders' perceived ownership of health education programs was developed and tested. The Community Ownership Scale identified key functions within a program and asked community leaders to rate the amount of control the leaders themselves, the external sponsoring agency and the local program staff had in each area. The measure was tested with the volunteer leadership of three community health education programs. Predictions about scores were based on the conceptual framework from which the ownership construct was derived. Results of these tests were consistent with predictions, providing evidence for the validity of the measure. Subscale scores showed high levels of internal consistency reliability. This measure could be applied at different stages in the life of a program to monitor the success of efforts to foster community ownership, and to test the relationships between perceived ownership and program effectiveness and maintenance.

  5. [Applicability and perceived utility of the European Quality Instrument for Health Promotion (EQUIHP) in a health promotion programme].

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Gómez, Rebeca; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; López-Sánchez, M Pilar

    2017-03-23

    To describe the results of applying the European Quality Instrument for Health Promotion (EQUIHP) tool in the MIHsalud programme and to discuss its perceived utility by the programme's team members. Evaluation study applying EQUIHP to a health promotion programme. A total of ten MIHsalud staff (eight women and two men) completed the EQUIHP and participated in two group interviews to discuss its perceived utility. The programme obtained a total score of 6.5 points out of 10 in quality. The use of EQUIHP enabled the programme's weaknesses to be identified, such as lack of a communication plan, evaluability and sustainability; as well as its strengths, such as the inclusion of health promotion principles. The MIHsalud team believes that the EQUIHP is a useful tool which can facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of the programme in terms of a health promotion initiative. The use of the EQUIHP has made it possible to evaluate the quality of the programme and to make recommendations for its improvement, and it could be applied to other programmes and activities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of perceived organisational factors on job burnout: survey of community mental health staff.

    PubMed

    Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Cristofalo, Doriana; Marrella, Giovanna; Ceccato, Enrico; Cremonese, Carla; De Rossi, Moreno; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marangon, Vanna; Morandin, Idana; Zucchetto, Maria; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2009-12-01

    Staff burnout is a critical issue for mental healthcare delivery, as it can lead to decreased work performance and, ultimately, to poorer treatment outcomes. To explore the relative weight of job-related characteristics and perceived organisational factors in predicting burnout in staff working in community-based psychiatric services. A representative sample of 2000 mental health staff working in the Veneto region, Italy, participated. Burnout and perceived organisational factors were assessed by using the Organizational Checkup Survey. Overall, high levels of job distress affected nearly two-thirds of the psychiatric staff and one in five staff members suffered from burnout. Psychiatrists and social workers reported the highest levels of burnout, and support workers and psychologists, the lowest. Burnout was mostly predicted by a higher frequency of face-to-face interaction with users, longer tenure in mental healthcare, weak work group cohesion and perceived unfairness. Improving the workplace atmosphere within psychiatric services should be one of the most important targets in staff burnout prevention strategies. The potential benefits of such programmes may, in turn, have a favourable impact on patient outcomes.

  7. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  8. Determinants of and inequalities in self-perceived health in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B C; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard

    2002-12-01

    Ukraine is the second most populous of the former Soviet Republics and since transition its economy has fared even more poorly than Russia. Although the impact of the collapse of the former Soviet Union on health in Russia has been investigated, little is known of its impact in other post-Soviet republics. We report a cross-sectional study undertaken in Ukraine in March 2000. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used and 1600 interviews completed (72% response rate) with a representative national sample of Ukrainian adults. We investigated socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of self-perceived health, which has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of overall health and predictive of mortality. Odds ratios for less than good physical health were calculated using logistic regression. The self-rated health of Ukrainians was poor, 25% of men and 43% of women rated their health as poor or very poor. This is worse than levels recorded in Russia and considerably worse than levels seen in western Europe. Marked gender, geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in health were recorded. Women are at increased risk of poor self-rated health compared with men (OR 3.58, 2.50-5.14) as are women living in villages compared with those in cities (OR 3.24, 1.30-8.07). Socioeconomic factors including poor material situation (OR 1.64, 1.01-2.67), and psychosocial factors including low control over life (OR 1.89, 1.15-3.11) were identified as independent health determinants. Control over life was found to account for the negative impact of low social position on health. Good family relations protected against poor health. The findings suggest that a decrease in control, arising from an increasingly uncertain political and economic environment, a reduction in material wealth and the stress of change may all have contributed to the decline in life expectancy seen with transition.

  9. Fiber Compounds and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Camara, Montana; Fernandez-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Sanchez-Mata, Maria Cortes

    2017-01-01

    It is known that insufficient consumption of fiber in Western societies is directly linked to certain diseases. The required daily fiber intake can be obtained from foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and others, or by eating foods enriched with fiber as a functional ingredient. This review studies certain fiber compounds such as oligosaccharides (namely α-galactosides and fructans), arabinoxylans and β-glucans. The European regulatory body governing nutrition and health claims aims to protect consumers' right to receive truthful information about food by verifying statements on "nutrition", "content", "health claims" and "reducing the risk of disease". Some of these foods and functional ingredients can be considered as "novel foods". This paper describes the state of the art of certain fiber compounds and their effect on human health; the different requirements for fiber components used as functional or novel food ingredients; and the response of the European authorities to the use of this ingredient and its related health claims in terms of food labelling. After EFSA approval, these claims can be used in food labelling as an added value for consumer health, which may also improve their success in the market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status among elder Korean women: focus on living arrangements.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; An, Kyungeh; O'Connor, Linda; Wexler, Sharon

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether living arrangements significantly affect life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status of elder Korean women. A total of 121 women aged 65 to 89 was interviewed in an urban community senior center in Korea. The convenience sample was obtained by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status were strongly correlated with each other. Living arrangements significantly affected life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status. Women who live with their married son had the highest life satisfaction and self-esteem and perceived themselves to be healthier in comparison to their counterparts. Therefore, government programs need to be developed to assist children in caring for their parents to improve their overall well-being.

  11. Preferable forms of relaxation for health promotion, and the association between recreational activities and self-perceived health.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Aritake, Sayaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Makoto; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Uchimura, Naohisa; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Shimada, Naoki; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done on the association between relaxation and health. In the present study, by conducting a nationwide cross-sectional survey, we aimed to obtain scientific data on the preferable forms of relaxation for health promotion, and to clarify the associations between specific recreational activities and self-perceived mental and physical health. We selected 4,000 households by stratified random sampling from across Japan in November 2009 and used the interview method to collect data (number of subjects: 2,206). The questionnaire contained items on sleep, recreation status, recreational activities, and self-perceived mental and physical health status. We obtained responses from 1,224 adults (response rate: 55.5%). Insufficient rest from sleep, short sleep duration (<6 h/day), ineffective use of free time, and less free time used for activities other than rest showed independent positive associations with poor mental and physical health. The results of the logistic regression analyses showed significantly low adjusted odds ratios with regard to the status of poor mental and physical health for outings/walking among men (0.33 [95% confidence interval; 0.16-0.68] and 0.49 [0.26-0.90], respectively), and for community activities among women (0.19 [0.04-0.79] and 0.27 [0.09-0.77], respectively). Relaxation for the promotion of health should include both passive relaxation (rest) and active relaxation (recreation). In addition, ensuring sufficient sleep duration is important for passive relaxation, and engaging in outings/walking for men and community activities for women are important for active relaxation.

  12. Public information officers' perceived control in building local public health agendas and the impact of community size.

    PubMed

    Avery, Elizabeth Johnson; Lariscy, Ruthann Weaver

    2011-12-01

    Using data collected from 280 local public health information officers (PIOs) serving community sizes from rural to urban across the United States, this study examines issues of local autonomy or lack thereof in establishing local health agendas. It specifically addresses how size of community as well as state and federal agencies' agendas affect public health promotion at the local level. Findings reveal low levels of perceived local departmental control in building public health agendas among rural PIOs. Alternatively, urban PIOs report low levels of both perceived state and federal departmental control yet higher levels of local departmental control compared to counterparts in other sized locales. Implications and importance of findings are discussed.

  13. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n = 1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may

  14. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers' perceived mental, physical, and work-related health.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2014-05-30

    The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n = 1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers' perceived health. Because secondary school teachers' levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may indicate that teachers performing more exercise

  15. The influence of coping response and health-related quality of life on perceived social support during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    In the biopsychosocial approach, perceived social support has served as a protective factor for psychological adjustment to cancer. This study aimed to determine the influence of different coping responses and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains on perceived social support during cancer treatment. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out in a sample of 757 cancer outpatients. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was employed to assess perceived social support. The Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale measured coping response, and HRQoL was tested with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Multivariate analyses were carried out to examine the extent to which coping and HRQoL were associated with perceived social support. Coping response explained only 2% of the variance in perceived social support, but Hopelessness had a significant influence on perceived social support (p ≤ 0.01). HRQoL, physical, and mental domains made a significant contribution toward perceived social support, accounting for around 10% of total variance. More than coping response, HRQoL's physical and mental domains had an important influence on perceived social support during cancer treatment. The findings of the current study report the importance of HRQoL domains in predicting perceived social support during cancer treatment, emphasizing the holistic and multidisciplinary approach to facilitate adjustment to cancer.

  16. Understanding and valuing the broader health system benefits of Uganda's national Human Resources for Health Information System investment.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Julia; Settle, Dykki; Potenziani, David; Tulenko, Kate; Kabocho, Twaha; Wadembere, Ismail

    2015-08-31

    To address the need for timely and comprehensive human resources for health (HRH) information, governments and organizations have been actively investing in electronic health information interventions, including in low-resource settings. The economics of human resources information systems (HRISs) in low-resource settings are not well understood, however, and warrant investigation and validation. This case study describes Uganda's Human Resources for Health Information System (HRHIS), implemented with support from the US Agency for International Development, and documents perceptions of its impact on the health labour market against the backdrop of the costs of implementation. Through interviews with end users and implementers in six different settings, we document pre-implementation data challenges and consider how the HRHIS has been perceived to affect human resources decision-making and the healthcare employment environment. This multisite case study documented a range of perceived benefits of Uganda's HRHIS through interviews with end users that sought to capture the baseline (or pre-implementation) state of affairs, the perceived impact of the HRHIS and the monetary value associated with each benefit. In general, the system appears to be strengthening both demand for health workers (through improved awareness of staffing patterns) and supply (by improving licensing, recruitment and competency of the health workforce). This heightened ability to identify high-value employees makes the health sector more competitive for high-quality workers, and this elevation of the health workforce also has broader implications for health system performance and population health. Overall, it is clear that HRHIS end users in Uganda perceived the system to have significantly improved day-to-day operations as well as longer term institutional mandates. A more efficient and responsive approach to HRH allows the health sector to recruit the best candidates, train employees in

  17. Teacher Stress Related to Student Mental Health Promotion: The Match between Perceived Demands and Competence to Help Students with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekornes, Stine

    2017-01-01

    The present study highlights teacher stress related to student mental health promotion through the relationship between perceived competence, perceived responsibility and negative emotions. Data were derived from a mixed methods design, utilizing three focus group interviews (n = 15), followed by survey research (n = 771) amongst Norwegian K-12…

  18. The Association of Optimism and Perceived Discrimination With Health Care Utilization in Adults With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michael V.; Jonassaint, Charles R.; Bartholomew, Frederick B.; Edwards, Christopher; Richman, Laura; DeCastro, Laura; Williams, Redford

    2013-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of perceived discrimination, optimism, and their interaction on health care utilization among African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods Measures of optimism and perceived discrimination were obtained in 49 African American SCD patients. Multiple regression analyses controlling for sex and age tested effects of optimism and perceived discrimination on the number of emergency department visits (ED) and number and duration of hospitalizations over the past year. Results A perceived discrimination-optimism interaction was associated with number of emergency departments visits (b = .29, p = .052), number of hospitalizations (b = .36, p = .019), and duration of hospitalizations (b = .30, p = .045) such that those with high perceived discrimination/high optimism had the greatest health care utilization. Conclusions African American SCD patients with high perceived discrimination/high optimism had greater health care utilization than patients who reported either low perceived discrimination or low optimism. This study suggests that patient personality and coping styles should be considered when evaluating the effects of stress on SCD-related outcomes. PMID:21141295

  19. Solar radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  20. Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect.

    PubMed

    Landström, Eva; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto; Becker, Wulf; Magnusson, Maria

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to survey attitudes to and use of functional foods and to investigate which demographic variables and attitudes to diet and health predict consumption of functional foods among Swedish consumers. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged between 17 and 75 years. A total of 972 (48%) responded, 53% were female and 44% male. Mean age was 45 years. The results revealed that 84% of respondents were familiar with the concept of functional foods; 83% had consumed/purchased at least one of the seven functional food products presented in the questionnaire. Of those who had consumed a functional food, 25% had perceived effect of it. Positive correlations were seen between consumers perceiving a personal reward from eating functional foods, having an interest in natural products and an interest in general health. Consumption/purchase of functional foods was related to beliefs in the effects of the products, having consumed nutraceuticals or dietary supplements, having a diet-related problem personally or in the family, and a high level of education. The characteristic Swedish functional food consumer has a high level of education, is health-conscious and interested in healthy foods and believes in the health effect of functional foods. Thus, factors other than demographics better explain consumption of FF. However, the study population may represent a more health-conscious segment of the Swedish population in general. Additional studies are therefore required to elucidate the attitudes and use of FF in different consumer groups.

  1. Social networks, social participation and self-perceived health among older people in transitional Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Jerliu, Naim; Burazeri, Genc; Toçi, Ervin; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Jongen, Wesley; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies proved that social networks and social participation have beneficial health effects in western countries. However, the evidence from southeast European region is scant. We aimed to assess the extent of social networks and social participation and their relationship with self-perceived health status among older people in post-war Kosovo. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). Social networks were assessed by means of number of friends and family members that participants had contacts with, whereas social participation by involvement in social groupings/organizations. Information on self-perceived health status and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Overall, 93% of study participants reported that they had at least weekly contacts with more than one family member, and 97% reported daily contacts with their respective friends. Conversely, only 14% of participants reported engagement with social groupings. Generally, individuals who had contacts with friends and/or engaged with social organizations reported a better health status. Our findings point to strong family ties in this patriarchal society. Conversely, levels of social participation were considerably lower in Kosovo compared with the western European countries. The low participation levels in social groupings and their putative deleterious health effects should raise the awareness of policymakers to improve the conditions and increase the degree of social participation among older people in transitional Kosovo.

  2. Self-rated health and life satisfaction among Canadian adults: associations of perceived weight status versus BMI.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Hopman, Wilma M; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). As perceived constructs, self-rated health (SRH) and general life satisfaction (LS) might be more strongly related to perceived weight status than actual weight status. The aim was to assess agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported body mass index (BMI), and to investigate their associations with SRH and LS as indicators of HRQL. Cross-sectional data included 87,545 adults aged 18-65 years from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported BMI was assessed. Prevalence of suboptimal SRH and LS was estimated by perceived weight status and BMI, and adjusted logistic regression used to assess the odds of suboptimal outcomes. Overall agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported BMI was only moderate (females: κ = 0.58; males: κ = 0.42). The lowest prevalences of suboptimal SRH and LS were in those who reported both a healthy weight BMI and "about right" weight perception. Discordance between perceived weight status and BMI status, and congruence (i.e. perceived weight status = BMI) around underweight or overweight/obese were associated with poorer SRH and LS. For weight perceptions of "about right", BMI status had minimal influence on suboptimal SRH or LS, while perceptions of underweight or overweight were associated with higher odds of suboptimal SRH and LS, independent of BMI. Adults' weight status perceptions often do not agree with their actual weight status, even when self-reported. While both perceived and actual weight status influence self-rated health and life satisfaction, perceptions are more strongly associated with these HRQL indicators and should be considered when informing obesity-targeted policies and programmes.

  3. Perceived health profiles of Dutch university students living with their parents, alone or with peers.

    PubMed

    Boot, Cécile R L; Rietmeijer, Chris B T; Vonk, Peter; Meijman, Frans J

    2009-01-01

    Students report a lower health status compared with working peers. This discrepancy may be the result of differences in their living situation, such as student housing. The aim of this study was to compare students who were living with their parents with students who were not living with their parents but rather with peers, alone, or with a partner using logistic regression analyses. We hypothesized that students who were living with their parents would report better health outcomes than students who were living with peers or alone or with a partner. A group of 8,258 students studying at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands were invited to complete an internet-distributed questionnaire, consisting of questions about general health, fatigue, psychological health, support, study-related issues, study-related problem solving, time pressure, perceived study delay and program study delay, and living situation. Students who are living with their parents reported a lower health status compared with students living with peers or alone/with a partner. Students living with their parents were less often using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs compared with the other two groups. Our hypothesis is not supported by the results of the present study. Students living alone or with a partner and students who are living with peers reported a better general health status than students living with their parents.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  5. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening.

  6. Immediate effect of CPAP titration on perceived health related quality of life: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Iacono Isidoro, Serena; Salvaggio, Adriana; Lo Bue, Anna; Romano, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Insalaco, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Perceived Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is impaired in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study examines changes in HRQoL aspects occurring immediately after CPAP titration. Furthermore, we analyzed variations in each gender and in patients undergoing home or laboratory-based CPAP titration pathways. Twohundredfive outpatients (151 M) (56.7 ± 10.3 years) were evaluated, before first visit and nocturnal diagnostic examination (T0), and the morning after CPAP titration (T1). Two self-reported HRQoL questionnaires were administered: Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI), composed by six subscales, and 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), including Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Summaries (MCS). CPAP titration was performed using auto-adjusting CPAP units at patients' home or in the sleep laboratory. PGWBI scores at T1 improved compared to T0 (p < 0.0001). A similar improvement was observed in SF-12 MCS (p = 0.0011), but not in SF-12 PCS. Changes were independent from anthropometric parameters, OSA severity and excessive daytime sleepiness. Gender comparisons showed better HRQoL in males at both times. At T0, patients who received home or laboratory CPAP titration pathways did not show any differences in PGWBI and SF-12 scores. At T1, PGWBI and SF-12 MCS improved in both home and laboratory groups. This study gives evidence that first time CPAP application for titration can lead to a general increase in perceived well-being. Gender comparisons showed better perceived HRQoL with more subscales improvements in males after CPAP titration. The improvement was similar with both home and laboratory CPAP titration pathways.

  7. Attitudes and perceived barriers of tertiary level health professionals towards incident reporting in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Raees; Alam, Ali Yawar; Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Ghulam Mustafa; Abbas, Syed Muslim

    2010-02-01

    A limited framework of incident reporting exists in most of the health care system in Pakistan. This poses a risk to the patient population and therefore there is a need to find the causes behind the lack of such a system in healthcare settings in Pakistan. To determine the attitudes and perceived barriers towards incident reporting among tertiary care health professionals in Pakistan The study was done in Shifa International Hospitals and consisted of a questionnaire given to 217 randomly selected doctors and nurses. Mean ± SD of continuous variables and frequency (percentage %) of categorical variables are presented. Chi square statistical analysis was used to test the significance of association among doctors and nurses with various outcome variables (motivators to report, perceived barriers, preferred person to report and patient's outcome that influence reporting behaviors). P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Student doctors and student nurses were not included in the study. Unlike consultant, registrars, medical officers and nurses (more than 95% are willing to report), only 20% of house officers will report the incident happened through them. Sixty nine percent of doctors and 67% of nurses perceive 'administration sanction' as a common barrier to incident reporting. Sixty percent of doct