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Sample records for percent ni austenitic

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Deformation Behavior of B2 Austenite in a Polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at.Percent) Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Benafan, O.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S. A., II; Clausen, B.; Vogel, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Superelasticity in austenitic B2-NiTi is of great technical interest and has been studied in the past by several researchers [1]. However, investigation of temperature dependent deformation in B2-NiTi is equally important since competing mechanisms of stress-induced martensite (SIM), retained martensite, plastic and deformation twinning can lead to unusual mechanical behaviors. Identification of the role of various mechanisms contributing to the overall deformation response of B2-NiTi is imperative to understanding and maturing SMA-enabled technologies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the deformation of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) above A(sub f) (105 C) in the B2 state at temperatures between 165-440 C, and generate a B2 deformation map showing active deformation mechanisms in different temperature-stress regimes.

  2. Stable atomic structure of NiTi austenite

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A; Johnson, Duane D

    2014-08-01

    Nitinol (NiTi), the most widely used shape-memory alloy, exhibits an austenite phase that has yet to be identified. The usually assumed austenitic structure is cubic B2, which has imaginary phonon modes, hence it is unstable. We suggest a stable austenitic structure that “on average” has B2 symmetry (observed by x-ray and neutron diffraction), but it exhibits finite atomic displacements from the ideal B2 sites. The proposed structure has a phonon spectrum that agrees with that from neutron scattering, has diffraction spectra in agreement with x-ray diffraction, and has an energy relative to the ground state that agrees with calorimetry data.

  3. Stable atomic structure of NiTi austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-08-01

    Nitinol (NiTi), the most widely used shape-memory alloy, exhibits an austenite phase that has yet to be identified. The usually assumed austenitic structure is cubic B2, which has imaginary phonon modes, hence it is unstable. We suggest a stable austenitic structure that "on average" has B2 symmetry (observed by x-ray and neutron diffraction), but it exhibits finite atomic displacements from the ideal B2 sites. The proposed structure has a phonon spectrum that agrees with that from neutron scattering, has diffraction spectra in agreement with x-ray diffraction, and has an energy relative to the ground state that agrees with calorimetry data.

  4. Evaluation of Mn substitution for Ni in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Liu, Chain T; Evans, Neal D; Maziasz, Philip J; Brady, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the substitution of low-cost Mn for Ni in austenitic stainless steels due to the rising price of Ni. This paper investigates the possibility of such a substitution approach for the recently developed alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-forming austenitic (AFA) class of heat-resistant stainless steels. Computational thermodynamic tools were utilized to predict the alloy composition range to maintain an austenitic matrix microstructure when Mn is substituted for Ni in the presence of Al, which is a strong body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase stabilizer. Phase equilibria, oxidation behavior, and creep properties of Fe-(10-14)Cr-(5--15)Mn-(4-12)Ni-(2.5-3)Al-Cu-Nb-C-B (in weight percent) based alloys were studied. The alloys based on Fe-14Cr-2.5Al-(5-9)Mn-(10-12)Ni exhibited the best balance of oxidation and creep resistance, which represents approximately 50% reduction in Ni content compared to previously developed AFA alloys. These low-Ni, high-Mn AFA alloys formed protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales up to 973-1073 K in air and at 923 K in air with 10% water vapor. Creep-rupture lives of the alloys under a severe screening condition of 1023 K and 100 MPa were in the 7.2 x 10{sup 5}-1.8 x 10{sup 6} s (200-500 h) range, which is comparable to or somewhat improved over that of type 347 stainless steel (Fe-18Cr-11Ni base).

  5. Wear Behavior of Austenitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to understand the wear behavior of austenitic NiTi SMA with the hope to provide a guideline for its better use for wear-resist purposes. Ball-on-disk sliding wear tests with alumina counter ball were conducted at different temperatures and under different loads. Based on the coefficients of friction, the surface wear features, temperature-dependent stress-strain curves and the estimated contact stresses, the deformation mechanisms involved in the wear process were examined. Two wear modes were identified. Mode I is temperature-sensitive and occurred when A f < T < M d. In this mode, wear process was dominated by the interplay among contact stress, temperature and shape recovery property. Results show that, when the contact stress causes either elastic deformation of austenite or stress-induced martensitic transformation, the wear resistance was improved with increasing temperature. This was originated from increased critical stress for stress-induced martensite which retards plastic deformation. However, when contact stress is higher than yield stress of stress-induced martensite, wear resistance is deteriorated. Mode II occurs when T > M d and it is less temperature-sensitive within the testing range. In this mode, the austenitic NiTi loses its superelasticity and obeys a conventional deformation sequence, and the key factor dominating the wear process is the magnitude of contact stress.

  6. Formation and Growth Kinetics of Reverted Austenite During Tempering of a High Co-Ni Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Marina; Ressel, Gerald; Méndez Martín, Francisca; Ploberger, Sarah; Marsoner, Stefan; Ebner, Reinhold

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that high Co-Ni steels exhibit excellent toughness. Since the good toughness in these steels is supposed to be related to thin layers of austenite between martensite crystals, this work presents an experimental study corroborated with diffusional calculations to characterize the evolution of reverted austenite. Atom probe measurements were conducted for analyzing the element distribution in austenite and martensite during tempering. These results were correlated with crystallographic information, which was obtained by using transmission electron microscopy investigations. Additionally, the experimental findings were compared with kinetic calculations with DICTRA™. The investigations reveal that reverted austenite formation during tempering is connected with a redistribution of Ni, Co, Cr, and Mo atoms. The austenite undergoes a Ni and Cr enrichment and a Co depletion, while in the neighboring martensite, a zone of Ni and Cr depletion and Co enrichment is formed. The changes in the chemical composition of austenite during tempering affect the stability of the austenite against phase transformation to martensite during plastic deformation and have thus decisive influence on the toughness of the material.

  7. The formation of twinned austenite in Fe-10Cr-10Ni-2W maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, J.I.; Hong, S.H.; Nam, S.W. )

    1991-12-01

    The precipitation hardening mechanisms in high strength maraging steels have been studied in detail by many investigators, but limited information is available on the formation of austenite during aging. Some investigations have been concerned with the understanding of the effect of reverted austenite formed during aging on the mechanical properties. However, only a few investigations have been reported on the morphology and crystallographic feature of austenite. Shiang and Wayman first reported the twin-related and coupled morphology of Widmanstatten austenite plates which were frequently observed in maraging steel. In addition, Ameyama et al. reported the morphology and crystallographic features of austenite formed in ferrite grain during aging in a two-phase stainless steel, and found that each side of the austenite pair of twins satisfies the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship with the parent phase. The morphology and crystallographic features of the reverted austenite formed during aging of Fe-10Cr-10Ni-2W stainless maraging steel have been investigated in this paper. The major strengthening precipitate in Fe-10Cr-10Ni-2W maraging steels has been identified as the rod-shaped {eta}-Ni{sub 3}Ti phase in our previous study. The peculiar morphology of the austenite, i.e., twinned austenite, also has been found in our studies of maraging steel in the Fe-10Cr-10Ni-2W lath martensite. In addition, computer simulation of the diffraction pattern is used to confirm the orientation relationships, such as the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) relationship, the Nishiyama-Wasserman (N-W) relationship and the twin relationship by comparisons with the experimentaly observed results.

  8. Texture evolution of cold rolled and reversion annealed metastable austenitic CrMnNi steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, A.; Fischer, K.; Segel, C.; Schreiber, G.; Biermann, H.

    2015-04-01

    A thermo-mechanical process consisting of cold rolling and subsequent reversion annealing was applied to high-alloy metastable austenitic CrMnNi steels with different nickel contents. As a result of the reversion annealing ultrafine grained material with a grain size in the range between 500 nm up to 4 μm were obtained improving the strength behavior of the material. The evolution of the texture of both the cold rolled states and the reversion-annealed states was studied either by X-ray diffraction or by EBSD measurements. The nickel content has a significant influence on the austenite stability and consequently also on the amount of the martensitic phase transformation. However, the developed textures in both steel variants with different austenite stability revealed the same behavior. In both investigated steels the texture of the reverted austenite is a pronounced Bs-type texture as developed also for the deformed austenite

  9. Austenite layer and precipitation in high Co-Ni maraging steel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchong; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    In high Co-Ni maraging steel, austenite has a great effect on the fracture toughness of the steel and the precipitated carbides are the main strengthening phase. In this study, both austenite layers and precipitation were observed and their formation theory was analyzed by Thermo-Calc simulation and several reported results. TEM and HRTEM observation results showed that the thickness of the austenite layers was about 5-10 nm and the length of the needle-like precipitated carbides was less than 10nm. The carbides maintained coherent or semi-coherent relation with the matrix.

  10. Microstructure inhomogeneity of Fe-31%Ni alloy and stabilization of austenite.

    PubMed

    Dzevin, Ievgenij M

    2015-01-01

    Сrystal structure and mechanism of crystallization of Fe-Ni alloys were studied by methods of X-ray diffraction and metallography. It has been found that macro- and microstructure of austenitic alloy was essentially heterogeneous at the contact and free surfaces and in the volume of a ribbon. The indentified peculiarities of the austenitic phase in different areas of the ribbon are attributed to different cooling rates and the melt crystallization conditions.

  11. Replacement of Ni by Mn in High-Ni-Containing Austenitic Cast Steels used for Turbo-Charger Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seungmun; Jo, Yong Hee; Jeon, Changwoo; Choi, Won-Mi; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Oh, Yong-Jun; Kim, Gi-Yong; Jang, Seongsik; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-02-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of austenitic cast steels fabricated by replacing Ni by Mn in a 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel were investigated. In a steel where 8 wt pct Ni was replaced by 9.2 wt pct of Mn, 17.4 and 9.8 pct of ferrite existed in equilibrium phase diagrams and actual microstructures, respectively, because a role of Mn as an austenite stabilizer decreased, and led to deterioration of high-temperature properties. When 2 to 6 wt pct Ni was replaced by 2.3 to 6.9 wt pct Mn, high-temperature properties were comparable to those of the 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel because ferrites were absent, which indicated the successful replacement of 6 wt pct Ni by Mn, with cost reduction of 27 pct.

  12. Phonon dispersion in austenitic stainless steel Fe18Cr12Ni2Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzel, M.; Danilkin, S. A.; Hoser, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Wieder, T.; Fuess, H.

    The phonon dispersion of Fe18Cr12Ni2Mo austenitic stainless steel was measured along the symmetry directions [001], [110] and [111]. Data were analysed in the frame of the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics. The obtained force constants were used to evaluate the elastic constants and the engineering elastic moduli. Our results for the elastic constants confirm empirical relationships between the elastic constants found for FCC FeCrNi alloys.

  13. Examination of Austenite Solidification and Spheroidal Graphite Growth in Ni-Fe-C Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, J.; Richards, V. L.; Van Aken, D. C.

    The austenite phase and the spheroidal graphite in a Ni-Fe-C alloy at various solidification stages were captured by quenching experiments using spherical ceramic shell molds with inserted thermocouples. Multiple graphite nodules /spheroidal graphite particles inside an eutectic cell were observed using optical microscopy. Individual eutectic cells were differentiated by an intermetallic phase occurring within the interdendritic regions. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation image mapping (OIM) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallographic orientation and the grain boundary distribution of the austenite grains surrounding individual spheroidal graphite particles. The austenite engulfment process around the spheroidal graphite was revealed by EBSD/OIM analyses. Examination of the graphite nodules extracted by deep etching experiments revealed three stages of growth for the spheroidal graphite particles.

  14. In-situ determination of austenite and martensite formation in 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2012-09-15

    In-situ analysis of the phase transformations in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) was carried out using a thermo-magnetic technique, dilatometry and high temperature X-ray diffractometry (HT-XRD). A combination of the results obtained by the three applied techniques gives a valuable insight in the phase transformations during the austenitization treatment, including subsequent cooling, of the 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel, where the magnetic technique offers a high accuracy in monitoring the austenite fraction. It was found by dilatometry that the austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages, most likely caused by partitioning of Ni into austenite. The in-situ evolution of the austenite fraction is monitored by high-temperature XRD and dilatometry. The progress of martensite formation during cooling was described with a Koistinen-Marburger relation for the results obtained from the magnetic and dilatometer experiments. Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface was detected by X-ray diffraction, which is assumed to be due to relaxation of transformation stresses at the sample surface. Due to the high alloy content and high thermodynamic stability of austenite at room temperature, 4 vol.% of austenite was found to be stable at room temperature after the austenitization treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We in-situ analyzed phase transformations and fractions of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo SMSS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher accuracy of the austenite fraction was obtained from magnetic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface detected by X-ray diffraction.

  15. Thermally Stable Ni-rich Austenite Formed Utilizing Multistep Intercritical Heat Treatment in a Low-Carbon 10 Wt Pct Ni Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Zhang, Xian J.; Ghosh, Gautam; Seidman, David N.

    2017-08-01

    Austenite reversion and its thermal stability attained during the transformation is key to enhanced toughness and blast resistance in transformation-induced-plasticity martensitic steels. We demonstrate that the thermal stability of Ni-stabilized austenite and kinetics of the transformation can be controlled by forming Ni-rich regions in proximity of pre-existing (retained) austenite. Atom probe tomography (APT) in conjunction with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling elucidates the role of Ni-rich regions in enhancing growth kinetics of thermally stable austenite, formed utilizing a multistep intercritical ( Quench- Lamellarization- Tempering (QLT)-type) heat treatment for a low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni steel. Direct evidence of austenite formation is provided by dilatometry, and the volume fraction is quantified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during the second intercritical tempering treatment (T-step) at 863 K (590 °C), with austenite retained from first intercritical treatment (L-step) at 923 K (650 °C) acting as a nucleation template. For the first time, the thermal stability of austenite is quantified with respect to its compositional evolution during the multistep intercritical treatment of these steels. Austenite compositions measured by APT are used in combination with the thermodynamic and kinetic approach formulated by Ghosh and Olson to assess thermal stability and predict the martensite-start temperature. This approach is particularly useful as empirical relations cannot be extrapolated for the highly Ni-enriched austenite investigated in the present study.

  16. Machining and Phase Transformation Response of Room-Temperature Austenitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    This experimental work reports the results of a study addressing tool wear, surface topography, and x-ray diffraction analysis for the finish cutting process of room-temperature austenitic NiTi alloy. Turning operation of NiTi alloy was conducted under dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. Findings revealed that cryogenic machining substantially reduced tool wear and improved surface topography and quality of the finished parts in comparison with the other two approaches. Phase transformation on the surface of work material was not observed after dry and MQL machining, but B19' martensite phase was found on the surface of cryogenically machined samples.

  17. Ultrafine-Grained Structure of Fe-Ni-C Austenitic Alloy Formed by Phase Hardening.

    PubMed

    Danilchenko, Vitalij

    2016-12-01

    The X-ray and magnetometry methods were used to study α-γ transformation mechanisms on heating quenched Fe-22.7 wt.% Ni-0.58 wt.% С alloy. Variation of heating rate within 0.03-80 K/min allowed one to switch from diffusive to non-diffusive mechanism of the α-γ transformation. Heating up primary austenitic single crystal specimen at a rate of less than 1.0-0.5 K/min has led to formation of aggregate of grains with different orientation and chemical composition in the reverted austenite. Significant fraction of these grains was determined to have sizes within nanoscale range.

  18. Effect of precipitated austenite on the fracture of a ferritic cryogenic steel. [Fe-8Ni-2Mn-0. 1Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of precipitated austenite on the fracture of an Fe-8Ni-2Mn-0.1Ti steel was investigated. To understand the effect an attempt was made to correlate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the fracture surface appearance of specimens heat treated to contain austenite or be austenite-free. The fracture surfaces were quantitatively studied using a 3D imaging technique in the SEM. It was found that the presence of austenite had a beneficial influence on mechanical properties by lowering the DBTT. Part of this decrease was found to be due to the austenite gettering deleterious elements off the grain boundaries. Specimens that contained precipitated austenite were also found to have a smaller median facet size, when fractured in a brittle transgranular mode, than specimens with no austenite. The decrease in DBTT and change in fracture surface appearance is related to the austenite transforming to martensite of a different variant than the matrix which effectively grain refines the steel and raises the cleavage stress.

  19. Evolution of Intergranular Stresses in a Martensitic and an Austenitic NiTi Wire during Loading-unloading Tensile Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Yu, C.; Daymond, M R; Ren, Y.

    2015-06-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction testing was carried out on a martensitic and an austenitic NiTi wire to study the evolution of internal stresses and the stress-induced martensite (SIM) phase transformation during room temperature tensile deformation. From the point of lattice strain evolution, it is concluded that (1) for the martensitic NiTi wire, detwinning of the [011](B19') type II twins and the {010}(B19') compound twins is responsible for internal strains formed at the early stage of deformation. (2) The measured diffraction moduli of individual martensite families show large elastic anisotropy and strong influences of texture. (3) For the austenitic NiTi wire, internal residual stresses were produced due to transformation-induced plasticity, which is more likely to occur in austenite families that have higher elastic moduli than their associated martensite families. (4) Plastic deformation was observed in the SIM at higher stresses, which largely decreased the lower plateau stresses.

  20. Triclinic Ni[sub 2]Al phase in 63. 1 atomic percent NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, A.S.; Goo, E. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on the 63.1 at pct NiAl specimens aged in the L1[sub 0] phase indicate the presence of localized regions consisting of very high-density twins along with precipitates of Ni[sub 2]Al stoichiometry. In regions representative of the 7R phase, it is observed that the ordered Ni[sub 2]Al phase exists in lattice correspondence with the 7R phase. Based on the electron-diffraction results, the crystal structure of this Ni[sub 2]Al phase is determined to be triclinic, belonging to the space group P[bar 1]. This new Ni[sub 2]Al phase alternatively may be viewed as a periodically microtwinned monoclinic Ni[sub 2]Al phase, existing in coherence with the matrix L1[sub 0] phase that is also periodically microtwinned.

  1. Investigation of the effect of cyclic laser heating for creating dispersed structures in the austenitic-martensitic alloys based on Fe-Cr-Ni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. O.; Mironov, V. D.; Petrovskii, V. N.; Orlov, A. V.; Libman, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of cyclic laser heating on the formation of the austenite structure in the austenitic-martensitic alloys based on Fe-Cr-Ni system is investigated. It is shown that under the influence of ultra-fast laser heating on the martensite, which was formed during plastic deformation, the reverse martensitic transformation occurs, and austenite with high strength characteristics is formed. Repeated and multiple laser heating effectively grinds areas of austenite to a size close to the large nanoparticles. There is an additional increase in the strength characteristics of austenite as a result of this fragmentation.

  2. Modeling of radiation-induced segregation in austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Todd Randall

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was studied in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated with protons to better understand the mechanisms causing changes in grain boundary chemistry and to improve the ability to predict RIS in austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Ni-18Cr, Ni-18Cr-9Fe, Ni-18Cr-0.08P, and Fe-20Cr-9Fe were irradiated with 3.2MeV protons at temperatures from 200sp°C to 500sp°C and to doses from 0.1 to 3 dpa. Grain boundary chemistry was measured using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM/EDS). The significant driving mechanism far segregation in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys is shown to be the inverse Kirkendall (IK) mechanism, specifically the coupling between alloying elements and the vacancy flux. The inclusion of interstitial binding effects to RIS models results in poor agreement between model predictions and segregation measurements, severely overpredicting the measured Ni enrichment and Fe depletion. Grain boundary segregation is unique for each bulk alloy composition in that the amount and the rate of segregation differs for alloys irradiated under the same conditions. Kinetic parameters must be known for each alloy to accurately predict segregation, but the kinetic parameters in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys at low temperature are not well studied. Additionally, short range ordering interactions are important in determining the segregation in all Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Ordering enthalpies must be included in RIS models to correctly describe the segregation process. Therefore, to develop a predictive RIS model, a method for calculating diffusivities from the bulk composition that includes ordering enthalpies was developed. The Perks (IK) model has been modified to account for composition dependent segregation kinetics by calculating the migration energy using pair interaction potentials, ordering enthalpies, and the local concentration. Based on segregation measurements from seven different alloys

  3. Anomalous lattice softening of Ni2MnGa austenite due to magnetoelastic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, Oleg; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal

    2012-04-01

    Elastic constants of the cubic Ni2MnGa austenite phase and corresponding mechanical damping were determined in the temperature range from 220 K to 400 K and magnetic field up to 2 T using ultrasound pulse-echo method and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The shear coefficient c' increases from 3.6 GPa in the demagnetized state to 5.9 GPa at magnetic saturation, whereas the damping decreased nearly six times. The changes of other elastic constants, c11 and c44 with an applied field were less than 1%. In the ferromagnetic state, the c' was proportional to the square of magnetization. Above the Curie point, the coefficient c' and damping were field-independent. The anomalous shear softening is attributed to strong magnetoelastic coupling enhanced by low magnetic anisotropy.

  4. Phase composition and hardening of steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Co-Mo system with martensite-austenite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, L. V.; Shal'kevich, A. B.

    2007-03-01

    The phase composition and mechanical properties of maraging steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Co-Mo system are studied as a function of the alloying and of the temperatures of quenching and aging. The intermetallic phases strengthening martensite in different aging stages are determined. The degree of the hardening and the variation of the impact toughness at cryogenic temperatures are compared for steels with different structures (martensite and martensite-austenite) in the stages of maximum hardening and overaging. The effect of retained and reverted austenite on the resistance to crack propagation under impact loading is determined for steels with martensite of a different nature and amount of hardening phases.

  5. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  6. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2014-12-31

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy; nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between a body-centered orthorhombic (bco) ground state and a newly identified stable austenite ("glassy" B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R phase), and between martensite variants (bco orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. These high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  7. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, butmore » unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.« less

  8. Effect of retained austenite on high cycle fatigue behaviour of carburized 14NiCr11 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeddi, D.; Sidhom, H.; Lieurade, H.-P.

    2008-11-01

    Two vacuum carburizing treatments were applied to ductile steel 14NiCr11 to obtain equivalent hardened layers with retained austenite contents of 25% and 41%. The properties of the carburized surfaces were examined and characterized before fatigue tests and during cyclic loading. Transformation of retained austenite into martensite during loading, was evaluated by dispersive X-ray diffraction method. The effects of this transformation on the residual stresses have been measured by X ray diffraction in martensite and in retained austenite structures. It was shown that the cyclic retained austenite transformation caused a redistribution of the compressive residual stresses and an increased surface hardness that stabilized after a small number of cycles. The dependence of fatigue behaviour on surface properties was determined, and a relationship between the stabilized state and the fatigue limit is suggested. A phenomenological approach is proposed to correlate the influence of surface hardening and the stabilized residual stresses on fatigue limit of carburized specimens. The Crossland, Dang Van and Findley-Matake, multiaxial high cycle fatigue criteria were used in this approach and results have shown a good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Influence of the PM-Processing Route and Nitrogen Content on the Properties of Ni-Free Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefor, Kathrin; Walter, M.; Weddeling, A.; Hryha, E.; Huth, S.; Weber, S.; Nyborg, L.; Theisen, W.

    2015-03-01

    Ni-free austenitic steels alloyed with Cr and Mn are an alternative to conventional Ni-containing steels. Nitrogen alloying of these steel grades is beneficial for several reasons such as increased strength and corrosion resistance. Low solubility in liquid and δ-ferrite restricts the maximal N-content that can be achieved via conventional metallurgy. Higher contents can be alloyed by powder-metallurgical (PM) production via gas-solid interaction. The performance of sintered parts is determined by appropriate sintering parameters. Three major PM-processing routes, hot isostatic pressing, supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS), and solid-state sintering, were performed to study the influence of PM-processing route and N-content on densification, fracture, and mechanical properties. Sintering routes are designed with the assistance of thermodynamic calculations, differential thermal analysis, and residual gas analysis. Fracture surfaces were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Tensile tests and X-ray diffraction were performed to study mechanical properties and austenite stability. This study demonstrates that SLPS process reaches high densification of the high-Mn-containing powder material while the desired N-contents were successfully alloyed via gas-solid interaction. Produced specimens show tensile strengths >1000 MPa combined with strain to fracture of 60 pct and thus overcome the other tested production routes as well as conventional stainless austenitic or martensitic grades.

  10. Strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation in an ultrafine-grained Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Koohdar, H. R.; Habibi-Parsa, M.; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Alidokht, S. A.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-05-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of heavy cold rolling on microstructural evolution in an Fe-10Ni-7Mn (wt.%) martensitic steel. The chemical driving force for the strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation was calculated using thermodynamic principles and a model was developed for estimating the effect of applied stress on the driving force of the martensite to austenite reverse transformation through heavy cold rolling. These calculations show that, in order to make a reverse transformation feasible, the applied stress on the material should supply the total driving force, both chemical and non-chemical, for the transformation. It is demonstrated that after 60% cold rolling the required driving force for the reverse transformation may be provided. Experimental results, including cold rolling and transmission electron microscopy images, are utilized to verify the thermodynamic calculations.

  11. Performance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels, Fe-base and Ni-base alloys exposed to metal dusting environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Put Ep Rouaix, Aurelie; Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A; Brady, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    A series of conventional Fe- and Ni- base, chromia- and alumina- forming alloys, and a newly developed creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic steel were developed and its performance relative to conventional Fe- and Ni-based chromia-forming alloys was evaluated in metal dusting environments with a range of water vapor contents. Five 500h experiments have been performed at 650 C with different water vapor contents and total pressures. Without water vapor, the Ni-base alloys showed greater resistance to metal dusting than the Fe-base alloys, including AFA. However, with 10-28% water vapor, more protective behavior was observed with the higher-alloyed materials and only small mass changes were observed. Longer exposure times are in progress to further differentiate performance.

  12. The Composition of Precipitated Austenite in 5.5 Ni Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    analysis of this austenite differ cuantitatively (cont . C’D , 1473 E ,TICN OF I NO. 6SIS 3,SO.ETE 4/N 0102 LF 014 660C SECURITY CLASSIrICATION Of Tk.% Pik...quantitatively in the retained austenite compositions they reveal. On the other hand, the two techniques are in qualitative agreement both with...uncertain, the qualitative trends revealed in the variation of composition with heat treatment are both consistent and plau- sible. They indicate a co

  13. Heat Estimation from Infrared Measurement Compared to DSC for Austenite to R Phase Transformation in a NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delobelle, V.; Favier, D.; Louche, H.

    2013-06-01

    Heat source estimations from temperature field measurements deduced from infrared imaging are increasingly used to study thermo-mechanical coupling during materials' deformation. These estimations are based on approximations of the derivative terms with respect to time and space which are involved in the heat diffusion equation. This paper proposes a first experimental validation of this method by applying it to an experimental uniform air cooling of a NiTi Shape Memory Alloy thin plate. In the studied cooling temperate range, heat sources are due to Austenite to R phase transformation. Transformation temperatures, heat sources, and energies are estimated from infrared temperature measurements and compared successfully to differential scanning calorimetry results.

  14. Deformation Microstructure and Deformation-Induced Martensite in Austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys Depending on Stacking Fault Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Gorbatov, Oleg I.; Borgenstam, Annika; Ruban, Andrei V.; Hedström, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The deformation microstructure of austenitic Fe-18Cr-(10-12)Ni (wt pct) alloys with low stacking fault energies, estimated by first-principles calculations, was investigated after cold rolling. The ɛ-martensite was found to play a key role in the nucleation of α'-martensite, and at low SFE, ɛ formation is frequent and facilitates nucleation of α' at individual shear bands, whereas shear band intersections become the dominant nucleation sites for α' when SFE increases and mechanical twinning becomes frequent.

  15. The complex action of major solutes on radiation induced swelling of Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A. ); Lauritzen, T. ); Mitchell, M.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The radiation-induced swelling of simple Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys is sensitive to solute additions. It is shown in this paper that three of the most common solute elements (P,Si,Mo) exert a very complex and often non-monotonic influence on swelling with increasing solute level. The complexity of this influence and its dependence on other variables appears to be the result of a closely balanced competition between two or more roles played by each solute in its interaction with both vacancies and interstitials. This competition yields a variety of different swelling behaviors in response to changes in solute or solvent composition, displacement rate, and irradiation temperature.

  16. Comprehensive Deformation Analysis of a Newly Designed Ni-Free Duplex Stainless Steel with Enhanced Plasticity by Optimizing Austenite Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Eskandari, Mostafa; Burrows, Andrew; Alimadadi, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    A new metastable Ni-free duplex stainless steel has been designed with superior plasticity by optimizing austenite stability using thermodynamic calculations of stacking fault energy and with reference to literature findings. Several characterization methods comprising optical microscopy, magnetic phase measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction were employed to study the plastic deformation behavior and to identify the operating plasticity mechanisms. The results obtained show that the newly designed duplex alloy exhibits some extraordinary mechanical properties, including an ultimate tensile strength of 900 MPa and elongation to fracture of 94 pct due to the synergistic effects of transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity. The deformation mechanism of austenite is complex and includes deformation banding, strain-induced martensite formation, and deformation-induced twinning, while the ferrite phase mainly deforms by dislocation slip. Texture analysis indicates that the Copper and Rotated Brass textures in austenite (FCC phase) and {001}<110> texture in ferrite and martensite (BCC phases) are the main active components during tensile deformation. The predominance of these components is logically related to the strain-induced martensite and/or twin formation.

  17. A scanning Hall probe imaging study of the field induced martensite-austenite phase transition in Ni50Mn34In16 alloy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Moore, J D; Chattopadhyay, M K; Morrison, Kelly; Cohen, L F; Roy, S B

    2010-01-13

    The martensite to austenite phase transition in the off-stoichiometric Heusler alloy Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) can be induced both by temperature change and by application of a magnetic field. We have used scanning Hall probe imaging to study the magnetic field induced martensite-austenite phase transition. The study provides clear visual evidence of the coexistence of the martensite and austenite phases across this field induced transition in both increasing and decreasing magnetic fields. Clear evidence of thermomagnetic history effects associated with the martensite-austenite phase transition is also obtained. Quantitative analysis of the magnetic field dependence of the volume fraction of the austenite phase in Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) shows evidence of a nucleation and growth mechanism across the field induced martensite-austenite phase transition. The local M-H loops constructed from the Hall images indicate the presence of a landscape of the critical magnetic field (for the field induced transition) distributed over the sample volume and thus confirm the disorder influenced nature of this first-order magnetic phase transition.

  18. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  19. Ab initio investigation of the surface properties of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rák, Zs.; Brenner, D. W.

    2017-04-01

    The surface energetics of two austenitic stainless steel alloys (Type 304 and 316) and three Ni-based alloys (Alloy 600, 690, and 800) are investigated using theoretical methods within the density functional theory. The relative stability of the low index surfaces display the same trend for all alloys; the most closely packed orientation and the most stable is the (111), followed by the (100) and the (110) surfaces. Calculations on the (111) surfaces using various surface chemical and magnetic configurations reveal that Ni has the tendency to segregate toward the surface and Cr has the tendency to segregate toward the bulk. The magnetic frustration present on the (111) surfaces plays an important role in the observed segregation tendencies of Ni and Cr. The stability of the (111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution are evaluated as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of aqueous species. The results indicate that the surface stability of the alloys decrease with temperature and pH, and increase slightly with concentration. Under conditions characteristic to an operating pressurized water reactor, the Ni-based alloy series appears to be of better quality than the stainless steel series with respect to corrosion resistance and release of aqueous species when in contact with aqueous solutions.

  20. Dynamic Restoration Processes in a 23Cr-6Ni-3Mo Duplex Stainless Steel: Effect of Austenite Morphology and Interface Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghdadi, N.; Cizek, P.; Beladi, H.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2017-10-01

    The austenite and ferrite microstructure evolution and restoration mechanisms were studied during hot uniaxial compression of a 23Cr-6Ni-3Mo duplex stainless steel with two markedly different austenite morphologies ( i.e., equiaxed and Widmanstätten). The deformation was performed at a temperature of 1273 K (1000 °C) at a strain rate of 0.1 s-1. The strain was preferentially partitioned in ferrite for both the microstructures studied. Both austenite morphologies displayed frequent splitting into complex-shaped deformation bands, containing dislocation cells and local stacking faults. Equiaxed austenite was favorable to the local development of microbands (MBs), while its Widmanstätten counterpart appeared to be completely resistant to their formation. This was attributed to the complexity of deformation inside the irregularly shaped Widmanstätten plates precluding the formation of self-screening MB arrays. The MB boundaries were typically aligned along highly stressed slip planes. The presence of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) within both the austenite morphologies was very limited. A slightly higher fraction of DDRX was detected in Widmanstätten austenite, compared to equiaxed austenite, which was ascribed to its higher contribution to the overall deformation and lower fraction of low-mobility coherent twin boundaries. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) was the main restoration mechanism within ferrite for both the microstructure types studied. The CDRX development within ferrite was accelerated in the microstructure with equiaxed austenite. This was related to the comparatively lower fraction of coherent interphases in this microstructure, which would hinder the slip transmission across the interphase and make the strain concentrate within ferrite.

  1. Dynamic Restoration Processes in a 23Cr-6Ni-3Mo Duplex Stainless Steel: Effect of Austenite Morphology and Interface Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghdadi, N.; Cizek, P.; Beladi, H.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2017-07-01

    The austenite and ferrite microstructure evolution and restoration mechanisms were studied during hot uniaxial compression of a 23Cr-6Ni-3Mo duplex stainless steel with two markedly different austenite morphologies (i.e., equiaxed and Widmanstätten). The deformation was performed at a temperature of 1273 K (1000 °C) at a strain rate of 0.1 s-1. The strain was preferentially partitioned in ferrite for both the microstructures studied. Both austenite morphologies displayed frequent splitting into complex-shaped deformation bands, containing dislocation cells and local stacking faults. Equiaxed austenite was favorable to the local development of microbands (MBs), while its Widmanstätten counterpart appeared to be completely resistant to their formation. This was attributed to the complexity of deformation inside the irregularly shaped Widmanstätten plates precluding the formation of self-screening MB arrays. The MB boundaries were typically aligned along highly stressed slip planes. The presence of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) within both the austenite morphologies was very limited. A slightly higher fraction of DDRX was detected in Widmanstätten austenite, compared to equiaxed austenite, which was ascribed to its higher contribution to the overall deformation and lower fraction of low-mobility coherent twin boundaries. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) was the main restoration mechanism within ferrite for both the microstructure types studied. The CDRX development within ferrite was accelerated in the microstructure with equiaxed austenite. This was related to the comparatively lower fraction of coherent interphases in this microstructure, which would hinder the slip transmission across the interphase and make the strain concentrate within ferrite.

  2. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-04-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/ γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the ( α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/ γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/ γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  3. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the (α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  4. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  5. Static Softening in a Ni-30Fe Austenitic Model Alloy After Hot Deformation: Microstructure and Texture Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beladi, Hossein; Cizek, Pavel; Taylor, Adam S.; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Hodgson, Peter D.

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, the microstructure and texture characteristics of a model Ni-30Fe austenitic alloy were investigated during hot deformation and subsequent isothermal holding. The deformation led to the formation of self-screening arrays of microbands within a majority of grains. The microbands characteristics underwent rather modest changes during the post-deformation annealing, which suggests that limited dislocation annihilation occurs within the corresponding dislocation walls. The fraction of statically recrystallized (SRX) grains progressively increased with the holding time and closely matched the softening fraction measured from the offset flow stress approach. The corresponding texture was weak and preserved its character with the holding time. There was no pronounced temperature effect on the grain boundary character distribution after the completion of SRX. The Σ3 and Σ9 coincidence site lattice boundaries were characterized as (111) pure twist and (1-14) symmetric tilt types, respectively. Nonetheless, the recrystallization temperature slightly affected the grain boundary network.

  6. Dependence of the nitriding rate of ferritic and austenitic substrates on the crystallographic orientation of surface grains; gaseous nitriding of Fe-Cr and Ni-Ti alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, M.; Jung, M.; Meka, S. R.; Fonović, M.; Leineweber, A.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Gaseous nitriding of ferritic Fe-Cr and austenitic Ni-Ti solid solutions reveals that the extent of the uptake of dissolved nitrogen depends on the crystallographic orientation of the surface grains of the substrate. In both ferritic and austenitic substrates, the surface nitrogen concentration and the nitriding depth decrease upon increasing the smallest angle between the surface normal and the normal of a {1 0 0} plane of the surface grain considered. This phenomenon could be ascribed to the residual compressive macrostress developed during nitriding which varies as a function of crystallographic orientation of the (surface) grains due to the elastically anisotropic nature of ferrite and austenite solid solutions investigated in this study.

  7. Dissolution and oxidation behaviour of various austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys in lead-bismuth eutectic at 520 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Marion; Martinelli, Laure; Ginestar, Kevin; Favergeon, Jérôme; Moulin, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Ten austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys were tested in static lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 520 °C in order to obtain a selection of austenitic steels having promising corrosion behaviour in LBE. A test of 1850 h was carried out with a dissolved oxygen concentration between 10-9 and 5 10-4 g kg-1. The combination of thermodynamic of the studied system and literature results leads to the determination of an expression of the dissolved oxygen content in LBE as a function of temperature: RT(K)ln[O](wt%) = -57584/T(K) -55.876T(K) + 254546 (R is the gas constant in J mol-1 K-1). This relation can be considered as a threshold of oxygen content above which only oxidation is observed on the AISI 316L and AISI 304L austenitic alloys in static LBE between 400 °C and 600 °C. The oxygen content during the test leads to both dissolution and oxidation of the samples during the first 190 h and leads to pure oxidation for the rest of the test. Results of mixed oxidation and dissolution test showed that only four types of corrosion behaviour were observed: usual austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys behaviour including the reference alloy 17Cr-12Ni-2.5Mo (AISI 316LN), the 20Cr-31Ni alloy one, the Si containing alloy one and the Al containing alloy one. According to the proposed criteria of oxidation and dissolution kinetics, silicon rich alloys and aluminum rich alloy presented a promising corrosion behaviour.

  8. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  9. Change in the properties of FeCrNi and FeCrMn austenitic steels under mixed and fast neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Golovanov, V. N.; Neustroyev, V. S.; Povstyanko, A. V.; Ostrovsky, Z. E.

    1996-10-01

    Detailed investigations are performed on mechanical properties, swelling and structure of different types of FeCrNi and FeCrMn austenitic stainless steels irradiated in the SM-2 high-flux research reactor and BOR-60 fast reactor. Steel irradiation temperatures are ranging from 100 up to 800°C and the maximum achieved level of damage doses is 60 dpa for FeCrMn steel (with 4-5% of Ni) and 30 dpa for steels of the C12Cr20MnWT type. Presented are dose dependencies of swelling and mechanical properties of FeCrNi and FeCrMn steels. It is shown that at temperatures below 530°C the investigated FeCrMn steel systems are less susceptible to swelling as compared to FeCrNi ones. FeCrMn steels showed a lower value of irradiation embrittlement after irradiation in the mixed spectrum at temperatures from 100 up to 400°C and much higher embrittlement after irradiation from 350 up to 400°C in the fast spectrum in comparison with FeCrNi steels. Higher hardening rate of FeCrMn steels after their irradiation in BOR-60 is attributed to the presence of dislocation loops and defects of high density in the structure. The structural change features in FeCrMn steels under irradiation are considered taking into account austenite stabilization in the initial state.

  10. Contributions of ɛ and α' TRIP Effects to the Strength and Ductility of AISI 304 (X5CrNi18-10) Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Andreas; Gutte, Heiner; Mola, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The deformation-induced processes by tensile loading of X5CrNi18-10 austenitic stainless steel in the temperature range of 77 K to 413 K (-196 °C to 140 °C) were investigated. The results were presented in the form of stress-temperature-transformation (STT) and strain-temperature-transformation (DTT) diagrams. The thermodynamic stability of the austenite with respect to the ɛ- and α'-martensite transformations was reflected in the STT and DTT diagrams. Furthermore, conclusions could be drawn from the transformation diagrams about the kinetics of stress- and strain-induced martensitic transformations. The diagrams laid foundations for the development of a new method of quantitative determination of strength and elongation contributions by means of induced and often overlapping deformation processes in the austenite. In this context, the plastic strains contributed by the glide and shearing of austenite were quantified and presented in connection with the ɛ and α' TRansformation-Induced Plasticity effects. Each deformation process was shown to have made a contribution to the strength and ductility, with a magnitude proportional to its dominance. The summation of such contributions provided the tensile strength and the uniform elongation of the steel. In other words, tensile strength and uniform elongation could be derived from a rule of mixtures. The newly proposed method was capable of explaining the anomalous temperature dependence of uniform elongation in the alloy investigated.

  11. The effect of grain orientation on nanoindentation behavior of model austenitic alloy Fe-20Cr-25Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Tianyi; Tan, Lizhen; Lu, Zizhe; ...

    2017-07-26

    Instrumented nanoindentation was used in this paper to investigate the hardness, elastic modulus, and creep behavior of an austenitic Fe-20Cr-25Ni model alloy at room temperature, with the indented grain orientation being the variant. The samples indented close to the {111} surfaces exhibited the highest hardness and modulus. However, nanoindentation creep tests showed the greatest tendency for creep in the {111} indented samples, compared with the samples indented close to the {001} and {101} surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed slip bands and dislocations in all samples. The slip band patterns on the indented surfaces were influencedmore » by the grain orientations. Deformation twinning was observed only under the {001} indented surfaces. Finally, microstructural analysis and molecular dynamics modeling correlated the anisotropic nanoindentation-creep behavior with the different dislocation substructures formed during indentation, which resulted from the dislocation reactions of certain active slip systems that are determined by the indented grain orientations.« less

  12. The effect of antiphase boundaries on the elastic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga austenite and premartensite.

    PubMed

    Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Bodnárová, Lucie; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kopecký, Vít; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Heczko, Oleg

    2013-10-23

    The evolution of elastic properties with temperature and magnetic field was studied in two differently heat-treated single crystals of the Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Quenching and slow furnace cooling were used to obtain different densities of antiphase boundaries. We found that the crystals exhibited pronounced differences in the c' elastic coefficient and related shear damping in high-temperature ferromagnetic phases (austenite and premartensite). The difference can be ascribed to the formation of fine magnetic domain patterns and pinning of the magnetic domain walls on antiphase boundaries in the material with a high density of antiphase boundaries due to quenching. The fine domain pattern arising from mutual interactions between antiphase boundaries and ferromagnetic domain walls effectively reduces the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and amplifies the contribution of magnetostriction to the elastic response of the material. As a result, the anomalous elastic softening prior to martensite transformation is significantly enhanced in the quenched sample. Thus, for any comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations the microstructural changes induced by specific heat treatment must be taken into account.

  13. Hot and cold rolling of high nitrogen Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilola, R.; Hänninen, H.; Kauppi, T.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of austenitic Cr-Ni-(0.14-0.50)N and Cr-Mn-(0.78-1.00)N steels in hot and cold rolling was investigated by rolling experiments and mechanical testing. Structure of the steels in the as-cast condition and fracture surfaces after the rolling experiments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Resistance to deformation was calculated using rolling forces in hot rolling. Increase in strength in the rolling experiments was related to the nitrogen content of the steels. Resistance to deformation during hot rolling increased with decreasing rolling temperature and with increasing nitrogen content. In some steels, hot rolling led to edge cracking, which was more a function of impurity than nitrogen content. Microscopy revealed that the edge cracking occurred along grain boundaries and second phase particles. For the cold-rolled steels, the highest achievable reductions were limited due to a “crocodiling” phenomenon, that is, opening of the strip end. Fracture type at the opened strip end was a brittle-like fracture.

  14. Hot and cold rolling of high nitrogen Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Iiola, R.; Hanninen, H.; Kauppi, T.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of austenitic Cr-Ni-(0.14--0.50)N and Cr-Mn-(0.78--1.00)N steels in hot and cold rolling was investigated by rolling experiments and mechanical testing. Structure of the steels in the as-cast condition and fracture surfaces after the rolling experiments were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Resistance to deformation was calculated using rolling forces in hot rolling. Increase in strength in the rolling experiments was related to the nitrogen content of the steels. Resistance to deformation during hot rolling increased with decreasing rolling temperature and with increasing nitrogen content. In some steels, hot rolling led to edge cracking, which was more a function of impurity than nitrogen content. Microscopy revealed that the edge cracking occurred along grain boundaries and second phase particles. For the cold-rolled steels, the highest achievable reductions were limited due to a crocodiling phenomenon, that is, opening of the strip end. Fracture type at the opened strip end was a brittle-like fracture.

  15. Structure, phase composition and mechanical properties of austenitic steel Fe-18Cr-9Ni-0.5Ti-0.08C subjected to chemical-deformation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, Eugene; Maier, Galina; Moskvina, Valentina; Astafurova, Elena

    2016-11-01

    The effect of rolling combined with hydrogen charging on the structural and phase transformations and mechanical properties of metastable austenitic stainless steel Fe-18Cr-9Ni-0.5Ti-0.08C (in wt %) was investigated. Deformation of steel is accompanied by the refinement of the structure due to the accumulation of deformation defects and strain-induced γ-α' transformation. Hydrogenation promotes the formation of ɛ-martensite and increases the volume fraction of α'-phase in steel structure under rolling, as compared to the state after rolling without hydrogenation. Mechanical properties of austenitic steel increase under rolling as compared to the initial state, but preliminary hydrogen charging has no significant effect on their magnitudes. Hydrogen alloying before rolling increases specimen elongation compared to rolling without hydrogenation.

  16. Annealing effect on the magnetic induced austenite transformation in polycrystalline freestanding Ni-Co-Mn-In films produced by co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Crouïgneau, G.; Porcar, L.; Pairis, S.; Mossang, E.; Eyraud, E.; Bourgault, D.; Courtois, P.

    2015-01-21

    Ni-Co-Mn-In freestanding films, with a magneto-structural transformation at room temperature were successfully produced by co-sputtering and post-annealing methods leading to film composition mastering. For a post-annealing temperature of 700 °C, the phase transformation occurs slightly above room temperature, with a twisted martensitic microstructure phase observed at 300 K by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetization measurements on a polycrystalline film showed a phase transformation from a weakly magnetic martensite to a magnetic austenite phase. Moreover, an inverse magnetocaloric effect with an entropy variation of 4 J/kg K under 5 T was also measured. A simple magneto-actuation experiment based on the magnetic induced austenite transformation was also successfully completed. The possibility to insert such films in microsystems is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  17. Improved Creep Behavior of a High Nitrogen Nb-Stabilized 15Cr-15Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel Strengthened by Multiple Nanoprecipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Vu The; Jung, Woo Sang; Suh, Jin Yoo

    2011-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are expected to be a major material for boiler tubes and steam turbines in future ultra-supercritical (USC) fossil power plants. It is of great interest to maximize the creep strength of the materials without increasing the cost. Precipitation strengthening was found to be the best and cheapest way for increasing the creep strength of such steels. This study is concerned with improving creep properties of a high nitrogen Nb-stabilized 15Cr-15Ni austenitic alloy through introducing a high number of nanosized particles into the austenitic matrix. The addition of around 4 wt pct Mn and 0.236 wt pct N into the 15Cr-15Ni-0.46Si-0.7Nb-1.25Mo-3Cu-Al-B-C matrix in combination with a special multicycled aging-quenching heat treatment resulted in the fine dispersion of abundant quantities of thermally stable (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N) precipitates with sizes of 10 to 20 nm. Apart from the carbonitrides, it was found that a high number of coherent copper precipitates with size 40 to 60 nm exist in the microstructure. Results of creep tests at 973 K and 1023 K (700 °C and 750 °C) showed that the creep properties of the investigated steel are superior compared to that of the commercial NF709 alloy. The improved creep properties are attributed to the improved morphology and thermal stability of the carbonitrides as well as to the presence of the coherent copper precipitates inside the austenitic matrix.

  18. Corrosion of alumina-forming austenitic steel Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-0.6Nb-0.1Ti in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S. H.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2010-04-01

    The oxidation behavior of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-0.6Nb-0.1Ti has been examined after exposure to supercritical water (SCW) at 500 °C and 25 MPa pressure and with a dissolved oxygen content of 25 wppb, for exposure periods of 1300 h, 1700 h and 3000 h. A double layer oxide structure developed on all samples, consisting specifically of a Fe-rich outer hematite layer and an inner layer of Al-Cr-Fe-rich oxide containing a small fraction of FCC Ni-rich metal. Additionally, a thin Ni-rich layer in the bulk alloy close to the oxide/metal interface was also observed. Based on weight gain measurements, the oxidation resistance of the AFA steel was superior to other austenitic alloys, 800H, D9, and 316 stainless steel, tested under similar conditions. The formation of the protective Al-Cr-Fe-rich oxide layer may provide good long-term protection against corrosion in SCW environment.

  19. Microstructure of Au-ion irradiated 316L and FeNiCr austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Li, X.; Legras, L.; Lescoat, M.-L.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A.

    2016-11-01

    Thin foils of 316L were irradiated in situ in a Transmission Electron Microscope with 4 MeV Au ions at 450 °C and 550 °C. Similar irradiations were performed at 450 °C in FeNiCr. The void and dislocation microstructure of 316L is found to depend strongly on temperature. At 450 °C, a dense network of dislocation lines is observed in situ to grow from black dot defects by absorption of other black dots and interstitial clusters whilst no Frank loops are detected. At 550 °C, no such network is observed but large Frank loops and perfect loops whose sudden appearance is concomitant with a strong increase in void density as a result of a strong coupling between voids and dislocations. Moreover, differences in both alloys microstructure show the major role played by the minor constituents of 316L, increasing the stacking fault formation energy, and possibly leading to significant differences in swelling behaviour.

  20. Surface Characteristics of Machined NiTi Shape Memory Alloy: The Effects of Cryogenic Cooling and Preheating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Y.; Huang, B.; Karaca, H. E.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2017-07-01

    This experimental study focuses on the phase state and phase transformation response of the surface and subsurface of machined NiTi alloys. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and differential scanning calorimeter techniques were utilized to measure the phase state and the transformation response of machined specimens, respectively. Specimens were machined under dry machining at ambient temperature, preheated conditions, and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. The findings from this research demonstrate that cryogenic machining substantially alters austenite finish temperature of martensitic NiTi alloy. Austenite finish ( A f) temperature shows more than 25 percent increase resulting from cryogenic machining compared with austenite finish temperature of as-received NiTi. Dry and preheated conditions do not substantially alter austenite finish temperature. XRD analysis shows that distinctive transformation from martensite to austenite occurs during machining process in all three conditions. Complete transformation from martensite to austenite is observed in dry cutting at all selected cutting speeds.

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Nano/Ultrafine-Grained N-Bearing, Low-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedipour, S.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.; Abbasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    The nitrogen (N)-bearing austenitic stainless steels are new materials with interesting mechanical properties such as high strength and ductility, desirable toughness and work hardening, and good corrosion resistance. This work attempted to investigate the effect of N addition from 0.08 to 0.35 wt.% on grain refinement of the 201L austenitic stainless steel using the martensite thermomechanical process. This process was composed of cold rolling up to the thickness reduction of 90 % followed by reversion annealing at 800 °C for 60 and 1800 s. It was found that increasing N content resulted in an increase in the austenite grain size for short annealing duration (e.g. 60 s), but caused a decrease in the austenite grain size for long annealing duration (e.g. 1800 s). The smallest austenite grain size of about 150 nm was achieved for the 201L steel containing 0.08 wt.% N after reversion annealing at 800 °C for 60 s. The mechanical properties of the reversion-annealed N-bearing steels were enhanced due to both N alloying and grain refinement.

  2. The effect of 0.1 atomic percent zirconium on the cyclic oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl for 3000 hours at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The long time effect of 0.1 at percent Zr (0.2 wt percent Zr) on the cyclic oxidation behavior of hipped beta-NiAl was studied. Oxidation testing was performed in static air at 1200 C for up to 3000 one-hour exposure cycles. Specific weight change versus time data was modeled with the COSP computer program to analyze cyclic oxidation behavior. The Zr-free stoichiometric alloy oxidized and spalled randomly to bare metal between cycles at a rate high enough to deplete Al to a low enough level that oxidation breakaway took place as nonprotective NiO replaced the alpha-Al203/NiAl204 scale as the controlling oxide. The Zr minimized this severe type of spalling maintaining the protective alpha-Al203 scale even out to 3000 hours for the stoichiometric alloy with no significant Al depletion. A third beta-NiAl alloy containing 0.1 at percent Zr but with 10 percent less Al than the stoichiometric alloy was also tested and showed some depletion of Al, but the protective Al203/NiAl204 was still maintained to close to 2700 hours.

  3. The effect of 0.1 atomic percent zirconium on the cyclic oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl for 3000 hours at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The long time effect of 0.1 at percent Zr (0.2 wt percent Zr) on the cyclic oxidation behavior of hipped beta-NiAl was studied. Oxidation testing was performed in static air at 1200 C for up to 3000 one-hour exposure cycles. Specific weight change versus time data was modeled with the COSP computer program to analyze cyclic oxidation behavior. The Zr-free stoichiometric alloy oxidized and spalled randomly to bare metal between cycles at a rate high enough to deplete Al to a low enough level that oxidation breakaway took place as nonprotective NiO replaced the alpha-Al203/NiAl204 scale as the controlling oxide. The Zr minimized this severe type of spalling maintaining the protective alpha-Al203 scale even out to 3000 hours for the stoichiometric alloy with no significant Al depletion. A third beta-NiAl alloy containing 0.1 at percent Zr but with 10 percent less Al than the stoichiometric alloy was also tested and showed some depletion of Al, but the protective Al203/NiAl204 was still maintained to close to 2700 hours.

  4. The effect of 0.1 atomic percent zirconium on the cyclic oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl for 300 hours at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The long time effect of 0.1 at percent Zr (0.2 wt percent Zr) on the cyclic oxidation behavior of hipped beta-NiAl was studied. Oxidation testing was performed in static air at 1200 C for up to 3000 one-hour exposure cycles. Specific weight change versus time data was modeled with the COSP computer program to analyze cyclic oxidation behavior. The Zr-free stoichiometric alloy oxidized and spalled randomly to bare metal between cycles at a rate high enough to deplete Al to a low enough level that oxidation breakaway took place as nonprotective NiO replaced the alpha-Al2O3/NiAl2O4 scale as the controlling oxide. The Zr minimized this severe type of spalling maintaining the protective alpha-Al2O3 scale even out to 3000 hours for the stoichiometric alloy with no significant Al depletion. A third beta-NiAl alloy containing 0.1 at percent Zr but with 10 percent less Al than the stoichiometric alloy was also tested and showed some depletion of Al, but the protective Al2O3/NiAl2O4 was still maintained to close to 2700 hours.

  5. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  6. Critical behavior and exponent parameters of the austenitic phase in Ni50- x Pr x Mn37Sn13 alloys with x = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, T. L.; Manh, T. V.; Ho, T. A.; Yu, S. C.; Dan, N. H.; Yen, N. H.; Thanh, T. D.

    2014-06-01

    We fabricated Huesler alloy ingots of Ni50- x Pr x Mn37Sn13 with x = 0 - 5 by using an arcmelting method. Crystalline-structural analyses revealed the coexistence of austenitic and martensitic phases in the samples with x = 0 and 1, in which the volume fraction of the austenitic phase for x = 1 was higher than that for x = 0. With higher Pr concentrations, x > 1, Pr- and Ni3Sn-related secondary phases, which reduced the magnetic order of the alloys, were formed. Thus, only the sample with x = 1 was more suitable for studying the critical behavior. Based on Landau's phase-transition theory and Banerjee's criteria, we found that this sample undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition (SOMT) at a temperature around the Curie temperature T C ≈ 299 K. Using the modified Arrott plots, asymptotic relations, and a universal scaling law, we determined the values of the critical exponents β = 0.501 ± 0.009 and γ = 1.045 ± 0.006. These values are very close to those expected for the mean-field theory with β = 0.5 and γ = 1, proving the existence of long-range ferromagnetic (FM) order in the sample with x = 1. Particularly, around at temperature T C , the magnetic-entropy change reaches the maximum value (∆ S max ). Its magnetic-field dependences can be described by using a power law |∆ S max | ∝ H n , where n = 0.687 is close to the value 0.677 calculated from the theoretical relation n = 1 + ( β - 1)/( β + γ). We believe that the doping of a suitable Pr amount in Ni50- x Pr x Mn37Sn13 ( x ≈ 1) promotes the formation of the austenitic phase and results in long-range FM order. However, the persistence of the martensitic phase and secondary phases favors short-range FM order and thus decreases the FM order in Ni50- x Pr x Mn37Sn13.

  7. The effects of double austenitization on the mechanical properties of a 0. 34C containing low-alloy Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E.; Chang, C.Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Liu, C.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This article considers five different microstructures of a tempered martensitic 0.34C, 3Ni-1.3Cr-0.4Mo-0.1V steel through various heat treatments, including double austenitization (DA) treatments, and how the impact toughnesses are influenced by microstructure. Of the four mechanisms considered to explain the beneficial effect of DA treatment, the roles of retained austenite, grain-boundary embrittlement by impurity segregation, and matrix flow stress are discounted. The 50 pct fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) of this steel is found to be dependent on both the grain size and the carbide dissolution. The conventionally treated steel contains mainly platelike M[sub 3]C carbides. The DA treatment helps to dissolve VC carbides and coarsen and spheroidize M[sub 3]C carbides in favor of the precipitation of short rodlike M7C3 carbides with a lower aspect ratio. The improvement of impact toughness (upper shelf energy, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), and lower shelf energy) by DA treatment, explained in detail, is attributed to a change of this material's tensile and work-hardening behavior affected by a variation of carbide morphology.

  8. Phase transformation and stabilization of a high strength austenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Huang, D.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the phase transformation and the austenite stabilization in a high strength austenite has been made. An Fe-29Ni-4.3Ti austenite age-hardened by gamma-prime (Ni3Ti) precipitates showed a further increase of strength after martensitic and reverse martensitic phase transformations. The stability of ausaged austenite as well as ausaged and transformation-strengthened austenite was improved significantly through an isothermal treatment at 500 C. The Ms temperature of the strengthened austenite was restored to nearly that of annealed austenite while the austenite was hardened to R(C) 41 through precipitation and phase transformations. The observed austenite stabilization is attributed to the formation of GP zones or short-range order of less than about 10A in size.

  9. Investigation of high temperature annealing effectiveness for recovery of radiation-induced structural changes and properties of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurovich, B. A.; Kuleshova, E. A.; Frolov, A. S.; Maltsev, D. A.; Prikhodko, K. E.; Fedotova, S. V.; Margolin, B. Z.; Sorokin, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    A complex study of structural state and properties of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti austenitic stainless steel after irradiation in BOR-60 fast research reactor (in the temperature range 330-400 °С up to damaging doses of 145 dpa) and in VVER-1000 light water reactor (at temperature ∼320 °С and damaging doses ∼12-14 dpa) was performed. The possibility of recovery of structural-phase state and mechanical properties to the level almost corresponding to the initial state by the recovery annealing was studied. The principal possibility of the recovery annealing of pressurized water reactor internals that ensures almost complete recovery of its mechanical properties and microstructure was shown. The optimal mode of recovery annealing was established: 1000 °C during 120 h.

  10. Corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of a novel Ni-free intermetallic coating growth on austenitic steel by hot dipping in an Al-12.6%Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Arenas, M A; Frutos, E; Saldaña, L; Conde, A; Labajos-Broncano, L; González-Martín, M L; González-Carrasco, J L; Vilaboa, N

    2011-04-01

    Commercial 316 LVM austenitic stainless steel samples have been coated by immersion in a bath of molten Al-12.6%Si alloy for 120 s. The coating consists of the Al(12)(Fe,Cr)(3)Si(2) intermetallic. In vitro corrosion behaviour has been evaluated in the Ringer's solution by means of potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results reveal that the coated specimens exhibit lower susceptibility to localised corrosion with respect to the substrate. XPS analysis suggests that the ennoblement of the pitting potential is due to the formation of a chromium oxyhydroxide containing passive layer. The intermetallic coating shows a good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow which attached, grew and differentiated to the osteoblastic lineage to a similar extent on coated and bare steels. In summary, this study proposes a method that generates Ni-free coatings of the stainless steel with useful properties for biomedical applications.

  11. The effect of MC and MN stabilizer additions on the creep rupture properties of helium implanted Fe-25% Ni-15% Cr austenitic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Nagakawa, Johsei; Shiraishi, Haruki

    1995-10-01

    Helium embrittlement resistance of Fe-25% Ni-15% Cr austenitic alloys with various MX (M = V, Ti, Nb, Zr; X = C, N) stabilizers was compared through post helium implantation creep testing at 923 K. While significant deterioration by helium in terms of creep rupture time and elongation occurred for all materials investigated, the suppression of the deterioration, especially in rupture time, was discerned for the materials in which semi-coherent MC (M = Ti, Ti + Nb, V + Ti) particles were distributed at high density. The material which contains the incoherent M 23C 6 as predominant precipitates seems to be less degraded by helium than those containing the MXs (M = Zr, V; X = C, N), if compared at the same number density of precipitates. Therefore, it is suggested that the high density dispersion of incoherent M 23C 6 as well as semi-coherent Ti containing MC particles would be beneficial in reducing the detrimental helium influences on mechanical properties.

  12. Effect of yttrium on martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures and high temperature oxidation kinetics of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeoung Han; Kim, Kyong Min; Yeom, Jong Taek; Young, Sung

    2016-03-01

    The effect of yttrium (< 5.5 at%) on the martensite-austenite phase transformation temperatures, microstructural evolution, and hot workability of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys is investigated. For these purposes, differential scanning calorimetry, hot compression, and thermo-gravimetric tests are conducted. The phase transformation temperatures are not noticeably influenced by the addition of yttrium up to 4.5 at%. Furthermore, the hot workability is not significantly affected by the yttrium addition up to 1.0 at%. However, when the amount of yttrium addition exceeds 1.0 at%, the hot workability deteriorates significantly. In contrast, remarkable improvement in the high temperature oxidation resistance due to the yttrium addition is demonstrated. The total thickness of the oxide layers is substantially thinner in the Y-added specimen. In particular, the thickness of (Ti,Hf) oxide layer is reduced from 200 µm to 120 µm by the addition of 0.3 at% Y.

  13. On the Stability of Reversely Formed Austenite and Related Mechanism of Transformation in an Fe-Ni-Mn Martensitic Steel Aided by Electron Backscattering Diffraction and Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohdar, Hamidreza; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Habibi-Parsa, Mohammad; Jafarian, Hamid Reza; Bhattacharjee, Tilak; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-01

    The stability of reversely formed austenite and related mechanism of transformation were investigated against temperature and time in an Fe-9.6Ni-7.1Mn (at. pct) martensitic steel during intercritical annealing at a dual-phase (α + γ) region. Dilatometry, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), atom probe tomography (APT), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the mechanism of reverse transformation. It was found that under intercritical annealing at 853 K (580 °C), when the heating rate is 20 K/s (20 °C/s), reverse transformation takes place through a mixed diffusion control mechanism, i.e., controlled by bulk diffusion and diffusion along the interface, where Ni controls the diffusion as its diffusivity is lower than that of Mn in the martensite and austenite. Increasing the intercritical annealing to 873 K (600 °C) at an identical heating rate of 20 K/s (20 °C/s) showed that reverse transformation occurs through a sequential combination of both martensitic and diffusional mechanisms. The transition temperature from diffusional to martensitic transformation was obtained close to 858 K (585 °C). Experimental results revealed that the austenite formed by the diffusional mechanism at 853 K (580 °C) mainly remains untransformed after cooling to ambient temperature due to the enrichment with Ni and Mn. It was also found that the stability of the reversely formed austenite by martensitic mechanism at 873 K (600 °C) is related to grain refinement.

  14. Static and cyclic strength of austenitic corrosion-resistant cast Cr-Ni-Mn-Mo-N steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostina, M. V.; Muradyan, S. O.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Blinov, E. V.; Prosvirin, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The resistance to cyclic loading of high-nitrogen corrosion-resistant cast austenitic 05Kh22AG15N8M2FL (˜0.5% N) steel is studied for the first time (high-cycle tests of plane specimens at 20°C in air upon repeated tension). The structure of the steel, its static strength, and the fracture in regions of high- and low-cycle fatigues are investigated. It is shown that the structural state of the steel (solid-solution treatment of the as-cast and deformed steel, hot plastic deformation, and aging) and the test conditions influence the fatigue life. The results are compared with the high-cycle fatigue life of austenitic steels with 0.1-1.1% N treated for solid solution, and the fatigue limit is compared to the ultimate strength, the grain size, and the total content of nitrogen and carbon in the steels. Fractographic studies are performed for the fracture surfaces of cast 05Kh22AG15N8M2FL steel after fatigue tests.

  15. Microstructure and creep characteristics of dissimilar T91/TP316H martensitic/austenitic welded joint with Ni-based weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Falat, Ladislav; Svoboda, Milan; Vyrostkova, Anna; Petryshynets, Ivan; Sopko, Martin

    2012-10-15

    This paper deals with characterization of microstructure and creep behavior of dissimilar weldment between the tempered martensitic steel T91 and the non-stabilized austenitic steel TP316H with Ni-based weld metal (Ni WM). Microstructure analyses were performed using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The martensitic part of the welded joint exhibited a wide heat-affected zone (HAZ) with typical microstructural gradient from its coarse-grained to the fine-grained/intercritical region. In contrast, the HAZ of austenitic steel was limited to only a narrow region with coarsened polygonal grains. The microstructure of Ni WM was found to be very heterogeneous with respect to the size, morphology and distribution of grain boundaries and MC-type precipitates as a result of strong weld metal dilution effects and fast non-equilibrium solidification. Cross-weld creep tests were carried out in a temperature range from 600 to 650 Degree-Sign C at applied stresses from 60 to 140 MPa. The obtained values of apparent stress exponents and creep activation energies indicate thermally activated dislocation glide to be the governing creep deformation mechanism within the range of used testing conditions. The creep samples ruptured in the T91 intercritical HAZ region by the 'type IV cracking' failure mode and the creep fracture mechanism was identified to be the intergranular dimple tearing by microvoid coalescence at grain boundaries. The TEM observations revealed pronounced microstructural differences between the critical HAZ region and the T91 base material before as well as after the creep exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transformations affect the microstructures of T91 and TP316H HAZ regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High weld metal dilution results in heterogeneous microstructure with MC carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep behavior of the studied weldment is controlled

  16. Effect of phosphorus on Fe grain boundary self-diffusion in austenitic Fe-20Ni-10Cr-xP alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cermak, J.; Ruzickova, J.; Pokorna, A. . Inst. of Physical Metallurgy)

    1994-08-15

    Austenitic Ni-Cr steels are extensively used as refractory and corrosion-resistant materials. Frequently, they are used at temperatures approaching T[sub m]/2 (T[sub m] is melting point). In this temperature range, all transport processes controlled by diffusion almost exclusively involve high-diffusivity paths, while the lattice diffusion is frozen. In a single-phase material without interphase interfaces, grain boundaries (GB's) and dislocation pipes act as high-diffusivity paths. It is well known that impurities, the solubility limit of which are low, concentrate at GB's. Because of the very small thickness of a GB, [delta], they form relatively highly concentrated thin zones along GB's even if their mean concentration is very low. Moreover, the changes of chemical composition of these zones may be even more complicated owing to e.g., cooperative and site-competitive interactions between atoms in the GB, and/or to heterogeneous precipitation on GB's induced by segregation. Therefore, diffusion along GB's is strongly affected by the chemistry of the GB, especially by segregated so-called surface active elements. At present, there is no universal theory describing all details of diffusion along segregated GB's, which is, partially, caused by lack of experimental data. In the present paper, the effect of small concentrations of phosphorus, that is one of most deleterious impurities in iron alloys, on GB self-diffusion of iron in Fe-Ni-Cr-xP system is studied.

  17. Phase relations in the Fe-Ni-Cr-S system and the sulfidation of an austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    The stability fields of various sulfide phases that form on Fe-Cr, Fe-Ni, Ni-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys were developed as a function of temperature and the partial pressure of sulfur. The calculated stability fields in the ternary system were displayed on plots of log P sub S sub 2 versus the conjugate extensive variable which provides a better framework for following the sulfidation of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys at high temperatures. Experimental and estimated thermodynamic data were used in developing the sulfur potential diagrams. Current models and correlations were employed to estimate the unknown thermodynamic behavior of solid solutions of sulfides and to supplement the incomplete phase diagram data of geophysical literature. These constructed stability field diagrams were in excellent agreement with the sulfide phases and compositions determined during a sulfidation experiment.

  18. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-09-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  19. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  20. Temperature-dependent quantitative 3omega scanning thermal microscopy: Local thermal conductivity changes in NiTi microstructures induced by martensite-austenite phase transition.

    PubMed

    Chirtoc, M; Gibkes, J; Wernhardt, R; Pelzl, J; Wieck, A

    2008-09-01

    We develop the theoretical description of 3omega signals from the resistive Wollaston thermal probe (ThP) of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) in terms of an equivalent low-pass filter. The normalized amplitude and phase frequency spectra are completely characterized by a single parameter, the crossover frequency f(c)(k) depending on the sample thermal conductivity k. The application concerns polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy microstructured by focused Ga ion beam milling and implantation. The calibration of the ThP combined with a novel two-step normalization procedure allowed quantitative exploitation of 3omega signal variations as small as -1.75% in amplitude and 0.60 degrees in phase upon heating the sample from room temperature to 100 degrees C. This corresponds to k increase of 23.9% that is consistent with the expected thermal conductivity variation due to martensite-austenite structural phase transition. To our knowledge this is for the first time that SThM 3omega phase information is used quantitatively as well. The static, calibrated 3omega measurements are complementary to 3omega SThM images of the patterned sample surface. The local SThM measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity opens the possibility to imaging structural phase transitions at submicron scale.

  1. Solidification Behavior and Weldability of Dissimilar Welds Between a Cr-Free, Ni-Cu Welding Consumable and Type 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowards, Jeffrey W.; Liang, Dong; Alexandrov, Boian T.; Frankel, Gerald S.; Lippold, John C.

    2012-04-01

    The solidification behavior of a Cr-free welding consumable based on the Ni-Cu system was evaluated in conjunction with Type 304L stainless steel. The weld metal microstructure evolution was evaluated with optical and secondary electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, button melting, and thermodynamic (CALPHAD-based) modeling. Solidification partitioning patterns showed that higher dilutions of the filler metal by Type 304L increased segregation of Ti, Cu, and Si to interdendritic regions. Button melting experiments showed a widening of the solidification temperature range with increasing dilution because of the expansion of the austenite solidification range and formation of Ti(C,N) via a eutectic reaction. The model predictions showed good correlation with button melting experiments and were used to evaluate the nature of the Ti(C,N) precipitation reaction. Solidification cracking susceptibility of the weld metal was shown to increase with dilution of 304L stainless steel based on testing conducted with the cast pin tear test. The increase in cracking susceptibility is associated with expansion of the solidification temperature range and the presence of eutectic liquid at the end of solidification that wets solidification grain boundaries.

  2. Temperature-dependent quantitative 3{omega} scanning thermal microscopy: Local thermal conductivity changes in NiTi microstructures induced by martensite-austenite phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chirtoc, M.; Gibkes, J.; Wernhardt, R.; Pelzl, J.; Wieck, A.

    2008-09-15

    We develop the theoretical description of 3{omega} signals from the resistive Wollaston thermal probe (ThP) of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) in terms of an equivalent low-pass filter. The normalized amplitude and phase frequency spectra are completely characterized by a single parameter, the crossover frequency f{sub c}(k) depending on the sample thermal conductivity k. The application concerns polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy microstructured by focused Ga ion beam milling and implantation. The calibration of the ThP combined with a novel two-step normalization procedure allowed quantitative exploitation of 3{omega} signal variations as small as -1.75% in amplitude and 0.60 deg. in phase upon heating the sample from room temperature to 100 deg. C. This corresponds to k increase of 23.9% that is consistent with the expected thermal conductivity variation due to martensite-austenite structural phase transition. To our knowledge this is for the first time that SThM 3{omega} phase information is used quantitatively as well. The static, calibrated 3{omega} measurements are complementary to 3{omega} SThM images of the patterned sample surface. The local SThM measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity opens the possibility to imaging structural phase transitions at submicron scale.

  3. The effect of temperature on the low cycle fatigue properties of a 15Cr-15Ni, Ti modified austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, T.; Rao, K.B.S.; Mannan, S.L.; Devanathan, D.

    1999-10-08

    A titanium modified 15Cr-15Ni-2.5 Mo austenitic stainless steel designated as Alloy D9 is currently a favored material in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors for fuel clad and sub-assembly wrappers and is also being considered as a primary candidate alloy for fusion reactor first wall applications. The choice of this material in the nuclear industry is primarily based on its excellent resistance to radiation induced void swelling. In nuclear reactor applications the components are often subject to temperature gradient induced thermal stresses which are cyclic in nature as a result of start-ups, shutdowns and transients. Therefore there is a need for comprehensive understanding of both the macroscopic cyclic deformation behavior and the micromechanisms which influence such behavior. Further this understanding must include not only the behavior at maximum operating temperature but also the behavior at lower temperatures encountered during transients. Till date the cyclic stress response and fatigue life of Alloy D9 over a wide temperature range has not been examined and there is no information available on the deformation-induced microstructure during fatigue loadings. The purpose of this paper is to report some recent observations pertaining to the temperature dependence of cyclic stress response and evolving deformation substructure of Alloy D9 between 300 and 923 K.

  4. Modeling constitutive behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot compression using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sumantra

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been suggested to predict the constitutive flow behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot deformation. Hot compression tests in the temperature range 850°C- 1250°C and strain rate range 10-3-102 s-1 were carried out. These tests provided the required data for training the neural network and for subsequent testing. The inputs of the neural network are strain, log strain rate and temperature while flow stress is obtained as output. A three layer feed-forward network with ten neurons in a single hidden layer and back-propagation learning algorithm has been employed. A very good correlation between experimental and predicted result has been obtained. The effect of temperature and strain rate on flow behavior has been simulated employing the ANN model. The results have been found to be consistent with the metallurgical trend. Finally, a monte carlo analiysis has been carried out to find out the noise sensitivity of the developed model.

  5. Effect of alloy grain size and silicon content on the oxidation of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si alloys in pure O sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.N.; Yurek, G.J. )

    1991-10-01

    Austenitic Fe-18Cr-20Ni-1.5 Mn alloys containing 0, 0.6, and 1.5 wt% Si were produced both by conventional and rapid solidification processing. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloys were studied at 900C in pure O{sub 2} to elucidate the role of alloy microstructure and Si content on oxidation properties. The conventionally-processes, large-grained alloy that contained no silicon formed Fe-rich nodules during oxidation. The nodule formation was effectively eliminated by either reducing the alloy grain size by rapid solidification or by adding Si to the alloy. The lowest weight grains were achieved when a continuous silica layer formed between the alloy and the external chromia scale. The formation of the continuous silica layer required a combination of fine alloy grain size and high Si content. The presence of S in the alloy was found to be detrimental to oxide scale adherence when the silica layer was continuous.

  6. Correlation Between Experimental and Calculated Phase Fractions in Aged 20Cr32Ni1Nb Austenitic Stainless Steels Containing Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, Matthew P.; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2013-02-01

    A centrifugally cast 20Cr32Ni1Nb stainless steel manifold in service for 16 years at temperatures ranging from 1073 K to 1123 K (800 °C to 850 °C) has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nb(C,N), M23C6, and the silicide G-phases (Ni16Nb6Si7) were all identified in a conventional SEM, while the nitride Z-phase (CrNbN) was observed only in AES. M23C6, Z-phase and G-phase were characterized in XRD. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using ThermoCalc Version S, with the TCS Steel and Fe-alloys Database (TCFE6), and Thermotech Ni-based Superalloys Database (TTNI8) were validated by comparing experimental phase fraction results obtained from both EPMA and AES. A computational study looking at variations in the chemical composition of the alloy, and how they affect phase equilibria, was investigated. Increasing the nitrogen concentration is shown to decrease G-phase formation, where it is replaced by other intermetallic phases such as Z-phase and π-phase that do not experience liquation during pre-weld annealing treatments. Suppressing G-phase formation was ultimately determined to be a function of minimizing silicon content, and understabilizing the Nb/(C + 6/7N) ratio.

  7. High Nb, Ta, and Al creep- and oxidation-resistant austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel HTUPS alloy includes, in weight percent: 15 to 30 Ni; 10 to 15 Cr; 2 to 5 Al; 0.6 to 5 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1 W; up to 0.5 Cu; up to 4 Mn; up to 1 Si; 0.05 to 0.15 C; up to 0.15 B; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni wherein said alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, said particles comprising at least one composition selected from the group consisting of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure, said austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  8. Development of a high strength, hydrogen-resistant austenitic alloy. [Fe-36 Ni-3 Ti-3 Ta-1. 3 Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.M.; Klahn, D.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Research toward high-strength, high toughness nonmagnetic steels for use in the retaining rings of large electrical generators led to the development of a Ta-modified iron-based superalloy (Fe-36 Ni-3 Ti-3 Ta-0.5 Al-1.3 Mo-0.3 V-0.01 B) which combines high strength with good toughness after suitable aging. The alloy did, however, show some degradation in fatigue resistance in gaseous hydrogen. This sensitivity was associated with a deformation-induced martensitic transformation near the fracture surface. The addition of a small amount of chromium to the alloy suppressed the martensite transformation and led to a marked improvement in hydrogen resistance.

  9. Development of Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Cr-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy with Improved High-Temperature Strength and Creep-Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.

    2001-06-15

    In February of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Special Metals Corporation - Huntington Alloys (formerly INCO Alloys International, Inc.) to develop a modified wrought austenitic stainless alloy with considerably more strength and corrosion resistance than alloy 800H or 800HT, but with otherwise similar engineering and application characteristics. Alloy 800H and related alloys have extensive use in coal flue gas environments, as well as for tubing or structural components in chemical and petrochemical applications. The main concept of the project was make small, deliberate elemental microalloying additions to this Fe-based alloy to produce, with proper processing, fine stable carbide dispersions for enhanced high temperature creep-strength and rupture resistance, with similar or better oxidation/corrosion resistance. The project began with alloy 803, a Fe-25Cr-35NiTi,Nb alloy recently developed by INCO, as the base alloy for modification. Smaller commercial developmental alloy heats were produced by Special Metal. At the end of the project, three rounds of alloy development had produced a modified 803 alloy with significantly better creep resistance above 815 C (1500 C) than standard alloy 803 in the solution-annealed (SA) condition. The new upgraded 803 alloy also had the potential for a processing boost in that creep resistance for certain kinds of manufactured components that was not found in the standard alloy. The upgraded 803 alloy showed similar or slightly better oxidation and corrosion resistance relative to standard 803. Creep strength and oxidation/corrosion resistance of the upgraded 803 alloy were significantly better than found in alloy 800 H, as originally intended. The CRADA was terminated in February 2003. A contributing factor was Special Metals Corporation being in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. Additional testing, further commercial scale-up, and any potential

  10. Analysis and Characterization of the Role of Ni Interlayer in the Friction Welding of Titanium and 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralimohan, C. H.; Ashfaq, M.; Ashiri, Rouholah; Muthupandi, V.; Sivaprasad, K.

    2016-01-01

    Joining of commercially pure Ti to 304 stainless steel by fusion welding processes possesses problems due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, which degrade the mechanical properties of the joints. Solid-state welding processes are contemplated to overcome these problems. However, intermetallic compounds are likely to form even in Ti-SS joints produced with solid-state welding processes such as friction welding process. Therefore, interlayers are employed to prevent the direct contact between two base metals and thereby mainly to suppress the formation of brittle Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds. In the present study, friction-welded joints between commercially pure titanium and 304 stainless steel were obtained using a thin nickel interlayer. Then, the joints were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by microhardness survey and tensile tests. Although the results showed that the tensile strength of the joints is even lower than titanium base metal, it is higher than that of the joints which were produced without nickel interlayer. The highest hardness value was observed at the interface between titanium and nickel interlayers indicating the formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds. Formation these compounds was validated by XRD patterns. Moreover, in tensile tests, fracture of the joints occurred along this interface which is related to its brittle nature.

  11. Development of Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Cr-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy with Improved High Temperature Strenth and Creep-Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, PJ

    2004-09-30

    In February of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Special Metals Corporation-Huntington Alloys (formerly INCO Alloys International, Inc.) to develop a modified wrought austenitic stainless alloy with considerably more strength and corrosion resistance than alloy 800H or 800HT, but with otherwise similar engineering and application characteristics. Alloy 800H and related alloys have extensive use in coal flue gas environments, as well as for tubing or structural components in chemical and petrochemical applications. The main concept of the project was make small, deliberate elemental microalloying additions to this Fe-based alloy to produce, with proper processing, fine stable carbide dispersions for enhanced high temperature creep-strength and rupture resistance, with similar or better oxidation/corrosion resistance. The project began with alloy 803, a Fe-25Cr-35NiTi,Nb alloy recently developed by INCO, as the base alloy for modification. Smaller commercial developmental alloy heats were produced by Special Metals. At the end of the project, three rounds of alloy development had produced a modified 803 alloy with significantly better creep resistance above 815EC (1500EC) than standard alloy 803 in the solution-annealed (SA) condition. The new upgraded 803 alloy also had the potential for a processing boost in that creep resistance for certain kinds of manufactured components that was not found in the standard alloy. The upgraded 803 alloy showed similar or slightly better oxidation and corrosion resistance relative to standard 803. Creep strength and oxidation/corrosion resistance of the upgraded 803 alloy were significantly better than found in alloy 800H, as originally intended. The CRADA was terminated in February 2003. A contributing factor was Special Metals Corporation being in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. Additional testing, further commercial scale-up, and any potential

  12. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-09-19

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

  13. The strong influence of displacement rate on void swelling in variants of Fe-16Cr-15Ni-3Mo austenitic stainless steel irradiated in BN-350 and BOR-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budylkin, N. I.; Bulanova, T. M.; Mironova, E. G.; Mitrofanova, N. M.; Porollo, S. I.; Chernov, V. M.; Shamardin, V. K.; Garner, F. A.

    2004-08-01

    Recent irradiation experiments conducted on a variety of austenitic stainless steels have shown that void swelling appears to be increased when the dpa rate is decreased, primarily by a shortening of the transient regime of swelling. This paper presents results derived from nominally similar irradiations conducted on six Russian steels, all laboratory heat variants of Fe-16Cr-15Ni-3Mo-Nb-B, with each irradiated in two fast reactors, BOR-60 and BN-350. The BN-350 irradiation proceeded at a dpa rate three times higher than that conducted in BOR-60. In all six steels, a significantly higher swelling level was attained in BOR-60, agreeing with the results of earlier studies.

  14. Element-specific electronic structure and magnetic properties of an epitaxial Ni51.6Mn32.9Sn15.5 thin film at the austenite-martensite transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumme, B.; Auge, A.; Herper, H. C.; Opahle, I.; Klar, D.; Teichert, N.; Joly, L.; Ohresser, P.; Landers, J.; Kappler, J. P.; Entel, P.; Hütten, A.; Wende, H.

    2015-06-01

    An austenite-martensite transition was observed in a 100-nm-thick Ni51.6Mn32.9Sn15.5 film by temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetization measurements, revealing a martensite starting temperature of MS≈260 K. The influence of the structural phase transition on the electronic structure and the magnetic properties was studied element specifically employing temperature-dependent x-ray-absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In addition, density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the electronic and magnetic properties of both phases. It is shown that off-stoichiometric Ni-Mn-Sn alloys can exhibit a substantial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the martensite phase. For Mn a change of the electronic structure and a strong increase of the ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moment ml/mS can be observed, whereas for Ni nearly no changes occur. Applying an external magnetic field of B =3 T reverses the change of the electronic structure of Mn and reduces the ratio of ml/mS from 13.5 to ≈1 % indicating a field-induced reverse martensitic transition.

  15. Corrosion behavior in high heat input welded heat-affected zone of Ni-free high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Joonoh Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-08-15

    The pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion behaviors in high heat input welded heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a metastable high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel were explored through electrochemical tests. The HAZs were simulated using Gleeble simulator with high heat input welding condition of 300 kJ/cm and the peak temperature of the HAZs was changed from 1200 °C to 1350 °C, aiming to examine the effect of δ-ferrite formation on corrosion behavior. The electrochemical test results show that both pitting corrosion resistance and interphase corrosion resistance were seriously deteriorated by δ-ferrite formation in the HAZ and their aspects were different with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The pitting corrosion resistance was decreased by the formation of Cr-depleted zone along δ-ferrite/austenite (γ) interphase resulting from δ-ferrite formation; however it didn't depend on δ-ferrite fraction. The interphase corrosion resistance depends on the total amount of Cr-depleted zone as well as ferrite area and thus continuously decreased with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The different effects of δ-ferrite fraction on pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion were carefully discussed in terms of alloying elements partitioning in the HAZ based on thermodynamic consideration. - Highlights: • Corrosion behavior in the weld HAZ of high-nitrogen austenitic alloy was studied. • Cr{sub 2}N particle was not precipitated in high heat input welded HAZ of tested alloy. • Pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion show a different behavior. • Pitting corrosion resistance was affected by whether or not δ-ferrite forms. • Interphase corrosion resistance was affected by the total amount of δ-ferrite.

  16. Microstructural evolution of metastable austenitic steel during high-pressure torsion and subsequent heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhao, L. J.; Gao, S.; Tian, Y. Z.; Tsuji, N.

    2014-08-01

    Metastable austenite in a Fe-24Ni-0.3C (wt.%) alloy was processed by high-pressure torsion and subsequently heat-treated. The HPT-processed material had lamellae structures composed of highly deformed austenite and deformation-induced martensite. The reverse transformation of the deformation-induced martensite and recovery/recrystallization of the retained austenite completed above 500 °C and resulted in fully annealed and single-phase austenite with different grain sizes. The ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline austenite showed high yield strength and large ductility due to transformation-induced plasticity.

  17. Irradiation creep and stress-enhanced swelling of Fe-16Cr-15Ni-Nb austenitic stainless steel in BN-350

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobjev, A.N.; Porollo, S.I.; Konobeev, Yu.V.

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation creep and void swelling will be important damage processes for stainless steels when subjected to fusion neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. The absence of an irradiation device with fusion-relevant neutron spectra requires that data on these processes be collected in surrogate devices such as fast reactors. This paper presents the response of an annealed austenitic steel when exposed to 60 dpa at 480{degrees}C and to 20 dpa at 520{degrees}C. This material was irradiated as thin-walled argon-pressurized tubes in the BN-350 reactor located in Kazakhstan. These tubes were irradiated at hoop stresses ranging from 0 to 200 MPa. After irradiation both destructive and non-destructive examination was conducted.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Content on Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of a Reversion-Treated Ni-Free 18Cr-12Mn Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behjati, P.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.; Samaei Baghbadorani, H.; Karjalainen, L. P.; Jung, J.-G.; Lee, Y.-K.

    2014-12-01

    Martensite reversion treatment was utilized to obtain ultrafine grain size in Fe-18Cr-12Mn-N stainless steels containing 0 to 0.44 wt pct N. This was achieved by cold rolling to 80 pct reduction followed by reversion annealing at temperatures between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C) for 1 to 104 seconds. The microstructural evolution was characterized using both transmission and scanning electron microscopes, and mechanical properties were evaluated using hardness and tensile tests. The steel without nitrogen had a duplex ferritic-austenitic structure and the grain size refinement remained inefficient. The finest austenitic microstructure was achieved in the steels with 0.25 and 0.36 wt pct N following annealing at 1173 K (900 °C) for 100 seconds, resulting in average grain sizes of about 0.240 ± 0.117 and 0.217 ± 0.73 µm, respectively. Nano-size Cr2N precipitates observed in the microstructure were responsible for retarding the grain growth. The reversion mechanism was found to be diffusion controlled in the N-free steel and shear controlled in the N-containing steels. Due to a low fraction of strain-induced martensite in cold rolled condition, the 0.44 wt pct N steel displayed relatively non-uniform, micron-scale grain structure after the same reversion treatment, but it still exhibited superior mechanical properties with a yield strength of 1324 MPa, tensile strength of 1467 MPa, and total elongation of 17 pct. While the high yield strength can be attributed to strengthening by nitrogen alloying, dislocation hardening, and slight grain refinement, the moderate strain-induced martensitic transformation taking place during tensile straining was responsible for enhancement in tensile strength and elongation.

  19. Effect of alloy grain size and silicon content on the oxidation of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si alloys in a SO sub 2 -O sub 2 gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.N.; Yurek, G.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Stainless steels are exposed to complex mixtures of gases in many applications, such as in coal gasification environments. Austenitic Fe-18Cr-20Ni-1.5Mn alloys containing 0, 0.6, and 1.5 wt.% Si were produced both by conventional and rapid solidification processing. The cyclic oxidation resistance of these alloys was studied at 900C in a SO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gas mixture to elucidate the role of alloy microstructure and Si content on oxidation properties in bioxidant atmospheres. All the large-grained, conventionally processed alloys exhibited breakaway oxidation during cyclic oxidation due to their poor rehealing characteristics. The rapidly solidified, fine-grained alloys that contained less than 1.5 wt.% Si exhibited very protective oxidation behavior. There was considerable evidence of sulfur penetration through the protective chromia scale. The rapidly solidified alloys that contained 1.5 wt.% Si underwent repeated scale spallation that led to breakaway oxidation behavior. The scale spallation was attributed to the formation of an extensive silica sublayer in the presence of sulfur in the atmosphere.

  20. Shear punch testing of {sup 59}Ni isotopically-doped model austenitic alloys after irradiation in FFTF at different He/dpa ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    A series of three model alloys, Fe-15Cr-25Ni, Fe-15Cr-25Ni-0.04P and Fe-15Cr45Ni were irradiated side-by-side in FFTF-MOTA in both the annealed and the cold worked condition in each of two variants, one using naturally occurring isotopic mixtures, and another doped with {sup 59}Ni to generate relatively high helium-to-dpa ratios. Previous papers in this series have addressed the influence of helium on radiation-induced evolution of microstructure, dimensional stability and mechanical properties, the latter using miniature-tensile specimens. In the final paper of this experimental series, three sets of irradiations conducted at different temperatures and displacement rates were examined by shear punch testing of standard microscopy disks. The results were used to determine the influence of helium generation rate, alloy starting condition, irradiation temperature and total neutron exposure. The results were also compared with the miniature tensile data obtained earlier. In general, all alloys approached saturation levels of strength and ductility that were relatively independent of He/dpa ratio and starting condition, but were sensitive to the irradiation temperature and total exposure. Some small influence of helium/dpa ratio on the shear strength is visible in the two series that ran at {approximately}490 C, but is not evident at 365 C.

  1. Fluctuations of chemical composition of austenite and their consequence on shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-(Si, Cr, Ni, C, N) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznuk, V.V.; Gavriljuk, V.G. . E-mail: gavr@imp.kiev.ua; Kopitsa, G.P.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Runov, V.V.

    2004-09-20

    Polycrystalline samples of shape memory iron-based alloys containing 17, and 30 mass% Mn and alloyed with Si, Cr, Ni, C, N were studied by means of small angle scattering of polarized neutrons (SAPNS). A direct correlation between chemical homogeneity of the Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni solid solutions and the values of reversible strain caused by the {gamma} {yields} {epsilon} {yields} {gamma} martensitic transformation was found. The addition of silicon to the Fe-Mn alloys significantly improves chemical homogeneity of the fcc solid solution on the scale of larger than several nm, which correlates with the essential increase of reversible strain. A similar to silicon but weaker effect was observed in the case of nitrogen addition to the Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys. Based on the obtained experimental data and in consistency with the previously expressed idea by Sade et al., the positive effect of silicon and nitrogen on chemical homogeneity and SME in Fe-Mn alloys is attributed to the short-range atomic ordering induced by these elements.

  2. Fiber phase transformation and matrix plastic flow in a room temperature tensile strained NiTi shape memory alloy fiber reinforced 6082 aluminum matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.D.; Lorentzen, T.

    1997-05-01

    Macroscopic tensile and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are reported from a 20.5 volume percent, 50.7 at% Ni-Ti fiber reinforced 6082-T6 aluminum matrix composite subjected to a room temperature, 4% tensile elongation. The austenite B2(110) diffraction intensity was essentially stable until approximately 0.9% strain, beyond which, the austenite B2(110) diffraction intensity strongly decreased with increasing tensile strain. The martensite M(001) diffraction intensity strongly increased from a zero intensity intercept at approximately 2.3% strain to the conclusion of tensile straining. This report concludes that the initial decrease in austenite B2(11) diffraction intensity locates the initiation of stress induced transformations in the NiTi reinforcement, furthermore this feature corresponds with an elevated yield point region in the macroscopic tensile results. Therefore, it appears that the elevated yield point region is caused by a temporary inhibition of fiber stress induced transformations.

  3. An interaction of austenitic Cr sbnd Ni steel cladding with Li sbnd Pb eutectic after In-reactor tests at temperatures 550 and 670 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalachikov, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Sinelnikov, L. P.; Zyrianov, A. P.; Abramov, V. Ya.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.

    1996-10-01

    A material science study of 0.04C sbnd 16Cr sbnd 11Ni sbnd 3Mo sbnd Ti steels cladding after static reactor testing in contact with a Li sbnd Pb eutectic melt at 550 and 670 K, was conducted. It was found that cladding plasticity was maintained at the level of 15.6-25.8% and corrosion did not exceed 0.16 mm/y under standard modes of testing. In several cases characteristics of the cladding material changed substantially. For example, plasticity reduced to 3.1-4.4% and the corrosion rate reached 1.6 mm/y. The results obtained led to the conclusion that non-standard parameters of these tests (plumbing of gas outlet by Li sbnd Pb eutectic, temperature splashes during sampling, etc.) had an essential influence on the observed cladding property degradation.

  4. Magnetic nature of the austenite-martensite phase transition and spin glass behaviour in nanostructured Mn2Ni1.6Sn0.4 melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Borgohain, Barsha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay; Singh, H. K.

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline ribbons of inverse Heusler alloy Mn2Ni1.6Sn0.4 have been synthesised by melt spinning of the arc-melted bulk precursor. The single-phase ribbons crystallize into a cubic structure and exhibit very fine crystallite size of <2 nm. Temperature-dependent magnetization ( M- T) measurements reveal ferromagnetic-austenite (FM-A)-antiferromagnetic-martensite (AFM-M) phase transition that begins at M S ≈ 249 K and finishes at M f ≈ 224 K. During warming, the reverse AFM-M to FM-A transitions begins at A s ≈ 240 K and finishes at A f ≈ 261 K. A re-entrant FM transition is observed in the M-phase at T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. These transitions are also confirmed by temperature-dependent resistivity ( ρ- T) measurements. The hysteretic behaviour of M- T and ρ- T in the temperature regime spanned by the A-M transition is a manifestation of the first-order phase transition. M- T and ρ- T data also provide unambiguous evidence in favour of spin glass at T < T_{{CM}}. The scaling of the glass freezing temperature ( T f) with frequency, extracted from the frequency-dependent AC susceptibility measurements, confirms the existence of canonical spin glass at T < T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. The occurrence of canonical spin glass has been explained in terms of the nanostructuring modified interactions between the coexisting FM and AFM correlations in the martensitic phase.

  5. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  6. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2011-08-23

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  7. Calorimetric Investigation of Thermal Stability of 304H Cu (Fe-17.7Cr-9.3Ni-2.95Cu-0.91Mn-0.58Nb-0.24Si-0.1C-0.12N-Wt Pct) Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Subramanian, Raju; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Rai, Arun Kumar; Rengachari, Mythili; Saibaba, Saroja; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2016-12-01

    The sequence of phase instabilities that take place in a Fe-17.7Cr-9.3Ni-0.58Nb-2.95Cu-0.12N (wt pct) austenitic stainless steel (304H Cu grade) as a function of temperature has been investigated using dynamic calorimetry. The results obtained from this investigation are supplemented by Thermocalc-based equilibrium and Scheil-Gulliver nonequilibrium solidification simulation. The following phase transformation sequence is found upon slow cooling from liquid: L → L + γ → L + γ + MX → γ + MX + δ → γ +MX + M23C6 → γ + MX + M23C6 + Cu. Under slow cooling, the solidification follows austenite + ferrite (AF) mode, which is in accordance with Thermocalc prediction and Scheil-Gulliver simulation. However, higher cooling rates result in skeletal δ-ferrite formation, due to increased segregation tendency of Nb and Cr to segregate to interdendritic liquid. The solidification mode is found to depend on combined Nb + Cu content. Experimental estimates of enthalpy change associated with melting and secondary phase precipitation are also obtained. In addition a semi-quantitative study on the dissolution kinetics of M23C6 type carbides has also been investigated. The standard solution treatment at 1413 K (1140 °C) is found to be adequate to dissolve both Cu and M23C6 into γ-austenite; but the complete dissolution of MX type carbonitrides occurs near the melting region.

  8. Magnetic properties of single crystalline expanded austenite obtained by plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steel single crystals.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Enric; Templier, Claude; Garcia-Ramirez, Pablo; Santiso, José; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Nogués, Josep

    2013-10-23

    Ferromagnetic single crystalline [100], [110], and [111]-oriented expanded austenite is obtained by plasma nitriding of paramagnetic 316L austenitic stainless steel single crystals at either 300 or 400 °C. After nitriding at 400 °C, the [100] direction appears to constitute the magnetic easy axis due to the interplay between a large lattice expansion and the expected decomposition of the expanded austenite, which results in Fe- and Ni-enriched areas. However, a complex combination of uniaxial (i.e., twofold) and biaxial (i.e., fourfold) in-plane magnetic anisotropies is encountered. It is suggested that the former is related to residual stress-induced effects while the latter is associated to the in-plane projections of the cubic lattice symmetry. Increasing the processing temperature strengthens the biaxial in-plane anisotropy in detriment of the uniaxial contribution, in agreement with a more homogeneous structure of expanded austenite with lower residual stresses. In contrast to polycrystalline expanded austenite, single crystalline expanded austenite exhibits its magnetic easy axes along basic directions.

  9. Empirical Study of the Multiaxial, Thermomechanical Behavior of NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).

  10. Fabrication and characterization of ODS austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingli; Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Ming; He, Pei

    2011-10-01

    Pure Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Ti elemental powders and nano-Y 2O 3 powders (the compositions of the mixed powders are Fe-18Cr-8Ni-2W-1Ti-0.35Y 2O 3) were processed by high energy mechanical milling. The as milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing for 3 h at 1423 K under a pressure of 200 MPa. The microstructure of the fabricated ODS austenitic steels and chemical composition of the oxide particles were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. The dispersed fine oxides were determined to be Y-Ti-O oxides. The tensile properties were improved significantly by oxide dispersion strengthening but the ductility deteriorated.

  11. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer III, H. M.; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  12. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use atmore » temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.« less

  13. Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-11-01

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt.% are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt.% Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800-850°C in H2O-, S-, and C-containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloys along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  14. Percent Wetland Cover

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be indicate cleaner surface water. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  15. Low-temperature Mechanical Properties of Fe-0.06C-18Cr-10Ni-0.4Ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests and Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-08-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradiation temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320оС. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the deformed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correla-tion to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% deformation used to define yield stress.

  16. Manganese-stabilized austenitic stainless steels for fusion applications

    DOEpatents

    Klueh, Ronald L.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    1990-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel that is comprised of Fe, Cr, Mn, C but no Ni or Nb and minimum N. To enhance strength and fabricability minor alloying additions of Ti, W, V, B and P are made. The resulting alloy is one that can be used in fusion reactor environments because the half-lives of the elements are sufficiently short to allow for handling and disposal.

  17. Manganese-stabilized austenitic stainless steels for fusion applications

    DOEpatents

    Klueh, Ronald L.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    1990-08-07

    An austenitic stainless steel that is comprised of Fe, Cr, Mn, C but no Ni or Nb and minimum N. To enhance strength and fabricability minor alloying additions of Ti, W, V, B and P are made. The resulting alloy is one that can be used in fusion reactor environments because the half-lives of the elements are sufficiently short to allow for handling and disposal.

  18. Long term corrosion resistance of alumina forming austenitic stainless steels in liquid lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakálos, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Alumina forming austenitic steels (AFA) and commercial stainless steels have been exposed in liquid lead with 10-7 wt.% oxygen at 550 °C for up to one year. It is known that chromia forming austenitic stainless steels, such as 316L and 15-15 Ti, have difficulties forming protective oxides in liquid lead at temperatures above 500 °C, which is confirmed in this study. By adding Al to austenitic steels, it is in general terms possible to increase the corrosion resistance. However this study shows that the high Ni containing AFA alloys are attacked by the liquid lead, i.e. dissolution attack occurs. By lowering the Ni content in AFA alloys, it is possible to achieve excellent oxidation properties in liquid lead. Following further optimization of the microstructural properties, low Ni AFA alloys may represent a promising future structural steel for lead cooled reactors.

  19. First-principles study of helium, carbon, and nitrogen in austenite, dilute austenitic iron alloys, and nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, D. J.; Ferguson, D.; Gardner, S.; Ackland, G. J.

    2013-07-01

    An extensive set of first-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the behavior of He, C, and N solutes in austenite, dilute Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys, and Ni in order to investigate their influence on the microstructural evolution of austenitic steel alloys under irradiation. The results show that austenite behaves much like other face-centered cubic metals and like Ni in particular. Strong similarities were also observed between austenite and ferrite. We find that interstitial He is most stable in the tetrahedral site and migrates with a low barrier energy of between 0.1 and 0.2 eV. It binds strongly into clusters as well as overcoordinated lattice defects and forms highly stable He-vacancy (VmHen) clusters. Interstitial He clusters of sufficient size were shown to be unstable to self-interstitial emission and VHen cluster formation. The binding of additional He and V to existing VmHen clusters increases with cluster size, leading to unbounded growth and He bubble formation. Clusters with n/m around 1.3 were found to be most stable with a dissociation energy of 2.8 eV for He and V release. Substitutional He migrates via the dissociative mechanism in a thermal vacancy population but can migrate via the vacancy mechanism in irradiated environments as a stable V2He complex. Both C and N are most stable octahedrally and exhibit migration energies in the range from 1.3 to 1.6 eV. Interactions between pairs of these solutes are either repulsive or negligible. A vacancy can stably bind up to two C or N atoms with binding energies per solute atom up to 0.4 eV for C and up to 0.6 eV for N. Calculations in Ni, however, show that this may not result in vacancy trapping as VC and VN complexes can migrate cooperatively with barrier energies comparable to the isolated vacancy. This should also lead to enhanced C and N mobility in irradiated materials and may result in solute segregation to defect sinks. Binding to larger vacancy clusters

  20. High temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Goodwin, Gene M.

    1989-01-01

    An improved austenitic alloy having in wt % 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150.degree.-1200.degree. C. and then cold deforming 5-15 %. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700.degree. C.

  1. Improved high temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1988-05-13

    An improved austenitic alloy having in wt% 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150-1200/degree/C and then cold deforming 5-15%. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700/degree/C. 2 figs.

  2. Effect of the Content of Retained Austenite and Grain Size on the Fatigue Bending Strength of Steels Carburized in a Low-Pressure Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, P.; Dybowski, K.; Lipa, S.; Januszewicz, B.; Pietrasik, R.; Atraszkiewicz, R.; Wołowiec, E.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of the content of retained austenite and of the initial austenite grain size on high-cycle fatigue of two low-alloy steels 16MnCr5 and 17CrNi6-6 after carburizing in a low-pressure atmosphere (acetylene, ethylene and hydrogen) and subsequent high-pressure gas quenching is investigated.

  3. In-situ observation of an austenitic stainless steel weld joint during helium irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, S.; Hojou, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1993-10-01

    Microstructural evolution during helium-ion irradiation at 773 K in a weld metal sample (containing 10% δ-ferrite) of Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel was observed in-situ using a transmission electron microscope. Very fine helium bubbles formed at high number density in both δ-ferrite and austenite by a dose of 3 × 10 19ionsm-2. However, the different microstructural evolution developed in the two phases with increasing dose. Fine bubbles in δ-ferrite rapidly grew with increasing dose and coalescenced at doses beyond 9 × 10 19ionsm-2. Tiny bubbles in austenite remained very stable during irradiation to a dose of 2 × 10 20ionsm-2. The number density of bubbles was about one order of magnitude larger in austenite than that in δ-ferrite, and increased with increasing dose. Swelling became much larger in δ-ferrite than in austenite, as a result. This is the inverse phenomenon to the conventional result that swelling is lower in ferrite than in austenite. Sigma phase formed by radiation-enhancement at grain boundaries between δ-ferrite and austenite and at the interfaces within δ-ferrite at a dose 9 × 10 19ionsm-2 and grew with increasing dose. The chemical composition of σ-phase formed during irradiation showed Cr and Mo enrichment, and Fe and Ni depletion compared with σ-phase formed thermally.

  4. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  5. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Braski, David N.; Rowcliffe, Arthur F.

    1989-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

  6. Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties Of Fe-0.06c-18cr-10ni-0.4ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests And Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-03-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradia-tion temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320оС. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the de-formed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correlation to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% de-formation used to define yield stress.

  7. Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Bei, Hongbin; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the continued development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides and intermetallic precipitates. Efforts in fiscal year 2009 focused on the characterization and understanding of long-term oxidation resistance and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and microstructure. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2(Mo,Nb) base Laves phase precipitates were used to interpret oxidation behavior. Of particular interest was the enrichment of Cr in the austenitic matrix phase by additions of Nb, which aided the establishment and maintenance of alumina. Higher levels of Nb additions also increased the volume fraction of B2-NiAl precipitates, which served as an Al reservoir during long-term oxidation. Ageing studies of AFA alloys were conducted at 750 C for times up to 2000 h. Ageing resulted in near doubling of yield strength at room temperature after only 50 h at 750 C, with little further increase in yield strength out to 2000 h of ageing. Elongation was reduced on ageing; however, levels of 15-25% were retained at room temperature after 2000 h of total ageing.

  8. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part I. Ductility and fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, B.; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Minkin, A.; Potapova, V.; Smirnov, V.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation swelling effect on the fracture properties of irradiated austenitic steels under static loading has been studied and analyzed from the mechanical and physical viewpoints. Experimental data on the stress-strain curves, fracture strain, fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms have been represented for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various swelling. Some phenomena in mechanical behaviour of irradiated austenitic steels have been revealed and explained as follows: a sharp decrease of fracture toughness with swelling growth; untypical large increase of fracture toughness with decrease of the test temperature; some increase of fracture toughness after preliminary cyclic loading. Role of channel deformation and channel fracture has been clarified in the properties of irradiated austenitic steel and different tendencies to channel deformation have been shown and explained for the same austenitic steel irradiated at different temperatures and neutron doses.

  9. Effect of austenite on mechanical properties in high manganese austenitic stainless steel with two phase of martensite and austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, T. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Kang, C. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the austenite phase on mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels was investigated using specimens with different volume fractions of retained and reversed austenite. Stainless steels with dual-phase coexisting martensite and austenite were successfully synthesized by deformation and reverse transformation treatment in the cold-rolled high manganese austenitic stainless steel and the ultrafine reverse austenite with less than 0.5 µm in size was formed by reverse transformation treatment in the temperature range of 500-750 °C for various times. With the increase of deformation degree, the volume fraction of retained austenite decreased, while that of the reversed austenite increased as the annealing time increased. From the results of the mechanical properties, it was obvious that as the volume fraction of retained and reversed austenite increased, hardness and strength rapidly decreased, while elongation increased. With regard to each austenite, reversed austenite indicated higher value of hardness and strength, while elongation suggested a lower value because of strengthening owing to grain refinement.

  10. Strength of "Light" Ferritic and Austenitic Steels Based on the Fe - Mn - Al - C System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Svyazhin, A. G.; Smarygina, I. V.; Kindop, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The phase composition, the hardness, the mechanical properties at room temperature, and the resistance to hot (950 - 1000°C) and warm (550°C) deformation are studied for cast deformable "light" ferritic and austenitic steels of the Fe - (12 - 25)% Mn - (0 - 15)% Al - (0 - 2)% C system alloyed additionally with about 5% Ni. The high-aluminum high-manganese low-carbon and carbonless ferritic steels at a temperature of about 0.5 T melt have a specific strength close to that of the austenitic steels and may be used as weldable scale-resistant and wear-resistant materials. The high-carbon Fe - (20 - 24)% Mn - (5 - 9)% Al - 5% Ni - 1.5% C austenitic steels may be applied as light high-strength materials operating at cryogenic temperatures after a solution treatment and as scale- and heat-resistant materials in an aged condition.

  11. Intermetallic strengthened alumina-forming austenitic steels for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials required are strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe 2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. This research starts with microstructural and microchemical analyses of these intermetallic strengthened alumina-forming austenitic steels in a scanning electron microscope. The microchemistry of precipitates, as determined by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope, is also studied. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were carried out to these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The microstructural and microchemical analyses were again performed after the thermo-mechanical processing. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure the lattice parameters of these steels after different thermo-mechanical treatments. Tensile tests at both room and elevated temperatures were performed to study mechanical behaviors of this novel alloy system; the deformation mechanisms were studied by strain rate jump tests at elevated temperatures. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these alumina-forming austenitic steels after creep tests. Experiments were carried out to study the effects of boron and carbon additions in the aged alumina-forming austenitic steels.

  12. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOEpatents

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  13. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  14. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  15. Effects of water chemistry on intergranular cracking of irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Hins, A.; Kassner, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    To determine the effects of water chemistry on the susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in austenitic stainless steels, constant-extension-rate tests were conducted in simulated BWR environments on several heats of high- and commercial-purity (HP and CP) Type 304 SS specimens from BWR components irradiated to fluences up to 2.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n cm{sup {minus}2} (E > 1 MeV). Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrochemical potential (ECP) in 289 C water were investigated. Dependence of susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on DO was somewhat different for the two materials. Susceptibility of the HP heats, less influenced by DO and ECP, was higher than that of CP material for all DO and fluence levels. Percent IGSCC in the CP material was negligible for DO < 0.01 ppm or ECP <{minus}140 mV SHE. Results of analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicated that the HP neutron absorber tubes were characterized by relatively lower concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Li and relatively higher concentrations of F and N on grain boundaries than those of the CP materials. It is suggested that a synergism between irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion and fabrication-related fluorine contamination plays an important role in the stress corrosion cracking behavior of the HP neutron absorber tubes.

  16. Grain refinement of a nickel and manganese free austenitic stainless steel produced by pressurized solution nitriding

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh Akbari, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged exposure at high temperatures during solution nitriding induces grain coarsening which deteriorates the mechanical properties of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels. In this study, grain refinement of nickel and manganese free Fe–22.75Cr–2.42Mo–1.17N high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel plates was investigated via a two-stage heat treatment procedure. Initially, the coarse-grained austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to an isothermal heating at 700 °C to be decomposed into the ferrite + Cr{sub 2}N eutectoid structure and then re-austenitized at 1200 °C followed by water quenching. Microstructure and hardness of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and micro-hardness testing. The results showed that the as-solution-nitrided steel decomposes non-uniformly to the colonies of ferrite and Cr{sub 2}N nitrides with strip like morphology after isothermal heat treatment at 700 °C. Additionally, the complete dissolution of the Cr{sub 2}N precipitates located in the sample edges during re-austenitizing requires longer times than 1 h. In order to avoid this problem an intermediate nitrogen homogenizing heat treatment cycle at 1200 °C for 10 h was applied before grain refinement process. As a result, the initial austenite was uniformly decomposed during the first stage, and a fine grained austenitic structure with average grain size of about 20 μm was successfully obtained by re-austenitizing for 10 min. - Highlights: • Successful grain refinement of Fe–22.75Cr–2.42Mo–1.17N steel by heat treatment • Using the γ → α + Cr{sub 2}N reaction for grain refinement of a Ni and Mn free HNASS • Obtaining a single phase austenitic structure with average grain size of ∼ 20 μm • Incomplete dissolution of Cr{sub 2}N during re-austenitizing at 1200 °C for long times • Reducing re-austenitizing time by homogenizing treatment before grain refinement.

  17. The development of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels for high-temperature structural use

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A; Lu, Zhao Ping; Liu, Chain T; Bei, Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    Efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to developAl2O3-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels for high-temperature (600-900 aC) structural use under aggressive oxidizing conditions are overviewed. Data obtained to date indicate the potential to achieve superior oxidation resistance to conventional Cr2O3-forming Fe- and Ni-base heat-resistant alloys, with creep strength comparable to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic stainless steels. Preliminary assessment also indicates the developed alloys are amenable to welding. Details of the alloy design approach and composition-microstructure-property relationships are presented.

  18. Effect of Alloying Additions on Phase Equilibria and Creep Resistance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Santella, M. L.; Brady, M. P.; Bei, H.; Maziasz, P. J.

    2009-08-01

    The high-temperature creep properties of a series of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels based on Fe-20Ni-(12-14)Cr-(2.5-4)Al-(0.2-3.3)Nb-0.1C (weight percent) were studied. Computational thermodynamics were used to aid in the interpretation of data on microstructural stability, phase equilibria, and creep resistance. Phases of MC (M: mainly Nb), M23C6 (M: mainly Cr), B2 [ β-(Ni,Fe)Al], and Laves [Fe2(Mo,Nb)] were observed after creep-rupture testing at 750 °C and 170 MPa; this was generally consistent with the thermodynamic calculations. The creep resistance increased with increasing Nb additions up to 1 wt pct in the 2.5 and 3 Al wt pct alloy series, due to the stabilization of nanoscale MC particles relative to M23C6. Additions of Nb greater than 1 wt pct decreased creep resistance in the alloy series due to stabilization of the Laves phase and increased amounts of undissolved, coarse MC, which effectively reduced the precipitation of nanoscale MC particles. The additions of Al also increased the creep resistance moderately due to the increase in the volume fraction of B2 phase precipitates. Calculations suggested that optimum creep resistance would be achieved at approximately 1.5 wt pct Nb in the 4 wt pct Al alloy series.

  19. Effect of alloying additions on phase equilibria and creep resistance of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Brady, Michael P; Bei, Hongbin; Maziasz, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    The high-temperature creep properties of a series of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels based on Fe-20Ni-(12-14)Cr-(2.5-4)Al-(0.2-3.3)Nb-0.1C (weight percent) were studied. Computational thermodynamics were used to aid in the interpretation of data on microstructural stability, phase equilibria, and creep resistance. Phases of MC (M: mainly Nb), M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M: mainly Cr), B2 [{beta}-(Ni,Fe)Al], and Laves [Fe{sub 2}(Mo,Nb)] were observed after creep-rupture testing at 750 C and 170 MPa; this was generally consistent with the thermodynamic calculations. The creep resistance increased with increasing Nb additions up to 1 wt pct in the 2.5 and 3 Al wt pct alloy series, due to the stabilization of nanoscale MC particles relative to M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Additions of Nb greater than 1 wt pct decreased creep resistance in the alloy series due to stabilization of the Laves phase and increased amounts of undissolved, coarse MC, which effectively reduced the precipitation of nanoscale MC particles. The additions of Al also increased the creep resistance moderately due to the increase in the volume fraction of B2 phase precipitates. Calculations suggested that optimum creep resistance would be achieved at approximately 1.5 wt pct Nb in the 4 wt pct Al alloy series.

  20. Delta ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steel resistant to the formation of undesirable phases upon aging

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    Austenitic stainless steel alloys containing delta ferrite, such as are used as weld deposits, are protected against the transformation of delta ferrite to sigma phase during aging by the presence of carbon plus nitrogen in a weight percent 0.015 to 0.030 times the volume percent ferrite present in the alloy. The formation of chi phase upon aging is controlled by controlling the Mo content.

  1. Delta ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steel resistant to the formation of undesirable phases upon aging

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, James M.

    1981-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel alloys containing delta ferrite, such as are used as weld deposits, are protected against the transformation of delta ferrite to sigma phase during aging by the presence of carbon plus nitrogen in a weight percent 0.015-0.030 times the volume percent ferrite present in the alloy. The formation of chi phase upon aging is controlled by controlling the Mo content.

  2. Retained Austenite in SAE 52100 Steel Post Magnetic Processing and Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Nathaniel R; Watkins, Thomas R; Cavin, Odis Burl; Jaramillo, Roger A; Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    2007-01-01

    Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that contains up to 2% carbon by weight. Understanding which phases of iron and carbon form as a function of temperature and percent carbon is important in order to process/manufacture steel with desired properties. Austenite is the face center cubic (fcc) phase of iron that exists between 912 and 1394 C. When hot steel is rapidly quenched in a medium (typically oil or water), austenite transforms into martensite. The goal of the study is to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on the amount of retained austenite present at room temperature after quenching. Samples of SAE 52100 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength and time, while samples of SAE 1045 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength for a fixed time while being tempered. X-ray diffraction was used to collect quantitative data corresponding to the amount of each phase present post processing. The percentage of retained austenite was then calculated using the American Society of Testing and Materials standard for determining the amount of retained austenite for randomly oriented samples and was plotted as a function of magnetic field intensity, magnetic field apply time, and magnetic field wait time after quenching to determine what relationships exist with the amount of retained austenite present. In the SAE 52100 steel samples, stronger field strengths resulted in lower percentages of retained austenite for fixed apply times. The results were inconclusive when applying a fixed magnetic field strength for varying amounts of time. When applying a magnetic field after waiting a specific amount of time after quenching, the analyses indicate that shorter wait times result in less retained austenite. The SAE 1045 results were inconclusive. The samples showed no retained austenite regardless of magnetic field strength, indicating that tempering removed the retained austenite. It is apparent

  3. Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gerald D.; Powell, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  4. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  6. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  7. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  8. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  9. Unraveling the Effect of Thermomechanical Treatment on the Dissolution of Delta Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezayat, Mohammad; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Namdar, Masih; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Considering the detrimental effects of delta ferrite stringers in austenitic stainless steels and the industrial considerations regarding energy consumption, investigating, and optimizing the kinetics of delta ferrite removal is of vital importance. In the current study, a model alloy prone to the formation of austenite/delta ferrite dual phase microstructure was subjected to thermomechanical treatment using the wedge rolling test aiming to dissolve delta ferrite. The effect of introducing lattice defects and occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were investigated. It was revealed that pipe diffusion is responsible for delta ferrite removal during thermomechanical process, whereas when the DRX is dominant, the kinetics of delta ferrite dissolution tends toward that of the static homogenization treatment for delta ferrite removal that is based on the lattice diffusion of Cr and Ni in austenite. It was concluded that the optimum condition for dissolution of delta ferrite can be defined by the highest rolling temperature and strain in which DRX is not pronounced.

  10. Processing and characterization of a hipped oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Wanhua; Liao, Lu; Xu, Yingli

    2012-09-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic steel with a nominal chemical composition of Fe-18Cr-8Ni-1Mo-0.5Ti-0.35Y2O3 (in wt.%) was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) combined with hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The morphology of MA powders was observed by SEM. The microstructure of the HIPed ODS austenitic steels and chemical composition of the oxide particles were examined by TEM combined with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The oxide dispersion particles with sizes less than 20 nm were determined to be complex Y-Ti-Si-O oxides. The tensile test showed that the fabricated ODS austenitic steel had very high strength and good ductility. The ultimate tensile strength was around 1000 MPa with a total elongation of 33.5% at room temperature, while at temperature of 700 °C, the ultimate tensile strength still reached around 500 MPa.

  11. Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

    1975-07-22

    An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

  12. The influence of silicon and aluminum on austenite deformation behavior during fatigue and tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnhoff, Gregory R.

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for automobile light-weighting utilize Si and Al alloying to retain austenite in the microstructure during thermal partitioning treatments. This research project utilized fully austenitic steels with varied Si and Al compositions to understand the effect of these elements on austenite deformation response, including deformation induced martensite formation and deformation twinning. Specific focus was directed at understanding austenite deformation response during fatigue loading. Independent alloying additions of 2.5 wt pct Si and Al were made to a base steel composition of 15 Ni - 11 Cr - 1 Mn - 0.03 C (wt pct). Weak beam dark field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of dissociated dislocations was implemented to experimentally determine the influences of Si and Al on austenite stacking fault energy (SFE). The 2.5 wt pct Si alloying addition decreased the SFE by 6.4 mJ/m2, while the 2.5 wt pct Al alloying increased the SFE by 12 mJ/m2. Fully reversed, total strain controlled, low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests indicated that all four alloys underwent primary cyclic hardening and stabilization. Secondary cyclic strain hardening was correlated to BCC martensite formation using Feritscope magnetic fraction measurements of LCF specimens; the formation of 1 pct martensite led to 7 MPa of secondary hardening. TEM showed that martensite predominantly formed as parallel, irregular bands through strain induced nucleation on austenite shear bands. The austenite shear bands consisted of austenite {111} planes with concentrated dislocations, stacking faults, and/or HCP epsilon-martensite. Aluminum alloying promoted martensite formation during LCF, while Si suppressed martensite. Therefore, the strain induced nucleation process was not suppressed by the increased SFE associated with Al alloying. Tensile testing indicated that Si alloying promoted deformation twinning by lowering the SFE. Similarly to LCF loading, Al promoted

  13. Deformation Mechanisms in Austenitic TRIP/TWIP Steel as a Function of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wolf, Steffen; Martin, Ulrich; Krüger, Lutz; Rafaja, David

    2016-01-01

    A high-alloy austenitic CrMnNi steel was deformed at temperatures between 213 K and 473 K (-60 °C and 200 °C) and the resulting microstructures were investigated. At low temperatures, the deformation was mainly accompanied by the direct martensitic transformation of γ-austenite to α'-martensite (fcc → bcc), whereas at ambient temperatures, the transformation via ɛ-martensite (fcc → hcp → bcc) was observed in deformation bands. Deformation twinning of the austenite became the dominant deformation mechanism at 373 K (100 °C), whereas the conventional dislocation glide represented the prevailing deformation mode at 473 K (200 °C). The change of the deformation mechanisms was attributed to the temperature dependence of both the driving force of the martensitic γ → α' transformation and the stacking fault energy of the austenite. The continuous transition between the ɛ-martensite formation and the twinning could be explained by different stacking fault arrangements on every second and on each successive {111} austenite lattice plane, respectively, when the stacking fault energy increased. A continuous transition between the transformation-induced plasticity effect and the twinning-induced plasticity effect was observed with increasing deformation temperature. Whereas the formation of α'-martensite was mainly responsible for increased work hardening, the stacking fault configurations forming ɛ-martensite and twins induced additional elongation during tensile testing.

  14. High temperature phase chemistries and solidification mode prediction in nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Ann M.; Henry, Michael F.; Savage, Warren F.

    1984-07-01

    Nitronic 50 and Nitronic 50W, two nitrogen-strengthened stainless steels, were heat treated over a wide range of temperatures, and the compositions of the ferrite and austenite at each temperature were measured with analytical electron microscopy techniques. The compositional data were used to generate the (γ + δ phase field on a 58 pct Fe vertical section. Volume fractions of ferrite and austenite were calculated from phase chemistries and compared with volume fractions determined from optical micrographs. Weld solidification modes were predicted by reference to the Cr and Ni contents of each alloy, and the results were compared with predictions based on the ratios of calculated Cr and Ni equivalents for the alloys. Nitronic 50, which contained ferrite and austenite at the solidus temperature of 1370 °C, solidified through the eutectic triangle, and the weld microstructure was similar to that of austenitic-ferritic solidification. Nitronic 50W was totally ferritic at 1340 °C and solidified as primary delta ferrite. During heat treatments, Nitronic 50 and Nitronic 50W precipitated secondary phases, notably Z-phase (NbCrN), sigma phase, and stringered phases rich in Mn and Cr.

  15. Microstructure and crack resistance of low carbon Cr-Ni and Cr-Ni-W steel after austempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdjieva, Tatyana; Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan; Staevski, Konstantin

    2013-09-01

    The microstructure of the low carbon Cr-Ni steel after slow cooling from austenization temperature represents a mix of granulated bainite with islands from carbon-rich martensite and carbon-poor austenite. After quick cooling throwing in salt bath from austenization temperature the microstructure is lath bainite. However, in the same treatment conditions, the microstructure of the low carbon Cr-Ni-W steel is different — clusters consist from lath ferrite and retained austenite, disposed in the frame of parent's austenite grains. The cooling velocity has no effect upon the structure making. The impact toughness of the steel with tungsten content is bigger than the steel without tungsten.

  16. Austenite Stability Effects on Tensile Behavior of Manganese-Enriched-Austenite Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, P. J.; de Moor, E.; Merwin, M. J.; Clausen, B.; Speer, J. G.; Matlock, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Manganese enrichment of austenite during prolonged intercritical annealing was used to produce a family of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with varying retained austenite contents. Cold-rolled 0.1C-7.1Mn steel was annealed at incremental temperatures between 848 K and 948 K (575 °C and 675 °C) for 1 week to enrich austenite in manganese. The resulting microstructures are comprised of varying fractions of intercritical ferrite, martensite, and retained austenite. Tensile behavior is dependent on annealing temperature and ranged from a low strain-hardening "flat" curve to high strength and ductility conditions that display positive strain hardening over a range of strain levels. The mechanical stability of austenite was measured using in-situ neutron diffraction and was shown to depend significantly on annealing temperature. Variations in austenite stability between annealing conditions help explain the observed strain hardening behaviors.

  17. Localized deformation and IASCC initiation in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z.; Was, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    Localized deformation may play a key role in the underlying mechanism of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactor core components. In this study, four austenitic alloys, 18Cr8Ni, 15Cr12Ni, 13Cr15Ni and 21Cr32Ni, with different stacking fault energies were irradiated to 1 and 5 dpa at 360 °C using 3.2 MeV protons. Interrupted constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests were conducted in a simulated BWR environment to determine IASCC susceptibility. In order to characterize the localized deformation in slip channels and grain boundaries, parallel CERT experiments were also performed in an argon atmosphere. Results show that the IASCC susceptibility of the tested alloys increases with increasing irradiation dose and decreasing stacking fault energy. IASCC tends to initiate at locations where slip channels intersect grain boundaries. Localized deformation in the form of grain boundary sliding due to the interaction of slip channels and grain boundaries is likely the primary cause of the observed cracking initiation.

  18. Processing and structure of a Nitrogen Alloyed Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingli; Zhou, Zhangjian

    2013-03-01

    Pure metallic powders of Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Ti and nano-Y2O3 powders were mechanical alloyed by high energy mechanical milling under N2 atmosphere to develop a nitrogen contained oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic steel powders. The compositions of the mixed powders are Fe-18Cr-8Ni-2W-1Ti-0.35Y2O3. The effects of milling time on nitrogen absorption were investigated. The nitrogen contents in the as-milled powders reached 0.31 wt% after milling for 60 hours and nearly 0.8 wt% after milling for 150 hours. The as-milled powders were then annealed under vacuum at 1173K and 1373 K to promote the formation of the resultant equilibrium phases. Fully austenitic structure was achieved after annealing at 1173K.

  19. Texture development in dual-phase cold-rolled 18 pct Ni maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Z.; Farooque, M.; Ul Haq, A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1997-12-01

    Austenite and martensite textures were studied in 18 pct Ni 350-maraging steel as a function of various degrees of cold rolling. The austenite phase in the samples was produced by repeated thermal cycling between ambient and 800 C. The austenite phase thus formed was mechanically unstable and transformed to the martensite phase after 30 pct cold rolling. The texture developed as a result of cold rolling, and its effect upon microstructure and hardness has been studied.

  20. Nucleation kinetics of proeutectoid ferrite at austenite grain boundaries in Fe-C-X alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, M.; Aaronson, H. I.

    1986-08-01

    The nucleation kinetics of proeutectoid ferrite allotriomorphs at austenite grain boundaries in Fe-0.5 at. Pct C-3 at. Pct X alloys, where X is successively Mn, Ni, Co, and Si and in an Fe-0.8 at. Pct C-2.5 at. Pct Mo alloy have been measured using previously developed experimental techniques. The results were analyzed in terms of the influence of substitutional alloying elements upon the volume free energy change and upon the energies of austenite grain boundaries and nucleus: matrix boundaries. Classical nucleation theory was employed in conjunction with the pillbox model of the critical nucleus applied during the predecessor study of ferrite nucleation kinetics at grain boundaries in Fe-C alloys. The free energy change associated with nucleation was evaluated from both the Hillert-Staffanson and the Central Atoms Models of interstitial-substitutional solid solutions. The grain boundary concentrations of X determined with a Scanning Auger Microprobe were utilized to calculate the reduction in the austenite grain boundary energy produced by the segregation of alloying elements. Analysis of these data in terms of nucleation theory indicates that much of the influence of X upon ferrite nucleation rate derives from effects upon the volume-free energy change, i.e., upon alterations in the path of the γ/(α + γ) phase boundary. Additional effects arise from reductions in austenite grain boundary energy, with austenite-forming alloying elements being more effective in this regard than ferrite-formers. By difference, the remaining influence of the alloy elements studied evidently results from their ability to diminish the energies of the austenite: ferrite boundaries enclosing the critical nucleus. The role of nucleation kinetics in the formation of a bay in the TTT diagram of Fe-C-Mo alloys is also considered.

  1. Nucleation sites for ultrafine ferrite produced by deformation of austenite during single-pass strip rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, P. J.; Muddle, B. C.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2001-06-01

    An austenitic Ni-30 wt pct Fe alloy, with a stacking-fault energy and deformation characteristics similar to those of austenitic low-carbon steel at elevated temperatures, has been used to examine the defect substructure within austenite deformed by single-pass strip rolling and to identify those features most likely to provide sites for intragranular nucleation of ultrafine ferrite in steels. Samples of this alloy and a 0.095 wt pct C-1.58Mn-0.22Si-0.27Mo steel have been hot rolled and cooled under similar conditions, and the resulting microstructures were compared using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. Following a single rolling pass of ˜40 pct reduction of a 2mm strip at 800 °C, three microstructural zones were identified throughout its thickness. The surface zone (of 0.1 to 0.4 mm in depth) within the steel comprised a uniform microstructure of ultrafine ferrite, while the equivalent zone of a Ni-30Fe alloy contained a network of dislocation cells, with an average diameter of 0.5 to 1.0 µm. The scale and distribution and, thus, nucleation density of the ferrite grains formed in the steel were consistent with the formation of individual ferrite nuclei on cell boundaries within the austenite. In the transition zone, 0.3 to 0.5 mm below the surface of the steel strip, discrete polygonal ferrite grains were observed to form in parallel, and closely spaced “rafts” traversing individual grains of austenite. Based on observations of the equivalent zone of the rolled Ni-30Fe alloy, the ferrite distribution could be correlated with planar defects in the form of intragranular microshear bands formed within the deformed austenite during rolling. Within the central zone of the steel strip, a bainitic microstructure, typical of that observed after conventional hot rolling of this steel, was observed following air cooling. In this region of the rolled Ni-30Fe alloy, a network of microbands was observed, typical of

  2. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts).

  3. Optimization of Melt Treatment for Austenitic Steel Grain Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakh, Simon N.; Ge, Jun; Richards, Von; O'Malley, Ron; TerBush, Jessica R.

    2017-02-01

    Refinement of the as-cast grain structure of austenitic steels requires the presence of active solid nuclei during solidification. These nuclei can be formed in situ in the liquid alloy by promoting reactions between transition metals (Ti, Zr, Nb, and Hf) and metalloid elements (C, S, O, and N) dissolved in the melt. Using thermodynamic simulations, experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a predicted sequence of reactions targeted to form precipitates that could act as active nuclei for grain refinement in austenitic steel castings. Melt additions performed to promote the sequential precipitation of titanium nitride (TiN) onto previously formed spinel (Al2MgO4) inclusions in the melt resulted in a significant refinement of the as-cast grain structure in heavy section Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel castings. A refined as-cast structure consisting of an inner fine-equiaxed grain structure and outer columnar dendrite zone structure of limited length was achieved in experimental castings. The sequential of precipitation of TiN onto Al2MgO4 was confirmed using automated SEM/EDX and TEM analyses.

  4. Etude de la migration des interstitiels dans des austenites Fe, Cr (18), Ni (14) pures et industrielles par irradiation dans un microscope a tres haute tension: Role du carbone et du titane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housseau, N.; Pelissier, J.

    1983-12-01

    Nous avons étudié le rôle des impurtés (C ou Ti) dans la condensation et la migration des défauts interstitiels. Les échantillons étudiés sont des aciers austénitiques: (a) acier de synthèse de haute pureté (Cr 18, Ni 14, Fe) avec ou sans carbone; (b) acier industriel avec C (800 ppm) ou Ti (0,45%). Les échantillons ont été irradiés dans un microscope à très haute tension aux doses allant de 10 -4 jusqu'à 10 -1 dpa aux températures de 300°C à 400°C. Dans de telles conditions les défauts observés sont des boucles interstitielles. L'étude de la variation de l'épaisseur de la zone dénudée près du bord de la lame mince en fonction de la température nous a permis d'évaluer l'énergie de migration effective de l'interstitiel dans ces alliages. Dans l'austénite de synthèse carburée ou non sa valeur est de 0.8 eV. Dans l'acier industriel au titane carburé ou non on obtient 2.0 eV. Nous n'avons pas observé d'effet lié au carbone. L'examen de la densité de boucles à saturation dans les divers aciers suggère une forte énergie de liaison interstitiel-titane. Cette énergie de liaison, si l'ont admet que le titane est la seule impureté agissante du système, peut être estimée à 1.2 eV.

  5. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H.

    2009-03-23

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 30lb heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(1-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions.

  6. Nanostructurization of Fe-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilhenko, Vitaliy E.

    2017-03-01

    Data about an effect of cyclic γ-α-γ martensitic transformations on the structure state of reverted austenite Fe-31.7 wt.% Ni-0.06 wt.% C alloy are presented. The effect of multiple direct γ-α and reverse α-γ martensitic transformations on fragmentation of austenitic grains has been investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. An ultrafine structure has been formed by nanofragmentation inside the initial austenite grains due to the successive misorientation of their crystal lattice. Austenite was nanofragmented as a result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. Slow heating of the nanofragmented alloy at a rate below 2 °C/s results in nanograin refinement of the structure by multiplication of the reverted γ-phase orientations. The conditions of structure refinement up to ultrafine and nanocrystalline levels as a result of both shear and diffusion mechanisms of reverse α-γ transformation are determined.

  7. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Bin; Baker, Ian

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L12 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Ni3Al(Ti) L12, NiAl B2, Fe2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L12 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L12 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were

  8. Mechanical characteristics and swelling of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn steels irradiated in the SM-2 and BOR-60 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Neustroev, V. S.; Ivanov, L. I.; Djomina, E. V.; Platov, Yu. M.

    1991-03-01

    Three types of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn stainless steels were irradiated simultaneously with Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic steel at temperatures from 400 to 800°C in the mixed spectrum of the high flux SM-2 reactor to 10 dpa and 700 appm of He and in the BOR-60 reactor to 60 dpa without He generation. The paper presents the swelling and mechanical properties of steels irradiated in the BOR-60 and SM-2 as a function of the concentration of transmuted He and the value of atomic displacement.

  9. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H.

    2009-03-10

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 301b heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(l-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions. AFA alloy properties to date have been obtained from small laboratory scale arc-castings made at ORNL. The goal of the ORNL-CarTech CRADA was to establish the viability for producing plate, sheet and foil of the AFA alloys by conventional casting and hot working approaches as a first step towards scale up and commercialization of the AFA alloys. The AFA alloy produced under this effort will then be evaluated in related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers for gas turbine recuperator applications.

  10. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept pollutants before they reach the stream. High percentages of agriculture along streams increase the likelihood of elevated nutrient, pesticide and sediment levels in the stream. Agricultural land cover along streams (RIPAG) is the percent of total stream length adjacent to agriculture. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  11. Damping of Selective-Laser-Melted NiTi for Medical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wild, Michael; Meier, Fabian; Bormann, Therese; Howald, Chaim B. C.; Müller, Bert

    2014-07-01

    NiTi exhibits distinct damping properties associated with the martensite-austenite transformation. We fabricated net-shape NiTi parts layer-by-layer using a laser beam that locally melted the NiTi powder. The damping properties of such NiTi parts were analyzed by the decay of cantilever vibrations in comparison to conventionally prepared NiTi. The dynamic modulus as a function of the temperature was derived from the resonant frequency. We found that the two cantilevers showed a damping ratio of about 0.03 at temperatures below austenite start, maximal values of up to 0.04 in the transformation regions and low values of about 0.005 above austenite finish. The results indicate that selective-laser-melted NiTi qualifies for the fabrication of shock-absorbing medical implants in the same manner than conventionally produced NiTi.

  12. Atomic configuration and properties of austenitic steels at finite temperature: Effect of longitudinal spin fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, A. V.; Dehghani, M.

    2016-09-01

    High-temperature atomic configurations of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with alloy composition close to austenitic steel are studied in statistical thermodynamic simulations with effective interactions obtained in ab initio calculations. The latter are done taking longitudinal spin fluctuations (LSF) into consideration within a quasiclassical phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic state affects greatly the alloy properties, and in particular, it is shown that the LSF substantially modify the bonding and interatomic interactions of fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys even at ambient conditions. The calculated atomic short-range order is in reasonable agreement with existing experimental data for Fe0.56Cr0.21Ni0.23 , which has strong preference for the (001)-type ordering between Ni and Cr atoms. A similar ordering tendency is found for the Fe0.75Cr0.17Ni0.08 alloy composition, which approximately corresponds to the widely used 304 and 316 austenitic steel grades.

  13. Phase Transformations of an Fe-0.85 C-17.9 Mn-7.1 Al Austenitic Steel After Quenching and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Low-density Mn-Al steels could potentially be substitutes for commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels. However, the development of the Mn-Al stainless steels requires knowledge of the phase transformations that occur during the steel making processes. Phase transformations of an Fe-0.85 C-17.9 Mn-7.1 Al (wt.%) austenitic steel, which include spinodal decomposition, precipitation transformations, and cellular transformations, have been studied after quenching and annealing. The results show that spinodal decomposition occurs prior to the precipitation transformation in the steel after quenching and annealing at temperatures below 1023 K and that coherent fine particles of L12-type carbide precipitate homogeneously in the austenite. The cellular transformation occurs during the transformation of high-temperature austenite into lamellae of austenite, ferrite, and kappa carbide at temperatures below 1048 K. During annealing at temperatures below 923 K, the austenite decomposes into lamellar austenite, ferrite, κ-carbide, and M23C6 carbide grains for another cellular transformation. Last, when annealing at temperatures below 873 K, lamellae of ferrite and κ-carbide appear in the austenite.

  14. ROE Fish Faunal Percent Loss

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Percent reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are displayed by 6-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-6) watershed. A species is considered present if there is at least one record of its presence in any 8-digit HUC within the 6-digit HUC. This indicator presents a summary of data available from the NatureServe Explorer database (http://www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools/natureserve-explorer). The identity and status (current vs. historical) of all native fish species recorded in each 8-digit HUC are available from this database, along with species-by-species distribution maps at the 8-digit HUC level. Analyses based on these data have previously been reported in Master et al. (1998, 2003) and Stein et al. (2000). Data were provided by NatureServe.

  15. Creep-Resistant, Al2O3- Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Lu, Zhao Ping; Maziasz, Philip J; Liu, Chain T; Pint, Bruce A; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Payzant, E Andrew

    2007-01-01

    A family of inexpensive, Al2O3-forming, high creep strength austenitic stainless steels have been developed. The alloys are based on Fe-20Ni-14Cr-2.5 Al wt.%, with strengthening achieved via nanodispersions of NbC. These alloys offer the potential to significantly increase the operating temperatures of structural components, and can be used under the aggressive oxidizing conditions encountered in energy conversion systems. Protective Al2O3 scale formation was achieved at lower levels of Al in austenitic alloys than previously used, provided that the Ti and V alloying additions frequently used for strengthening were eliminated. The lower levels of Al permitted stabilization of the austenitic matrix structure, and made it possible to obtain excellent creep resistance. Creep rupture lifetime in excess of 2000 h at 750 aC and 100 MPa in air, and resistance to oxidation in air + 10% water vapor environments at 650 and 800 aC are demonstrated

  16. Influence of Martensite Fraction on the Stabilization of Austenite in Austenitic-Martensitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuliang; De Cooman, Bruno C.; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2016-05-01

    The influence of martensite fraction ( f α') on the stabilization of austenite was studied by quench interruption below M s temperature of an Fe-13Cr-0.31C (mass pct) stainless steel. The interval between the quench interruption temperature and the secondary martensite start temperature, denoted as θ, was used to quantify the extent of austenite stabilization. In experiments with and without a reheating step subsequent to quench interruption, the variation of θ with f α' showed a transition after transformation of almost half of the austenite. This trend was observed regardless of the solution annealing temperature which influenced the martensite start temperature. The transition in θ was ascribed to a change in the type of martensite nucleation sites from austenite grain and twin boundaries at low f α' to the faults near austenite-martensite (A-M) boundaries at high f α'. At low temperatures, the local carbon enrichment of such boundaries was responsible for the enhanced stabilization at high f α'. At high temperatures, relevant to the quenching and partitioning processing, on the other hand, the pronounced stabilization at high f α' was attributed to the uniform partitioning of the carbon stored at A-M boundaries into the austenite. Reduction in the fault density of austenite served as an auxiliary stabilization mechanism at high temperatures.

  17. Development and Exploratory Scale-Up of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Magee, John H; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J; Santella, Michael L; Pint, Bruce A; Bei, Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the continued development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides and intermetallic precipitates. Efforts in fiscal year 2009 focused on the characterization and understanding of long-term oxidation resistance and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and microstructure. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2(Mo,Nb) base Laves phase precipitates were used to interpret oxidation behavior. Of particular interest was the enrichment of Cr in the austenitic matrix phase by additions of Nb, which aided the establishment and maintenance of alumina. Higher levels of Nb additions also increased the volume fraction of B2-NiAl precipitates, which served as an Al reservoir during long-term oxidation. Ageing studies of AFA alloys were conducted at 750C for times up to 2000 h. Ageing resulted in near doubling of yield strength at room temperature after only 50 h at 750C, with little further increase in yield strength out to 2000 h of ageing. Elongation was reduced on ageing; however, levels of 15-25% were retained at room temperature after 2000 h of total ageing.

  18. In-situ kinetics study on the growth of expanded austenite in AISI 316L stainless steels by XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh-Michels, Zoltán; Faeht, Alexander; Kleiner, Simon; von Känel, Adrian; Rufer, Jean-Martin; Dommann, Alex; Margraf, Patrick; Tschopp, Gerhard; Neels, Antonia

    2017-07-01

    The formation of expanded austenite in Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steels like AISI 316L is not completely understood despite its technological relevance. In this work, we present an in-situ X-ray diffraction study on the growth kinetics of the expanded austenite. We applied a low-temperature nitrocarburizing treatment using a mixture of NH3, N2, H2, and C2H4 gases at atmospheric pressures in a novel and custom built chamber attached to a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer. The nitrocarburizing temperature was varied between 340 and 440 °C, and the possible effects of the gas amount were also tested. The thickness of the growing layer was determined from the shrinkage of the unmodified austenite peak. The growth rate coefficient was calculated using the linear-parabolic equation. The resulting coefficients follow the Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 165 ± 12 kJ/mol. This value is in good agreement with the diffusion activation energy for heavy interstitials like carbon and nitrogen. The expanded austenite peak was modelled by a multilayer approach, where each 0.5 μm sublayer has a constant lattice parameter. The lattice expansion is analyzed as a function of the Boltzmann-variable (η = 0.5 × t-1/2). The expanded austenite layer in this metric has a constant width. Furthermore by rescaling with the lattice expansion of the first sublayer, it is possible to create a scale-independent master curve. These findings indicate that thickening of the expanded austenite is purely diffusion controlled, while the extent of strain is set by the uptake rate of the gas atoms.

  19. Effect of Crystallographic Texture, Retained Austenite, and Austenite Grain Size on the Mechanical and Ballistic Properties of Steel Armor Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    after rolling recrystallizes the austenite, and changes the texture to cube orientation. The sharpness of the cube texture of recrystallized austenite...rolling at a lower temperature. Accordingly, the cube texture of the recrystallized austenite was weakened; as a result, a weakened martensite...obtained. I f . -30- 2. When the deformed austenite with a strong copper-type rolling texture was annealed, a strong cube - texture was assumed by the

  20. Impact Toughness Properties of Nickel- and Manganese-Free High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh; Akbari, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mina

    2016-12-01

    A large amount of manganese (>10 wt pct) in nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels (Ni-free HNASSs) can induce toxicity. In order to develop Ni-free HNASSs with low or no manganese, it is necessary to investigate their mechanical properties for biomedical applications. This work aims to study the Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact toughness properties of a Ni- and Mn-free Fe-22.7Cr-2.4Mo-1.2N HNASS plate in the temperature range of 103 K to 423 K (-170 °C to 150 °C). The results show that unlike conventional AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, the Ni- and Mn-free HNASS exhibits a sharp ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT). The intergranular brittle fracture associated with some plasticity and deformation bands is observed on the fracture surface at 298 K (25 °C). Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the impact-tested sample in the longitudinal direction indicates that deformation bands are parallel to {111} slip planes. By decreasing the temperature to 273 K, 263 K, and 103 K (0 °C, -10 °C, and -70 °C), entirely intergranular brittle fracture occurs on the fracture surface. The fracture mode changes from brittle fracture to ductile as the temperature increases to 423 K (150 °C). The decrease in impact toughness is discussed on the basis of temperature sensitivity of plastic flow and planarity of deformation mechanism.

  1. Prediction of Temperatures of Austenite Equilibrium Transformations in Steels During Thermomechanical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge about the transformation temperatures is crucial in processing of steels especially in thermomechanical processes because microstructures and mechanical properties after processing are closely related to the extent and type of transformations. The experimental determination of critical temperatures is costly, and therefore, it is preferred to predict them by mathematical methods. In the current work, new thermodynamically based models were developed for computing the Ae3 and Acm temperatures in the equilibrium cooling conditions when austenite is deformed at elevated temperatures. The main advantage of the proposed models is their capability to predict the temperatures of austenite equilibrium transformations in steels with total alloying elements (Mn + Si + Ni + Cr + Mo + Cu) less than 5 wt.% and Si less than 1 wt.% under the deformation conditions just by using the chemical potential of constituents, without the need for determining the total Gibbs free energy of steel which requires many experiments and computations.

  2. CrN precipitation and elemental segregation during the decay of expanded austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manova, D.; Lotnyk, A.; Mändl, S.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen insertion into austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures leads to anomalous fast nitrogen diffusion and the formation of an expanded fcc phase which is known as expanded austenite. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements during low energy nitrogen ion implantation into steel AISI 304 at 475 °C and short annealing at 575 °C were performed in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy investigations. They show the time dependent decay of this expanded phase with coalescing and growing CrN precipitates. There is elemental segregation associated with this decay where Fe is absent very early from the Cr-N containing precipitates. Ni is segregating towards the Fe-rich matrix more slowly. At the same time, the microstructure—decayed phase vs expanded austenite—is visible in SIMS cluster analysis.

  3. Aging effects on the mechanical properties of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Hongbin; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Santella, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal aging and tensile evaluation were conducted for recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels (AFAs). Microstructural observation reveals that NiAl-type B2 and Fe{sub 2}(Mo,Nb)-type Laves phase precipitates form as dominant second phases in the austenitic matrix during aging at 750 C. At room temperature these precipitates increase the strength but decrease the ductility of the AFA alloys. However, when tested at 750 C, the AFA alloys did not show strong precipitation hardening by these phases, moreover, the elongation to fracture was not affected by aging. Fracture surface and cross-sectional microstructure analysis after tensile testing suggests that the difference of mechanical behaviors between room temperature and 750 C results from the ductile-brittle transition of the B2 precipitates. At room temperature, B2 precipitates are strong but brittle, whereas they become weak but ductile above the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT).

  4. A new Bcc-Fcc orientation relationship observed between ferrite and austenite in solidification structures of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, T. J.; Brooks, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A new crystallographic orientation relationship (OR) between delta-ferrite and austenite has been observed in solidification microstructures of 304L and 309S austenitic stainless steels and a ternary Fe-Cr-Ni alloy. Evidence for the new OR was obtained from electron diffraction patterns in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This relationship, (111)fcc//(110)bcc and [bar 110]_{fcc} //[bar 110]_{bcc} , has not been previously reported for bcc-fcc systems. The <110>fcc//#x2329;110>bcc alignment is distinctive among known bcc-fcc ORs. The new OR is related to the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) and Nishiyama-Wassermann (N-W) ORs by relative rotations of 35.26 and 30 deg, respectively, about the normal to the parallel close-packed planes. In 304L fabricated by laser-engineered net shaping (LENS), delta-ferrite with the new OR was found to coexist in the microstructure with both K-S and N-W oriented ferrite, but in separate austenite grains and with less frequent occurrence. In gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welds of 309S and the Fe-Cr-Ni alloy, the new OR was the only one observed within a few grains, whereas ferrite within other grains did not establish an apparent OR with the austenite matrix.

  5. Synchrotron x-ray studies of Austenite and Bainitic ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, H.; Peet, M.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Withers, P.; Babu, Sudarsanam S; Specht, Eliot D

    2008-01-01

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to conduct in situ studies of the temporal evolution of phases during the isothermal growth of bainite. Two populations of austenitic material were identified: one corresponding to the initial austenite, the other to the carbon-enriched austenite associated with the bainitic ferrite. The observed lattice parameters and the asymmetry of the peaks from the residual austenite have been interpreted in terms of the carbon partitioning during the transformation. The results are contrasted with an earlier study in which the austenite unit cell appeared to split into two distinct densities prior to the onset of transformation.

  6. The Effects of Cold Work on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Trotter, G.; Baker, Ian; Miller, M. K.; Yao, L.; Chen, S.; Cai, Z.

    2015-08-01

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at >973 K (700 °C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanical performance. These reduced the grain size significantly to the nanoscale (~100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. A solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 °C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting.

  7. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  8. Alzheimer's Deaths Jump 55 Percent: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165941.html Alzheimer's Deaths Jump 55 Percent: CDC More patients also ... News) -- As more baby boomers age, deaths from Alzheimer's disease have jumped 55 percent, and in a ...

  9. A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted

    1994-01-01

    Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  10. Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Rice, J.

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.

  11. Beyond Marbles: Percent Change and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Flannery

    2013-01-01

    In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…

  12. Beyond Marbles: Percent Change and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Flannery

    2013-01-01

    In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…

  13. An Investigation of the Massive Transformation from Ferrite to Austenite in Laser-Welded Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perricone, M. J.; Dupont, J. N.; Anderson, T. D.; Robino, C. V.; Michael, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    A series of 31 Mo-bearing stainless steel compositions with Mo contents ranging from 0 to 10 wt pct and exhibiting primary δ-ferrite solidification were analyzed over a range of laser welding conditions to evaluate the effect of composition and cooling rate on the solid-state transformation to γ-austenite. Alloys exhibiting this microstructural development sequence are of particular interest to the welding community because of their reduced susceptibility to solidification cracking and the potential reduction of microsegregation (which can affect corrosion resistance), all while harnessing the high toughness of γ-austenite. Alloys were created using the arc button melting process, and laser welds were prepared on each alloy at constant power and travel speeds ranging from 4.2 to 42 mm/s. The cooling rates of these processes were estimated to range from 10 K (°C)/s for arc buttons to 105 K (°C)/s for the fastest laser welds. No shift in solidification mode from primary δ-ferrite to primary γ-austenite was observed in the range of compositions or welding conditions studied. Metastable microstructural features were observed in many laser weld fusion zones, as well as a massive transformation from δ-ferrite to γ-austenite. Evidence of epitaxial massive growth without nucleation was also found when intercellular γ-austenite was already present from a solidification reaction. The resulting single-phase γ-austenite in both cases exhibited a homogenous distribution of Mo, Cr, Ni, and Fe at nominal levels.

  14. Understanding the phase transitions of the Ni2MnGa magnetic shape memory system from first principles.

    PubMed

    Uijttewaal, M A; Hickel, T; Neugebauer, J; Gruner, M E; Entel, P

    2009-01-23

    The free energies of the austenite, the (modulated) premartensite and the unmodulated martensite of Ni2MnGa are determined using density functional theory and including quasiharmonic phonons and fixed-spin-moment magnons. This approach very well reproduces the complete phase sequence (martensite<-->premartensite<-->austenite) of stoichiometric Ni2MnGa as a function of temperature. By analyzing the relevant free energy contributions, we also understand the delicate interplay of phonons and magnons driving both phase transitions.

  15. On the Cutting Performance of Coated HSS Taps When Machining of Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwkova, Petra; Piska, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with a quality of the PVD coated HSS taps when cutting the stainless austenitic chromiumnickel non-stabilized steel DIN 1.4301 (X5CrNi 18-10). The main attention is focused on the analysis of loading (cutting moment, specific energy) of the HSS taps by means of pieso-electrical dynamometer Kistler 9272 and the relation between the quality of duplex and triplex PVD coatings and their effects on the quality of machined thread surfaces and tool life of the taps. The results showed a safe and stabilized cutting with acceptable quality of threads for HSSE with the TiN+TiCN+DLC coating.

  16. Cryogenic mechanical properties of heavy-section weldment in high-manganese austenitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, O.; Tsuchiyama, T.; Hada, S.

    1997-06-01

    Cryogenic mechanical properties of a heavy-section weldment of high-manganese austenitic steel for the structure of superconducting magnet were evaluated, The heavy-section weld joint with a 200 mm thickness was manufactured by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process using 21Mn-13Cr-5Ni-0.2N-B steel weld material. No cracks were observed in the weld metal. Tensile property and fracture toughness were tested at 4 K. The yield strength and the fracture toughness value, K{sub Ic}(J), were 1223 - 1278 MPa and 181{approximately} 201 MPam{sup {1/2}} in the weld metal, respectively.

  17. Migration and accumulation at dislocations of transmutation helium in austenitic steels upon neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Portnykh, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    The model of the migration and accumulation at dislocations of transmutation helium and the formation of helium-vacancy pore nuclei in austenitic steels upon neutron irradiation has been proposed. As illustrations of its application, the dependences of the characteristics of pore nuclei on the temperature of neutron irradiation have been calculated. The results of the calculations have been compared with the experimental data in the literature on measuring the characteristics of radiation-induced porosity that arises upon the irradiation of shells of fuel elements of a 16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Si-Ti-Nb-V-B steel in a fast BN600 neutron reactor at different temperatures.

  18. Thermal stability of the cellular structure of an austenitic alloy after selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazaleeva, K. O.; Tsvetkova, E. V.; Balakirev, E. V.; Yadroitsev, I. A.; Smurov, I. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal stability of the cellular structure of an austenitic Fe-17% Cr-12% Ni-2% Mo-1% Mn-0.7% Si-0.02% C alloy produced by selective laser melting in the temperature range 20-1200°C is investigated. Metallographic analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy show that structural changes in the alloy begin at 600-700°C and are fully completed at ~1150°C. Differential scanning calorimetry of the alloy with a cellular structure reveals three exothermic processes occurring upon annealing within the temperature ranges 450-650, 800-1000, and 1050-1200°C.

  19. Tensile plastic strain localization in single crystals of austenite steel electrolytically saturated with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikova, S. A.; Nadezhkin, M. V.; Mel'Nichuk, V. A.; Zuev, L. B.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of interstitial hydrogen atoms on the mechanical properties and plastic strain localization patterns in tensile tested Fe-18Cr-12Ni-2Mo single crystals of austenite steel with low stacking-fault energy has been studied using a double-exposure speckle photography technique. The main parameters of plastic-flow localization at various stages of the deformation hardening of crystals have been determined in single crystals of steel electrolytically saturated with hydrogen in a three-electrode electrochemical cell at a controlled constant cathode potential.

  20. Development of a robust modeling tool for radiation-induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components has been linked to changes in grain boundary composition due to irradiation induced segregation (RIS). This work developed a robust RIS modeling tool to account for thermodynamics and kinetics of the atom and defect transportation under combined thermal and radiation conditions. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Both cross and non-cross phenomenological diffusion coefficients in the flux equations were considered and correlated to tracer diffusion coefficients through Manning’s relation. The preferential atomvacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. Detailed analysis on the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated austenitic stainless steels suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy, while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly influenced by the composition gradient formed from the transient state, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region. This work confirms that both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, and segregation itself, have important roles in determining the microchemistry of Fe, Cr, and Ni at irradiated grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels.

  1. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  2. Modeling the Ferrite-Austenite Transformation in the Heat-Affected Zone of Stainless Steel Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1997-12-01

    The diffusion-controlled ferrite-austenite transformation in stainless steel welds was modeled. An implicit finite-difference analysis that considers multi-component diffusion was used. The model was applied to the Fe-Cr-Ni system to investigate the ferrite- austenite transformation in the heat-affected zone of stainless steel weld metal. The transformation was followed as a function of time as the heat-affected zone was subjected to thermal cycles comparable to those experienced during gas-tungsten arc welding. The results showed that the transformation behavior and the final microstructural state are very sensitive to the maximum temperature that is experienced by the heat-affected zone. For high maximum exposure temperatures ({approximately} 1300{degree} C), the ferrite formation that occurs at the highest temperatures is not completely offset by the reverse ferrite dissolution at lower temperatures. As a result, for high temperature exposures there is a net increase in the amount of ferrite in the microstructure. It was also found that if compositional gradients are present in the initial ferrite and austenite phases, the extent of the transformation is impacted.

  3. Features of deformation localization in stable austenitic steel under thermomechanical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Polekhina, N. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    Features of structural states of Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Mo austenitic steel after thermomechanical treatment, including low-temperature and warm rolling deformation, were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that mechanical twinning in multiple systems and strain localization bands contribute to grain fragmentation with the formation of the submicrocrystalline austenitic structure. These bands lie in the microtwin structure, have high-angle (≈60°-90°, <110>) misorientations of the crystal lattice relative to the matrix and localize significant (up to ≈1) shear strain. In areas of the bands, structural states with high (tens of deg/μm) curvature of the crystal lattice and high local internal stresses are observed. The internal structure of the bands is presented by nanoscale fragments of austenite and α'-martensite. The presence of specific misorientations and fragments of martensite means that the formation mechanism of localized deformation bands are direct plus reverse (γ → α' → γ) martensitic transformations with the reverse transformation follows by an alternative path. These structural states provide high strength properties of steel: the yield strength is up to 1150 MPa.

  4. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  5. Control of cryogenic intergranular fracture in high-manganese austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.

    1986-12-01

    The sources of cryogenic intergranular embrittlement in high-Mn austenitic steels and the conditions necessary for its control are examined. It is shown that the high-Mn alloys are inherently susceptible to intergranular embrittlement due to both their low grain boundary cohesion and heterogeneous deformation characteristics. Extrinsic sources of embrittlement which could account for the transition behavior are not observed. An Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) study shows no indication of impurity-segregation-induced embrittlement. No grain boundary precipitation is observed, and austenite stabilization does not ensure ductile fracture. The influence of chemistry modifications on the ductile-to-brittle transition behavior were also examined through additions of N, Cr, and C to binary Fe-31 Mn. Nitrogen additions increase the 77K yield strength at a rate of 2200 MPa per weight percent N, and increase the austenite stability, but also increase the susceptibility of ternary alloys to intergranular fracture. Quaternary Cr additions are effective in increasing the N solubility, and lower the transition temperature. Carbon additions result in complete suppression of intergranular fracture at 77K. Qualitatively significant changes in the deformation heterogeneity with chemistry modifications are not observed. The temper-toughening of Fe-Mn-Cr-N alloys is associated with the grain boundary segregation of boron and the redistribution of N. Both boron and carbon are expected to inhibit intergranular fracture through increases in grain boundary cohesion.

  6. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part 2; Effect of Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report on the effect prior low temperature creep on the thermal cycling behavior of NiTi. The isothermal low temperature creep behavior of near-stoichiometric NiTi between 300 and 473 K was discussed in Part I. The effect of temperature cycling on its creep behavior is reported in the present paper (Part II). Temperature cycling tests were conducted between either 300 or 373 K and 473 K under a constant applied stress of either 250 or 350 MPa with hold times lasting at each temperature varying between 300 and 700 h. Each specimen was pre-crept either at 300 or at 473 K for several months under an identical applied stress as that used in the subsequent thermal cycling tests. Irrespective of the initial pre-crept microstructures, the specimens exhibited a considerable increase in strain with each thermal cycle so that the total strain continued to build-up to 15 to 20 percent after only 5 cycles. Creep strains were immeasurably small during the hold periods. It is demonstrated that the strains in the austenite and martensite are linearly correlated. Interestingly, the differential irrecoverable strain, in the material measured in either phase decreases with increasing number of cycles, similar to the well-known Manson-Coffin relation in low cycle fatigue. Both phases are shown to undergo strain hardening due to the development of residual stresses. Plots of true creep rate against absolute temperature showed distinct peaks and valleys during the cool-down and heat-up portions of the thermal cycles, respectively. Transformation temperatures determined from the creep data revealed that the austenitic start and finish temperatures were more sensitive to the pre-crept martensitic phase than to the pre-crept austenitic phase. The results are discussed in terms of a phenomenological model, where it is suggested that thermal cycling between the austenitic and martensitic phase temperatures or vice versa results in the deformation of the austenite and

  7. Crystallography of lath martensite and stabilization of retained austenite

    SciTech Connect

    Sarikaya. M.

    1982-10-01

    TEM was used to study the morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels in the as-quenched and 200/sup 0/C tempered conditions. The steels have microduplex structures of dislocated lath martensite and continuous thin films of retained austenite at the lath interfaces. Stacks of laths form the packets which are derived from different (111) variants of the same austenite grain. The residual parent austenite enables microdiffraction experiments with small electron beam spot sizes for the orientation relationships (OR) between austenite and martensite. All three most commonly observed ORs, namely Kurdjumov-Sachs, Nishiyama-Wassermann, and Greninger-Troiano, operate within the same sample.

  8. The effect of niobium on the hardenability of microalloyed austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossaert, C.; Rees, G.; Maurickx, T.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    1995-01-01

    The powerful effect that varying the extent of niobium-carbide dissolution has on the “hardenability” of microalloyed austenite is demonstrated using dilatometric measurement of the critical cooling rate required to from microstructures containing >95 Pct martensite. The results can be rationalized on the hypothesis that the hardenability of austenite is enhanced by niobium in solid solution, possibly by its segregation to austenite grain boundaries, but is decreased by precipitation of niobium-carbide particles. This effect appears analogous to that of boron in steels and is found to be independent of variations in the austenite grain size.

  9. Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Santella, Michael L; Bei, Hongbin; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Work in fiscal year 2008 focused on the development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of an excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides [1-8]. High levels of Nb additions (> 1 wt.% Nb) and/or Ni additions (25-30 wt.%), at Al levels of 2.5-4 wt.%, were found to correlate with increased upper-temperature limit for Al2O3 scale formation in air ( 900 aC) and air with 10% water vapor ( 800 aC). Creep resistance also showed a strong dependence on the level of Nb additions, and was correlated with volume fraction of MC-type carbides using thermodynamic computational tools. A trial heat of a 50 lb AFA alloy ingot was made using conventional single-melt vacuum techniques, and the alloy was successfully hot-rolled without any cracking [2]. This heat showed good weldability, using filler material of the same alloy.

  10. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-11-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between approx0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T{sub ig})approx300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T{sub ig}. Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19{sup '} NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi{sub 2}, and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  11. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  12. Microstructural changes within similar coronary stents produced from two different austenitic steels.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sabine; Meissner, Andreas; Fischer, Alfons

    2009-04-01

    Coronary heart disease has become the most common source for death in western industrial countries. Since 1986, a metal vessel scaffold (stent) is inserted to prevent the vessel wall from collapsing [Puel, J., Joffre, F., Rousseau, H., Guermonprez, B., Lancelin, B., Valeix, B., Imbert, G., Bounhoure, J.P, 1987. Endo-prothéses coronariennes autoexpansives dans la Préevention des resténoses apés angioplastie transluminale. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux, 1311--1312]. Most of these coronary stents are made from CrNiMo-steel (AISI 316L). Due to its austenitic structure, the material shows strength and ductility combined with corrosion resistance and a satisfactory biocompatibility. However, recent studies indicate that Nickel is under discussion as to its allergenic potential. Other typically used materials like Co-Base L605 or Tantalum alloys are relatively expensive and are not used so often. Newly developed austenitic high-nitrogen CrMnMoN-steels (AHNS) may offer an alternative. Traditional material tests revealed that strength and ductility, as well as corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, are as good as or even better than those of 316L [Vogt, J.B., Degallaix, S., Foct J., 1984. Low cycle fatigue life enhancement of 316L stainless steel by nitrogen alloying. International Journal of Fatigue 6 (4), 211-215, Menzel, J., Stein, G., 1996. High nitrogen containing Ni-free austenitic steels for medical applications. ISIJ Intern 36 (7), 893-900, Gavriljuk, V.G., Berns, H., 1999. High nitrogen steels, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg]. However, because of a strut diameter of about 100 microm, the cross section consists of about five to ten crystal grains (oligo-crystalline). Thus very few, or even just one, grain can be responsible for the success or failure of the whole stent. During implantation, the structure of coronary artery stents is subjected to distinct inhomogeneous plastic deformation due to crimping and dilation.

  13. Martensitic transformations and the evolution of the defect microstructure of metastable austenitic steel during severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Naiden, E. P.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that, in metastable austenitic Fe-18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel, under conditions of torsion under pressure, local reversible (forward plus reverse) (γ → α' → γ) martensitic transformations can occur, which are one of the mechanisms of the formation of nanostructured states. An increase in the rotation rate, which leads to an increase in the deformation temperature, stimulates the reverse (α' → γ) transformation. The evolution of the structural and phase states is represented as the following sequence: (1) mechanical twinning; (2) nucleation of martensitic plates in the microtwinned structure of the austenite with the formation of two-phase (γ + α') structures, packet α' martensite, and structural states with a high curvature of the crystal lattice; (3) reverse (α' → γ)-transformations; and (4) the fragmentation of nanosized crystals via the formation of a nanotwinned structure in the austenite and of a nanoscale banded structure of the ɛ martensite in the α' martensite.

  14. Influence of Ni Content on Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Sintered and Carburized Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metinoz, Ibrahim; Cristofolini, Ilaria; Molinari, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The dry sliding wear behavior of two sintered and carburized steels with different Ni amounts has been investigated. The microstructure of the two steels comprises martensite, bainite, and the Ni-rich austenite. Under the sliding conditions investigated, wear is either oxidative or adhesive. In both cases, the lower amount of the soft Ni-rich austenite results in a better wear resistance. A design procedure for parts subject to dry sliding wear applications is proposed, based on the maximum acceptable wear depth, in order to evaluate the practical significance of the differences between the two materials.

  15. Possible martensitic transformation and ferrimagnetic properties in Heusler alloy Mn2NiSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ying-Ni; Fan, Xiao-Xi; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Du, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Song, Yu-Ling

    2015-07-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn have been studied by performing the first-principle calculations. It is found that the phase transformation from the cubic to the tetragonal structure reduces the total energy, indicating that the martensitic phase is more stable and the phase transition from austenite to martensite may happen at low temperature for Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn. Concerning the magnetism of Hg2CuTi-type Mn2NiSn, both austenitic and martensitic phases are suggested to be ferrimagnets. Furthermore, martensitic transformation decreases the magnetic moment per formula unit compared with austenitic phase. The results are helpful to accelerate the use of Mn2NiSn alloys in the series for magnetic shape memory applications.

  16. The phase state of NiTi implant material affects osteoclastic attachment.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, V; Heikkinen, R; Danilov, A; Jämsä, T; Ilvesaro, J; Tuukkanen, J

    2005-12-01

    In the present work, the responses of mature osteoclasts cultured on austenite and martensite phases of NiTi shape memory implant material were studied. We used the sensitivity of osteoclasts to the underlying substrate and actin ring formation as an indicator of the adequacy of the implant surface. The results showed osteoclasts with actin ring on both NiTi phases. However, significantly more osteoclasts were present on the austenitic NiTi than on the martensitic NiTi. We also analyzed the surface free energy of the samples but found no significant difference between austenite and martensite phases. The results revealed that osteoclasts tolerated well the austenite phase of NiTi. The chemically identical martensitic NiTi was not as well tolerated by osteoclasts (e.g., indicated by diminished actin ring formation). This leads to the conclusion that certain physical properties specific to the martensitic NiTi have an adverse effect to the surviving of osteoclasts on this NiTi phase. These results confirm that mature, authentic osteoclasts can act as cell probes in experiments concerning aspects of biocompatibility of bone implant materials.

  17. Hydrogen-induced defects in austenite and ferrite of a duplex steel.

    PubMed

    Głowacka, A; Swiatnicki, W A; Jezierska, E

    2006-09-01

    The influence of hydrogen on the microstructure of two types of austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel (Cr26-Ni6 model steel and Cr22-Ni5-Mo3 commercial steel), each of them after two thermo-mechanical treatments, was investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal microstructural changes appearing during the hydrogen charging and particularly to clarify the occurrence of phase transformations induced by hydrogen. The specific microstructural changes in the ferrite (alpha) and austenite (gamma) of both types of steel were observed. A strong increase of dislocation density was noticed in the alpha phase. In the case of model steel, longer hydrogen charging times led to significant ferrite grain refinement. In the commercial steel, the strips and twin plates appeared in the ferrite after hydrogenation. The appearance of stacking faults was revealed in the gamma phase. The martensite laths appeared in austenite after longer hydrogenation times. It seems that the microstructural changes gave rise to the formation of microcracks in the alpha and gamma phases as well as on the alpha/gamma interphase boundaries.

  18. Atomistic simulation of martensite-austenite phase transition in nanoscale nickel-titanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kexel, Christian; Schramm, Stefan; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2015-09-01

    Shape-memory (SM) alloys can, after initial inelastic deformation, reconstruct their pristine lattice structure upon heating. The underlying phenomenon is the structural solid-solid phase transition from low-temperature lower-symmetry martensite to the high-temperature higher-symmetry austenite. Conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) with near-equiatomic concentration already possesses an eminent importance for many applications, whereas the nanostructured equivalent can exhibit yet enhanced thermomechanical properties. However, no plausible microscopic theory of the SM effect in NiTi exists, especially for nanoscale systems. We investigate the thermally induced martensite-austenite phase transition in free equiatomic nanocrystals, comprising up to approximately 40 000 atoms, by means of molecular-dynamics simulations (MD) using a classical Gupta-type many-body scheme. Thereby we complement and extend a previously published study [D. Mutter, P. Nielaba, Eur. Phys. J. B 84, 109 (2011)]. The structural transition, revealing features of a first-order phase transition, is demonstrated. It is contrasted with the melting phase transition, a quantum solid model and bulk experimental findings. Moreover, a nucleation-growth process is observed as well as the irreversibility of the transition upon cooling.

  19. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-03-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 1015 to 5 × 1018 D/cm2. The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  20. An APFIM/AEM Study of Phase Decompositions in Fe-Ni Alloys at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Miller, M. K.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    A combined atom probe field ion microscopy and analytical electron microscopy characterization has been performed on laboratory aged martensitic and austenitic specimens of FeNi and FeNiP alloys. These techniques revealed that the martensitic 24.1 and 28.6 at.% Ni alloys decomposed during aging for 1 year at 300 C to form face centered cubic precipitates of approx. 56 at.% Ni in a body centered cubic matrix containing approx. 20 at.% Ni. Some thin platelets were observed in the field ion micrographs of the austenitic Fe-42.9 at. % Ni alloy and the Fe-43.2 at.% Ni-0.44 at.% P alloy after aging at 400 and 350 C. Atom probe analysis revealed phosphorus clustering in the ternary alloy aged at 300 C.

  1. Effect of Alloying Element Partition in Pearlite on the Growth of Austenite in High-Carbon Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. N.; Xia, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2016-03-01

    The growth of austenite from pearlite in high-carbon low alloy steel occurs with and without alloy element redistribution depending on the amount of superheating above the eutectoid temperature. The transition temperature of austenite growth (denoted PNTT) is calculated as a function of pearlite transformation temperature and subsequent holding time, which affect the degree of partitioning in pearlite, using experimental partition coefficients k θ/ α of Mn, Cr, Co, Si, and Ni reported in the literature. PNTT is the highest in Cr-containing alloys which have the largest k θ/ α in pearlite. Post-transformation aging, usually accompanied by cementite spheroidization, leads to a marked increase of PNTT in Mn and Cr alloys. PNTT of Ni alloy does not depend on pearlite transformation temperature because practically the formation of partitioned pearlite is severely limited in this alloy for kinetic reasons. Above PNTT, austenite growth occurs fast initially, but slows down in the order of ten seconds when the ferrite disappears, and the remaining small carbide particles dissolve very slowly under the control of alloy element diffusion.

  2. Overview of strategies for high-temperature creep and oxidation resistance of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Santella, Michael L; Bei, Hongbin; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    A family of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys is under development for structural use in fossil energy conversion and combustion system applications. The AFA alloys developed to date exhibit comparable creep-rupture lives to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic alloys, and superior oxidation resistance in the {approx}923 K to 1173 K (650 C to 900 C) temperature range due to the formation of a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale rather than the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales that form on conventional stainless steel alloys. This article overviews the alloy design approaches used to obtain high-temperature creep strength in AFA alloys via considerations of phase equilibrium from thermodynamic calculations as well as microstructure characterization. Strengthening precipitates under evaluation include MC-type carbides or intermetallic phases such as NiAl-B2, Fe{sub 2}(Mo,Nb)-Laves, Ni{sub 3}Al-L1{sub 2}, etc. in the austenitic single-phase matrix. Creep, tensile, and oxidation properties of the AFA alloys are discussed relative to compositional and microstructural factors.

  3. Overview of Strategies for High-Temperature Creep and Oxidation Resistance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Santella, M. L.; Bei, H.; Maziasz, P. J.; Pint, B. A.

    2011-04-01

    A family of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys is under development for structural use in fossil energy conversion and combustion system applications. The AFA alloys developed to date exhibit comparable creep-rupture lives to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic alloys, and superior oxidation resistance in the ~923 K to 1173 K (650 °C to 900 °C) temperature range due to the formation of a protective Al2O3 scale rather than the Cr2O3 scales that form on conventional stainless steel alloys. This article overviews the alloy design approaches used to obtain high-temperature creep strength in AFA alloys via considerations of phase equilibrium from thermodynamic calculations as well as microstructure characterization. Strengthening precipitates under evaluation include MC-type carbides or intermetallic phases such as NiAl-B2, Fe2(Mo,Nb)-Laves, Ni3Al-L12, etc. in the austenitic single-phase matrix. Creep, tensile, and oxidation properties of the AFA alloys are discussed relative to compositional and microstructural factors.

  4. Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels Strengthened by Laves Phase and MC Carbide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Lu, Zhao Ping; Liu, Chain T; Takeyama, Masao; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    Creep strengthening of Al-modified austenitic stainless steels by MC carbides or Fe{sub 2}Nb Laves phase was explored. Fe-20Cr-15Ni-(0-8)Al and Fe-15Cr-20Ni-5Al base alloys (at. pct) with small additions of Nb, Mo, W, Ti, V, C, and B were cast, thermally-processed, and aged. On exposure from 650 C to 800 C in air and in air with 10 pct water vapor, the alloys exhibited continuous protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale formation at an Al level of only 5 at. pct (2.4 wt pct). Matrices of the Fe-20Cr-15Ni-5Al base alloys consisted of {gamma} (fcc) + {alpha} (bcc) dual phase due to the strong {alpha}-Fe stabilizing effect of the Al addition and exhibited poor creep resistance. However, adjustment of composition to the Fe-15Cr-20Ni-5Al base resulted in alloys that were single-phase {gamma}-Fe and still capable of alumina scale formation. Alloys that relied solely on Fe{sub 2}Nb Laves phase precipitates for strengthening exhibited relatively low creep resistance, while alloys that also contained MC carbide precipitates exhibited creep resistance comparable to that of commercially available heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels. Phase equilibria studies indicated that NbC precipitates in combination with Fe{sub 2}Nb were of limited benefit to creep resistance due to the solution limit of NbC within the {gamma}-Fe matrix of the alloys studied. However, when combined with other MC-type strengtheners, such as V{sub 4}C{sub 3} or TiC, higher levels of creep resistance were obtained.

  5. Breathing 100 percent oxygen compared with 50 percent oxygen:50 percent nitrogen reduces altitude-induced venous gas emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates effects of 40 zero-prebreathe decompressions of male subjects to 8.3-6.8 psia for 6 h while they were breathing 100 percent oxygen and performing moderate exercise. No decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms were observed. Severe venous gas emboli (VGE) were not detected at 8.3 psia, but were present during 10, 20, and 40 percent of the exposures at 7.8, 7.3, and 6.8 psia, respectively. Zero-prebreathe decompression while breathing 100 percent oxygen results in significantly lower VGE and DCS risk levels than while breathing a 50:50 mix. It is shown that 7.3 psia EVA pressure suits with 100 percent oxygen should be safer than 8.3 psia suits with a 50:50 mix.

  6. Breathing 100 percent oxygen compared with 50 percent oxygen:50 percent nitrogen reduces altitude-induced venous gas emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates effects of 40 zero-prebreathe decompressions of male subjects to 8.3-6.8 psia for 6 h while they were breathing 100 percent oxygen and performing moderate exercise. No decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms were observed. Severe venous gas emboli (VGE) were not detected at 8.3 psia, but were present during 10, 20, and 40 percent of the exposures at 7.8, 7.3, and 6.8 psia, respectively. Zero-prebreathe decompression while breathing 100 percent oxygen results in significantly lower VGE and DCS risk levels than while breathing a 50:50 mix. It is shown that 7.3 psia EVA pressure suits with 100 percent oxygen should be safer than 8.3 psia suits with a 50:50 mix.

  7. Isothermal austenitization of cold-rolled steel type 08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, A. I.; Repina, N. I.; Ginevskaya, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    Features of isothermal austenitization for cold-rolled and annealed 08 type structural steels are not the same. Deformation during cold rolling causes a reduction in the temperature for the start of austenite formation and the transformation range is extended, but it does not have a marked effect on the temperature for the end of the process.

  8. Investigation of joining techniques for advanced austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Kikuchi, Y.; Shi, C.; Gill, T.P.S.

    1991-05-01

    Modified Alloys 316 and 800H, designed for high temperature service, have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Assessment of the weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys has been conducted at the University of Tennessee. Four aspects of weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys were included in the investigation.

  9. Corrosion of austenitic alloys in aerated brines

    SciTech Connect

    Heidersbach, R.; Shi, A.; Sharp, S.

    1999-11-01

    This report discusses the results of corrosion exposures of three austenitic alloys--3l6L stainless steel, UNS N10276, and UNS N08367. Coupons of these alloys were suspended in a series of brines used for processing in the pharmaceutical industry. The effects of surface finish and welding processes on the corrosion behavior of these alloys were determined. The 316L coupons experienced corrosion in several environments, but the other alloys were unaffected during the one-month exposures of this investigation. Electropolishing the surfaces improved corrosion resistance.

  10. Concentration-Dependent Carbon Diffusivity in Austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaoting; Michal, Gary M.; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2014-08-01

    The diffusion coefficient of carbon in austenite depends on the local carbon concentration. This concentration dependence is particularly noticeable during low-temperature "paraequilibrium" carburization. A critical review of the extensive literature on this topic reveals that an early paper by Asimow provides an excellent description of this substantial concentration dependence. The present analysis suggests that the marked concentration dependence of carbon diffusivity is most likely due to interstitial carbon decreasing the activation energy for carbon jumps from one interstitial site to its neighbor.

  11. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  12. Effects of deformation-induced martensite and grain size on ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of austenitic 18Cr-10Mn-N stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2010-12-01

    Effects of deformation-induced martensite and grain size on ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of austenitic 18Cr-10Mn-(0.3˜0.6)N stainless steels with different alloying elements were investigated by means of Charpy impact tests and microstructural analyses. The steels all exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior due to unusual brittle fracture at low temperatures despite having a face-centered cubic structure. The ductileto-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) obtained from Chapry impact tests did not coincide with that predicted by an empirical equation depending on N content in austenitic Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. Furthermore, a decrease of grain size was not effective in terms of lowering DBTT. Electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the cross-sectional area of the fracture surface showed that some austenites with lower stability could be transformed to α'-martensite by localized plastic deformation near the fracture surface. Based on these results, it was suggested that when austenitic 18Cr-10Mn-N stainless steels have limited Ni, Mo, and N content, the deterioration of austenite stability promotes the formation of deformation-induced martensite and thus increases DBTT by substantially decreasing low-temperature toughness.

  13. Damping properties of 18Cr-10Ni stainless steel with submicrocrystalline structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyukov, R.; Zaripova, R.; Salimonenko, D.; Mikhailov, S.

    1996-06-01

    The samples of 18Cr-10Ni stainless steel containing a submicrocrystalline austenitic phase were processed by deformation-heat treatment. The investigations show that the internal friction and yield strength values of these samples are higher than in the steel with a coarse-grained austenitic structure, by a factor of 4 and of 5, respectively. The effect revealed is connected with both the small grain size and the non-equilibrium state of grain boundaries in the submicrocrystalline austenitic phase of the samples.

  14. Field induced martensitic phase transition in nonstoichoimetric Ni45Mn44Sn11 Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabri, T.; Venimadhav, A.; Nath, T. K.

    2017-05-01

    Nonstoichiometric high-Mn content Mn45Ni44Sn11 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) were prepared by arc melting technique. First order transition near the martensitic transition (austenitic → martensitic) has been observed from magnetization, differential scanning calorimetry and resistivity measurements upon heating and cooling run. The austenitic phase was transformed into the martensitic phase, which means that these alloys have potential as FSMA applications. The shift of martensitic transition to the lower temperature with the magnetic field confirms the field induced martensitic transition. This signifies that the highly ordered austenitic phase can be arrested to the lower temperature with the application of magnetic field.

  15. Effects of retained austenite on the tensile properties and toughness of ultra-high strength martensitic precipitation hardened stainless steels. Final technical report, 1 April 1997--31 March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W.M.

    1998-12-14

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the amount of retained austenite content on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of martensitic precipitation strengthened stainless steels for four different precipitation strengthening systems, one utilizing NiTi strengthening and three utilizing R-phase strengthening. The retained austenite contents in the four systems were varied by varying composition. The austenite content in the NiTi strengthened system was varied by varying the chromium content and the austenite content in the R-phase strengthened Systems was varied by varying the nickel content. The room temperature toughness levels of the NiTi strengthened system were quite low and it was decided not to pursue this system further. The three R-phase strengthened systems had sufficient room temperature toughness and strength to be of further interest. Of these three systems the primary focus was on the 12Cr/12Co/5Mo system. In this system four alloys, identical except for variations in nickel content, were the primary focus of the work. These alloys achieved, on tempering at 5250 C for 3.16 hours, yield strengths on the order of 210 ksi and ultimate tensile strengths of 235 ksi. The effect of test temperature on the Charpy impact energy was investigated for two tempering temperatures for these four alloys. It was found for both tempering conditions that lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures were favored by increasing amounts of austenite in the structure. In fact, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature was quite low, about -750 C, for the tempered at 5250 C for 3.16 hours microstructure of the alloy in this series which contained the highest nickel and the highest amount of retained austenite after quenching. At this point it is believed the austenite content is an important contributor to the low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of this microstructure.

  16. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels.

  17. Microanalysis investigations of transformation toughened Co-Ni steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippard, Henry Edward

    1999-11-01

    The evolution of the structural subsystems in secondary hardening cobalt-nickel steels was observed as function of tempering treatments with a special emphasis on the austenite dispersion in the AerMet100 alloy. The transformation toughening effectiveness was correlated with the austenite morphology and composition as a function of two-step nucleation and growth heat treatments. The co-location of the austenite precipitates with the M2C carbide particles indicated a coupling by sequential nucleation of the two second phase dispersions. The necessity of the M2C carbide dispersion to provide nucleation sites for austenite precipitation was shown in an investigation of a Fe-15Co-10Ni ternary alloy that did not produce an austenite dispersion. The optimal austenite dispersion for transformation toughening in AerMet100 consisted of 8 nm intralath precipitates with a 42 wt% nickel composition. A technique to extract the precipitate composition information from a precipitate embedded in a matrix was developed using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector, and a parallel electron energy loss (PEELS) detector. The validity of the microanalysis technique was confirmed by Monte Carlo modeling of x-ray emission from precipitate-matrix systems corresponding to those encountered in this investigation. The experimental microanalytical data from AerMet100 was used to develop precipitation models for the interlath austenite films and the intralath austenite particle dispersion. The three phase unstable thermodynamic model incorporating capillary energy additions for the austenite and M2C arbide particles successfully simulated the system evolution. The austenite interfacial energy was measured at 439 mJ/m2 and the capillary energy corresponding to the optimal austenite dispersion for transformation toughening was 1200 J/mol. The knowledge gained from this investigation was used to design a new cobaltnickel secondary

  18. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part II. Fatigue crack growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, B.; Minkin, A.; Smirnov, V.; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Potapova, V.

    2016-11-01

    The experimental data on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) have been obtained for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various radiation swelling. The performed study of the fracture mechanisms for cracked specimens under cyclic loading has explained why radiation swelling affects weakly FCGR unlike its effect on fracture toughness. Mechanical modeling of fatigue crack growth has been carried out and the dependencies for prediction of FCGR in irradiated austenitic steel with and with no swelling are proposed and verified with the obtained experimental results. As input data for these dependencies, FCGR for unirradiated steel and the tensile mechanical properties for unirradiated and irradiated steels are used.

  19. Influence of nitrogen on the sensitization, corrosion, mechanical, and microstructural properties of austenitic stainless steels. First annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.A.T.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    During this first year of the project, the research effort has concentrated on the electrochemical aspects of the effect of nitrogen on austenitic steels. The status of all the individual project tasks are outlined briefly, and then more detailed results of the electrochemical studies conducted so far are reported. Highlights of this quarter are: (1) nitrogen additions of up to 0.16 wt % retard sensitization of 18Cr-8Ni austenitic stainless steels. However, nitrogen additions to levels above approx. 0.25 wt % promote sensitization; (2) the retardation of sensitization by nitrogen can possibly be explained as being due to retardation of the nucleation or rate of growth of chromium carbides; and (3) polarization studies in high temperature 0.01 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions at 250/sup 0/C demonstrate that the sensitized alloys are electrochemically more active than the solution annealed materials thereby indicating that they are susceptible to intergranular attack.

  20. Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagnall, Christopher; McBride, Marvin A.

    1985-01-01

    For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

  1. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by austenitic filler metal

    SciTech Connect

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Eskandarian, Masoomeh; Zabolian, Azam; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-08-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture across an as-welded dissimilar UNS S32750 super duplex/UNS S30403 austenitic stainless steel joint welded by UNS S30986 (AWS A5.9 ER309LMo) austenitic stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process was evaluated by optical micrography and EBSD techniques. Due to their fabrication through rolling process, both parent metals had texture components resulted from deformation and recrystallization. The weld metal showed the highest amount of residual strain and had large austenite grain colonies of similar orientations with little amounts of skeletal ferrite, both oriented preferentially in the < 001 > direction with cub-on-cube orientation relationship. While the super duplex stainless steel's heat affected zone contained higher ferrite than its parent metal, an excessive grain growth was observed at the austenitic stainless steel's counterpart. At both heat affected zones, austenite underwent some recrystallization and formed twin boundaries which led to an increase in the fraction of high angle boundaries as compared with the respective base metals. These regions showed the least amount of residual strain and highest amount of recrystallized austenite grains. Due to the static recrystallization, the fraction of low degree of fit (Σ) coincident site lattice boundaries, especially Σ3 boundaries, was increased in the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone, while the formation of subgrains in the ferrite phase increased the content of < 5° low angle boundaries at that of the super duplex stainless steel. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Extensive grain growth in the HAZ of austenitic stainless steel was observed. • Intensification of < 100 > orientated grains was observed adjacent to both fusion lines. • Annealing twins with Σ3 CSL boundaries were formed in the austenite of both HAZ. • Cub-on-cube OR was observed between austenite and ferrite in the weld metal.

  2. Site occupancy trend of Co in Ni{sub 2}MnIn: Ab initio approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Soumyadipta Mahadevan, Priya; Biswas, C.

    2015-06-24

    The trend of site occupation of Co at Ni sites of Ni{sub 2}MnIn system is studied in austenitic phase having L2{sub 1} structure by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The Co atoms prefer to be at Ni sites rather than Mn site and are ferromagetically coupled with Ni and Mn. The ground state has tetragonal structure for Ni{sub 1.5}Co{sub 0.5}MnIn and Ni{sub 1.25}Co{sub 0.75}MnIn. The Co tends to form cluster.

  3. NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites. Part 2: Compressive mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fukami-Ushiro, K.L.; Mari, D.; Dunand, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of NiTi containing 0, 10, and 20 vol pct TiC particulates is investigated both below and above the matrix martensitic transformation temperature: (1) at room temperature, where the martensitic matrix deforms plastically by slip and/or twinning; and (2) at elevated temperature, where plastic deformation of the austenitic matrix takes place by slip and/or formation of stress-induced martensite. The effect of TiC particles on the stress-strain curves of the composites depends upon which of these deformation mechanisms is dominant. First, in the low-strain elastic region, the mismatch between the stiff, elastic particles and the elastic-plastic matrix is relaxed in the composites: (1) by twinning of the martensitic matrix; and (2) by dislocation slip of the austenitic matrix. Second, in the moderate-strain plastic region where nonslip deformation mechanisms are dominant, mismatch dislocations stabilize the matrix for all samples, thus (1) reducing the extent of twinning in the martensitic samples or (2) reducing the formation of stress-induced martensite in the austenitic samples. This leads to a strengthening of the composites, similar to the strain-hardening effect observed in metal matrix composites deforming solely by slip. Third, in the high-strain region controlled by dislocation slip, weakening of the NiTi composites results, because the matrix contains (1) untwinned martensite or (2) retained austenite, which exhibit lower slip yield stress than twinned or stress-induced martensite, respectively.

  4. Modeling of Austenite Grain Growth During Austenitization in a Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dingqian; Chen, Fei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a pragmatic model to predict austenite grain growth in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel. Austenite grain growth kinetics has been investigated under different heating conditions, involving heating temperature, holding time, as well as heating rate. Based on the experimental results, the mathematical model was established by regression analysis. The model predictions present a good agreement with the experimental data. Meanwhile, grain boundary precipitates and pinning effects on grain growth were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that with the increasing of the temperature, the second-phase particles tend to be dissolved and the pinning effects become smaller, which results in a rapid growth of certain large grains with favorable orientation. The results from this study provide the basis for the establishment of large-sized ingot heating specification for SA508-III steel.

  5. HREM study on the ledge structures, transient lattices and dislocation structures at the austenite-martensite and austenite-bainite interfaces in Fe-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, S.

    2003-10-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) has been performed to know the atomic arrangement of the austenite-martensite interface and the austenite-bainite interface in Fe-based alloys. The alloys studied are Fe-23.0Ni-3.8Mn, Fe-8.8Cr-l.lC, Fe-30.5Ni-lOCo-3Ti (mass %) for martensitic transformation and Fe-2Si-1.4C (mass %) for bainitic transformation. These alloys have various transformation characteristics depending on the alloy; for martensitic transformation, athermal and isothermal kinetics, the Kurdjumow-Sachs (K-S) and Nishiyama (N) orientation relationships, reversible and irreversible movement of the interface, and for bainitic transformation, upper bainite and lower bainite. All the interfaces observed had to be limited to 112 (macroscopically 225) or very close to 112 because of the geometrical condition that the atom rows of <110>f, b and <100>b must be observed parallel to the interface, i.e., the edge-on orientation. The austenite-martensite interface is (121)f with the K-S orientation relationship of (lll)f//(011)b and [ bar{1}01] f//[ bar{1}bar{1}1] b, and the interface is basically composed of the terrace of (lll)f and the ledge of (010)f, which have the average ratio of 2:1 for the number of atom rows of [ bar{1}01] //[ bar{1}bar{1}1] b on these planes. This interface always accompanies the transient lattice region with the thickness of 0.4-1.0 nm, where the lattice changes continuously from fcc to bcc (or bct). No extra-half plane is observed at the (121)f interface over a large distance of 100-200 lattice planes. The interface for both the upper and lower bainites is close to (112)f with the N orientation relationship of (lll)f/(011)b and [ bar{1}bar{1}0] f//[ bar{1}00] b'. Contrary to the interface for martensite, this interface for bainite has many extra-half planes except when the interface is close to (112)f. The interface is basically made up of the terrace of (lll)f/(011)b and the ledge of (0bar{1}l)b'//(bar{1}bar{1}2)f, and the

  6. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  7. Delocalization and hybridization enhance the magnetocaloric effect in Ni2Mn0.75Cu0.25Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sujoy; Blackburn, E.; Valvidares, S. M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Vogel, Sven C.; Khan, M.; Dubenko, I.; Stadler, S.; Ali, N.; Sinha, S. K.; Kortright, J. B.

    2008-11-26

    In view of the looming energy crisis facing our planet, attention increasingly focuses on materials potentially useful as a basis for energy saving technologies. The discovery of giant magnetocaloric (GMC) compounds - materials that exhibit especially large changes in temperature as the externally applied magnetic field is varied - is one such compound 1. These materials have potential for use in solid state cooling technology as a viable alternative to existing gas based refrigeration technologies that use choro-fluoro - and hydro-fluoro-carbon chemicals known to have a severe detrimental effect on human health and environment 2,3. Examples of GMC compounds include Gd5(SiGe)4 4, MnFeP1-xAsx 5 and Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloy based compounds 6-8. Here we explain how the properties of one of these compounds (Ni2MnGa) can be tuned as a function of temperature by adding dopants. By altering the free energy such that the structural and magnetic transitions coincide, a GMC compound that operates at just the right temperature for human requirements can be obtained 9. We show how Cu, substituted for Mn, pulls the magnetic transition downwards in temperature and also, counterintuitively, increases the delocalization of the Mn magnetism. At the same time, this reinforces the Ni-Ga chemical bond, raising the temperature of the martensite-austenite transition. At 25percent doping, the two transitions coincide at 317 K.

  8. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  9. Austenitic alloy and reactor components made thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy is disclosed, having excellent fast neutron irradiation swelling resistance and good post irradiation ductility, making it especially useful for liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications. The alloy contains: about 0.04 to 0.09 wt. % carbon; about 1.5 to 2.5 wt. % manganese; about 0.5 to 1.6 wt. % silicon; about 0.030 to 0.08 wt. % phosphorus; about 13.3 to 16.5 wt. % chromium; about 13.7 to 16.0 wt. % nickel; about 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % molybdenum; and about 0.10 to 0.35 wt. % titanium.

  10. Cryogenic S-N Fatigue and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behaviors of High Manganese Austenitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae-Ho; Lee, Soon-Gi; Jang, Woo-Kil; Choi, Jong-Kyo; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Sangshik

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, the S-N fatigue and the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of high manganese austenitic steels, including Fe24Mn and Fe22Mn, were studied, and the results were compared with STS304 (Fe-1Si-2Mn-20Cr-10Ni). The S-N fatigue tests were conducted at 298 K and 110 K (25 °C and -163 °C), respectively, and at an R ratio of 0.1 under a uniaxial loading condition. The FCP tests were conducted at 298 K and 110 K (25 °C and -163°C), respectively, and at R ratios of 0.1 and 0.5, respectively, using compact tension specimens. The resistance to S-N fatigue of each specimen increased greatly with decreasing temperature from 298 K to 110 K (25 °C to -163 °C) and showed a strong dependency on the flow stress. The FCP behaviors of the austenitic steels currently studied substantially varied depending on testing temperature, applied Δ K (stress intensity factor range), and R ratio. The enhanced FCP resistance was observed for the Fe24Mn and the Fe22Mn specimens particularly in the near-threshold Δ K regime, while the enhancement was significant over the entire Δ K regimes for the STS304 specimen, with decreasing temperature from 298 K to 110 K (25 °C to -163 °C). The S-N fatigue and the FCP behaviors of high manganese austenitic steels are compared with STS304 and discussed based on the fractographic and the micrographic observations.

  11. Study of retained austenite and nano-scale precipitation and their effects on properties of a low alloyed multi-phase steel by the two-step intercritical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.J.; Han, G. Zhou, W.H.; Zeng, C.Y.; Shang, C.J.

    2016-03-15

    Microstructure evolution and properties were studied in a low carbon low alloyed hot-rolled bainitic steel by annealing and annealing plus tempering. Microstructure of the hot-rolled steel consists of lath bainite and martensite. By annealing at 720 °C for 30 min and water quenching, multi-phase microstructure consisting of intercritical ferrite, tempered bainite/martensite, retained austenite and fresh martensite was obtained. With increasing annealing temperature to 760 °C, microstructure of the steel consisted of intercritical ferrite, fresh martensite without retained austenite. After the second step of tempering at 680 °C for samples annealed both at 720 °C and 760 °C, ~ 8–9% volume fraction of retained austenite was obtained in the multi-phase microstructure. Moreover, fine precipitates of VC with size smaller than 10 nm and copper precipitates with size of ~ 10–50 nm were obtained after tempering. Results from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) give evidence to support that the partitioning of Mn, Ni and Cu is of significance for retained austenite stabilization. Due to the combined contribution of multiphase microstructure, the transformation-induced-plasticity effect of retained austenite and strengthening effect of nanometer-sized precipitates, yield strength greater than 800 MPa, yield to tensile ratio of 0.9, uniform elongation of ~ 9% and good low temperature impact toughness of 147 J at − 40 °C were achieved. - Highlights: • Stable retained austenite was produced in a low alloyed steel. • Partition of Mn, Ni and Cu was confirmed by STEM for austenite stabilization. • Nano-sized VC and Cu precipitates were achieved by second tempering. • High strength–high toughness with low Y/T ratio was obtained.

  12. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  13. Chemically Induced Phase Transformation in Austenite by Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basa, Adina; Thaulow, Christian; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2013-11-01

    A highly stable austenite phase in a super duplex stainless steel was subjected to a combination of different gallium ion doses at different acceleration voltages. It was shown that contrary to what is expected, an austenite to ferrite phase transformation occurred within the focused ion beam (FIB) milled regions. Chemical analysis of the FIB milled region proved that the gallium implantation preceded the FIB milling. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction analysis also showed that the phase transformation was not followed by the typical shear and plastic deformation expected from the martensitic transformation. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the change in the chemical composition of the austenite and the local increase in gallium, which is a ferrite stabilizer, results in the local selective transformation of austenite to ferrite.

  14. Phase diffusionless γ↔α transformations and their effect on physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated with neutrons and charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimkin, O. P.

    2016-04-01

    The work presents relationships of γ→α' and α'→γ-transformations in reactor 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 austenitic stainless steels induced by cold work, irradiation and/or temperature. Energy and mechanical parameters of nucleation and development of deformation-induced martensitic α'-phase in the non-irradiated and irradiated steels are given. The mechanisms of localized static deformation were investigated and its effect on martensitic γ→α' transformation is determined. It has been shown that irradiation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel with heavy Kr ions (1.56MeV/nucleon, fluence of 1·1015 cm-2) results in formation of α'-martensite in near-surface layer of the sample. Results of systematic research on reversed α'→γ-transformation in austenitic metastable stainless steels irradiated with slow (VVR-K) and fast (BN-350) neutrons are presented. The effect of annealing on strength and magnetic characteristics was determined. It was found that at the temperature of 400 °C in the irradiated with neutrons samples (59 dpa) an increase of ferromagnetic α'-phase and microhardness was observed. The obtained results could be used during assessment of operational characteristics of highly irradiated austenitic steels during transportation and storage of Fuel Assemblies for fast nuclear reactors.

  15. Plastic Deformation Influence on Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Austenitic Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Milan; Čápová, Klára; Chudáčik, Vladimír; Palček, Peter; Oravcová, Monika

    2016-12-01

    This article deals with non-destructive evaluation of austenitic stainless steels, which are used as the biomaterials in medical practice. Intrinsic magnetic field is investigated using the fluxgate sensor, after the applied plastic deformation. The three austenitic steel types are studied under the same conditions, while several values of the deformation are applied, respectively. The obtained results are presented and discussed in the paper.

  16. Flexural Strength and Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steel Reinforced High-Cr White Cast Iron Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, H. E. M.; Abd El-Aziz, Kh.; Abd El-Raouf, H.; Elbanna, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Flexural behavior of high-Cr white cast iron (WCI) reinforced with different shapes, i.e., I- and T-sections, and volume fractions of austenitic stainless steel (310 SS) were examined under three-point bending test. The dimensions of casted beams used for bending test were (50 × 100 × 500 mm3). Carbon and alloying elements diffusion enhanced the metallurgical bond across the interface of casted beams. Carbon diffusion from high-Cr WCI into 310 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-carbides in 310 SS near the interface and Ni diffusion from 310 SS into high-Cr WCI led to the formation of austenite within a network of M7C3 eutectic carbides in high-Cr WCI near the interface. Inserting 310 SS plates into high-Cr WCI beams resulted in a significant improvement in their toughness. All specimens of this metal matrix composite failed in a ductile mode with higher plastic deformation prior to failure. The high-Cr WCI specimen reinforced with I-section of 310 SS revealed higher toughness compared to that with T-section at the same volume fraction. The presence of the upper flange increased the reinforcement efficiency for delaying the crack growth.

  17. Hydrogen-Assisted Crack Propagation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerday, B. P.; Dadfarnia, M.; Balch, D. K.; Nibur, K. A.; Cadden, C. H.; Sofronis, P.

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welds of the nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steel 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn (21-6-9), using fracture mechanics methods. The fracture initiation toughness and crack growth resistance curves were measured using fracture mechanics specimens that were thermally precharged with 230 wppm (1.3 at. pct) hydrogen. The fracture initiation toughness and slope of the crack growth resistance curve for the hydrogen-precharged weld were reduced by as much as 60 and 90 pct, respectively, relative to the noncharged weld. A physical model for hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in the welds was formulated from microscopy evidence and finite-element modeling. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation proceeded by a sequence of microcrack formation at the weld ferrite, intense shear deformation in the ligaments separating microcracks, and then fracture of the ligaments. One salient role of hydrogen in the crack propagation process was promoting microcrack formation at austenite/ferrite interfaces and within the ferrite. In addition, hydrogen may have facilitated intense shear deformation in the ligaments separating microcracks. The intense shear deformation could be related to the development of a nonuniform distribution of hydrogen trapped at dislocations between microcracks, which in turn created a gradient in the local flow stress.

  18. Numerical simulation on austenitization of cast steel during heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, B.; Han, Z. Q.; Liu, B. C.; Zhao, Y. R.; Shen, B. Z.; Zhang, L. Z.

    2012-07-01

    A cellular automaton model has been developed to simulate the austenitization process of ASTM A216 WCA cast steel during heating process. The dissolution of pearlite and the transformation of ferrite into austenite were simulated. The calculation domain was divided into square cells, which are characterized by certain attributes that represent the status of each cell: pearlite (P), ferrite (α), austenite (γ) or γ /α interface. The dissolution of pearlite was described by nucleation and growth of austenite. A mixed-mode model in multicomponent system was employed to calculate the growth velocity of the γ /α interface. According to Burke and Turnbull's theory, austenite grain coarsening induced by γ /γ grain boundary migration was simulated. To validate the model, dilatometric and quenching experiments were carried out. The dilatometric experiment was conducted using a Gleeble1500D with a sample 8 mm in diameter. The temperature of the sample was measured using thermocouples welded on the sample surface. In the quenching experiments, steel samples were heated to different temperatures then dropped into a water tank immediately, and the microstructure of the samples was examined to determine the fraction of the austenite. The simulated results were compared with the experimental results and the capability of the model for quantitatively predicting the microstructure evolution of the steel in heating process was assessed.

  19. Suppression of the ferromagnetic order in the Heusler alloy Ni50Mn35In15 by hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Mejía, C.; Mydeen, K.; Naumov, P.; Medvedev, S. A.; Wang, C.; Hanfland, M.; Nayak, A. K.; Schwarz, U.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic and structural properties of the shape-memory Heusler alloy Ni50Mn35In15. Magnetization and x-ray diffraction experiments were performed at hydrostatic pressures up to 5 GPa using diamond anvil cells. Pressure stabilizes the martensitic phase, shifting the martensitic transition to higher temperatures, and suppresses the ferromagnetic austenitic phase. Above 3 GPa, where the martensitic-transition temperature approaches the Curie temperature in the austenite, the magnetization shows no longer indications of ferromagnetic ordering. We further find an extended temperature region with a mixture of martensite and austenite phases, which directly relates to the magnetic properties.

  20. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  1. Validation and Analysis of the Parameters for Reconstructing the Austenite Phase from Martensite Electron Backscatter Diffraction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, L.; Pereda, B.; López, B.

    2017-08-01

    This work focuses on the validation of a method for reconstructing the fcc crystallographic data from martensite orientation electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps based on the "γ nuclei identification" and "γ nuclei spreading strategy." To that end, an Fe-30Ni alloy was employed. The martensite transformation start temperature (M s ) of this material is close to or below room temperature; therefore, during hot deformation and after water quenching, it presents an fcc austenitic microstructure, while after subzero quenching, austenite-to-martensite transformation takes place. Accordingly, the reconstruction procedure can be applied to the martensitic EBSD crystallographic data, and the morphological and orientation results of the reconstruction can be validated by comparison with the original crystallographic fcc data. Torsion tests were performed to produce recrystallized and deformed austenite microstructures. Although applying the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship (OR) resulted in reconstructed area fractions larger than 75 pct, the reconstruction quality improved significantly when other ORs closer to the Greninger-Troiano OR were applied. The analysis carried out on the recrystallized microstructure shows that the method is robust against variation in the different parameters involved in the reconstruction. Good angular and morphological reconstruction results were obtained in both recrystallized and deformed microstructures, including the ability to reconstruct twins.

  2. Magnetic structure of martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga-Co alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesari, Eduard; Seguí, Concepció; Lázpita, Patricia

    Ni50-xCoxMn30Ga20 (x=6-9) alloys undergo martensitic transformation between ferromagnetic (FM) austenite and weak-magnetic martensite. However, the type of magnetism of martensite remains unclear. In this work, the results of a detailed study of the magnetic state of martensite in a Ni43Co7Mn30Ga20 are shown. The evolution with post-quench ageing indicates that improvement of atomic order increases the FM contributions to the weak-magnetic martensite, major changes occurring as the austenite switches from paramagnetic (PM) to FM. The results are consistent with the presence of FM clusters inside a PM matrix.

  3. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  4. Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Heuser, Brent; Robertson, Ian; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Gewirth, Andrew

    2015-04-22

    This “Blue Sky” project was directed at exploring the opportunities that would be gained by developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys based on the Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloy system. A great deal of research effort has been directed toward ferritic and ferritic/martensitic ODS alloys which has resulted in reasonable advances in alloy properties. Similar gains should be possible with austenitic alloy which would also take advantage of other superior properties of that alloy system. The research effort was aimed at the developing an in-depth understanding of the microstructural-level strengthening effects of ODS particles in austentic alloys. This was accomplished on a variety of alloy compositions with the main focus on 304SS and 316SS compositions. A further goal was to develop an understanding other the role of ODS particles on crack propagation and creep performance. Since these later two properties require bulk alloy material which was not available, this work was carried out on promising austentic alloy systems which could later be enhanced with ODS strengthening. The research relied on a large variety of micro-analytical techniques, many of which were available through various scientific user facilities. Access to these facilities throughout the course of this work was instrumental in gathering complimentary data from various analysis techniques to form a well-rounded picture of the processes which control austenitic ODS alloy performance. Micromechanical testing of the austenitic ODS alloys confirmed their highly superior mechanical properties at elevated temperature from the enhanced strengthening effects. The study analyzed the microstructural mechanisms that provide this enhanced high temperature performance. The findings confirm that the smallest size ODS particles provide the most potent strengthening component. Larger particles and other thermally- driven precipitate structures were less effective contributors and, in some cases, limited

  5. Effect of irradiation temperature on microstructural changes in self-ion irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Lim, Sangyeob; Kwon, Junhyun; Shin, Chansun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the microstructural and hardness changes in austenitic stainless steel after Fe ion irradiation at 400, 300, and 200 °C using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation. The size of the Frank loops increased and the density decreased with increasing irradiation temperature. Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was detected across high-angle grain boundaries, and the degree of RIS increases with increasing irradiation temperature. Ni-Si clusters were observed using high-resolution TEM in the sample irradiated at 400 °C. The results of this work are compared with the literature data of self-ion and proton irradiation at comparable temperatures and damage levels on stainless steels with a similar material composition with this study. Despite the differences in dose rate, alloy composition and incident ion energy, the irradiation temperature dependence of RIS and the size and density of radiation defects followed the same trends, and were very comparable in magnitude.

  6. Formation of laves phase in a refractory austenitic steel due to long-term heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, L. V.; Shal'kevich, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    Steels of the Fe - Cr - Ni -Mo - Nb - Al - C system are studied by methods of phase physicochemical analysis and electron microscopy with the aim to determine the causes of changes in mechanical properties after long-term heating at a temperature of 600 - 700°C. Grain-boundary formation of particles of a Laves phase is shown to cause decrease in the impact toughness and transformation of particles of γ'-phase under conditions of creep. The effect of alloying elements on the chemical composition of the multicomponent Laves phase is studied depending on the temperatures of hardening, aging, and subsequent heating. Concentration correspondence between the chemical composition of the austenite and the intermetallic tcp phase formed in aging is discovered. A computational scheme for predicting the possibility of formation of Laves phases in multicomponent alloys is suggested.

  7. Effect of Nb Addition to Ti-Bearing Super Martensitic Stainless Steel on Control of Austenite Grain Size and Strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Langelier, Brian; Gault, Baptiste; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2017-05-01

    The role of Nb in normalized and tempered Ti-bearing 13Cr5Ni2Mo super martensitic stainless steel is investigated through in-depth characterization of the bimodal chemistry and size of Nb-rich precipitates/atomic clusters and Nb in solid solution. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to analyze the samples and clarify precipitates/atom cluster interactions with dislocations and austenite grain boundaries. The effect of 0.1 wt pct Nb addition on the promotion of (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates, as well as the retention of Nb in solution after cooling to room temperature, are analyzed quantitatively. (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates with average diameters of approximately 24 ± 8 nm resulting from epitaxial growth of Nb(C,N) on pre-existing (Ti,Nb)N particles, with inter-particle spacing on the order of 205 ± 68 nm, are found to be associated with mean austenite grain size of 28 ± 10 µm in the sample normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C). The calculated Zener limiting austenite grain size of 38 ± 13 µm is in agreement with the experimentally observed austenite grain size distribution. 0.08 wt pct Nb is retained in the as-normalized condition, which is able to promote Nb(C, N) atomic clusters at dislocations during tempering at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, and increases the yield strength by 160 MPa, which is predicted to be close to maximum increase in strengthening effect. Retention of solute Nb before tempering also leads to it preferentially combing with C and N to form Nb(C, N) atom clusters, which suppresses the occurrence of Cr- and Mo-rich carbides during tempering.

  8. Effect of Nb Addition to Ti-Bearing Super Martensitic Stainless Steel on Control of Austenite Grain Size and Strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Langelier, Brian; Gault, Baptiste; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2017-03-01

    The role of Nb in normalized and tempered Ti-bearing 13Cr5Ni2Mo super martensitic stainless steel is investigated through in-depth characterization of the bimodal chemistry and size of Nb-rich precipitates/atomic clusters and Nb in solid solution. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to analyze the samples and clarify precipitates/atom cluster interactions with dislocations and austenite grain boundaries. The effect of 0.1 wt pct Nb addition on the promotion of (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates, as well as the retention of Nb in solution after cooling to room temperature, are analyzed quantitatively. (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates with average diameters of approximately 24 ± 8 nm resulting from epitaxial growth of Nb(C,N) on pre-existing (Ti,Nb)N particles, with inter-particle spacing on the order of 205 ± 68 nm, are found to be associated with mean austenite grain size of 28 ± 10 µm in the sample normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C). The calculated Zener limiting austenite grain size of 38 ± 13 µm is in agreement with the experimentally observed austenite grain size distribution. 0.08 wt pct Nb is retained in the as-normalized condition, which is able to promote Nb(C, N) atomic clusters at dislocations during tempering at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, and increases the yield strength by 160 MPa, which is predicted to be close to maximum increase in strengthening effect. Retention of solute Nb before tempering also leads to it preferentially combing with C and N to form Nb(C, N) atom clusters, which suppresses the occurrence of Cr- and Mo-rich carbides during tempering.

  9. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, M. Beran, L.; Zahradnik, M.; Antos, R.; Straka, L.; Kopecek, J.; Fekete, L.; Heczko, O.

    2014-05-07

    Magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy in martensite and austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. At room temperature, the sample was in modulated 10M martensite phase and transformed to cubic austenite at 323 K. Spectral dependence of polar magneto-optical Kerr effect was obtained by generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry with rotating analyzer in the photon energy range from 1.2 to 4 eV, and from room temperature to temperature above the Curie point. The Kerr rotation spectra exhibit prominent features typical for complexes containing Mn atoms. Significant spectral changes during transformation to austenite can be explained by different optical properties caused by changes in density of states near the Fermi energy.

  10. The effect of multiple martensitic transformations on diffusion of Fe and Ni atoms in Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy.

    PubMed

    Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Mazanko, Vladimir F; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion characteristics of iron and nickel atoms were investigated using radioactive isotopes method in phase-hardened metastable iron-nickel Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy with nanofragmented structure. It has been found that diffusion mobility of nickel and iron atoms in reverted austenite of Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy significantly increases as the result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. The diffusion coefficients of nickel and iron in the austenite at 400°C corresponded to the stationary diffusion coefficients at the temperatures above 900°C. The revealed diffusion acceleration at low temperatures is caused by high-density dislocations and additional low-angle subboundaries of disoriented nanofragments of reverted austenite and deformation twin subboundaries formed during multiple γ-α-γ cycles.

  11. The effect of multiple martensitic transformations on diffusion of Fe and Ni atoms in Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion characteristics of iron and nickel atoms were investigated using radioactive isotopes method in phase-hardened metastable iron-nickel Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy with nanofragmented structure. It has been found that diffusion mobility of nickel and iron atoms in reverted austenite of Fe-31.7%Ni-0.06%C alloy significantly increases as the result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. The diffusion coefficients of nickel and iron in the austenite at 400°C corresponded to the stationary diffusion coefficients at the temperatures above 900°C. The revealed diffusion acceleration at low temperatures is caused by high-density dislocations and additional low-angle subboundaries of disoriented nanofragments of reverted austenite and deformation twin subboundaries formed during multiple γ-α-γ cycles. PMID:25024684

  12. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 10(15) to 5 × 10(18) D/cm(2). The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  13. Precipitation kinetics during aging of an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel

    DOE PAGES

    Trotter, Geneva; Hu, Bin; Sun, Annie Y.; ...

    2016-04-28

    The microstructural evolution of DAFA26, an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, was investigated during aging. The effect of aging at 750 °C and 800 °C on the growth of spherical γ’-Ni3(Al, Ti) particles present in the as-processed state was studied extensively using X-ray diffraction, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The γ’ particles had a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the matrix (i.e. ((010)(010)m//(010)(010)p, [100][100]m//[100][100]p)). The coarsening kinetics of γ’-Ni3Al particles were in agreement with the Lifshitz, Slyozof-Wagner theory. Coarse Laves phase particles were also present in the as-processed state, and during the aging processmore » both smaller Laves phase precipitates and B2-NiAl precipitates formed on both the grain boundaries and in the matrix. As a result, the γ’ precipitates were determined to have the most impact on the room temperature hardness.« less

  14. Precipitation kinetics during aging of an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, Geneva; Hu, Bin; Sun, Annie Y.; Harder, Reed; Miller, Michael K.; Baker, Ian; Yao, Lan

    2016-04-28

    The microstructural evolution of DAFA26, an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, was investigated during aging. The effect of aging at 750 °C and 800 °C on the growth of spherical γ’-Ni3(Al, Ti) particles present in the as-processed state was studied extensively using X-ray diffraction, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The γ’ particles had a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the matrix (i.e. ((010)(010)m//(010)(010)p, [100][100]m//[100][100]p)). The coarsening kinetics of γ’-Ni3Al particles were in agreement with the Lifshitz, Slyozof-Wagner theory. Coarse Laves phase particles were also present in the as-processed state, and during the aging process both smaller Laves phase precipitates and B2-NiAl precipitates formed on both the grain boundaries and in the matrix. As a result, the γ’ precipitates were determined to have the most impact on the room temperature hardness.

  15. Precipitation kinetics during aging of an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, Geneva; Hu, Bin; Sun, Annie Y.; Harder, Reed; Miller, Michael K.; Baker, Ian; Yao, Lan

    2016-04-28

    The microstructural evolution of DAFA26, an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, was investigated during aging. The effect of aging at 750 °C and 800 °C on the growth of spherical γ’-Ni3(Al, Ti) particles present in the as-processed state was studied extensively using X-ray diffraction, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The γ’ particles had a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the matrix (i.e. ((010)(010)m//(010)(010)p, [100][100]m//[100][100]p)). The coarsening kinetics of γ’-Ni3Al particles were in agreement with the Lifshitz, Slyozof-Wagner theory. Coarse Laves phase particles were also present in the as-processed state, and during the aging process both smaller Laves phase precipitates and B2-NiAl precipitates formed on both the grain boundaries and in the matrix. As a result, the γ’ precipitates were determined to have the most impact on the room temperature hardness.

  16. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, O.; Hertz, D.; Lebrun, J.P.; Michel, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors.

  17. Entropic stabilization of austenite in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ryan S.; Karls, Daniel S.

    2013-12-01

    Martensitic transformations (MTs) are the key phenomena responsible for the remarkable properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). Recent Density Functional Theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations have revealed that the austenite structure of many SMAs is a saddle-point of the material's potential energy landscape. Correspondingly, the austenite is unstable and thus unobservable at zero temperature. Thus, the observable high temperature austenite structure in many SMAs is entropically stabilized by nonlinear dynamic effects. This paper discusses the phenomenon of entropic stabilization of the austenite phase in SMAs and explicitly demonstrates it using Molecular Dynamics (MD) and a three-dimensional all-atom potential energy model whose equilibria crystal structures correspond to commonly observed SMA phases. A new technique is used to carefully select a model so that it is likely to lead to entropic stabilization of a B2 cubic austenite from a B19 orthorhombic martensite. This is accomplished by using a detailed branch-following and bifurcation (BFB) parametric study of the Morse pair potential binary alloy model. The results of the MD simulation clearly demonstrate the entropic stabilization of the B2 austenite phase at high temperature. Analysis of the dynamics of the B2 austenite phase indicates that its stabilization may be viewed as a result of individual atoms randomly visiting the B19 and αIrV phases (with only occasional visits to the B2 and L10 phases). This occurs without long-range correlations in such a way that each atom's time-average configuration corresponds to the B2 structure.

  18. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  19. Verification of cutting zone machinability during drilling of austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurko, Jozef

    2008-11-01

    Automated production of, in the sense of, machine production has characteristic features: a reduction of production costs, stimulation of the development of cutting tools, and changes in the construction of machine tools, all of which work against the creation of optimal technological methods, which thrusts the technological process of cutting into a more important position. These trends confirm that the cutting process remains one of the basic manufacturing technologies. A condition of the economic usage of modern, automated programmed drilling machines is the optimal course of the cutting process, i.e. the use of optimal work conditions. A summary of optimal work conditions requires knowledge of the laws of cutting theory and knowledge of the practical conditions of their application. This article presents the results of experiments that concerned the verification of machinability of work pieces of difference types of X12CrNi 18 8 austenitic stainless steel. Steel X12CrNi 18 8 is the chief representative of the austenitic stainless steels, and this steel falls into the category of materials that are difficult to machine. The rapid development of industry is marked by the development and application of new materials with characteristics that broaden their applicable uses. Precise and reliable information on the machinability of a material before it enters the machining process is a necessity, and hypotheses must be tested through verification of actual methods. This article presents conclusions of machinability tests on austenitic stainless steels and describes appropriate parameters for the cutting zone during the process of drilling with the goal of proposing recommendations for this steels, and to integrate current knowledge in this field with drilling and praxis. This article concerns itself with the evaluation of selected domains of machinability in compliance with EN ISO standards. The experiments were performed in laboratory conditions and verified in real

  20. Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Approach to Thermal and Degradation Resistant Stainless Steels for Industrial Use

    SciTech Connect

    David A Helmick; John H Magee; Michael P Brady

    2012-05-31

    A series of developmental AFA alloys was selected for study based on: 25 Ni wt.% (alloys A-F), 20 wt% Ni (alloys G-H), and 12 Ni wt.% (alloys I-L). An emphasis in this work was placed on the lower alloy content direction for AFA alloys to reduce alloy raw material cost, rather than more highly alloyed and costly AFA alloys for higher temperature performance. Alloys A-D explored the effects of Al (3-4 wt.%) and C (0.05-0.2 wt.%) in the Fe-25Ni-14Cr-2Mn-2Mo-1W-1Nb wt.% base range; alloys E and F explored the effects of removing costly Mo and W additions in a Fe-25Ni-14Cr-4Al-2.5Nb-2Mn-0.2C base, alloys G and H examined Nb (1-2.5wt.%) and removal of Mo, W in a Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-2Mn-0.2 C wt.% base; and alloys I-L examined effects of C (0.1-0.2 wt.%) and Mn (5-10 wt.%) on a low cost Fe-14Cr-12Ni-3Cu-2.5Al wt.% base (no Mo, W additions). Creep testing resulted in elemental trends that included the beneficial effect of higher carbon and lower niobium in 20-25%Ni AFA alloys and, the beneficial of lower Mn in 12%Ni AFA alloys. Corrosion tests in steam and sulfidation-oxidation environments showed, in general, these alloys were capable of a ten-fold improvement in performance when compared to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Also, corrosion test results in metal-dusting environments were promising and, warrant further investigation.

  1. Austenite Formation in a Cold-Rolled Semi-austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada Casero, Carola; San Martín, David

    2014-04-01

    The progress of the martensite ( α') to austenite ( γ) phase transformation has been thoroughly investigated at different temperatures during the continuous heating of a cold-rolled precipitation hardening metastable stainless steel at a heating rate of 0.1 K/s. Heat-treated samples have been characterized using different experimental complementary techniques: high-resolution dilatometry, magnetization, and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, micro-hardness-Vickers testing, optical/scanning electron microscopy, and tensile testing. The two-step transformation behavior observed is thought to be related to the presence of a pronounced chemical banding in the initial microstructure. This banding has been characterized using electron probe microanalysis. Unexpectedly, dilatometry measurements seem unable to locate the end of the transformation accurately, as this technique does not detect the second step of this transformation (last 20 pct of it). It is shown that once the starting ( A S) and finishing ( A F) transformation temperatures have been estimated by magnetization measurements, the evolution of the volume fractions of austenite and martensite can be evaluated by TEP or micro-hardness measurement quite reliably as compared to magnetization measurements. The mechanical response of the material after being heated to temperatures close to A S, A F, and ( A F - A S)/2 is also discussed.

  2. Elemental Mapping of NiTi with EFTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wittig, J. E.; Bentley, James; Evans, Neal D; Somsen, Ch.; Eggeler, G.

    2005-01-01

    Martensitic transformations in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys take place as multistage transformations. In Ni-rich alloys with an austenitic B2 matrix, coherent Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates form from thermo-mechanical processing and affect the sequence of the martensitic transformation. Any composition inhomogenieties that develop during the evolution of the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates will have a large influence on the multistage martensitic transformations, since the martensite start temperature, M{sub s}, is strongly dependent on the Ni concentration of the matrix. Since concentration differences on the order of 0.5 at% are sufficient to influence the transformation, providing sufficiently accurate concentration profiles for meaningful structure-property correlations is a challenging experiment. This investigation employs elemental mapping by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to attempt to measure the concentration profiles at these precipitate-matrix interfaces.

  3. Austenite decomposition in ternary manganese, molybdenum and tungsten steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, Robert Errol

    A survey of austenite decomposition in Fe-(0.1, 0.2)C-(3, 4.2)Mn has revealed kinetic and morphological transitions which take place at substantial undercoolings below the paraequilibrium Ae3 temperature. An unusually long interval of transformation stasis was found in Fe-0.1C-3Mn, during which time the ferrite was free of carbides. A nodular product containing rod particles was observed in several of these alloys. The grain boundary bainite (GBB) and twin boundary bainite (TBB) morphologies at the bay in Fe-0.24C-4Mo were significantly more complex than previously assumed, with differing arrangements of bainite subunits; their thickening rates also differed. TEM revealed 10 nm steps at the bainite-austenite interfaces in GBB. Mo enrichment was found within GBB-austenite interfaces and extended ˜10 nm into the austenite. The M2C carbides are always enriched in Mo, possessing a non-equilibrium Mo content at earlier reaction times. The energies stored in the ferrite-carbide interfacial area and in carbides possessing non-equilibrium Fe/Mo ratios were considered to reduce the driving force for diffusion by up to 20%. GBB and TBB were found at and above the bay in Fe-0.3C-6.3W, while the bainite formed below the bay consisted of elongated subunits. M6C was found at all temperatures, while M2C was found only below the bay, both of which exhibited W partition. A dark-etching constituent of very high carbide density transformed the remaining pools of austenite at the late stages of reaction, a result consistent with the level of carbon in austenite rising with time. Transitions in carbide morphology were explored in Fe-0.2C-63W. At lower reaction temperatures, M6C precipitates with ferrite. At higher temperatures the cellular precipitation of quasilamellar M 6C in austenite occurs, and is considered to take place inside the ferrite + austenite + M6C three-phase field. The austenite inside the quasilamellar carbide nodules reverts to ferrite at long times, indicating a

  4. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some sigma phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Reversed austenite for enhancing ductility of martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieck, S.; Rosemann, P.; Kromm, A.; Halle, T.

    2017-03-01

    The novel heat treatment concept, “quenching and partitioning” (Q&P) has been developed for high strength steels with enhanced formability. This heat treatment involves quenching of austenite to a temperature between martensite start and finish, to receive a several amount of retained austenite. During the subsequent annealing treatment, the so called partitioning, the retained austenite is stabilized due to carbon diffusion, which results in enhanced formability and strength regarding strain induced austenite to martensite transformation. In this study a Q&P heat treatment was applied to a Fe-0.45C-0.65Mn-0.34Si-13.95Cr stainless martensite. Thereby the initial quench end temperature and the partitioning time were varied to characterize their influence on microstructural evolution. The microstructural changes were analysed by dilatometer measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, including electron back-scatter diffraction. Compression testing was made to examine the mechanical behaviour. It was found that an increasing partitioning time up to 30 min leads to an enhanced formability without loss in strength due to a higher amount of stabilized retained and reversed austenite as well as precipitation hardening.

  6. Austenitic stainless steel patterning by plasma assisted diffusion treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiec, T.; Marcos, G.; Thiriet, T.; Guo, Y.; Belmonte, T.

    2009-09-01

    The new concept of surface texturing or surface patterning on austenitic stainless steel by plasma assisted diffusion treatment is presented in this paper. It allows the creation of uniform micro or nano relief with regularly shaped asperities or depressions. Plasma assisted diffusion treatments are based on the diffusion of nitrogen and/or carbon in a metallic material at moderate to elevated temperatures. Below 420°C, a plasma assisted nitriding treatment of austenitic stainless steel produces a phase usually called expanded austenite. Expanded austenite is a metastable nitrogen supersaturated solid solution with a disordered fcc structure and a distorted lattice. The nitrided layer with the expanded austenite is highly enriched in nitrogen (from 10 to 35 at%) and submitted to high compressive residual stresses. From mechanical consideration, it is shown that the only possible deformation occurs in the direction perpendicular to the surface. Such an expansion of the layer from the initial surface of the substrate to the gas phase is used here for surface patterning of stainless steel parts. The surface patterning is performed by using masks (TEM grid) and multi-dipolar plasmas.

  7. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  8. In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Guang; Zhang, Yu-long; Hu, Hai-jiang; Zhou, Lin-xin; Xue, Zheng-liang

    2013-11-01

    In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel were conducted on a high-temperature laser scanning confocal microscope during continuous heating and subsequent isothermal holding at 850, 1000, and 1100°C for 30 min. A grain growth model was proposed based on experimental results. It is indicated that the austenite grain size increases with austenitizing temperature and holding time. When the austenitizing temperature is above 1100°C, the austenite grains grow rapidly, and abnormal austenite grains occur. In addition, the effect of heating rate on austenite grain growth was investigated, and the relation between austenite grains and bainite morphology after bainitic transformations was also discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Dissimilar Austenitic/Super Duplex Stainless Steel Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of chemical composition on microstructural features and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex and austenitic stainless steels, welding was attempted by gas tungsten arc welding process with a super duplex (ER2594) and an austenitic (ER309LMo) stainless steel filler metal. While the austenitic weld metal had vermicular delta ferrite within austenitic matrix, super duplex stainless steel was mainly comprised of allotriomorphic grain boundary and Widmanstätten side plate austenite morphologies in the ferrite matrix. Also the heat-affected zone of austenitic base metal comprised of large austenite grains with little amounts of ferrite, whereas a coarse-grained ferritic region was observed in the heat-affected zone of super duplex base metal. Although both welded joints showed acceptable mechanical properties, the hardness and impact strength of the weld metal produced using super duplex filler metal were found to be better than that obtained by austenitic filler metal.

  10. The effects of cold work on the microstructure and mechanical properties of intermetallic strengthened alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Bin; Baker, Ian; Miller, Michael K.; ...

    2015-06-12

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at >973 K (700 °C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanical performance. These reduced themore » grain size significantly to the nanoscale (~100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. Lastly, a solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 °C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting.« less

  11. The effects of cold work on the microstructure and mechanical properties of intermetallic strengthened alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Bin; Baker, Ian; Miller, Michael K.; Yao, Lan; Chen, Si; Cai, Z.; Trotter, G.

    2015-06-12

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at >973 K (700 °C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanical performance. These reduced the grain size significantly to the nanoscale (~100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. Lastly, a solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 °C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting.

  12. The Effects of Cold Work on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B.; Trotter, G.; Baker, Ian; Miller, M. K.; Yao, L.; Chen, S.; Cai, Z.

    2015-08-01

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of > 50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at > 973 K (700 A degrees C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanical performance. These reduced the grain size significantly to the nanoscale (similar to 100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. A solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 A degrees C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting. (C) The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2015

  13. Dependence of the functional characteristics of thermomechanically processed titanium nickelide on the size of the structural elements of austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova-Vachiyan, K. A.; Ryklina, E. P.; Prokoshkin, S. D.; Dubinskii, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Effect of the size of the elements of the mixed structure of B2 austenite, which consists of nanosized grains and subgrains of a polygonized substructure, on the functional properties of the Ti-50.7 at % Ni alloy preliminarily subjected to a low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTMT) and post-deformation annealing (PDA), has been investigated. The generation of the shape-memory effect (SME) and reversible two-way SME (TWSME) was performed using bending deformation. A maximum (for the Ti-Ni alloys) value of the recovery strain ɛr = 15.5 ± 0.5% has been obtained after annealing at 600°C for 1 h (recrystallized structure) and after LTMT + PDA at 430°C for 10 h (mixed nanocrystalline and nanosubgrain structure). The behavior of the parameters of the SME and TWSME in different structural states has been considered. A comparative study of the effect of the temperature and time of holding at a temperature upon the PDA on the formation of the microstructure and submicrostructure of the B2 austenite has been performed.

  14. Composition, Microstructure, and Water Vapor Effects on Internal/External Oxidation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Walker, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    A family of creep-resistant austenitic stainless steels based on alumina (Al2O3) scale formation for superior high-temperature oxidation resistance was recently identified. Results of long-term cyclic oxidation studies (100 h cycles and total exposure duration for up to 7500 h) from 650-800 aC in air and/or air with 10% water vapor for a series of 2.5, 3, and 4 wt.% Al AFA compositions, with varying levels of Nb and Ni additions, are presented. Water vapor was observed to enhance subscale Al consumption in the AFA alloys relative to dry air exposure, presumably via enhanced alumina scale cracking and reformation. Water vapor also increased the tendency for internal oxidation. Increased levels of Nb additions were found to significantly improve oxidation resistance, as were reactive element additions of Hf and Y. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2Nb base Laves phase precipitates were used to guide interpretation of oxidation behavior alloy composition trends in terms of two-phase oxidation theory, reservoir effect, and the third-element effect of Cr. The implications of these findings for the upper-temperature service limit for this new class of alloys and the potential for AFA alloy modification for increased service temperatures are discussed.

  15. How I Love My 80 Percenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maturo, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Don't ever take your support staff for granted. By support staff, I mean the people in personnel, logistics, and finance; the ones who can make things happen with a phone call or a signature, or by the same token frustrate you to no end by their inaction; these are people you must depend on. I've spent a lot of time thinking about how to cultivate relationships with my support staff that work to the advantage of both of us. The most important thing that have learned working with people, any people--and I will tell you how I learned this in a minute--is there are some folks you just can't motivate, so forget it, don't try; others you certainly can with a little psychology and some effort; and the best of the bunch, what I call the 80 percenters, you don't need to motivate because they're already on the team and performing beautifully. The ones you can't change are rocks. Face up to it, and just kick them out of your way. I have a reputation with the people who don't want to perform or be part of the team. They don't come near me. If someone's a rock, I pick up on it right away, and I will walk around him or her to find someone better. The ones who can be motivated I take time to nurture. I consider them my projects. A lot of times these wannabes are people who want to help but don't know how. Listen, you can work with them. Lots of people in organizations have the mindset that all that matters are the regulations. God forbid if you ever work outside those regulations. They've got one foot on that regulation and they're holding it tight like a baby holds a blanket. What you're looking for is that first sign that their minds are opening. Usually you hear it in their vocabulary. What used to sound like "We can't do that ... the regulations won't allow it ... we have never done this before," well, suddenly that changes to "We have options ... let's take a look at the options ... let me research this and get back to you." The 80 percenters you want to nurture too, but

  16. 18-percent efficient terrestrial silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakers, A. W.; Green, M. A.; Jiqun, S.; Keller, E. M.; Wenham, S. R.; Godfrey, R. B.; Szpitalak, T.; Willison, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are described which operate at energy conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent under standard terrestrial test conditions (AM1.5, 100 mW/sq cm, 28 C). These are believed to be the most efficient silicon cells reported to date. The high efficiency is a result of the combination of high open-circuit voltage due to the careful attention paid to passivation of the top surface of the cell; high fill factors due to the high open-circuit voltage and low parasitic resistance losses; and high short-circuit current due to the use of shallow diffusions, a low grid coverage, and an optimized double-layer antireflection coating.

  17. Metallographic etching and microstructure characterization of NiCrMoV rotor steels for nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Lu, Feng-gui; Liu, Xia; Gao, Yu-lai

    2013-12-01

    The grain size of prior austenite has a distinct influence on the microstructure and final mechanical properties of steels. Thus, it is significant to clearly reveal the grain boundaries and therefore to precisely characterize the grain size of prior austenite. For NiCrMoV rotor steels quenched and tempered at high temperature, it is really difficult to display the grain boundaries of prior austenite clearly, which limits a further study on the correlation between the properties and the corresponding microstructure. In this paper, an effective etchant was put forward and further optimized. Experimental results indicated that this agent was effective to show the details of grain boundaries, which help analyze fatigue crack details along the propagation path. The optimized corrosion agent is successful to observe the microstructure characteristics and expected to help analyze the effect of microstructure for a further study on the mechanical properties of NiCrMoV rotor steels used in the field of nuclear power.

  18. Simulation of an Austenite-Twinned-Martensite Interface.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, A J; Melara, L A

    2003-01-01

    Developing numerical methods for predicting microstructure in materials is a large and important research area. Two examples of material microstructures are Austenite and Martensite. Austenite is a microscopic phase with simple crystallographic structure while Martensite is one with a more complex structure. One important task in materials science is the development of numerical procedures which accurately predict microstructures in Martensite. In this paper we present a method for simulating material microstructure close to an Austenite-Martensite interface. The method combines a quasi-Newton optimization algorithm and a nonconforming finite element scheme that successfully minimizes an approximation to the total stored energy near the interface of interest. Preliminary results suggest that the minimizers of this energy functional located by the developed numerical algorithm appear to display the desired characteristics.

  19. Characterization of Austenitic Stainless Steels Deformed at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmunger, Mattias; Chai, Guocai; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten; Moverare, Johan J.

    2017-10-01

    Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are promising candidates to replace more expensive nickel-based alloys within the energy-producing industry. The present study investigates the deformation mechanisms by microstructural characterization, mechanical properties and stress-strain response of three commercial austenitic stainless steels and two commercial nickel-based alloys using uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures from 673 K (400 °C) up to 973 K (700 °C). The materials showed different ductility at elevated temperatures which increased with increasing nickel content. The dominating deformation mechanism was planar dislocation-driven deformation at elevated temperature. Deformation twinning was also a noticeable active deformation mechanism in the heat-resistant austenitic alloys during tensile deformation at elevated temperatures up to 973 K (700 °C).

  20. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels. PMID:27877320

  1. High Energy Rate Forming Induced Phase Transition in Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, T.; Kuzsella, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of explosion hardening on the microstructure and the hardness of austenitic stainless steel have been studied. The optimum explosion hardening technology of austenitic stainless steel was researched. In case of the explosive hardening used new idea means indirect hardening setup. Austenitic stainless steels have high plasticity and can be cold formed easily. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Upon the explosion impact, the deformation mechanism indicates a plastic deformation and this deformation induces a phase transformation (martensite). The explosion hardening enhances the mechanical properties of the material, includes the wear resistance and hardness [1]. In case of indirect hardening as function of the setup parameters specifically the flayer plate position the hardening increased differently. It was find a relationship between the explosion hardening setup and the hardening level.

  2. Characterization of Austenitic Stainless Steels Deformed at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmunger, Mattias; Chai, Guocai; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten; Moverare, Johan J.

    2017-07-01

    Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are promising candidates to replace more expensive nickel-based alloys within the energy-producing industry. The present study investigates the deformation mechanisms by microstructural characterization, mechanical properties and stress-strain response of three commercial austenitic stainless steels and two commercial nickel-based alloys using uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures from 673 K (400°C) up to 973 K (700°C). The materials showed different ductility at elevated temperatures which increased with increasing nickel content. The dominating deformation mechanism was planar dislocation-driven deformation at elevated temperature. Deformation twinning was also a noticeable active deformation mechanism in the heat-resistant austenitic alloys during tensile deformation at elevated temperatures up to 973 K (700°C).

  3. 76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of..., 2010. \\1\\ See Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

  4. 76 FR 17819 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... ] antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe (``austenitic pipe'') from the... Stainless Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 11351 (March 17, 2009). \\2\\...

  5. Uncertainty in retained austenite measurements applied to individual crystallographic orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuziger, A.; Gnäupel-Herold, T.

    2015-04-01

    A technique to measure the phase volume fraction of an individual orientation and the uncertainty in the measurement is demonstrated in this paper. The technique of complete pole figure averaging using neutron diffraction was used to assess the phase fraction of retained austenite in transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels and quantify the uncertainty in the phase fraction. In parallel, an ensemble of orientation distribution functions was calculated to assess crystallographic volume fractions of particular orientations and the uncertainty of these volume fractions using Monte Carlo techniques. These methods were combined to measure the retained austenite phase volume fraction of an individual orientation.

  6. Examination of carbon partitioning into austenite during tempering of bainite

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J; Caballero, Francisca G; Miller, Michael K; Garcia - Mateo, C

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of carbon after tempering of a novel nanocrystalline bainitic steel consisting of a mixture of supersaturated ferrite and retained austenite, has been analyzed by atom probe tomography. Direct supporting evidence of additional austenite carbon enrichment beyond that initially achieved during the bainite heat treatment was not obtained during subsequent tempering of this high carbon, high silicon steel. Evidence of competing reactions during tempering, such as the formation of carbon clusters in bainitic ferrite that signify the onset of the transitional carbides precipitation, was observed.

  7. Decomposition of supercooled austenite of powder phosphorus steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsiferov, V. N.; Oglezneva, S. A.; Shatsov, A. A.

    1999-05-01

    The structure of powder phosphorus steels is investigated. New models of isothermal decomposition of super-cooled austenite are suggested which make it possible to predict the kinetics of the γ→α transformation in the pearlite and bainite temperature ranges. It is shown that mechanical alloying has a favorable effect on the formation of structure in steels. Grain disintegration accelerates the decomposition of austenite mainly due to the growth of the specific surface. At the same time, the contribution of 0.65-1.1% phosphorus additives to the process is low.

  8. Phase control of austenitic chrome-nickel steel

    SciTech Connect

    Korkh, M. K. Davidov, D. I. Korkh, J. V. Rigmant, M. B. Nichipuruk, A. P. Kazantseva, N. V.

    2015-10-27

    The paper presents the results of the comparative study of the possibilities of different structural and magnetic methods for detection and visualization of the strain-induced martensitic phase in low carbon austenitic chromium-nickel steel. Results of TEM, SEM, optical microscopy, atomic and magnetic force microscopy, and magnetic measurements are presented. Amount of the magnetic strain-induced martensite was estimated. We pioneered magnetic force microscopic images of the single domain cluster distribution of the strain-induced martensite in austenite-ferrite materials.

  9. The role of dislocation channeling in IASCC initiation of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Kale Jennings

    The objective of this study was to understand the role of dislocation channeling in the initiation of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel using a novel four-point bend test. Stainless steels used in this study were irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor at 320 °C, and included a commercial purity 304L stainless steel irradiated to 5.5, 10.2, and 47.5 dpa, and two high purity stainless steels, Fe-18Cr-12Ni and Fe-18Cr-25Ni, irradiated to ~10 dpa. The four-point bend test produced the same relative IASCC susceptibility as constant extension rate tensile (CERT) experiments performed on the same irradiated alloys in boiling water reactor normal water chemistry. The cracking susceptibility of the CP 304L alloy was high at all irradiation dose levels, enhanced by the presence of MnS inclusions in the alloy microstructure, which dissolve in the NWC environment. Dissolution of the MnS inclusion results in formation of an oxide cap that occludes the inclusion site, creating a crevice condition with a high propensity for crack initiation. Crack initiation at these locations was induced by stress concentration at the intersecting grain boundary, resulting from the intersection of a discontinuous dislocation channels (DC). Stress to initiate an IASCC crack decreased with dose due earlier DC initiation. The HP Fe-18Cr-12Ni alloy had low susceptibility to IASCC, while the high Ni alloy exhibited no cracking susceptibility. The difference in susceptibility among these conditions was attributed to the propensity for DCs to transmit across grain boundaries, which controls stress accumulation at DC -- grain boundary intersections.

  10. Physical and mechanical modelling of neutron irradiation effect on ductile fracture. Part 1. Prediction of fracture strain and fracture toughness of austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, Boris; Sorokin, Alexander; Smirnov, Valeriy; Potapova, Vera

    2014-09-01

    A physical-and-mechanical model of ductile fracture has been developed to predict fracture toughness and fracture strain of irradiated austenitic steels taking into account stress-state triaxiality and radiation swelling. The model is based on criterion of plastic collapse of a material unit cell controlled by strain hardening of a material and criterion of voids coalescence due to channel shearing of voids. The model takes into account deformation voids nucleation and growth of deformation and vacancy voids. For justification of the model experimental data on fracture strain and fracture toughness of austenitic steel 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade irradiated up to maximal dose 150 dpa with various swelling were used. Experimental data on fracture strain and fracture toughness were compared with the results predicted by the model. It has been shown that for prediction of the swelling effect on fracture toughness the dependence of process zone size on swelling should be taken into account.

  11. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  12. Thermomagnetic history dependence of magnetocaloric effect in Ni50Mn34In16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Sharma, V. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    A large inverse magnetocaloric effect has been reported to be associated with the austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni50Mn34In16. It is shown here that the magnitude of the observed magnetocaloric effect as well as effective refrigerant capacity depend significantly on the thermo-magnetic history of the sample.

  13. Ageing effects on structural and magnetic transformations in a Ni-Co-Mn-Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguí, C.; Cesari, E.

    Partial substitution of Ni by Co in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-Ga alloys has been found to modify the magnetic ordering of the phases, improving in this way the possibility to obtain large magnetization difference between austenite and martensite, an essential requirement to induce the martensitic transformation by application of a magnetic field. Particularly, Ni50-xCoxMnyGa50-y alloys undergo, for Co content below x = 9, structural transformation between ferromagnetic austenite and paramagnetic martensite, thus leading to enhanced magnetization difference values. The martensitic transformation temperatures as well as the martensite and austenite Curie temperatures depend on composition, but significant changes can be brought about by selected thermal treatments. In this work, the composition is chosen as Ni42Co8Mn32Ga18 in order to obtain concurrent martensitic transformation and austenite Curie temperature, and the effect of quench and subsequent ageing on the structural and magnetic transitions is studied. Aside from the monotonic transformation temperatures change, which is mostly attributed to atomic ordering taking place upon post-quench ageing, the results show the effect of the relative position of the structural and magnetic ordering reactions on the transformation entropy change.

  14. The Interplay between Grain Size and Austenite Stability on Deformation Behavior of High Strength-High Ductility Combination Nanostructured Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Venkata Sai Ananth

    The concept of phase reversion involving severe cold deformation of metastable austenite to generate strain-induced martensite, followed by temperature-time annealing sequence, was used to obtain varying grain size from nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) to coarse-grained (CG) regime. This concept was used to obtain "high strength-high ductility" combination in nano/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) austenitic stainless steel. Using this concept, the objective of the study is to elucidate the dependence of grain size on deformation mechanisms and deformation-induced microstructural changes. The objective was accomplished by combining depth-sensing nanoindentation experiments conducted at various strain rates, and interrupted tensile testing at various strain and post-mortem analyses of deformed Fe-17Cr-7Ni (AISI 301LN) austenite alloy using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the high strength NG/UFG steel, deformation twinning contributed to excellent ductility, while in the low strength coarse-grained (CG) steel, ductility was also good, but due to strain-induced martensite, implying clear distinction and fundamental transition in the deformation behavior of NG/UFG and CG austenitic stainless steels. The study underscores that irrespective of the grain structure and operating deformation mechanisms (twinning versus strain-induced martensite), the generic nature of strain hardening is unaltered. In the NG/UFG structure, there was marked increase in stacking faults and twin density at high strain rates, and high strains. TWIP effect was observed in NG/UFG steel, whereas TRIP effect was evidenced in CG alloy. The observed change in the deformation mechanism with change in grain size is attributed to increased stability of austenite with decrease in grain size, and is explained in terms of austenite stability-strain energy relationship. The insights on the relationship between grain structure (and strength) and deformation mechanisms are envisaged to be important

  15. Effect of double vacuum melting and retained austenite on rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5749 bearing steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Hodder, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    AMS 5749 steel combines the tempering, hot hardness, and hardness retention characteristics of AISI M-50 steel with the corrosion and oxidation resistance of AISI 440C stainless steel. The five-ball fatigue tester was used to evaluate the rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5749. Double vacuum melting (vacuum induction melting plus vacuum arc remelting, VIM-VAR) produced AMS 5749 material with a rolling-element fatigue life at least 14 times that of vacuum induction melting alone. The VIM-VAR AMS 5749 steel balls gave lives from 6 to 12 times greater than VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel balls. The highest level of retained austenite, 14.6 percent, was significantly detrimental to rolling-element fatigue life relative to the intermediate level of 11.1 percent.

  16. Experimental Analysis of the Austenitic Phase in Steels by the Application of X-Ray Diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej; Sajgalik, Michal; Czanova, Tatiana; Cep, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Uniform austenite remaining in the microstructure of the martensitic transformation is called the residual austenite. It is undesirable structure in components, due to its slow decay causes dimensional instability in these components and reducing the hardness. There is a change in volume and it generate internal stress which often appear as cracks. The residual austenite is highly undesirable component in the molded parts, as well as the production of gears and bearing components. The article deals with quantification of residual austenite in steels by using the Average peak method by X-ray diffraction. This method applies four separate peaks to determine the amount of austenite.

  17. Development of 1100 °C Capable Alumina-Forming Austenitic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M. P.; Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Pint, B. A.

    2016-11-18

    Recently dalumina-forming austenitic (AFA) alloys based on ~12–32 weight % (wt%) Ni have been developed and offer an attractive combination of oxidation resistance and creep resistance at relatively low alloy cost. But, they exhibit a transition to internal oxidation and nitridation of Al above ~750–950 °C depending on composition and exposure environment. In order to identify AFA compositions capable of higher-temperature operation for applications such as ethylene cracking, the oxidation behavior of a series of developmental, as-cast nominal Fe–(25–45)Ni–(10–25)Cr–(4–5)Al–1Si–0.15Hf–0.07Y–0.01B wt% base alloys with and without Nb, Ti, and C additions was evaluated at 1100 °C in air with 10% water vapor. Furthermore, we observed protective alumina scale formation at levels of 35Ni, 25Cr, and 4Al with additions of Nb and C, indicating promise for 1100°C capable cast AFA alloys.

  18. Development of 1100 °C Capable Alumina-Forming Austenitic Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; ...

    2016-11-18

    Recently dalumina-forming austenitic (AFA) alloys based on ~12–32 weight % (wt%) Ni have been developed and offer an attractive combination of oxidation resistance and creep resistance at relatively low alloy cost. But, they exhibit a transition to internal oxidation and nitridation of Al above ~750–950 °C depending on composition and exposure environment. In order to identify AFA compositions capable of higher-temperature operation for applications such as ethylene cracking, the oxidation behavior of a series of developmental, as-cast nominal Fe–(25–45)Ni–(10–25)Cr–(4–5)Al–1Si–0.15Hf–0.07Y–0.01B wt% base alloys with and without Nb, Ti, and C additions was evaluated at 1100 °C in air with 10% watermore » vapor. Furthermore, we observed protective alumina scale formation at levels of 35Ni, 25Cr, and 4Al with additions of Nb and C, indicating promise for 1100°C capable cast AFA alloys.« less

  19. Effect of technological factors on the properties of forged austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Napara-Volgina, S.G.

    1994-11-01

    The conditions for the production of austenitic stainless steel Kh18N10, Kh18N12M2, and Kh23N18 (i.e., Cr18Ni10, Cr18N12Mo2, and Cr23Ni18) by forging porous blanks have been studied and optimized. In many cases, the properties of these steels are determined by the production technology: the duration, temperature, and heating medium used in the presintering and the duration and temperature of the heating for forging the blanks. In each specific case the choice of fabrication conditions depends on the shape and purpose of the part. Simple parts with plane-parallel ends without changes in section along the height can be produced by hot forging without presintering of the powder blanks. Complex parts require hot forging at high temperatures (1150-1200{degrees}C) of presintered blanks. If the stainless steels do not have to meet stringent ductility requirements but must possess high strength, the blanks can be heated at 950-1050{degrees}C without a protective gas atmosphere.

  20. Effects of Co and Al Contents on Cryogenic Mechanical Properties and Hydrogen Embrittlement for Austenitic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Ma, L.M.; Li, Y.Y.

    2004-06-28

    The effects of Co and Al content on ambient and cryogenic mechanical properties, microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of a high strength precipitate-strengthened austenitic alloy (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system) had been investigated with temperature range from 293K to 77 K. Hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted using the method of high pressure thermal hydrogen charging. It was found that increasing Co content can cause increasing in ambient and cryogenic ductility, but has less effect on ultimate tensile strength. When Co content is 9.8%, obvious decrease was found in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Al content can result in decreasing ambient and cryogenic ductility and severe hydrogen embrittlement, but slight increase in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Co content, reducing Al content, and decreasing test temperature tend to decrease the hydrogen embrittlement tendency for the alloys. This work showed that the alloy with composition of Fe-31%Ni-15%Cr-5%Co-4.5%Mo-2.4%Ti-0.3%Al-0.3%Nb-0.2%V has the superior cryogenic mechanical properties and lower hydrogen embrittlement tendency, is a good high strength cryogenic hydrogen-resistant material.

  1. Effects of Co and Al Contents on Cryogenic Mechanical Properties and Hydrogen Embrittlement for Austenitic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Ma, L. M.; Li, Y. Y.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of Co and Al content on ambient and cryogenic mechanical properties, microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of a high strength precipitate-strengthened austenitic alloy (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system) had been investigated with temperature range from 293K to 77 K. Hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted using the method of high pressure thermal hydrogen charging. It was found that increasing Co content can cause increasing in ambient and cryogenic ductility, but has less effect on ultimate tensile strength. When Co content is 9.8%, obvious decrease was found in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Al content can result in decreasing ambient and cryogenic ductility and severe hydrogen embrittlement, but slight increase in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Co content, reducing Al content, and decreasing test temperature tend to decrease the hydrogen embrittlement tendency for the alloys. This work showed that the alloy with composition of Fe-31%Ni-15%Cr-5%Co-4.5%Mo-2.4%Ti-0.3%Al-0.3%Nb-0.2%V has the superior cryogenic mechanical properties and lower hydrogen embrittlement tendency, is a good high strength cryogenic hydrogen-resistant material.

  2. Soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a negligible nickel content.

    PubMed

    Tschon, M; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Borsari, V; Lenger, H; Bernauer, J; Chiesa, R; Cigada, A; Chiusoli, L; Giardino, R

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluates the soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a low nickel content (P558) in comparison with a conventional stainless steel (SSt)and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous findings showed its in vitro biocompatibility by culturing P558 with healthy and osteoporotic osteoblasts and its in vivo effectiveness as bone implant material. Regarding its use as a material in osteosynthesis,P558 biocompatibility when implanted in soft tissues, as subcutis and muscle, was assessed. Disks and rods of these metals were implanted in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle, respectively. Four and twelve weeks post surgery implants with surrounding tissue were retrieved for histologic and histomorphometric analysis: fibrous capsule thickness and new vessel formation were measured. Around all implanted materials, light microscopy highlighted a reactive and fibrous capsule formation coupled with ongoing neoangiogenesis both in rats and in rabbits. Histomorphometric measurements revealed a stronger inflammatory response,in terms of capsule thickness,surrounding SSt implants (9.8% Ni content) both in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle independently of shape and site of implantation. A progressive decrease in capsule thickness around P558 (<0.02% Ni content) and Ti6Al4V, respectively, was seen. Regarding new vessel density, the data showed a different response dependent on the site of implantation. However,in the light of the previous and present studies, P558 is a good material, instead of titanium alloys, in orthopedic research.

  3. Prediction of Indentation Behavior of Superelastic TiNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Rabin; Farhat, Zoheir

    2014-09-01

    Superelastic TiNi shape memory alloys have been extensively used in various applications. The great interest in TiNi alloys is due to its unique shape memory and superelastic effects, along with its superior wear and dent resistance. Assessment of mechanical properties and dent resistance of superelastic TiNi is commonly performed using indentation techniques. However, the coupling of deformation and reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi under indentation conditions makes the interpretation of results challenging. An attempt is made to enhance current interpretation of indentation data. A load-depth curve is predicted that takes into consideration the reversible martensitic transformation. The predicted curve is in good agreement with experimental results. It is found in this study that the elastic modulus is a function of indentation depth. At shallow depths, the elastic modulus is high due to austenite dominance, while at high depths, the elastic modulus drops as the depth increases due to austenite to martensite transition, i.e., martensite dominance. It is also found that TiNi exhibits superior dent resistance compared to AISI 304 steel. There is two orders of magnitude improvement in dent resistance of TiNi in comparison to AISI 304 steel.

  4. Reverse Austenite Transformation and Grain Growth in a Low-Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Thomas; Ueda, Keiji; Militzer, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms controlling the reverse austenite transformation and the subsequent grain growth are examined in a low-carbon steel during slow continuous heating. The ex-situ metallographic analysis of quenched samples is complemented by in-situ dilatometry of the phase transformation and real-time laser ultrasonic measurements of the austenite grain size. Although the initial state of the microstructure (bainite or martensite) has only limited impact on the austenite transformation temperature, it has significant influence on the mean austenite grain size and the rate of grain growth. The coarsening of austenite islands during reverse transformation occurring from the martensitic microstructure is responsible for a large austenite grain structure at the completion of the austenite formation. On the other hand, a much finer austenite grain size is obtained when the austenite transforms from the bainite microstructure. Upon further heating, the rate of austenite grain growth is limited by the presence of nanometric precipitates present in the bainite microstructure leading to a significantly finer austenite grain size. These results give important guidance for the design of thermomechanical-controlled processing of heavy-gage steel plates.

  5. Accurate modelling of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Nowers, O. D.; Duxbury, D. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2014-02-18

    The ultrasonic inspection of austenitic steel welds is challenging due to the formation of highly anisotropic and heterogeneous structures post-welding. This is due to the intrinsic crystallographic structure of austenitic steel, driving the formation of dendritic grain structures on cooling. The anisotropy is manifested as both a ‘steering’ of the ultrasonic beam and the back-scatter of energy due to the macroscopic granular structure of the weld. However, the quantitative effects and relative impacts of these phenomena are not well-understood. A semi-analytical simulation framework has been developed to allow the study of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds. Frequency-dependent scatterers are allocated to a weld-region to approximate the coarse grain-structures observed within austenitic welds and imaged using a simulated array. The simulated A-scans are compared against an equivalent experimental setup demonstrating excellent agreement of the Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. Comparison of images of the simulated and experimental data generated using the Total Focusing Method (TFM) indicate a prominent layered effect in the simulated data. A superior grain allocation routine is required to improve upon this.

  6. Solidification and solid state transformations of austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J A; Williams, J C; Thompson, A W

    1982-05-01

    The microstructure of austenitic stainless steel welds can contain a large variety of ferrite morphologies. It was originally thought that many of these morphologies were direct products of solidification. Subsequently, detailed work on castings suggested the structures can solidify either as ferrite or austenite. However, when solidification occurs by ferrite, a large fraction of the ferrite transforms to austenite during cooling via a diffusion controlled transformation. It was also shown by Arata et al that welds in a 304L alloy solidified 70-80% as primary ferrite, a large fraction of which also transformed to austenite upon cooling. More recently it was suggested that the cooling rates in welds were sufficiently high that diffusionless transformations were responsible for several commonly observed ferrite morphologies. However, other workers have suggested that even in welds, delta ..-->.. ..gamma.. transformations are diffusion controlled. A variety of ferrite morphologies have more recently been characterized by Moisio and coworkers and by David. The purpose of this paper is to provide further understanding of the evaluation of the various weld microstructures which are related to both the solidification behavior and the subsequent solid state transformations. To accomplish this, both TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) techniques were employed.

  7. Advanced austenitic alloys for fossil power systems. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Cole, N.C.; Canonico, D.A.; Henry, J.F.

    1998-08-01

    In 1993, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ABB Combustion Engineering t examine advanced alloys for fossil power systems. Specifically, the use of advanced austenitic stainless steels for superheater/reheater construction in supercritical boilers was examined. The strength of cold-worked austenitic stainless steels was reviewed and compared to the strength and ductility of advanced austenitic stainless steels. The advanced stainless steels were found to retain their strength to very long times at temperatures where cold-worked standard grades of austenitic stainless steels became weak. Further, the steels exhibited better long-time stability than the stabilized 300 series stainless steels in either the annealed or cold worked conditions. Type 304H mill-annealed tubing was provided to ORNL for testing of base metal and butt welds. The tubing was found to fall within range of expected strength for 304H stainless steel. The composite 304/308 stainless steel was found to be stronger than typical for the weldment. Boiler tubing was removed from a commercial boiler for replacement by newer steels, but restraints imposed by the boiler owners did not permit the installation of the advanced steels, so a standard 32 stainless steel was used as a replacement. The T91 removed from the boiler was characterized.

  8. Nickel-hydrogen LEO cycling at 20-50 percent DOD. [depth of discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Mai, Jenny

    1991-01-01

    Two NiH2 two-cell packs made up of engineering cells built according to the Hubble Space Telescope design (EPI RNH 90-3) are currently being low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycled at 20-50 percent depth of discharge (DOD). The cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., and activated with electrolyte (KOH) concentrations of 26 percent (pack No.1) and 31 percent (pack No.2), for use during evaluation of the HST cell design. The cells have been grouped according to electrolyte concentration but follow the same test schedule for comparison. This test was set up to study the behavior of NiH2 cells having differing electrolyte concentrations, when operated at relatively high DOD (20-50 percent) in a LEO cycling program. The test was designed specifically to allow the cells to pick their own recharge ratio for varying DOD and varying EOC (end of charge) voltages. The cells are being cycled in a simulated 96-min orbit with 60-min charge and 36-min discharge where an EOC cutoff voltage controls high-rate charging. EOC cutoff voltages vary between 1.48 V and 1.56 V.

  9. Nickel-hydrogen LEO cycling at 20-50 percent DOD. [depth of discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Mai, Jenny

    1991-01-01

    Two NiH2 two-cell packs made up of engineering cells built according to the Hubble Space Telescope design (EPI RNH 90-3) are currently being low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycled at 20-50 percent depth of discharge (DOD). The cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., and activated with electrolyte (KOH) concentrations of 26 percent (pack No.1) and 31 percent (pack No.2), for use during evaluation of the HST cell design. The cells have been grouped according to electrolyte concentration but follow the same test schedule for comparison. This test was set up to study the behavior of NiH2 cells having differing electrolyte concentrations, when operated at relatively high DOD (20-50 percent) in a LEO cycling program. The test was designed specifically to allow the cells to pick their own recharge ratio for varying DOD and varying EOC (end of charge) voltages. The cells are being cycled in a simulated 96-min orbit with 60-min charge and 36-min discharge where an EOC cutoff voltage controls high-rate charging. EOC cutoff voltages vary between 1.48 V and 1.56 V.

  10. The microstructure of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Rama Rao, V. V.

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and phase stability of the Fe-15Mn-7Si-9Cr-5Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy in the temperature range of 600 °C to 1200 °C was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and chemical analysis techniques. The microstructural studies show that an austenite single-phase field exists in the temperature range of 1000 °C to 1100 °C, above 1100 °C, there exists a three-phase field consisting of austenite, δ-ferrite, and the (Fe,Mn)3Si intermetallic phase; within the temperature range of 700 °C to 1000 °C, a two-phase field consisting of austenite and the Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase exists; and below 700 °C, there exists a single austenite phase field. Apart from these equilibrium phases, the austenite grains show the presence of athermal ɛ martensite. The athermal α' martensite has also been observed for the first time in these stainless steel shape memory alloys and is produced through the γ-ɛ-α' transformation sequence.

  11. Microstructural Features Affecting Tempering Behavior of 16Cr-5Ni Supermartensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, Massimo; Lovicu, Gianfranco; Valentini, Renzo; Dimatteo, Antonella; Ishak, Randa; Migliaccio, Umberto; Montanari, Roberto; Pietrangeli, Emanuele

    2015-05-01

    In industrial production processes, the respect of hardness and UTS maximum values of 16Cr5Ni steel is of utmost importance and a careful control of chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatments is a common practice. Nevertheless, some scatter of properties is often observed with consequent rejection of final components. To better understand the role played by different factors, two heats of 16Cr-5Ni supermartensitic stainless steels with very close chemical compositions but different thermal behavior during tempering have been studied by means of TEM observations, X-ray diffraction measurements, dilatometry, and thermo-mechanical simulations. It has been found that Ms-Mf temperature range can extend below the room temperature and the relative amount of retained austenite in as-quenched conditions plays a significant role in determining the thermal behavior. When present, the γ-phase increases the amount of reversed austenite formed during tempering and accelerates the process kinetics of martensite recovery. Moreover, increasing amounts of retained austenite after quenching lower the critical temperature for austenite destabilization and influence the optimum temperature-time combination to be adopted for controlling final mechanical properties. In the studied cases, the very close chemical composition of the heats was not a sufficient condition to guarantee the same as-quenched structure in terms of retained austenite amount. This was proven to be related to solute segregation effects during solidification of original heats.

  12. Austenitic Nickel- and Manganese-Free Fe-15Cr-1Mo-0.4N-0.3C Steel: Tensile Behavior and Deformation-Induced Processes between 298 K and 503 K (25 °C and 230 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mola, Javad; Ullrich, Christiane; Kuang, Buxiao; Rahimi, Reza; Huang, Qiuliang; Rafaja, David; Ritzenhoff, Roman

    2017-03-01

    The high-temperature austenite phase of a high-interstitial Mn- and Ni-free stainless steel was stabilized at room temperature by the full dissolution of precipitates after solution annealing at 1523 K (1250 °C). The austenitic steel was subsequently tensile-tested in the temperature range of 298 K to 503 K (25 °C to 230 °C). Tensile elongation progressively enhanced at higher tensile test temperatures and reached 79 pct at 503 K (230 °C). The enhancement at higher temperatures of tensile ductility was attributed to the increased mechanical stability of austenite and the delayed formation of deformation-induced martensite. Microstructural examinations after tensile deformation at 433 K (160 °C) and 503 K (230 °C) revealed the presence of a high density of planar glide features, most noticeably deformation twins. Furthermore, the deformation twin to deformation-induced martensite transformation was observed at these temperatures. The results confirm that the high tensile ductility of conventional Fe -Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn austenitic stainless steels may be similarly reproduced in Ni- and Mn-free high-interstitial stainless steels solution annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. The tensile ductility of the alloy was found to deteriorate with decarburization and denitriding processes during heat treatment which contributed to the formation of martensite in an outermost rim of tensile specimens.

  13. Austenitic Nickel- and Manganese-Free Fe-15Cr-1Mo-0.4N-0.3C Steel: Tensile Behavior and Deformation-Induced Processes between 298 K and 503 K (25 °C and 230 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mola, Javad; Ullrich, Christiane; Kuang, Buxiao; Rahimi, Reza; Huang, Qiuliang; Rafaja, David; Ritzenhoff, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The high-temperature austenite phase of a high-interstitial Mn- and Ni-free stainless steel was stabilized at room temperature by the full dissolution of precipitates after solution annealing at 1523 K (1250 °C). The austenitic steel was subsequently tensile-tested in the temperature range of 298 K to 503 K (25 °C to 230 °C). Tensile elongation progressively enhanced at higher tensile test temperatures and reached 79 pct at 503 K (230 °C). The enhancement at higher temperatures of tensile ductility was attributed to the increased mechanical stability of austenite and the delayed formation of deformation-induced martensite. Microstructural examinations after tensile deformation at 433 K (160 °C) and 503 K (230 °C) revealed the presence of a high density of planar glide features, most noticeably deformation twins. Furthermore, the deformation twin to deformation-induced martensite transformation was observed at these temperatures. The results confirm that the high tensile ductility of conventional Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn austenitic stainless steels may be similarly reproduced in Ni- and Mn-free high-interstitial stainless steels solution annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. The tensile ductility of the alloy was found to deteriorate with decarburization and denitriding processes during heat treatment which contributed to the formation of martensite in an outermost rim of tensile specimens.

  14. Austenite Grain Growth and the Surface Quality of Continuously Cast Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippenaar, Rian; Bernhard, Christian; Schider, Siegfried; Wieser, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Austenite grain growth does not only play an important role in determining the mechanical properties of steel, but certain surface defects encountered in the continuous casting industry have also been attributed to the formation of large austenite grains. Earlier research has seen innovative experimentation, the development of metallographic techniques to determine austenite grain size and the building of mathematical models to simulate the conditions pertaining to austenite grain growth during the continuous casting of steel. Oscillation marks and depressions in the meniscus region of the continuously casting mold lead to retarded cooling of the strand surface, which in turn results in the formation of coarse austenite grains, but little is known about the mechanism and rate of formation of these large austenite grains. Relevant earlier research will be briefly reviewed to put into context our recent in situ observations of the delta-ferrite to austenite phase transition. We have confirmed earlier evidence that very large delta-ferrite grains are formed very quickly in the single-phase region and that these large delta-ferrite grains are transformed to large austenite grains at low cooling rates. At the higher cooling rates relevant to the early stages of the solidification of steel in a continuously cast mold, delta-ferrite transforms to austenite by an apparently massive type of transformation mechanism. Large austenite grains then form very quickly from this massive type of microstructure and on further cooling, austenite transforms to thin ferrite allotriomorphs on austenite grain boundaries, followed by Widmanstätten plate growth, with almost no regard to the cooling rate. This observation is important because it is now well established that the presence of a thin ferrite film on austenite grain boundaries is the main cause of reduction in hot ductility. Moreover, this reduction in ductility is exacerbated by the presence of large austenite grains.

  15. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  16. Growth of nanotubular oxide layer on Ti-Ni alloys with different Ni contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Su; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Anodization of near-equiatomic Ti-Ni alloys was performed in an ethylene glycol based electrolyte under various conditions in order to investigate the effects of crystal structure and chemical composition of the Ti-Ni alloy on the morphology of the resulting oxide layers. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that Ti-Ni substrates with Ni content lower than 50.0 at.% were in the martensitic phase, while substrates with Ni content higher than 50.0 at.% were in the austenitic phase. Oxide layers formed at 20 or 35 V for 5 min exhibited no distinct nanotubular structures; however, at 50 V, nanotubular oxide layers were formed. After anodization at 50 V for 20 min, the growth of an irregular-shaped porous layer underneath the nanotubular oxide layer was observed for Ti-Ni alloys with Ni content lower than 52.2 at.%, whereas the oxide layer consisted of only irregular-shaped porous structures for the Ti-52.5 at.% Ni alloy. Further anodization resulted in the formation of irregular-shaped porous oxide layers on all Ti-Ni alloys examined. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that this morphological transition is related to Ni accumulation in the vicinity of the interface between the bottoms of the oxide layers and the surfaces of the substrate alloys. Therefore, nanotubular oxide layers cannot be grown, and instead irregular-shaped porous oxide layers are formed underneath the nanotubular layers. These results indicate that the morphology of anodic oxide layers formed on the near-equiatomic Ti-Ni alloys is not affected by their crystal structure, but by Ni content and anodization time.

  17. Characteristics of radiation porosity and structural phase state of reactor austenitic 07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B Steel after neutron irradiation at a temperature of 440-600°C to damaging doses of 36-94 dpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnykh, I. A.; Panchenko, V. L.

    2016-06-01

    The phase composition and the characteristics of vacancy voids in cold-worked steel 07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B (CW EK164-ID) after neutron irradiation at damaging doses of 36-94 dpa and temperatures of 440-600°C are investigated. In the entire range of damaging doses and temperatures, voids with different sizes are observed in the material. The maximum void size increases with irradiation temperature up to ~550°C, whereas their concentration decreases. At higher irradiation temperatures, almost no coarse voids are observed. The concentration of fine voids (to 10 nm in size) sharply increases with temperature from 440 to 480°C. Further increases in the temperature do not result in the noticeable concentration growth. In the irradiation temperature range of 440-515°C, second phases precipitate ( G phase, γ' phase, and complex fcc carbides). At higher irradiation temperatures, there are Laves-phase particles, fine second carbides of the MC type, and needle shape precipitates identified as phosphides in the material.

  18. Nature and evolution of the fusion boundary in ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld metals. Part 1 -- Nucleation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.W.; Lippold, J.C.; Mills, M.J.

    1999-10-01

    A fundamental investigation of fusion boundary microstructure evolution in dissimilar-metal welds (DMWs) between ferritic base metals and a face-centered-cubic (FCC) filler metal was conducted. The objective of the work presented here was to characterize the nature and character of the elevated-temperature fusion boundary to determine the nucleation and growth characteristics of DMWs. Type 409 ferritic stainless steel and 1080 pearlitic steel were utilized as base metal substrates, and Monel (70Ni-30Cu) was used as the filler metal. The Type 409 base metal provided a fully ferritic or body-centered-cubic (BCC) substrate at elevated temperatures and exhibited no on-cooling phase transformations to mask or disguise the original character of the fusion boundary. The 1080 pearlitic steel was selected because it is austenitic at the solidus temperature, providing an austenite substrate at the fusion boundary. The weld microstructure generated with each of the base metals in combination with Monel was fully austenitic. In the Type 409/Monel system, there was no evidence of epitaxial nucleation and growth as normally observed in homogeneous weld metal combinations. The fusion boundary in this system exhibited random grain boundary misorientations between the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal grains. In the 1080/Monel system, evidence of normal epitaxial growth was observed at the fusion boundary, where solidification and HAZ grain boundaries converged. The fusion boundary morphologies are a result of the crystal structure present along the fusion boundary during the initial stages of solidification. Based on the results of this investigation, a model for heterogeneous nucleation along the fusion boundary is proposed when the base and weld metals exhibit ferritic (BCC) and FCC crystal structures, respectively.

  19. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at. percent Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at. percent. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  20. High Strain Rate Compression of Martensitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Young, Marcus L.; Nie, Xu

    2017-02-01

    The compressive response of martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) rods has been investigated using a modified Kolsky compression bar at various strain rates (400, 800, and 1200 s-1) and temperatures [room temperature and 373 K (100 °C)], i.e., in the martensitic state and in the austenitic state. SEM, DSC, and XRD were performed on NiTi SMA rod samples after high strain rate compression in order to reveal the influence of strain rate and temperature on the microstructural evolution, phase transformation, and crystal structure. It is found that at room temperature, the critical stress increases slightly as strain rate increases, whereas the strain-hardening rate decreases. However, the critical stress under high strain rate compression at 373 K (100 °C) increase first and then decrease due to competing strain hardening and thermal softening effects. After high rate compression, the microstructure of both martensitic and austenitic NiTi SMAs changes as a function of increasing strain rate, while the phase transformation after deformation is independent of the strain rate at room temperature and 373 K (100 °C). The preferred crystal plane of the martensitic NiTi SMA changes from ( 1bar{1}1 )M before compression to (111)M after compression, while the preferred plane remains the same for austenitic NiTi SMA before and after compression. Additionally, dynamic recovery and recrystallization are also observed to occur after deformation of the austenitic NiTi SMA at 373 K (100 °C). The findings presented here extend the basic understanding of the deformation behavior of NiTi SMAs and its relation to microstructure, phase transformation, and crystal structure, especially at high strain rates.

  1. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2014-09-21

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}~55 μC/cm² obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290 K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ~123 emu/cm³. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  2. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F.; Frary, M.E.; Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused

  3. Effects of alloying additions and austenitizing treatments on secondary hardening and fracture behavior for martensitic steels containing both Mo and W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. B.; Kwon, H.; Kwon, H.; Yang, H. R.

    2001-07-01

    The effects of alloying additions and austenitizing treatments on secondary hardening and fracture behavior of martensitic steels containing both Mo and W were investigated. The secondary hardening response and properties of these steels are dependent on the composition and distribution of the carbides formed during aging (tempering) of the martensite, as modified by alloying additions and austenitizing treatments. The precipitates responsible for secondary hardening are M2C carbides formed during the dissolution of the cementite (M3C). The Mo-W steel showed moderately strong secondary hardening and delayed overaging due to the combined effects of Mo and W. The addition of Cr removed secondary hardening by the stabilization of cementite, which inhibited the formation of M2C carbides. The elements Co and Ni, particularly in combination, strongly increased secondary hardening. Additions of Ni promoted the dissolution of cementite and provided carbon for the formation of M2C carbide, while Co increased the nucleation rate of M2C carbide. Fracture behavior is interpreted in terms of the presence of impurities and coarse cementite at the grain boundaries and the variation in matrix strength associated with the formation of M2C carbides. For the Mo-W-Cr-Co-Ni steel, the double-austenitizing at the relatively low temperatures of 899 to 816 °C accelerated the aging kinetics because the ratio of Cr/(Mo + W) increased in the matrix due to the presence of undissolved carbides containing considerably larger concentrations of (Mo + W). The undissolved carbides reduced the impact toughness for aging temperatures up to 510 °C, prior to the large decrease in hardness that occurred on aging at higher temperatures.

  4. Breakdown of Shape Memory Effect in Bent Cu-Al-Ni Nanopillars: When Twin Boundaries Become Stacking Faults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Li, Suzhi; Salje, Ekhard K H

    2016-01-13

    Bent Cu-Al-Ni nanopillars (diameters 90-750 nm) show a shape memory effect, SME, for diameters D > 300 nm. The SME and the associated twinning are located in a small deformed section of the nanopillar. Thick nanopillars (D > 300 nm) transform to austenite under heating, including the deformed region. Thin nanopillars (D < 130 nm) do not twin but generate highly disordered sequences of stacking faults in the deformed region. No SME occurs and heating converts only the undeformed regions into austenite. The defect-rich, deformed region remains in the martensite phase even after prolonged heating in the stability field of austenite. A complex mixture of twins and stacking faults was found for diameters 130 nm < D < 300 nm. The size effect of the SME in Cu-Al-Ni nanopillars consists of an approximately linear reduction of the SME between 300 and 130 nm when the SME completely vanishes for smaller diameters.

  5. Stress-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites investigated by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Dunand, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    Superelastic NiTi (51.0 at% Ni) with 0, 10 and 20 vol% TiC particles were deformed under uniaxial compression as neutron diffraction spectra were simultaneously obtained. The experiments yielded in-situ measurements of the thermoelastic stress-induced transformation. A detailed Rietveld determination is made of the phase fractions and the evolving strains in the reinforcing TiC particles and the austenite as it transforms to martensite on loading (and its subsequent back transformation on unloading). These strains are used to shed light on the phenomenon of load transfer in composites where the matrix undergoes a stress-induced phase transformation.

  6. Grain Refinement by Cyclic Displacive Forward/Reverse Transformation in Fe-High-Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Tadachika; Shirazi, Hassan; Miyamoto, Goro; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2017-09-01

    A novel method for grain refinement of martensite structures was proposed, in which transformation strain is accumulated by cyclic displacive forward and reverse transformations. This method can refine martensite structures in an Fe-18Ni alloy because a high density of austenite dislocations is introduced by a displacive reverse transformation in addition to an inheritance of dislocations in body-centered cubic martensite into austenite during cyclic transformation. The addition of a small amount of carbon accelerates structure refinement significantly, which results in the formation of ultra-fine-grained structures after ten cycles.

  7. Aspects of thermal martensite in a FeNiMnCo alloy.

    PubMed

    Güler, M; Güler, E; Kahveci, N

    2010-07-01

    Thermal martensite characteristics in Fe-29%Ni-2%Mn-2%Co alloy were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization techniques. SEM observations obviously revealed the lath martensite morphology in the prior austenite phase of examined alloy. As well, the martensitic transformation kinetics was found to be as athermal type. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy offered the paramagnetic austenite phase and ferromagnetic martensite phase with their volume fractions. Also, the internal magnetic field of the martensite was measured as 32.9T from the Mössbauer spectrometer.

  8. The use of Ni-Cr-Si-Be filler metals for brazing of stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivannikov, A.; Fedotov, V.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Fedotov, I.; Tarasov, B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline ribbon filler metal-alloys of system Ni-Cr-Si-Be are produced by the rapidly quenching of the melt method. By these filler metals carried out hight temperature vacuum brazing of austenitic steels (12Kh18N10T and Kh18N8G2) and austenitic-ferritic class EI-811 (12Kh21N5T). The basic laws of structure-phase state foundation of brazed joints are determined, features of the interaction of the molten filler metal to the brazed materials are identified, the optimal temperature and time parameters of the brazing process are determined.

  9. Grain Refinement by Cyclic Displacive Forward/Reverse Transformation in Fe-High-Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Tadachika; Shirazi, Hassan; Miyamoto, Goro; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2017-05-01

    A novel method for grain refinement of martensite structures was proposed, in which transformation strain is accumulated by cyclic displacive forward and reverse transformations. This method can refine martensite structures in an Fe-18Ni alloy because a high density of austenite dislocations is introduced by a displacive reverse transformation in addition to an inheritance of dislocations in body-centered cubic martensite into austenite during cyclic transformation. The addition of a small amount of carbon accelerates structure refinement significantly, which results in the formation of ultra-fine-grained structures after ten cycles.

  10. Martensitic transformations and morphology studies of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, M. S.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2017-05-01

    The forward transformation temperatures Martensite Start (Ms) and Martensite Finish (Mf) during cooling, reverse transformation temperatures Austenite Start (As) and Austenite Finish (Af) during heating are very sensitive to the thermal and mechanical history of the Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). Heat treatments, cold and hot roll, thermal and mechanical cycling have great influence on the transformation temperatures. Different characterizing techniques like Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Thermo Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) were employed to study the phase transformation temperatures of NiTi alloy. The microstructure of the samples was studied with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Optical Microscope (OM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM).

  11. Nearly 4 Percent of Americans Suffer from Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Nearly 4 Percent of Americans Suffer From Food Allergies Study finds most common allergy is to shellfish, ... shows. Approximately 4 percent of Americans have a food allergy, with women and Asians the most affected, the ...

  12. Influence of displacement damage on deuterium and helium retention in austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloys considered for ADS service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyevodin, V. N.; Karpov, S. A.; Kopanets, I. E.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Garner, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ion-implanted hydrogen (deuterium) and helium in austenitic 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel, EI-852 ferritic steel and ferritic/martensitic steel EP-450 and their interaction with displacement damage were investigated. Energetic argon irradiation was used to produce displacement damage and bubble formation to simulate nuclear power environments. The influence of damage morphology and the features of radiation-induced defects on deuterium and helium trapping in structural alloys was studied using ion implantation, the nuclear reaction D(3He,p)4He, thermal desorption spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. It was found in the case of helium irradiation that various kinds of helium-radiation defect complexes are formed in the implanted layer that lead to a more complicated spectra of thermal desorption. Additional small changes in the helium spectra after irradiation with argon ions to a dose of ≤25 dpa show that the binding energy of helium with these traps is weakly dependent on the displacement damage. It was established that retention of deuterium in ferritic and ferritic-martensitic alloys is three times less than in austenitic steel at damage of ˜1 dpa. The retention of deuterium in steels is strongly enhanced by presence of radiation damages created by argon ion irradiation, with a shift in the hydrogen release temperature interval of 200 K to higher temperature. At elevated temperatures of irradiation the efficiency of deuterium trapping is reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  13. The Mechanism of High Strength-Ductility Steel Produced by a Novel Quenching-Partitioning-Tempering Process and the Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Zhang, K.; Wang, Y.; Gu, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.

    2012-03-01

    The designed steel of Fe-0.25C-1.5Mn-1.2Si-1.5Ni-0.05Nb (wt pct) treated by a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process demonstrates an excellent product of strength and elongation (PSE) at deformed temperatures from 298 K to 573 K (25 °C to 300 °C) and shows a maximum value of PSE (over 27,000 MPa pct) at 473 K (200 °C). The results fitted by the exponent decay law indicate that the retained austenite fraction with strain at a deformed temperature of 473 K (200 °C) decreases slower than that at 298 K (25 °C); namely, the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect occurs in a larger strain range at 473 K (200 °C) than at 298 K (25 °C), showing better mechanical stability. The work-hardening exponent curves of Q-P-T steel further indicate that the largest plateau before necking appears at the deformed temperature of 473 K (200 °C), showing the maximum TRIP effect, which is due to the mechanical stability of considerable retained austenite. The microstructural characterization reveals that the high strength of Q-P-T steels results from dislocation-type martensite laths and dispersively distributed fcc NbC or hcp ɛ-carbides in martensite matrix, while excellent ductility is attributed to the TRIP effect produced by considerable retained austenite.

  14. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator is...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator is...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator is...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator is...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.219-76 - NASA 8 percent goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA 8 percent goal. 1852... 1852.219-76 NASA 8 percent goal. As prescribed in 1819.7003 insert the following clause: NASA 8 Percent... and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women. (b) The NASA Administrator is...

  19. Kinetic evaluation of intergranular fracture in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, E.P.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    A second, higher-dose threshold exists for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in non-oxidizing environments. The data supporting this concept have stimulated interest in the mechanical aspects of intergranular (IG) fracture. Cracking in a non-oxidizing environment suggests that mechanically-induced IG fracture may play an important role in the IASCC mechanism under these conditions. Radiation alters deformation processes in austenitic alloys and may influence the fracture mode during either in-situ or post-irradiation straining. Radiation effects that must be considered include radiation strengthening, radiation creep and radiation-induced flow localization. The present evaluation relates these radiation-induced phenomena to IG fracture relevant to IASCC. The evaluation indicates that radiation strengthening retards matrix deformation and allows intergranular fracture to occur at higher stresses and lower temperatures than expected for unirradiated stainless steel.

  20. Autofocus imaging: Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Hunter, A.

    2012-05-01

    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an anisotropic austenitic steel weld, an autofocus imaging technique is presented. The array data from a series of beacons is captured and then used to statistically extract anisotropic weld properties by using a Monte-Carlo inversion approach. The beacon and imaging systems are realized using two separated arrays; one acts as a series of beacons and the other images these beacons. Key to the Monte-Carlo inversion scheme is a fast forward model of wave propagation in the anisotropic weld and this is based on the Dijkstra algorithm. Using this autofocus approach a measured weld map was extracted from an austenitic weld and used to reduce location errors, initially greater than 6mm, to less than 1mm.

  1. Laser borided composite layer produced on austenitic 316L steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczak, Daria; Kulka, Michał; Makuch, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract Austenitic 316L steel is well-known for its good resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Therefore, this material is often used wherever corrosive media or high temperatures are to be expected. The main drawback of this material is very low hardness and low resistance to mechanical wear. In this study, the laser boriding was used in order to improve the wear behavior of this material. As a consequence, a composite surface layer was produced. The microstructure of laser-borided steel was characterized by only two zones: re-melted zone and base material. In the re-melted zone, a composite microstructure, consisting of hard ceramic phases (borides) and a soft austenitic matrix, was observed. A significant increase in hardness and wear resistance of such a layer was obtained.

  2. Cleavage fracture of austenite induced by nitrogen supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J.B.; Messai, A.; Foct, J. . Lab. de Metallurgie Physique)

    1994-09-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and more generally FCC structure materials are good candidates for cryogenic applications because they remain ductile at low temperatures. In some cases, brittleness may occasionally occur in severe and specific conditions such as hydrogen embrittlement or during stress corrosion cracking at low strain rates. The present study shows that the brittleness observed in the P900 austenitic stainless steel is associated with the presence of a high amount of nitrogen atoms. Brittle fracture occurs both intergranularly and transgranularly. Cleavage mostly on [111] planes is associated with marked slip but with the absence of rivers. The occurrence of a DBTT is explained by the converse variations of brittle rupture stress and flow stress against nitrogen content. The flow stress increases and is mainly controlled by a short range which leads the stress for brittle rupture to be reached before the plastic flow stress.

  3. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, Nicolas; Bracke, Lieven; Malet, Loïc; Godet, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: • An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. • The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. • The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. • The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel.

  4. Deformation of a super-elastic NiTiNb alloy with controllable stress hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature deformation of a Ni46.7Ti42.8Nb10.5 alloy was studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Compared to binary NiTi alloy, the Nb dissolved in the matrix significantly increased the onset stress for Stress-Induced Martensite Transformation (SIMT). The secondary phase, effectively a Nb-nanowire dispersion in a NiTi-Nb matrix, increased the elastic stiffness of the bulk material, reduced the strain anisotropy in austenite families by load sharing during SIMT, and increased the stress hysteresis by resisting reverse phase transformation during unloading. The stress hysteresis can be controlled over a wide range by heat treatment through its influences on the residual stress of the Nb-nanowire dispersion and the stability of the austenite.

  5. Deformation of a super-elastic NiTiNb alloy with controllable stress hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-06-27

    Room temperature deformation of a Ni{sub 46.7}Ti{sub 42.8}Nb{sub 10.5} alloy was studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Compared to binary NiTi alloy, the Nb dissolved in the matrix significantly increased the onset stress for Stress-Induced Martensite Transformation (SIMT). The secondary phase, effectively a Nb-nanowire dispersion in a NiTi-Nb matrix, increased the elastic stiffness of the bulk material, reduced the strain anisotropy in austenite families by load sharing during SIMT, and increased the stress hysteresis by resisting reverse phase transformation during unloading. The stress hysteresis can be controlled over a wide range by heat treatment through its influences on the residual stress of the Nb-nanowire dispersion and the stability of the austenite.

  6. Orientation relationships of Laves phase and NiAl particles in an AFA stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, Geneva; Baker, Ian

    2015-12-01

    The alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb-5Al (in at. %) was solutionized at 1250 °C in order to obtain a fully austenitic microstructure and then aged for up to 1325 h at 800 °C to precipitate the Laves phase and B2-NiAl particles typically found in AFAs. This paper describes detailed analyses of the orientation relationships between these particles and the matrix which were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Four variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 0 0 1)p, ?m//? orientation relationship proposed by Denham and Silcock (J. Iron Steel Inst. 207 (1969) p.582) were observed for the Laves phase, and six variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 1 1)p, ?m//? Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship were observed for the B2-NiAl phase.

  7. Magnetostructural transition behavior in Fe-doped Heusler Mn-Ni-In ribbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Fang, Yue; Feng, Shutong; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated magnetostructural transition behavior in Mn-rich Heusler Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2, 3 at%) ribbon materials. Microstructural observations showed that substituting Mn with Fe in Mn50Ni41In9 led to striking grain refinement from ∼50 μm to 5-10 μm, and formation of a secondary phase when Fe content was increased up to 2 at%. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermomagnetic measurements indicated that a paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred first, followed with a weak-magnetic martensitic transition upon cooling for the Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2). In case of Mn47Fe3Ni41In9, the martensitic transformation happened between paramagnetic austenite and weak-magnetic martensite, without the presence of the magnetic transition in austenite. The effective refrigeration capacity of Mn49Fe1Ni41In9 reached 137.1 J kg-1 under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe.

  8. Laser weldability of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel: Part II - Weldability diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, Stephen B.; Javernick, Daniel Anthony; Lienert, Thomas J.; Liu, Stephen

    2016-11-02

    In this second part of the study, weldability diagrams developed to relate solidification crack susceptibility and chemical composition for laser welded type 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn (21-6-9) stainless steel are presented. Sigmajig testing on 14 commercial 21-6-9 alloys, 20 experimental 21-6-9 alloys, and 7 other high-N, high-Mn austenitic stainless steels was used to develop weldability diagrams for solidification crack susceptibility for laser welding of type 21-6-9. Three travel speeds were used to show the changes in minimum Creq/Nieq for primary ferrite solidification as solidification rate increase d with travel speed . Primary austenite solidification was observed below 1.55 Creq/Nieq (Espy equivalents) at 21 mm/s travel speed. At 42 mm/s travel speed , a mix of solidification modes were displayed for alloys from 1.55-1.75 Creq/Nieq. Primary ferrite solidification was observed above 1.75 Creq/Nieq at both 42 and 85 mm/s travel speeds. No solidification cracking was observed for alloys with primary ferrite solidification. Lastly, variable cracking behavior was found in alloys with primary austenite solidification, but in general cracking was observed in alloys with greater than 0.02 wt-% combined impurity content according to (P+0.2S).

  9. Discontinuous coarsening behavior of Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic compound during isothermal aging treatment of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2010-08-01

    The discontinuous reaction of the Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic phase was investigated during the aging of a solution-treated Fe-8.3Mn-8.2Ni-4.2Al alloy. During aging, Ni(2)MnAl lamellae formed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and twin boundaries and grew into the neighboring grains. The presence of continuously precipitated fine Ni(2)MnAl particles before the growth of the discontinuously precipitated lamellae was confirmed by dark-field transmission electron microscopy, and it was concluded that the present reaction is a type of discontinuous coarsening process, alpha' + Ni(2)MnAl (continuous precipitation) --> alpha + Ni(2)MnAl (discontinuous coarsening). The chemical driving force and the reduction of the total coherent strain energy were suggested to be the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction.

  10. Phase instability of thermally aged CrMn austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedl, E.; Sasaki, T.

    1984-05-01

    The microstructural changes taking place in several commercial Cr-Mn austenitic steels during ageing at 873 and 1073 K were examined by analytical electron microscopy. Phase identification was obtained by electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry. It was found that the phase changes depend on the carbon and nitrogen content of the materials as well as on the presence of Mo and delta ferrite.

  11. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  12. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  13. Low temperature stability of 4O martensite in Ni49.1Mn38.9Sn12 metamagnetic Heusler alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, P.; Przewoźnik, J.; Gondek, Ł.; Hawelek, L.; Żywczak, A.; Zschech, E.

    2017-01-01

    The structural transformation sequence in Ni49.1Mn38.9Sn12 ribbons is studied using calorimetric, thermomagnetic, resistivity and in-situ XRD measurements. It is confirmed that the ferromagnetic L21 austenite phase transforms into 4O martensite at 242 K. The austenite phase persists in the sample to well below the TC of martensite. Upon further cooling the 4O martensite phase is stable down to the low temperature range, what is ascribed to its limited Ni/Mn and e/a ratios. On heating lattice constants assume lower values resulting from stress relief upon thermal cycling.

  14. Corrosion resistance of kolsterised austenitic 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Abudaia, F. B. Khalil, E. O. Esehiri, A. F. Daw, K. E.

    2015-03-30

    Austenitic stainless suffers from low wear resistance in applications where rubbing against other surfaces is encountered. This drawback can be overcome by surface treatment such as coating by hard materials. Other treatments such as carburization at relatively low temperature become applicable recently to improve hardness and wear resistance. Carburization heat treatment would only be justified if the corrosion resistance is unaffected. In this work samples of 304 stainless steels treated by colossal supersaturation case carburizing (known as Kolsterising) carried out by Bodycote Company was examined for pitting corrosion resistance at room temperature and at 50 °C. Comparison with results obtained for untreated samples in similar testing conditions show that there is no deterioration in the pitting resistance due to the Kolsterising heat treatment. X ray diffraction patterns obtained for Kolsterising sample showed that peaks correspond to the austenite phase has shifted to lower 2θ values compared with those of the untreated sample. The shift is an indication for expansion of austenite unit cells caused by saturation with diffusing carbon atoms. The XRD of Kolsterising samples also revealed additional peaks appeared in the patterns due to formation of carbides in the kolsterised layer. Examination of these additional peaks showed that these peaks are attributed to a type of carbide known as Hagg carbide Fe{sub 2}C{sub 5}. The absence of carbides that contain chromium means that no Cr depletion occurred in the layer and the corrosion properties are maintained. Surface hardness measurements showed large increase after Kolsterising heat treatment.

  15. Factors influencing fatigue crack propagation behavior of austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangshik; Kwon, Jaeki; Kim, Youngju; Jang, Wookil; Lee, Soongi; Choi, Jongkyo

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of austenitic single phase steels, including STS304, Fe18Mn and Fe22Mn with different grain sizes ranging from 12 μm to 98 μm were investigated. The FCP tests were conducted in air at an R ratio of 0.1 using compact tension specimens and the crack paths and fracture surfaces were documented by using an SEM. The highest ΔKth value of 9.9MPa·m1/2 was observed for the Fe18Mn specimen, followed by 5.2MPa·m1/2 for the Fe22Mn specimen and 4.6MPa·m1/2 for the STS304 specimen, showing a substantial difference in the near-threshold FCP resistance for each microstructure. The crack path and fractographic analyses suggested that the near-threshold FCP behavior of these austenitic steels was largely influenced by the degree of slip planarity, as determined by stacking fault energy and grain size, rather than the tensile properties. In the Paris' regime, the slip planarity still played an important role while the tensile properties began to affect the FCP. The FCP behavior of austenitic steels with different microstructural features are discussed based on detailed fractographic and micrographic observations.

  16. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Avishan, Behzad; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Yazdani, Sasan; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2013-07-15

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  17. Computational design of precipitation strengthened austenitic heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2013-09-01

    A new genetic alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles is presented to calculate the optimal composition of MX carbonitrides precipitation strengthened austenitic heat-resistant steels. Taking the coarsening of the MX carbonitrides as the process controlling the life time for steels in high temperature use, the high temperature strength is calculated as a function of steel chemistry, service temperature and time. New steel compositions for different service conditions are found yielding optimal combinations of strength and stability of the strengthening precipitation for specific applications such as fire-resistant steels (short-time property guarantee) and creep-resistant steels (long-time property guarantee). Using the same modelling approach, the high temperature strength and lifetime of existing commercial austenitic creep-resistant steels were also calculated and a good qualitative agreement with reported experimental results was obtained. According to the evaluation parameter employed, the newly defined steel compositions may have higher and more stable precipitation strengthening factors than existing high-temperature precipitate-strengthened austenite steels.

  18. Corrosion resistance of kolsterised austenitic 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaia, F. B.; Khalil, E. O.; Esehiri, A. F.; Daw, K. E.

    2015-03-01

    Austenitic stainless suffers from low wear resistance in applications where rubbing against other surfaces is encountered. This drawback can be overcome by surface treatment such as coating by hard materials. Other treatments such as carburization at relatively low temperature become applicable recently to improve hardness and wear resistance. Carburization heat treatment would only be justified if the corrosion resistance is unaffected. In this work samples of 304 stainless steels treated by colossal supersaturation case carburizing (known as Kolsterising) carried out by Bodycote Company was examined for pitting corrosion resistance at room temperature and at 50 °C. Comparison with results obtained for untreated samples in similar testing conditions show that there is no deterioration in the pitting resistance due to the Kolsterising heat treatment. X ray diffraction patterns obtained for Kolsterising sample showed that peaks correspond to the austenite phase has shifted to lower 2θ values compared with those of the untreated sample. The shift is an indication for expansion of austenite unit cells caused by saturation with diffusing carbon atoms. The XRD of Kolsterising samples also revealed additional peaks appeared in the patterns due to formation of carbides in the kolsterised layer. Examination of these additional peaks showed that these peaks are attributed to a type of carbide known as Hagg carbide Fe2C5. The absence of carbides that contain chromium means that no Cr depletion occurred in the layer and the corrosion properties are maintained. Surface hardness measurements showed large increase after Kolsterising heat treatment.

  19. Researches upon the cavitation erosion behaviour of austenite steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, I.; Popoviciu, M. O.; Mitelea, I.; Salcianu, L. C.; Bordeasu, D.; Duma, S. T.; Iosif, A.

    2016-02-01

    Paper analyzes the cavitation erosion behavior of two stainless steels with 100% austenitic structure but differing by the chemical composition and the values of mechanical properties. The research is based on the MDE(t) and MDER(t) characteristic curves. We studied supplementary the aspect of the eroded areas by other to different means: observations with performing optical microscopes and roughness measurements. The tests were done in the T2 vibratory facility in the Cavitation Laboratory of the Timisoara Polytechnic University. The principal purpose of the study is the identification of the elements influencing significantly the cavitation erosion resistance. It was established the effect of the principal chemical components (determining the proportion of the structural components in conformity the Schaffler diagram) upon the cavitation erosion resistance. The results of the researches present the influence of the proportion of unstable austenite upon cavitation erosion resistance. The stainless steel with the great proportion of unstable austenite has the best behavior. The obtained conclusion are important for the metallurgists which realizes the stainless steels used for manufacturing the runners of hydraulic machineries (turbines and pumps) with increased resistance to cavitation attack.

  20. Crystalline structure and magnetic behavior of the Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy demonstrating giant magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiligama, A. S. B.; Ari-Gur, P.; Shavrov, V. G.; Koledov, V. V.; Calder, S.; Mashirov, A. V.; Kamantsev, A. P.; Dilmieva, E. T.; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L.; Grande, B. H.; Vega, V. V.; Kayani, A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic cooling is a green cooling technology, which is more energy efficient than existing fluid-compression cooling machines. Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy, which demonstrates promising magnetocaloric performances, was investigated using neutron diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements. The austenite structure is cubic L21 (Fm\\bar{3}m), while that of the martensite is a mix of 8 and 6 M modulated monoclinic structures (P\\quad 1\\quad 2/m\\quad 1). The austenitic site occupancy refinements reveal that all substituting Co atoms occupy Ni-sites. Most Mn atoms (65%) are in the Mn-sites and the rest go to In-sites (about 35%) and Ni-sites (less than 5%). This disorder of the magnetic atoms (Mn, Ni and Co) in the austenitic phase remains unchanged during the martensitic transition. The distortions of the interatomic distances due to the modulation of the martensitic structures further enhance the disorder in the magnetic interactions. Thermomagnetic measurements indicate that the austenitic phase is ferromagnetic. Cooling to below 250 K, where the alloy loses its ferromagnetic nature, and down to 50 K, the lack of any antiferromagnetic Bragg peaks suggests no antiferromagnetic ordering in the martensitic phase. At very low temperatures in the martensitic phase, spin glass magnetic nature is identified by magnetic measurements, and the spin-glass transition temperature is ∼19 K.

  1. Microstructural development due to long-term aging and ion irradiation behavior in weld metals of austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, K.; Ikeda, S.; Hamada, S.; Hishinuma, A.

    1996-10-01

    In a candidate austenitic stainless steel (316F) for fusion reactor structural materials, irradiation behavior of the weld metal produced by electron-beam welding (containing 7.9 vol% δ-ferrite) was investigated in terms of microstructural development. The densities of interstitial clusters in the γ-phase of the weld metal irradiated with He-ions at 673 and 773 K were about four times larger than those in 316F. Voids were formed in the δ-ferrite of the weld irradiated at 773 K. The number of clusters decreased in the weld metal (γ-phase) aged at 773 to 973 K, compared with that in the as-welded metal. The change in cluster density could be attributed to a Ni concentration increase in the γ-phase of the weld metal during aging.

  2. Tomographic atom probe characterization of the microstructure of a cold worked 316 austenitic stainless steel after neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, A.; Radiguet, B.; Pareige, P.; Massoud, J.-P.; Pokor, C.

    2008-11-01

    For the first time, chemical analyses using Atom Probe Tomography were performed on a bolt made of cold worked 316 austenitic stainless steel, extracted from the internal structures of a pressurized water reactor after 17 years of reactor service. The irradiation temperature of these samples was 633 K and the irradiation dose was estimated to 12 dpa (7.81 × 10 25 neutrons.m -2, E > 1 MeV). The samples were analysed with a laser assisted tomographic atom probe. These analyses have shown that neutron irradiation has a strong effect on the intragranular distribution of solute atoms. A high number density (6 × 10 23 m -3) of Ni-Si enriched and Cr-Fe depleted clusters was detected after irradiation. Mo and P segregations at the interfaces of these clusters were also observed. Finally, Si enriched atmospheres were seen.

  3. The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking behavior of a novel alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongying; Yang, Haijie; Wang, Man; Giron-Palomares, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Lefu; Zhang, Guangming

    2017-02-01

    The general corrosion and stress corrosion behavior of Fe-27Ni-15Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.4Nb alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel were investigated in supercritical water under different conditions. A double layer oxide structure was formed: a Fe-rich outer layer (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) and an Al-Cr-rich inner layer. And the inner layer has a low growth rate with exposing time, which is good for improvement of corrosion resistance. Additionally, some internal nodular Al-Cr-rich oxides were also observed, which resulted in a local absence of inner layer. Stress corrosion specimens exhibited a combination of high strength, good ductility and low susceptibility. The stress strength and elongation was reduced by increasing temperature and amount of dissolved oxygen. In addition, the corresponding susceptibility was increased with decreased temperatures and increased oxygen contents.

  4. Study of Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-C austenitic steels irradiated in the SM-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Neustroyev, V. S.; Ostrovsky, Z. E.; Kosenkov, V. M.; Ivanov, L. I.; Djomina, E. V.

    1992-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the mechanical properties and swelling of austenitic stainless steels EP-838 (Fe-Cr-Mn) and 316SS (Fe-Cr-Ni) irradiated in the mixed-neutron spectrum of the SM-2 reactor in the temperature range 400-800°C (every 100°C) to 16 dpa dose with 1000 and 3000 appm helium generation correspondingly, determined by nickel content. EP-838 exhibited less susceptibility to void swelling and radiation hardening. Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-0.1C steel without nickel irradiated at 100°C to 21 dpa exhibited significant radiation hardening accompanied by α-phase formation in the steel structure.

  5. Enhancing Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of Lath Martensite by Introducing Nano-Films of Interlath Austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meimei; Tasan, C. Cem; Koyama, Motomichi; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk

    2015-09-01

    Partial reversion of interlath austenite nano-films is investigated as a potential remedy for hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of martensitic steels. We conducted uniaxial tensile tests on hydrogen-free and pre-charged medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity-maraging steels with different austenite film thicknesses. Mechanisms of crack propagation and microstructure interaction are quantitatively analyzed using electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction, revealing a promising strategy to utilize austenite reversion for hydrogen-resistant martensitic steel design.

  6. Three phase crystallography and solute distribution analysis during residual austenite decomposition in tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, F.G.; Yen, Hung-Wei; Miller, M.K.; Cornide, J.; Chang, Hsiao-Tzu; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2014-02-15

    Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography in tempered nanostructured bainitic steels. Results showed that cementite (θ) forms by a paraequilibrium transformation mechanism at the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface with a simultaneous three phase crystallographic orientation relationship. - Highlights: • Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition • Tempered nanostructured bainitic steels • High resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography • Paraequilibrium θ with three phase crystallographic orientation relationship.

  7. Investigation of Austenitization in Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel During Continuous Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunabalapandian, Kavitha; Samanta, Santigopal; Ranjan, Ravi; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-02-01

    Dilatation associated with the formation of austenite from ferrite-pearlite was calculated from equilibrium phase fraction and composition. Linear thermal expansion coefficient of ferrite required for the calculation was determined by iteration of dilatation data. A good match was obtained between the calculated and experimental dilatation curves. The calculated dilatation data were used to identify the stages of austenite formation: pearlite dissolution followed by ferrite to austenite transformation which is gradual at first before becoming rapid.

  8. Effects of focused ion beam milling on austenite stability in ferrous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Knipling, K.E.; Rowenhorst, D.J.; Fonda, R.W.; Spanos, G.

    2010-01-15

    The susceptibility of fcc austenite to transform to bcc during focused ion beam milling was studied in three commercial stainless steels. The alloys investigated, in order of increasing austenite stability, were: (i) a model maraging steel, Sandvik 1RK91; (ii) an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel; and (iii) AL-6XN, a super-austenitic stainless steel. Small trenches were milled across multiple austenite grains in each alloy using a 30 kV Ga{sup +} ion beam at normal incidence to the specimen surface. The ion beam dose was controlled by varying the trench depth and the beam current. The factors influencing the transformation of fcc austenite to bcc (listed in order of decreasing influence) were found to be: (i) alloy composition (i.e., austenite stability), (ii) ion beam dose (or trench depth), and (iii) crystallographic orientation of the austenite grains. The ion beam current had a negligible influence on the FIB-induced transformation of austenite in these alloys.

  9. The Kinetics of Formation and Decomposition of Austenite in Relation to Carbide Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, Henrique Duarte; Van Steenberge, Nele; Sietsma, Jilt; Terryn, Herman

    2017-02-01

    The effect of the carbide morphology on the kinetics of austenite formation and its decomposition was investigated by a combination of measurements of austenite fraction by dilatometry and metallography. These measurements show that coarse carbide morphology is generated by fast cooling through the early stages of eutectoid transformation, enabling fast precipitation of pro-eutectoid ferrite, followed by slow cooling during the final stages of transformation, during the precipitation of carbides. Additionally, a strong influence of the morphology of carbides on the kinetics of austenite formation is observed. The presence of coarse carbides can determine the rate of austenite formation during intercritical annealing as a result of its slow dissolution kinetics.

  10. Development of a new heat resistant austenitic stainless steel ``NAR-AH-4'' for power generation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Kajigaya, Ichiro; Namba, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Sawaragi, Yoshiatsu

    1999-07-01

    New austenitic stainless steel, NAR-AH-4, which consists of low Si-23 mass %Cr-11.5 %Ni-0.2%N-B-REM (Rare Earth metal) has been developed for the application of high temperature components (up to 1,000 C) in thermal power plants and chemical plants. The corrosion and erosion resistance of developed steel with high content of chromium and slight amount of REM is excellent in forming adherent chromia oxide film on a surface. The creep rupture strength is considerably higher than that of Type 310S(24Cr-20Ni) and Alloy 800H(20Cr032Ni-Al,Ti) due to the addition of nitrogen and boron. The resistance to weld hot cracking sensitivity of this steel is better than Type 310S and high silicon content (0.3%) and optimum ratio of chromium equivalent to nickel equivalent. In addition, this steel has an economical advantage over Type 310S and Alloy 800H. These results indicate that this steel is expected to be widely utilized as a candidate material for high temperature components.

  11. Effect of Austenitic and Austeno-Ferritic Electrodes on 2205 Duplex and 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Dissimilar Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Jagesvar; Taiwade, Ravindra V.

    2016-11-01

    This study addresses the effect of different types of austenitic and austeno-ferritic electrodes (E309L, E309LMo and E2209) on the relationship between weldability, microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of shielded metal arc welded duplex/austenitic (2205/316L) stainless steel dissimilar joints using the combined techniques of optical, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer and electrochemical. The results indicated that the change in electrode composition led to microstructural variations in the welds with the development of different complex phases such as vermicular ferrite, lathy ferrite, widmanstatten and intragranular austenite. Mechanical properties of welded joints were diverged based on compositions and solidification modes; it was observed that ferritic mode solidified weld dominated property wise. However, the pitting corrosion resistance of all welds showed different behavior in chloride solution; moreover, weld with E2209 was superior, whereas E309L exhibited lower resistance. Higher degree of sensitization was observed in E2209 weld, while lesser in E309L weld. Optimum ferrite content was achieved in all welds.

  12. Determination of the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-Ni-C phase diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, A. D., Jr.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1978-01-01

    The iron-enriched section of the phase diagram for the ternary alloy Fe-Ni-C of various compositions is determined at 773, 873, 923, and 1003 C. The two-phase tie lines and three-phase tie triangles are measured by electron microprobe analyses. Tie lines in samples without bulk equilibrium are obtained by extrapolated interface compositions under the assumption of local equilibrium at the interface. It is shown that Ni addition somewhat reduces carbon solubility in austenite while decreasing the stability of the carbide phase. In particular, the carbide is always poor in Ni relative to the coexisting metal phase(s).

  13. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel

    PubMed Central

    Brnic, Josip; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Lanc, Domagoj; Krscanski, Sanjin; Brcic, Marino; Li, Qiang; Niu, Jitai

    2016-01-01

    The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed. PMID:28773424

  14. Mechanical Properties, Short Time Creep, and Fatigue of an Austenitic Steel.

    PubMed

    Brnic, Josip; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Lanc, Domagoj; Krscanski, Sanjin; Brcic, Marino; Li, Qiang; Niu, Jitai

    2016-04-20

    The correct choice of a material in the process of structural design is the most important task. This study deals with determining and analyzing the mechanical properties of the material, and the material resistance to short-time creep and fatigue. The material under consideration in this investigation is austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10. The results presenting ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 offset yield strength at room and elevated temperatures are displayed in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Besides, the creep behavior of the steel is presented in the form of creep curves. The material is consequently considered to be creep resistant at temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C when subjected to a stress which is less than 0.9 of the yield strength at the mentioned temperatures. Even when the applied stress at a temperature of 600 °C is less than 0.5 of the yield strength, the steel may be considered as resistant to creep. Cyclic tensile fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratio R = 0.25 using a servo-pulser machine and the results were recorded. The analysis shows that the stress level of 434.33 MPa can be adopted as a fatigue limit. The impact energy was also determined and the fracture toughness assessed.

  15. Improved austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications. [Improved stress-rupture properties

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; .01-.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; .03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, 0; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P + wt. % B + wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  16. In vitro corrosion resistance of plasma source ion nitrided austenitic stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Le, M K; Zhu, X M

    2001-04-01

    Plasma source ion nitriding has emerged as a low-temperature, low-pressure nitriding approach for low-energy implanting nitrogen ions and then diffusing them into steel and alloy. In this work, a single high nitrogen face-centered-cubic (f.c.c.) phase (gammaN) formed on the 1Cr18Ni9Ti and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels with a high nitrogen concentration of about 32 at % was characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance of the gammaN-phase layer was studied by the electrochemical cyclic polarization measurement in Ringer's solutions buffered to pH from 3.5 to 7.2 at a temperature of 37 degrees C. No pitting corrosion in the Ringer's solutions with pH = 7.2 and 5.5 was detected for the gammaN-phase layers on the two stainless steels. The high pitting potential for the gammaN-phase layers is higher, about 500 and 600 mV, above that of the two original stainless steels, respectively, in the Ringer's solution with pH = 3.5. The corroded surface morphologies of the gammaN-phase layers observed by scanning electron microscopy are consistent with the results of the electrochemical polarization measurement.

  17. Partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321

    SciTech Connect

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Hanzaei, A. Talebi

    2010-10-15

    An innovative method was applied for bonding Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321 using an active titanium interlayer. Specimens were joined by a partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding method in a vacuum furnace at different temperatures under 1 MPa dynamic pressure of contact. The influence of different bonding temperatures on the microstructure, microindentation hardness, joint strength and interlayer thickness has been studied. The diffusion of Fe, Cr, Ni and Zr has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental analyses. Results showed that control of the heating and cooling rate and 20 min soaking at 1223 K produces a perfect joint. However, solid-state diffusion of the melting point depressant elements into the joint metal causes the solid/liquid interface to advance until the joint is solidified. The tensile strength of all the bonded specimens was found around 480-670 MPa. Energy dispersive spectroscopy studies indicated that the melting occurred along the interface of the bonded specimens as a result of the transfer of atoms between the interlayer and the matrix during bonding. This technique provides a reliable method of bonding zirconium alloy to stainless steel.

  18. Mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted fracture in austenitic stainless steel welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, Dorian K.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Novak, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the hydrogen-assisted fracture susceptibility of gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welds in the nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steels 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn (21-6-9) and 22Cr-13Ni-5Mn (22-13-5). In addition, mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted fracture in the welds were identified using electron microscopy and finite-element modeling. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics experiments were conducted on hydrogen-charged GTA welds at 25 C. Results showed that hydrogen dramatically lowered the fracture toughness from 412 kJ/m{sup 2} to 57 kJ/m{sup 2} in 21-6-9 welds and from 91 kJ/m{sup 2} to 26 kJ/m{sup 2} in 22-13-5 welds. Microscopy results suggested that hydrogen served two roles in the fracture of welds: it promoted the nucleation of microcracks along the dendritic structure and accelerated the link-up of microcracks by facilitating localized deformation. A continuum finite-element model was formulated to test the notion that hydrogen could facilitate localized deformation in the ligament between microcracks. On the assumption that hydrogen decreased local flow stress in accordance with the hydrogen-enhanced dislocation mobility argument, the finite-element results showed that deformation was localized in a narrow band between two parallel, overlapping microcracks. In contrast, in the absence of hydrogen, the finite-element results showed that deformation between microcracks was more uniformly distributed.

  19. Mechanism of Austenite Formation from Spheroidized Microstructure in an Intermediate Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Qingquan; Gouné, Mohamed; Perlade, Astrid; Pardoen, Thomas; Jacques, Pascal; Bouaziz, Olivier; Bréchet, Yves

    2016-07-01

    The austenitization from a spheroidized microstructure during intercritical annealing was studied in a Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn alloy. The austenite grains preferentially nucleate and grow from intergranular cementite. The nucleation at intragranular cementite is significantly retarded or even suppressed. The DICTRA software, assuming local equilibrium conditions, was used to simulate the austenite growth kinetics at various temperatures and for analyzing the austenite growth mechanism. The results indicate that both the mode and the kinetics of austenite growth strongly depend on cementite composition. With sufficiently high cementite Mn content, the austenite growth is essentially composed of two stages, involving the partitioning growth controlled by Mn diffusion inside ferrite, followed by a stage controlled by Mn diffusion within austenite for final equilibration. The partitioning growth results in a homogeneous distribution of carbon within austenite, which is supported by NanoSIMS carbon mapping.

  20. Magnetic properties and electronic structure of Mn-Ni-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Sunil Wilfred; Roy, Tufan; Barman, Sudipta Roy; Chakrabarti, Aparna

    2014-12-17

    Influence of disorder, antisite defects, martensite transition and compositional variation on the magnetic properties and electronic structure of Mn(2)NiGa and Mn(1+x)Ni(2-x)Ga magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by using full potential spin-polarized scalar relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (FP-SPRKKR) method. Mn(2)NiGa is ferrimagnetic and its total spin moment increases when disorder in the occupancy of MnNi (Mn atom in Ni position) is considered. The moment further increases when Mn-Ga antisite defect [1] is included in the calculation. A reasonable estimate of TC for Mn(2)NiGa is obtained from the exchange parameters for the disordered structure. Disorder influences the electronic structure of Mn(2)NiGa through overall broadening of the density of states and a decrease in the exchange splitting. Inclusion of antisite defects marginally broaden the minority spin partial DOS (PDOS), while the majority spin PDOS is hardly affected. For Mn(1+x)Ni(2-x)Ga where 1 ⩾ x ⩾ 0, as x decreases, Mn(Mn) moment increases while Mn(Ni) moment decreases in both austenite and martensite phases. For x ⩾ 0.25, the total moment of the martensite phase is smaller compared to the austenite phase, which indicates possible occurrence of inverse magnetocaloric effect. We find that the redistribution of Ni 3d- Mn(Ni) 3d minority spin electron states close to the Fermi level is primarily responsible for the stability of the martensite phase in Mn-Ni-Ga.

  1. Austenite Static Recrystallization Kinetics in Microalloyed B Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga-Otegui, Ane; Pereda, Beatriz; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Boron is added to steels to increase hardenability, substituting of more expensive elements. Moreover, B acts as a recrystallization delaying element when it is in solid solution. However, B can interact with N and/or C to form nitrides and carbides at high temperatures, limiting its effect on both phase transformation and recrystallization. On the other hand, other elements like Nb and Ti are added due to the retarding effect that they exert on the austenite softening processes, which results in pancaked austenite grains and refined room microstructures. In B steels, Nb and Ti are also used to prevent B precipitation. However, the complex interaction between these elements and its effect on the austenite microstructure evolution during hot working has not been investigated in detail. The present work is focused on the effect the B exerts on recrystallization when added to microalloyed steels. Although B on its own leads to retarded static recrystallization kinetics, when Nb is added a large delay in the static recrystallization times is observed in the 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) temperature range. The effect is larger than that predicted by a model developed for Nb-microalloyed steels, which is attributed to a synergistic effect of both elements. However, this effect is not so prominent for Nb-Ti-B steels. The complex effect of the composition on recrystallization kinetics is explained as a competition between the solute drag and precipitation pinning phenomena. The effect of the microalloying elements is quantified, and a new model for the predictions of recrystallization kinetics that accounts for the B and Nb+B synergetic effects is proposed.

  2. Market Opportunities for Austenitic Stainless Steels in SO2 Scrubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Harold T.

    1980-10-01

    Recent U.S. federal legislation has created new opportunities for SO2 scrubbers because all coals, even low-sulfur western coals, will probably require scrubbing to remove SO2 from gaseous combustion products. Scrubbing, the chemical absorption of SO2 by vigorous contact with a slurry—usually lime or limestone—creates an aggressive acid-chloride solution. This presents a promising market for pitting-resistant austenitic stainless steels, but there is active competition from rubber and fiberglass-lined carbon steel. Since the latter are favored on a first-cost basis, stainless steels must be justified on a cost/performance or life-cost basis. Nickel-containing austenitic alloys are favored because of superior field fabricability. Ferritic stainless steels have little utility in this application because of limitations in weldability and resulting poor corrosion resistance. Inco corrosion test spools indicate that molybdenum-containing austenitic alloys are needed. The leanest alloys for this application are 316L and 317L. Low-carbon grades of stainless steel are specified to minimize corrosion in the vicinity of welds. More highly alloyed materials may be required in critical areas. At present, 16,000 MW of scrubber capacity is operational and 17,000 MW is under construction. Another 29,000 MW is planned, bringing the total to 62,000 MW. Some 160,000 MW of scrubber capacity is expected to be placed in service over the next 10 years. This could translate into a total potential market of 80,000 tons of alloy plate for new power industry construction in the next decade. Retrofitting of existing power plants plus scrubbers for other applications such as inert gas generators for oil tankers, smelters, municipal incinerators, coke ovens, the pulp and paper industry, sulfuric acid plants, and fluoride control in phosphoric acid plants will add to this large market.

  3. The Cold Gas-Dynamic Spray and Characterization of Microcrystalline Austenitic Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    DYNAMIC SPRAY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROCRYSTALLINE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL by Jonathan F. Schiel September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Luke...MICROCRYSTALLINE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DWAM31009 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan F. Schiel 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...spray process applied to the deposition of stainless steel coatings. Cold spray deposition is a relatively new process utilized to create corrosion

  4. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  5. Four Percent Fallacy Revisited: Urban and Rural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, William H., III; Haas, Marilyn L.

    Cross sectional data indicate that about four percent of elderly persons reside in nursing homes. Yet many studies, some using death certificates, show actual risk of institutionalization is upwards of 25 percent. This paper presents a death registration study that examined all deaths in North Carolina and analyzed rural and urban differences. The…

  6. Computational design and analysis of high strength austenitic TRIP steels for blast protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhukhan, Padmanava

    Recent assessment of material property requirements for blast resistant applications, especially for the naval ship hulls, has defined the need to design steels with high stretch ductility and fragment penetration resistance, along with high strength and adequate toughness. Using a system based computational materials design approach, two series of austenitic (gamma) steels have been designed -- BA120 to exhibit high uniform ductility in tension (>20%) and SA120 to exhibit high tensile (>20%) and shear strains (>50%), with both alloys maintaining high levels of yield strength (120 ksi/827 MPa) at room temperature under Tensile and Shear stress states. BA120 is low chromium (4 wt %) high nickel (23.5 wt %) alloy while the SA120 is a high chromium design (10 wt %), both designed for non-magnetic behavior. The Thermo-Calc computational thermodynamics software in conjunction with a Ni-DATA 7 thermodynamic database has been used to model precipitation strengthening of the alloy, by quantifying the dependence of yield stress of austenitic steels on the mole fraction of the precipitated gamma' (Gamma Prime) Ni3(Ti, Al) phase. The required high strength has been achieved by the precipitation of spheroidal intermetallic gamma' -- phase of optimum diameter (15 nm) in equilibrium with the matrix at the standard aging temperature. Adequate Al and Ti with respect 5 to the Ni in the matrix ensure enough gamma' phase fraction and number density of precipitates to provide the necessary strength. The predicted gamma' precipitation strengthening to 120-130 ksi for both BA120 and SA120 has been validated through both microhardness as well as static and dynamic tensile and shear tests conducted at room temperature. 3-D LEAP analysis of the aged specimens has shown the expected size and distribution of gamma' -- precipitates with good compositional accuracy of predicted values from the thermodynamic models, for both matrix austenite and gamma'. Metastable austenitic steels have been

  7. Dislocation structures in the bands of localized cyclic plastic strain in austenitic 316L and austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kruml, T.; Polak, J.; Obrtlik, K.; Degallaix, S.

    1997-12-01

    Dislocation structures in bands corresponding to cyclic strain localization have been studied in two types of stainless steels, single phase austenitic 316L steel and two-phase austenitic-ferritic duplex steel. Dislocation structures are documented in thin foils oriented approximately perpendicular to the active slip plane of individual grains and parallel to the primary Burgers vector. Persistent slip bands, with the structure more or less reminiscent of the well-known ladder structure, were found in austenitic grains of both steels. These bands can be correlated with the distinct surface relief consisting of extrusions, intrusions and shallow surface cracks in austenitic grains were found. The distribution of the wall and labyrinth structure embedded in the matrix structure in ferritic grains, which was proposed to be responsible for the localization of the cyclic strain, however, does not correspond to the distribution of the distinct surface slip lines on the surface.

  8. Isothermal and Cyclic Aging of 310S Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrens, Coralie; Lacaze, Jacques; Malard, Benoit; Dupain, Jean-Luc; Poquillon, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    Unusual damage and high creep strain rates have been observed on components made of 310S stainless steel subjected to thermal cycles between room temperature and 1143 K (870 °C). Microstructural characterization of such components after service evidenced high contents in sigma phase which formed first from δ-ferrite and then from γ-austenite. To get some insight into this microstructural evolution, isothermal and cyclic aging of 310S stainless steel has been studied experimentally and discussed on the basis of numerical simulations. The higher contents of sigma phase observed after cyclic agings than after isothermal treatments are clearly associated with nucleation triggered by thermal cycling.

  9. Microstructures of laser deposited 304L austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKS,JOHN A.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.

    2000-05-22

    Laser deposits fabricated from two different compositions of 304L stainless steel powder were characterized to determine the nature of the solidification and solid state transformations. One of the goals of this work was to determine to what extent novel microstructure consisting of single-phase austenite could be achieved with the thermal conditions of the LENS [Laser Engineered Net Shape] process. Although ferrite-free deposits were not obtained, structures with very low ferrite content were achieved. It appeared that, with slight changes in alloy composition, this goal could be met via two different solidification and transformation mechanisms.

  10. Modeling the austenite decomposition into ferrite and bainite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, Fateh

    2005-12-01

    Novel advanced high-strength steels such as dual-phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, are considered as promising materials for new generation of lightweight vehicles. The superior mechanical properties of these steels, compared to classical high strength steels, are associated with their complex microstructures. The desired phase configuration and morphology can only be achieved through well-controlled processing paths with rather tight processing windows. To implement such challenging processing stages into the current industrial facilities a significant amount of development efforts, in terms of mill trials, have to be performed. Alternatively, process models as predictive tools can be employed to aid the process development' and also to design new steel grades. Knowledge-based process models are developed by virtue of the underlying physical phenomena occurring during the industrial processing and are validated with experimental data. The goal of the present work is to develop an integrated microstructure model to adequately describe the kinetics of austenite decomposition into polygonal ferrite and bainite, such that for complex thermal paths simulating those of industrial practice, the final microstructure in advanced high strength steels can reasonably be predicted. This is in particular relevant to hot-rolled DP and TRIP steels, where the intercritical ferrite evolution due to its crucial influence on the onset and kinetics of the subsequent bainite formation, has to be quantified precisely. The calculated fraction, size and spatial carbon distribution of the intercritical austenite are employed as input to characterize adequately the kinetic of the bainite reaction. Pertinent to ferrite formation, a phenomenological, physically-based model was developed on the ground of the mixed-mode approach. The model deals with the growth stage since nucleation site saturation at prior austenite grain boundaries is likely to be attained

  11. Formation of Widmanstätten Austenite in Strip Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong; Jonas, John J.

    2017-04-01

    The formation of Widmanstätten austenite was studied in strip cast grain-oriented silicon steel. The microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The orientations of the ferrite, Widmanstätten austenite, and martensite were determined using electron backscatter diffraction. The Widmanstätten austenite exhibits a lath-like shape and nucleates directly on the ferrite grain boundaries. This differs significantly from earlier work on duplex stainless steels. The orientation relationship between the Widmanstätten austenite and the parent ferrite is closer to Kurdjumov-Sachs than to Nishiyama-Wassermann. The ferrite boundaries migrate so as to accommodate the habit planes of the laths, leading to the presence of zigzag boundaries in the as-cast strip. Carbon partitioning into the Widmanstätten austenite and silicon partitioning into the parent ferrite were observed.

  12. Formation of Widmanstätten Austenite in Strip Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong; Jonas, John J.

    2017-02-01

    The formation of Widmanstätten austenite was studied in strip cast grain-oriented silicon steel. The microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The orientations of the ferrite, Widmanstätten austenite, and martensite were determined using electron backscatter diffraction. The Widmanstätten austenite exhibits a lath-like shape and nucleates directly on the ferrite grain boundaries. This differs significantly from earlier work on duplex stainless steels. The orientation relationship between the Widmanstätten austenite and the parent ferrite is closer to Kurdjumov-Sachs than to Nishiyama-Wassermann. The ferrite boundaries migrate so as to accommodate the habit planes of the laths, leading to the presence of zigzag boundaries in the as-cast strip. Carbon partitioning into the Widmanstätten austenite and silicon partitioning into the parent ferrite were observed.

  13. Deformation behavior of duplex austenite and ε-martensite high-Mn steel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Hyuk; Suh, Byeong-Chan; Baik, Sung-Il; Kim, Young-Woon; Choi, Jong-Kyo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-02-01

    Deformation and work hardening behavior of Fe-17Mn-0.02C steel containing ε-martensite within the austenite matrix have been investigated by means of in situ microstructural observations and x-ray diffraction analysis. During deformation, the steel shows the deformation-induced transformation of austenite → ε-martensite → α'-martensite as well as the direct transformation of austenite → α'-martensite. Based on the calculation of changes in the fraction of each constituent phase, we found that the phase transformation of austenite → ε-martensite is more effective in work hardening than that of ε-martensite → α'-martensite. Moreover, reverse transformation of ε-martensite → austenite has also been observed during deformation. It originates from the formation of stacking faults within the deformed ε-martensite, resulting in the formation of 6H-long periodic ordered structure.

  14. Competition between nucleation and early growth of ferrite from austenite -- Studies using cellular automaton simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Sasikumar, R.; Nair, P.K.

    1998-11-02

    A model for the nucleation of ferrite on austenite grain boundaries and the growth of these nuclei along the grain boundary and into the grain, is developed. A cellular automaton algorithm, with transformation rules based on this model, is used to simulate the decomposition of austenite into ferrite. When performed under continuous cooling conditions, the simulations give an insight into the competition between nucleation and early growth, which determines the variation of ferrite grain size with the cooling rate and with austenite grain size. The number of ferrite grains per austenite grain, ferrite grain size and the kinetics of ferrite formation are obtained as a function of the cooling rate and austenite grain size. Contour plots of the volume fraction of ferrite in the cells at different times, enables visualization of the ferrite growth process.

  15. Effects of Retained Austenite Stability and Volume Fraction on Deformation Behaviors of TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-02

    In this paper, the separate effects of austenite stability and its volume fraction on the deformation behaviors of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels are investigated based on the microstructure-based finite element modeling method. The effects of austenite stability on the strength, ductility and formability of TRIP steels are first examined based on the microstructure of a commercial TRIP 800 steel. Then, the separate effects of the austenite volume fraction on the overall deformation behaviors of TRIP steels are examined based on the various representative volume elements (RVEs). The computational results suggest that the higher austenite stability is helpful to increase the ductility and formability, but not the UTS. However, the increase of austenite volume fraction alone is not helpful in improving the performance of TRIP steels. This may indicate that various other material factors should also be concurrently adjusted during thermo-mechanical manufacturing process in a way to increase the performance of TRIP steels, which needs further investigation.

  16. Influence of interface mobility on the evolution of Austenite-Martensite grain assemblies during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J; Santofimia, Maria J; Speer, John G; Zhao, L; Sietsma, Jilt

    2009-01-01

    The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is a new heat treatment for the creation of advanced high-strength steels. This treatment consists of an initial partial or full austenitization, followed by a quench to form a controlled amount of martensite and an annealing step to partition carbon atoms from the martensite to the austenite. In this work, the microstructural evolution during annealing of martensite-austenite grain assemblies has been analyzed by means of a modeling approach that considers the influence of martensite-austenite interface migration on the kinetics of carbon partitioning. Carbide precipitation is precluded in the model, and three different assumptions about interface mobility are considered, ranging from a completely immobile interface to the relatively high mobility of an incoherent ferrite-austenite interface. Simulations indicate that different interface mobilities lead to profound differences in the evolution of microstructure that is predicted during annealing.

  17. Tazarotene 0.1 percent cream plus clindamycin 1 percent gel versus tretinoin 0.025 percent gel plus clindamycin 1 percent gel in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil; Dhawan, Sunil; Torok, Helen; Kircik, Leon

    2007-07-13

    Topical retinoids are the cornerstone of therapy for acne vulgaris. Nevertheless, the adjunctive use of other anti-acne agents can help enhance the efficacy of topical retinoids still further. Given that tazarotene 0.1 percent gel has previously shown significantly greater efficacy than tretinoin 0.025 percent gel, it is likely that tazarotene plus clindamycin offers superior efficacy to tretinoin plus clindamycin, which has recently become available as a combination product. A total of 150 patients with facial acne vulgaris were randomly assigned to receive either tazarotene 0.1 percent cream plus clindamycin 1 percent gel, or tretinoin 0.025 percent gel plus clindamycin 1 percent gel. Each medication was applied once daily in the evening (clindamycin followed by the retinoid 5-10 minutes later) for up to 12 weeks. At week 12, the reduction from baseline in lesion counts was greater with tazarotene/clindamycin than tretinoin/clindamycin for both the non-inflammatory lesion count (71% vs. 52%, p< or =.01) and the inflammatory lesion count (77% vs. 67%, P=.053). Tazarotene/clindamycin also resulted in a significantly higher incidence of patients achieving > or = 50 percent global improvement (incidence of 88% vs. 75% at week 12; p< or =.05). Both regimens were similarly well tolerated. In the treatment of facial acne vulgaris, tazarotene plus clindamycin offers significantly greater efficacy than tretinoin plus clindamycin and has comparable tolerability.

  18. Selected fretting-wear-resistant coatings for titanium - 6-percent-aluminum - 4-percent-vanadium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A titanium - 6-percent-aluminum - 4-percent-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was subjected to fretting-wear exposures against uncoated Ti-6Al-4V as a baseline and against various coatings and surface treatments applied to Ti-6Al-4V. The coatings evaluated included plasma-sprayed tungsten carbide with 12 percent cobalt, aluminum oxide with 13 percent titanium oxide, chromium oxide, and aluminum bronze with 10 percent aromatic polyester; polymer-bonded polyimide, polyimide with graphite fluoride, polyimide with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and methyl phenyl silicone bonded MoS2, preoxidation surface treatment, a nitride surface treatment, and a sputtered MoS2 coating. Results of wear measurements on both the coated and uncoated surfaces after 300,000 fretting cycles indicated that the polyimide coating was the most wear resistant and caused the least wear to the uncoated mating surface.

  19. The effects of alloying elements Al and In on Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys, from first principles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Yan; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2009-01-28

    The electronic structures and formation energies of the Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)Al(x) and Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)In(x) alloys have been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The results show that both the austenite and martensite phases of Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3) alloy are stabilized by Al alloying, while they become unstable with In alloying. According to the partial density of states and structural energy analysis, different effects of Al and In alloying on the phase stability are mainly attributed to their chemical effects. The formation energy difference between the austenite and martensite phases decreases with Al or In alloying, correlating with the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The shape factor plays an important role in the decrease of the formation energy difference.

  20. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Mn50Ni40In10-xSbx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Zhuhong; Li, Getian; Ma, Xingqiao

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn50Ni40In10-xSbx alloys and thermal history effect on the magnetization behavior and magnetic entropy change of Mn50Ni40In9Sb1 have been systematically studied. It indicates that the martensitic transformation temperature gradually increases with the increase of Sb content. Meanwhile, the overall magnetization of austenite decreases and that of martensite increases. The magnetization behavior, the critical magnetic field for martensite-to-austenite transformation and the magnetic entropy are very sensitive to the thermal history effect. The maximum magnetic entropy change is up to 27.1 J kg-1 K-1 in Mn50Ni40In9Sb1 alloy under a magnetic field of 30 kOe with continuous heating method.

  1. Reducing tool wear when machining austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, J.H.; Kosa, T.

    1998-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are considered more difficult to machine than carbon steels due to their high work hardening rate, large spread between yield and ultimate tensile strength, high toughness and ductility, and low thermal conductivity. These characteristics can result in a built-up edge or excessive tool wear during machining, especially when the cutting speed is too high. The practical solution is to lower the cutting speed until tool life reaches an acceptable level. However, lower machining speed negatively impacts productivity. Thus, in order to overcome tool wear at relatively high machining speeds for these alloys, on-going research is being performed to improve cutting fluids, develop more wear-resistant tools, and to modify stainless steels to make them less likely to cause tool wear. This paper discusses compositional modifications to the two most commonly machined austenitic stainless steels (Type 303 and 304) which reduced their susceptibility to tool wear, and allowed these grades to be machined at higher cutting speeds.

  2. Evaluation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Foil for Advanced Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J; Matthews, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    A corrosion- and creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel has been developed for advanced recuperator applications. By optimizing the Al and Cr contents, the alloy is fully austenitic for creep strength while allowing the formation of a chemically stable external alumina scale at temperatures up to 900 C. An alumina scale eliminates long-term problems with the formation of volatile Cr oxy-hydroxides in the presence of water vapor in exhaust gas. As a first step in producing foil for primary surface recuperators, three commercially cast heats have been rolled to 100 m thick foil in the laboratory to evaluate performance in creep and oxidation testing. Results from initial creep testing are presented at 675 C and 750 C, showing excellent creep strength compared with other candidate foil materials. Laboratory exposures in humid air at 650 800 C have shown acceptable oxidation resistance. A similar oxidation behavior was observed for sheet specimens of these alloys exposed in a modified 65 kW microturbine for 2871 h. One composition that showed superior creep and oxidation resistance has been selected for the preparation of a commercial batch of foil. DOI: 10.1115/1.4002827

  3. Grain-boundary plane crystallography and energy in austenitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Caul, M.; Randle, V.; Fiedler, J.

    1996-10-01

    The presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials affects the materials properties and performance. Recently it has been realized that boundaries can be manipulated to give better properties, and the design and control of grain boundaries is now an area of strong research interest in the search for high performance engineering materials. Grain boundaries can be classified using the Coincident Site Lattice Model (CSL), which defines the periodicity, i.e., the degree of fit between the two lattices which constitute the boundary. Using this model it is possible to divide boundaries into categories: low angle (up to 15{degree} misorientation), CSL and random i.e., high angle non-CSL. Some CSL boundaries have been shown to have special properties: an example from recent research in the same program as that currently reported has shown that twin boundaries ({Sigma} = 3 in CSL notation) in High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steels do not favor the formation of Cr{sub 2}N precipitates. The research presented here examines grain boundary inclinations of surface grains in austenitic steel specimens which have been isothermally aged at higher 700 C or 800 C. Grain boundary plane crystallography has also been obtained for the 800 C aged sample.

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of an Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al base alloy during aging at 950°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Man; Sun, Yong-duo; Feng, Jing-kai; Zhang, Rui-qian; Tang, Rui; Zhou, Zhang-jian

    2016-03-01

    The development of Gen-IV nuclear systems and ultra-supercritical power plants proposes greater demands on structural materials used for key components. An Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al (316-base) alumina-forming austenitic steel was developed in our laboratory. Its microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during aging at 950°C were investigated subsequently. Micro-structural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Needle-shaped NiAl particles begin to precipitate in austenite after ageing for 10 h, whereas round NiAl particles in ferrite are coarsened during aging. Precipitates of NiAl with different shapes in different matrices result from differences in lattice misfits. The tensile plasticity increases by 32.4% after aging because of the improvement in the percentage of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries, whereas the tensile strength remains relatively high at approximately 790 MPa.

  5. The wetting characteristics and surface tension of some Ni-based alloys on yttria, hafnia, alumina, and zirconia substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanetkar, C. S.; Kacar, A. S.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    The surface tension and wetting characteristics of four commercial Ni-based alloys (UD718, Waspaloy, UD720, and UD520), pure Ni, and three special alloys (Ni-20 percent Cr, Ni-20 percent Cr-1 percent Al, and Ni-20 percent Cr-4 percent Al) on various ceramic substrates (including alumina, zirconia, hafnia, and yttria) were investigated using sessile drop experiments. Most of the systems studied exhibited a nonwetting behavior. Wetting improved with holding time at a given temperature to the point that some systems, such as Ni-20Cr on alumina, Ni-20Cr-4Al on alumina and on yttria, became marginally wetting. Wetting characteristics were apparently related to constitutional undercooling, which in turn could be affected by the metal dissolving some of the substrate during measurements.

  6. Shape memory and transformation behavior of high strength 60NiTi in compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, I.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the transformation behavior of highly Ni-rich 60NiTi alloys after aging at 600 °C for 3 h. After 600 °C-3h aging, R-phase disappeared and alloy transformed in one step. The latent heats of austenite to martensite and martensite to austenite transformations were 13 Jg-1 and 16.4 Jg-1, respectively, for 600 °C-3h aged alloy. The elastic strain energy of 0.75 Jg-1 was obtained in aged alloy. The maximum recoverable transformation strain of 1.7% is obtained under 500 MPa in compression. The superelastic behavior was observed accompanied with a recoverable strain of 1.4%, even high stress level of 1000 MPa is applied.

  7. Premartensite transition in Ni{sub 2}FeGa Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Hrusikesh; Phanikumar, G.

    2015-04-15

    Martensitic phase transformation of Ni{sub 2}FeGa Heusler alloy was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Atomic ordering induced in the austenite structure by quenching from high temperature plays a significant role on martensitic phase transformation. Higher magnetization and larger magneto-crystalline anisotropy of martensite phase than that of austenite phase are noticed. Tweed contrast regions observed in the transmission electron microscopy were correlated to premartensite phenomena. A shift in premartensitic transition temperature prior to martensitic transformation as measured by differential scanning calorimetry is being reported for the first time in this system. - Highlights: • Atomic ordering influences martensitic transformation in Ni{sub 2}FeGa Heusler alloy. • Observation of tweed contrast in TEM was correlated to premartensite phenomena. • For the first time the shift in premartensite peak was observed in DSC.

  8. Quantitative analysis of microstructure deformation in creep fenomena of ferritic SA-213 T22 and austenitic SA-213 TP304H material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Taufik, Ahmad; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Siregar, Rustam Efendi

    2013-09-01

    The failure of critical component of fossil fired power plant that operated in creep range (high stress, high temperature and in the long term) depends on its microstructure characteristics. Ferritic low carbon steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) and Austenitic stainless alloy (18Cr-8Ni) are used as a boiler tube in the secondary superheater outlet header to deliver steam before entering the turbin. The tube failure is occurred in a form of rupture, resulting trip that disrupts the continuity of the electrical generation. The research in quantification of the microstructure deformation has been done in predicting the remaining life of the tube through interrupted accelerated creep test. For Austenitic Stainless Alloy (18Cr-8Ni), creep test was done in 550°C with the stress 424.5 MPa and for Ferritic Low Carbon Steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) in 570°C with the stress 189 MPa. The interrupted accelerated creep test was done by stopping the observation in condition 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of remaining life, the creep test fracture was done before. Then the micro hardness test, photo micro, SEM and EDS were obtained from those samples. Refer to ASTM E122, microstructure parameters were calculated. The results indicated that there are a consistency of decreasing their grain diameters, increasing their grain size numbers, micro hardness, and the length of crack or void number per unit area with the decreasing of remaining life. While morphology of grain (stated in parameter α=LV/LH) relatively constant for austenitic. However, for ferritic the change of morphology revealed significantly. Fracture mode propagation of ferritic material is growth with voids transgranular and intergranular crack, and for austenitic material the fracture growth with intergranular creep fracture void and wedge crack. In this research, it was proposed a formulation of mathematical model for creep behavior corresponding their curve fitting resulted for the primary, secondary and tertiary in accelerated creep test. In

  9. Predicting the Austenite Fraction After Intercritical Annealing in Lean Steels as a Function of the Initial Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Xiaojun; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2014-04-01

    The final fractions of austenite after the isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation and its reverse transformations (including the martensite-to-austenite and the pearlite + ferrite-to-austenite transformations) in the intercritical annealing region have been studied using full equilibrium (FE), paraequilibrium (PE), and local equilibrium (LE) calculations and experiments. The LE model predictions are in a very good agreement with the experimental results, while the FE and PE model predictions deviate significantly. It is also found that the LEP/LENP transition for the austenite-to-ferrite transformation deviates from those of its reverse transformations. The magnitude of deviation increases with the increasing Mn concentration.

  10. Analysis of the microstructure of Cr-Ni surface layers deposited on Fe{sub 3}Al by TIG

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Haijun . E-mail: hjma123@mail.sdu.edu.cn; Li Yajiang; Wang Juan

    2006-12-15

    A series of Cr-Ni alloys were overlaid on a Fe{sub 3}Al surface by tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG) technology. The microstructure of the Cr-Ni surface layers were analysed by means of optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that when the appropriate TIG parameters were used and Cr25-Ni13 and Cr25-Ni20 alloys were used for the overlaid materials, the Cr-Ni surface layers were crack-free. The matrix of the surface layer was austenite (A), pro-eutectoid ferrite (PF), acicular ferrite (AF), carbide-free bainite (CFB) and lath martensite (LM), distributed on the austenitic grain boundaries as well as inside the grains. The phase constituents of the Cr25-Ni13 surface layer were {gamma}-Fe, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, NiAl, an Fe-C compound and an Fe-C-Cr compound. The microhardness of the fusion zone was lower than that of the Fe{sub 3}Al base metal and Cr25-Ni13 surface layer.

  11. INFLUENCE OF CARBON AND DPA RATE ON NEUTRON-INDUCED SWELLING OF Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti IN FFTF AT ~400 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Taira; Sekimura, Naoto; Garner, Francis A.; Wolfer, W. G.

    2002-12-31

    The purpose of this effort is to determine the influence of dpa rate and composition on the void swelling of simple austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Contrary to the swelling behavior of fcc Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti alloys irradiated in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti-0.04C does not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at approximately 400 degrees C. The transient regime of swelling is prolonged by carbon addition, however.

  12. Study on the crystallographic orientation relationship and formation mechanism of reversed austenite in economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Dong; Li, Shaohong; Li, Jun; Jiang, Wen; Su, Jie; Zhao, Kunyu

    2015-11-15

    Effect of carbides and crystallographic orientation relationship on the formation mechanism of reversed austenite of economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) has been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and the formation of the reversed austenite have the interaction effect during tempering process in SMSS. The reversed austenite forms intensively at the sub-block boundary and the lath boundary within a misorientation range of 0–60°. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} has the same crystallographic orientation relationship with reversed austenite. There are two different kinds of formation modes for reversed austenite. One is a nondiffusional shear reversion; the other is a diffusion transformation. Both are strictly limited by crystallographic orientation relationship. The austenite variants are limited to two kinds within one packet and five kinds within one prior austenite grain. - Highlights: • Reversed austenite forms at martensite boundaries with misorientation of 0–60° • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and reversed austenite formation have the interaction effect. • Two austenite variants with different orientations can be formed inside a packet. • Two reversed austenite formation modes: shear reversion; diffusion transformation.

  13. Modeling of the Recrystallization and Austenite Formation Overlapping in Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels During Intercritical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollat, M.; Massardier, V.; Fabregue, D.; Buscarlet, E.; Keovilay, F.; Perez, M.

    2017-07-01

    Austenite formation kinetics of a DP1000 steel was investigated from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (either fully recrystallized or cold-rolled) during typical industrial annealing cycles by means of dilatometry and optical microscopy after interrupted heat treatments. A marked acceleration of the kinetics was found when deformed ferrite grains were present in the microstructure just before austenite formation. After having described the austenite formation kinetics without recrystallization and the recrystallization kinetics of the steel without austenite formation by simple JMAK laws, a mixture law was used to analyze the kinetics of the cold-rolled steel for which austenite formation and recrystallization may occur simultaneously. In the case where the interaction between these two phenomena is strong, three main points were highlighted: (i) the heating rate greatly influences the austenite formation kinetics, as it affects the degree of recrystallization at the austenite start temperature; (ii) recrystallization inhibition above a critical austenite fraction accelerates the austenite formation kinetics; (iii) the austenite fractions obtained after a 1 hour holding deviate from the local equilibrium fractions given by Thermo-Calc, contrary to the case of the recrystallized steel. This latter result could be due to the fact that the dislocations of the deformed ferrite matrix could promote the diffusion of the alloying elements of the steel and accelerate austenite formation.

  14. Modeling of the Recrystallization and Austenite Formation Overlapping in Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels During Intercritical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollat, M.; Massardier, V.; Fabregue, D.; Buscarlet, E.; Keovilay, F.; Perez, M.

    2017-10-01

    Austenite formation kinetics of a DP1000 steel was investigated from a ferrite-pearlite microstructure (either fully recrystallized or cold-rolled) during typical industrial annealing cycles by means of dilatometry and optical microscopy after interrupted heat treatments. A marked acceleration of the kinetics was found when deformed ferrite grains were present in the microstructure just before austenite formation. After having described the austenite formation kinetics without recrystallization and the recrystallization kinetics of the steel without austenite formation by simple JMAK laws, a mixture law was used to analyze the kinetics of the cold-rolled steel for which austenite formation and recrystallization may occur simultaneously. In the case where the interaction between these two phenomena is strong, three main points were highlighted: (i) the heating rate greatly influences the austenite formation kinetics, as it affects the degree of recrystallization at the austenite start temperature; (ii) recrystallization inhibition above a critical austenite fraction accelerates the austenite formation kinetics; (iii) the austenite fractions obtained after a 1 hour holding deviate from the local equilibrium fractions given by Thermo-Calc, contrary to the case of the recrystallized steel. This latter result could be due to the fact that the dislocations of the deformed ferrite matrix could promote the diffusion of the alloying elements of the steel and accelerate austenite formation.

  15. Influence of Martensitic Transformation on the Spall Strength and the Shear Strength of NiTi under Shock Wave Loading in the Temperature Range from 213 K to 413 K

    SciTech Connect

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, E. G.; Dudarev, E. F.; Garkushin, G. V.; Kolobov, Yu. R.

    2006-07-28

    This article reports new experimental results on the mechanical behavior of the Ni48.9Ti51.1 alloy under shock-wave loading in the temperature range from 213 to 413 K. The samples of NiTi alloy were loaded by impacts of aluminum flyer plates with a thickness of 0.4 mm and an impact velocity of 630{+-}50 m/s. The increase in the yield strength from 0.4 to 2.7 GPa and the spall strength from 1.75 to 3.75 GPa Results indicate that in the range 213 K to 413 K, all values of the spall strength are higher than the values of austenitic NiTi alloys with high contents of nickel. The relationship Us-up for martensitic NiTi demonstrated no anomaly that was observed with austenitic NiTi alloys.

  16. Magnetic and conventional shape memory behavior of Mn-Ni-Sn and Mn-Ni-Sn(Fe) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, A. S.; Lázpita, P.; Sasmaz, M.; Karaca, H. E.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic and conventional shape memory properties of Mn49Ni42Sn9(at.%) and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3(at.%) polycrystalline alloys exhibiting martensitic transformation from ferromagnetic austenite into weakly magnetic martensite are characterized under compressive stress and magnetic field. Magnetization difference between transforming phases drastically increases, while transformation temperature decreases with the addition of Fe. Both Mn49Ni42Sn9 and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 alloys show remarkable superelastic and shape memory properties with recoverable strain of 4% and 3.5% under compression at room temperature, respectively. These characteristics can be counted as extraordinary among the polycrystalline NiMn-based magnetic shape memory alloys. Critical stress for phase transformation was increased by 34 MPa in Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 and 21 MPa in Mn49Ni42Sn9 at 9 T, which can be qualitatively understood in terms of thermodynamic Clausius-Clapeyron relationships and in the framework of the suggested physical concept of a volume magnetostress.

  17. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  18. Ab initio study of the composite phase diagram of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskaya, Yu. A.; Sokolovskiy, V. V.; Zagrebin, M. A.; Buchelnikov, V. D.; Zayak, A. T.

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic and structural properties of a series of nonstoichiometric Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys are theoretically investigated in terms of the density functional theory. Nonstoichiometry is formed in the coherent potential approximation. Concentration dependences of the equilibrium lattice parameter, the bulk modulus, and the total magnetic moment are obtained and projected onto the ternary phase diagram of the alloys. The stable crystalline structures and the magnetic configurations of the austenitic phase are determined.

  19. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-04-05

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability.

  20. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability. PMID:28772745

  1. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sathe, V G; Dubey, Aditi; Banik, Soma; Barman, S R; Olivi, L

    2013-01-30

    The austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys was studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra at all the three elements', namely, Mn, Ga and Ni, K-edges in several Ni-Mn-Ga samples (with both Ni and Mn excess) were analyzed at room temperature and low temperatures. The EXAFS analysis suggested a displacement of Mn and Ga atoms in opposite direction with respect to the Ni atoms when the compound transforms from the austenite phase to the martensite phase. The first coordination distances around the Mn and Ga atoms remained undisturbed on transition, while the second and subsequent shells showed dramatic changes indicating the presence of a modulated structure. The Mn rich compounds showed the presence of antisite disorder of Mn and Ga. The XANES results showed remarkable changes in the unoccupied partial density of states corresponding to Mn and Ni, while the electronic structure of Ga remained unperturbed across the martensite transition. The post-edge features in the Mn K-edge XANES spectra changed from a double peak like structure to a flat peak like structure upon phase transition. The study establishes strong correlation between the crystal structure and the unoccupied electronic structure in these shape memory alloys.

  2. Austenite grain growth simulation considering the solute-drag effect and pinning effect

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Naoto; Nishibata, Toshinobu; Seki, Akira; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The pinning effect is useful for restraining austenite grain growth in low alloy steel and improving heat affected zone toughness in welded joints. We propose a new calculation model for predicting austenite grain growth behavior. The model is mainly comprised of two theories: the solute-drag effect and the pinning effect of TiN precipitates. The calculation of the solute-drag effect is based on the hypothesis that the width of each austenite grain boundary is constant and that the element content maintains equilibrium segregation at the austenite grain boundaries. We used Hillert’s law under the assumption that the austenite grain boundary phase is a liquid so that we could estimate the equilibrium solute concentration at the austenite grain boundaries. The equilibrium solute concentration was calculated using the Thermo-Calc software. Pinning effect was estimated by Nishizawa’s equation. The calculated austenite grain growth at 1473–1673 K showed excellent correspondence with the experimental results. PMID:28179962

  3. Recrystallization Behavior of a Heavily Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steel During Iterative Type Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, B.; Sharma, Sailaja

    2014-12-01

    The study describes evolution of the recrystallization microstructure in an austenitic stainless steel during iterative or repetitive type annealing process. The starting heavily cold deformed microstructure consisted of a dual phase structure i.e., strain-induced martensite (SIM) (43 pct in volume) and heavily deformed large grained retained austenite. Recrystallization behavior was compared with Johnson Mehl Avrami and Kolmogorov model. Early annealing iterations led to reversion of SIM to reversed austenite. The microstructure changes observed in the retained austenite and in the reverted austenite were mapped by electron backscatter diffraction technique and transmission electron microscope. The reversed austenite was characterized by a fine polygonal substructure consisting of low-angle grain boundaries. With an increasing number of annealing repetitions, these boundaries were gradually replaced by high-angle grain boundaries and recrystallized into ultrafine-grained microstructure. On the other hand, recrystallization of retained austenite grains was sluggish in nature. Progress of recrystallization in these grains was found to take place by a gradual evolution of subgrains and their subsequent transformation into fine grains. The observed recrystallization characteristics suggest continuous recrystallization type process. The analysis provided basic insight into the recrystallization mechanisms that enable the processing of ultrafine-grained fcc steels by iterative type annealing. Tensile properties of the processed material showed a good combination of strength and ductility.

  4. Influence of reverted austenite on the texture and magnetic properties of 350 maraging steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Hamilton F. G.; Silva, Jean J.; Silva, Manoel R.; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo J.

    2015-11-01

    The aging temperature to improve magnetic properties in Maraging-350 steel (Mar-350) is limited by the onset of austenite reversion. The traditional process of cooling after aging is to remove the piece from the oven and then to air cool it. The purpose of this research was to characterize the reverted austenite and to investigate the effect of cooling below the martensite start temperature (Ms) on the magnetic properties. The Mar350 samples aged at temperatures above 550 °C, and subsequently cooled in liquid nitrogen presented less austenite than samples cooled in air, resulting in higher magnetization saturation and a lower coercive force. A combination of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were used to characterize the presence of reverted austenite. The crystallographic texture of both martensite and reverted austenite were analyzed. The texture of the reverted austenite coincides with the texture of the parent austenite indicating that a phenomenon of texture memory is present.

  5. The Effect of Precipitate Evolution on Austenite Grain Growth in RAFM Steel.

    PubMed

    Yan, Biyu; Liu, Yongchang; Wang, Zejun; Liu, Chenxi; Si, Yonghong; Li, Huijun; Yu, Jianxing

    2017-09-01

    To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the M23C₆ and MX precipitates gradually coarsen and dissolve into the matrix as the austenitizing temperatures increase. The M23C₆ precipitates dissolve completely at 1100 °C, while the MX precipitates dissolve completely at 1200 °C. The evolution of two types of precipitate has a significant effect on the size of austenite. Based on the Zener pinning model, the effect of precipitate evolution on austenite grain size is quantified. It was found that the coarsening and dissolution of M23C₆ and MX precipitates leads to a decrease in pinning pressure on grain boundaries, facilitating the rapid growth of austenite grains. The austenite phase fraction is also affected by the coarsening and dissolution of precipitates.

  6. The Effect of Precipitate Evolution on Austenite Grain Growth in RAFM Steel

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Biyu; Liu, Yongchang; Wang, Zejun; Liu, Chenxi; Si, Yonghong; Li, Huijun; Yu, Jianxing

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the M23C6 and MX precipitates gradually coarsen and dissolve into the matrix as the austenitizing temperatures increase. The M23C6 precipitates dissolve completely at 1100 °C, while the MX precipitates dissolve completely at 1200 °C. The evolution of two types of precipitate has a significant effect on the size of austenite. Based on the Zener pinning model, the effect of precipitate evolution on austenite grain size is quantified. It was found that the coarsening and dissolution of M23C6 and MX precipitates leads to a decrease in pinning pressure on grain boundaries, facilitating the rapid growth of austenite grains. The austenite phase fraction is also affected by the coarsening and dissolution of precipitates. PMID:28862680

  7. Effect of minor reactive metal additions on fracture toughness of iron: 12-percent nickel alloy at-196 deg and 25 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The slow bend precracked Charpy fracture toughness and tensile behavior of arc-melted and hot-rolled Fe-12Ni alloys containing up to 4 atomic percent reactive metal additions were determined at -196 C and 25 C after water quenching from three annealing temperatures. The fracture toughness of Fe-12Ni at -196 C was improved by small amounts of Al, Ce, Hf, La, Nb, Ta, Ti, V, Y, and Zr, but not by Si. Cryogenic toughness was improved up to 7.5 times that of binary Fe-12Ni and varied with the reactive metal, its concentration, and the annealing temperature.

  8. Percent body fat, fractures and risk of osteoporosis in women.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, G

    2010-06-01

    Globally, in an aging population, osteoporosis and fractures are emerging as major public health problems; accessible and affordable recognition, prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Percent body fat is known to be associated with bone mineral density and fractures. This paper uses an innovative, virtually cost-free method to estimate percent body fat from age, height and weight, and assesses its validity by examining the association between percent body fat and fractures among women 39 and older. An epidemiologic study. 3940 college alumnae, median age 53.6, participated by responding to a mailed questionnaire covering medical history, behavioral factors, birth date, weight and height. T-tests, chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Percent body fat estimated from age, weight, height and gender. Associations of fractures with percent body fat are expressed as odds ratios: for osteoporotic (wrist, hip and/or x-ray confirmed vertebral), the adjusted OR = 2.41, 95% CI (1.65, 3.54), P < 0.0001; for wrist fractures, the adjusted OR = 2.56, 95% CI (1.65, 3.96), P < 0.0001; for x-ray confirmed vertebral fractures the adjusted OR = 4.69, 95% CI (2.05, 10.77), P=0.0003).; and for non-osteoporotic, he adjusted OR= 1.00, 95% CI (0.76 1.32), P=0.999. The findings are consistent with methods using DXA and/or other technologies that show percent body fat is associated with fractures of the wrist and vertebrae. Identification of risk factors is necessary for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Estimation of percent body fat from age, height and weight may be a valid, cost-saving, and cost-effective alternative tool for screening and assessing risk of osteoporosis in settings where Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other radiological techniques are too costly or unavailable.

  9. Observation on Formation of Fresh Martensite from the Reversed Austenite During Water-Quenching Process in Fe-0.2C-5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Weng, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Phase transformation behavior during intercritical annealing in Fe-0.2C-5Mn was studied. Austenite lath formed and transformed at martensite lath during annealing. XRD revealed that retained austenite amount did not always increase with time. TEM result may firstly demonstrate that reversed austenite partly changed into fresh martensite during quenching while the remained part was retained as retained austenite. The final structure consisted of ferrite, retained austenite and fresh martensite. Simulation was done by DICTRA to support TEM result.

  10. A methodology suitable for TEM local measurements of carbon concentration in retained austenite

    SciTech Connect

    Kammouni, A.; Saikaly, W. Dumont, M.; Marteau, C.; Bano, X.; Charai, A.

    2008-09-15

    Carbon concentration in retained austenite grains is of great importance determining the mechanical properties of hot-rolled TRansformation Induced Plasticity steels. Among the different techniques available to measure such concentrations, Kikuchi lines obtained in Transmission Electron Microscopy provide a relatively easy and accurate method. The major problem however is to be able to locate an austenitic grain in the observed Transmission Electron Microscopy thin foil. Focused Ion Beam in combination with Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to successfully prepare a thin foil for Transmission Electron Microscopy and carbon concentration measurements from a 700 nm retained austenite grain.

  11. Shape memory effects in [001] Ni55Fe18Ga27 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, S.; Resnina, N.; Nikolaev, V.; Timashov, R.; Gazizullina, A.; Sibirev, A.; Averkin, A.; Krymov, V.

    2017-09-01

    Shape memory effects in Ni55Fe18Ga27 single crystal grown along the [001] direction by the Czochralski method was studied. It was found that deformation of [001] single crystal in the martensite state was realised via reorientation of 10 M martensite and stress-induced transformations: 10 M → 14 M → L10. On unloading, the reverse L10 → 14 M → 10 M transformations occurred and a large unelastic strain recovered. On heating, the oriented 10 M martensite transformed to the L21 austenite phase and the shape memory effect was observed. An increase in preliminary strain resulted in an increase in the shape memory effect value to 4.6%. The [001] Ni55Fe18Ga27 alloy single crystal demonstrated transformation plasticity and shape memory effects on cooling and heating under stress however, an increase in stress decreased the values of these effects. This was caused by stress-induced martensite appearing in the sample during loading in the austenite state, which decreased the volume of the austenite phase that could undergo the martensitic transformation on cooling. The [001] Ni55Fe18Ga27 alloy single crystal demonstrated a two-way shape memory effect and its value depended on the residual strain in a non-monotonic way and the maximum recoverable strain was 0.7%.

  12. Strain behavior and lattice dynamics in Ni50Mn35In15.

    PubMed

    Salazar Mejía, C; Nayak, A K; Schiemer, J A; Felser, C; Nicklas, M; Carpenter, M A

    2015-10-21

    The lattice dynamics in the polycrystalline shape-memory Heusler alloy Ni50Mn35In15 have been studied by means of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). RUS spectra were collected in a frequency range 100-1200 kHz between 10 and 350 K. Ni50Mn35In15 exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at 313 K in the austenite phase and a martensitic transition at 248 K accompanied by a change of the magnetic state. Furthermore it displays a paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition within the martensitic phase. We determined the temperature dependence of the shear modulus and the acoustic attenuation of Ni50Mn35In15 and compared it with magnetization data. Following the structural softening, which accompanies the martensitic transition as a pretransitional phenomenon, a strong stiffening of the lattice is observed at the martensitic magneto-structural transition. Only a weak magnetoelastic coupling is evidenced at the Curie temperatures both in austenite and martensite phases. The large acoustic damping in the martensitic phase compared with the austenitic phase reflects the motion of the twin walls, which freezes out in the low temperature region.

  13. Copper, Boron, and Cerium Additions in Type 347 Austenitic Steel to Improve Creep Rupture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Kinkar; Kyono, J.; Shinya, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Type 347 austenitic stainless steel (18Cr-12Ni-Nb) was alloyed with copper (3 wt pct), boron (0.01 to 0.06 wt pct), and cerium (0.01 wt pct) with an aim to increase the creep rupture strength of the steel through the improved deformation and cavitation resistance. Short-term creep rupture strength was found to increase with the addition of copper in the 347 steel, but the long-term strength was inferior. Extensive creep cavitation deprived the steel of the beneficial effect of creep deformation resistance induced by nano-size copper particles. Boron and cerium additions in the copper-containing steel increased its creep rupture strength and ductility, which were more for higher boron content. Creep deformation, grain boundary sliding, and creep cavity nucleation and growth in the steel were found to be suppressed by microalloying the copper-containing steel with boron and cerium, and the suppression was more for higher boron content. An auger electron spectroscopic study revealed the segregation of boron instead of sulfur on the cavity surface of the boron- and cerium-microalloyed steel. Cerium acted as a scavenger for soluble sulfur in the steels through the precipitation of cerium sulfide (CeS). This inhibited the segregation of sulfur and facilitated the segregation of boron on cavity surface. Boron segregation on the nucleated cavity surface reduced its growth rate. Microalloying the copper-containing 347 steel with boron and cerium thus enabled to use the full extent of creep deformation resistance rendered by copper nano-size particle by increase in creep rupture strength and ductility.

  14. Dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Puli, Ramesh Janaki Ram, G.D.

    2012-12-15

    Friction surfacing involves complex thermo-mechanical phenomena. In this study, the nature of dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L coatings was investigated using electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the alloy 316L undergoes discontinuous dynamic recrystallization under conditions of moderate Zener-Hollomon parameter during friction surfacing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L friction surfaced coatings is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfacing leads to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain rates in friction surfacing exceed 400 s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated grain size matches well with experimental observations in 316L coatings.

  15. Characterization of the sodium corrosion behavior of commercial austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Shiels, S.A.; Bagnall, C.; Keeton, A.R.; Witkowski, R.E.; Anantatmula, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    During the course of an on-going evaluation of austenitic alloys for potential liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel pin cladding application, a series of commercial alloys was selected for study. The data obtained led to the recognition of an underlying pattern of behavior and enabled the prediction of surface chemistry changes. The changes in surface topographical development from alloy to alloy are shown and the important role played by the element molybdenum in this development is indicated. The presentation also illustrates how a total damage equation was evolved to encompass all aspects of weight loss and metal/sodium interactions: wall thinning ferrite layer formation and intergranular attack. The total damage equation represents a significant departure from the classical description of sodium corrosion in which weight loss is simply translated into wall thinning.

  16. Austenite Formation Kinetics During Rapid Heating in a Microalloyed Steel

    SciTech Connect

    BURNETT,M.E.; DYKHUIZEN,RONALD C.; KELLEY,J. BRUCE; PUSKAR,JOSEPH D.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.

    1999-09-07

    The model parameters for the normalized 1054V1 material were compared to parameters previously generated for 1026 steel, and the transformation behavior was relatively consistent. Validation of the model predictions by heating into the austenite plus undissolved ferrite phase field and rapidly quenching resulted in reasonable predictions when compared to the measured volume fractions from optical metallography. The hot rolled 1054V1 material, which had a much coarser grain size and a non-equilibrium volume fraction of pearlite, had significantly different model parameters and the on heating transformation behavior of this material was less predictable with the established model. The differences in behavior is consistent with conventional wisdom that normalized micro-structure produce a more consistent response to processing, and it reinforces the need for additional work in this area.

  17. Surface treatment and corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oravcová, M.; Palček, P.; Zatkalíková, V.; Tański, T.; Król, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this article results from corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L after different surface treatments are published. “As received” surface and surface after grinding resulted in lower resistance to pitting corrosion in physiological solution than electrochemically polished in H3PO4+H2SO4+H2O. Electropolishing also improved the surface roughness in comparison with the “as received” surface. Deposition of Al2O3 nanometric ALD coating improves the corrosion resistance of stainless steel in chloride-containing environment by shifting the breakdown potential toward more positive values. This oxide coating not only improves the corrosion resistance but it also affects the wettability of the surface, resulting in hydrophobic surface.

  18. Formability analysis of austenitic stainless steel-304 under warm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lade, Jayahari; Singh, Swadesh Kumar; Banoth, Balu Naik; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2013-12-01

    A warm deep drawing process of austenitic stainless steel-304 (ASS-304) of circular blanks with coupled ther mal analysis is studied in this article. 65 mm blanks were deep drawn at different temperatures and thickness distribution is experimentally measured after cutting the drawn component into two halves. The process is simulated using explicit fin ite element code LS-DYNA. A Barlat 3 parameter model is used in the simulation, as the material is anisotropic up to 30 0°C. Material properties for the simulation are determined at different temperatures using a 5 T UTM coupled with a furn ace. In this analysis constant punch speed and variable blank holder force (BHF) is applied to draw cups without wrinkle.

  19. Fatigue crack growth in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Z.; Chang, G.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The research reported here is an investigation of the influence of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation on the fatigue crack growth rate in 304-type steels. The alloys 304L and 304LN were used to test the influence of composition, the testing temperatures 298 K and 77 K were used to study the influence of test temperature, and various load ratios (R) were used to determine the influence of the load ratio. It was found that decreasing the mechanical stability of the austenite by changing composition or lowering temperature decreases the fatigue crack growth rate. The R-ratio effect is more subtle. The fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing R-ratio, even though this change increases the martensite transformation. Transformation-induced crack closure can explain the results in the threshold regime, but cannot explain the R-ratio effect at higher cyclic stress intensities. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Ion beam nitriding of single and polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrasonis, G.; Riviere, J.P.; Templier, C.; Declemy, A.; Pranevicius, L.; Milhet, X.

    2005-04-15

    Polycrystalline and single crystalline [orientations (001) and (011)] AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was implanted at 400 deg. C with 1.2 keV nitrogen ions using a high current density of 0.5 mA cm{sup -2}. The nitrogen distribution profiles were determined using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The structure of nitrided polycrystalline stainless steel samples was analyzed using glancing incidence and symmetric x-ray diffraction (XRD) while the structure of the nitrided single crystalline stainless steel samples was analyzed using x-ray diffraction mapping of the reciprocal space. For identical treatment conditions, it is observed that the nitrogen penetration depth is larger for the polycrystalline samples than for the single crystalline ones. The nitrogen penetration depth depends on the orientation, the <001> being more preferential for nitrogen diffusion than <011>. In both type of samples, XRD analysis shows the presence of the phase usually called 'expanded' austenite or {gamma}{sub N} phase. The lattice expansion depends on the crystallographic plane family, the (001) planes showing an anomalously large expansion. The reciprocal lattice maps of the nitrided single crystalline stainless steel demonstrate that during nitriding lattice rotation takes place simultaneously with lattice expansion. The analysis of the results based on the presence of stacking faults, residual compressive stress induced by the lattice expansion, and nitrogen concentration gradient indicates that the average lattice parameter increases with the nitrided layer depth. A possible explanation of the anomalous expansion of the (001) planes is presented, which is based on the combination of faster nitriding rate in the (001) oriented grains and the role of stacking faults and compressive stress.

  1. Microstructural evolution in fast-neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    The present work has focused on the specific problem of fast-neutron-induced radiation damage to austenitic stainless steels. These steels are used as structural materials in current fast fission reactors and are proposed for use in future fusion reactors. Two primary components of the radiation damage are atomic displacements (in units of displacements per atom, or dpa) and the generation of helium by nuclear transmutation reactions. The radiation environment can be characterized by the ratio of helium to displacement production, the so-called He/dpa ratio. Radiation damage is evidenced microscopically by a complex microstructural evolution and macroscopically by density changes and altered mechanical properties. The purpose of this work was to provide additional understanding about mechanisms that determine microstructural evolution in current fast reactor environments and to identify the sensitivity of this evolution to changes in the He/dpa ratio. This latter sensitivity is of interest because the He/dpa ratio in a fusion reactor first wall will be about 30 times that in fast reactor fuel cladding. The approach followed in the present work was to use a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis. The experimental component of the work primarily involved the examination by transmission electron microscopy of specimens of a model austenitic alloy that had been irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. A major aspect of the theoretical work was the development of a comprehensive model of microstructural evolution. This included explicit models for the evolution of the major extended defects observed in neutron irradiated steels: cavities, Frank faulted loops and the dislocation network. 340 refs., 95 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Bending properties of a new nickel-titanium alloy with a lower percent by weight of nickel.

    PubMed

    Testarelli, Luca; Plotino, Gianluca; Al-Sudani, Dina; Vincenzi, Valentina; Giansiracusa, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bending properties of Hyflex instruments, which exhibit a lower percent in weight of nickel (52 Ni %wt) and compare them with other commercially available nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Ten instruments with tip size 25, 0.06 taper of each of the following NiTi rotary instrumentation techniques were selected for the study: Hyflex, EndoSequence, ProFile, Hero, and Flexmasters. All instruments from each group were tested for stiffness by comparing their bending moment when they attained a 45-degree bend. Experimental procedures strictly followed testing methodology described in ISO 3630-1. All data were recorded and subjected to statistical evaluation by using analysis of variance test. Statistical significance was set at P < .05). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that Hyflex files were found to be the most flexible instruments, with a significant difference (P < .05) in comparison with the other instruments. Among the other files, a significant difference has been reported for EndoSequence instruments compared with ProFile, Hero, and FlexMaster (P < .05), whereas no significant differences have been reported among those 3 files (P > .05). Results of the present study have illustrated an increased flexibility of the new NiTi alloy over conventional NiTi alloy, and they highlight the potential of the new manufacturing process. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  4. Processing, physical metallurgy and creep of NiAl + Ta and NiAl + Nb alloys. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, Viren M.

    1988-01-01

    Powder processed NiAl + Ta alloys containing 1, 2, and 4.5 at percent tantalum and NiAl + Nb alloys containing 1 and 2 at percent niobium were developed for improved creep properties. In addition, a cast alloy with 5 at percent tantalum was also studied. Hot extrusion parameters for processing alloys with 1 and 2 at percent of tantalum or niobium were designed. The NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy could be vacuum hot pressed successfully, even though it could not be extruded. All the phases in the multiphase alloys were identified and the phase transformations studied. The Ni2AlTa in NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy transforms into a liquid phase above 1700 K. Solutionizing and annealing below this temperature gives rise to a uniform distribution of fine second phase precipitates. Compressive creep properties were evaluated at 1300 K using constant load and constant velocity tests. In the higher strain rate region single phase NiAl + 1 at percent Ta and NiAl + 1 at percent Nb alloys exhibit a stress exponent of 5 characteristic of climb controlled dislocation creep. In slower strain rate regime diffusional creep becomes important. The two phase alloys containing 2 to 5 at percent Ta and 2 at percent Nb show considerable improvement over binary NiAl and single phase alloys. Loose dislocation networks and tangles stabilized by the precipitates were found in the as crept microstructure. The cast alloy which has larger grains and a distribution of fine precipitates shows the maximum improvement over binary NiAl.

  5. Development of high efficiency (14 percent) solar cell array module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Khemthong, S.; Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.; Ling, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Most effort was concentrated on development of procedures to provide large area (3 in. diameter) high efficiency (16.5 percent AM1, 28 C) P+NN+ solar cells. Intensive tests with 3 in. slices gave consistently lower efficiency (13.5 percent). The problems were identified as incomplete formation of and optimum back surface field (BSF), and interaction of the BSF process and the shallow P+ junction. The problem was shown not to be caused by reduced quality of silicon near the edges of the larger slices.

  6. Effect of Intercritical Quenching on the Microstructure and Cryogenic Mechanical Properties of a 7 Pct Ni Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongwei; Luo, Xinghong; Zhan, Guofeng; Liu, Shi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of variation in the intercritical quench temperature of quench, intercritical quench, and temper (QLT) heat treatments on the microstructure and cryogenic mechanical properties of a 7 pct Ni steel are presented. The intercritical temperatures were in the range of 923 K to 983 K (650 °C to 710 °C) and were followed by quenching. The microstructures as determined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction are presented, and the results of low-temperature mechanical property tests are given. It is shown that both the grain size and the martensite lath width increased as the intercritical quench temperature increased, while the measured amount of reversed austenite decreased with increasing temperature. Higher amounts of stabilizing elements, such as Ni and Mn, which can improve the stability of reversed austenite, were absorbed by intercritical quenching from 963 K and 983 K (690 °C and 710 °C) than from 923 K and 943 K (650 °C and 670 °C). Both the stability and the amount of reversed austenite had critical effects on the cryogenic mechanical properties of the steel. An excellent combination of cryogenic strength and toughness was achieved by intercritical quenching from 963 K (690 °C), indicating that based on the cryogenic mechanical properties, 7 pct Ni-QLT steel could be used in place of 9 pct Ni steel for liquefied natural gas projects.

  7. Effect of Intercritical Quenching on the Microstructure and Cryogenic Mechanical Properties of a 7 Pct Ni Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongwei; Luo, Xinghong; Zhan, Guofeng; Liu, Shi

    2017-09-01

    The effects of variation in the intercritical quench temperature of quench, intercritical quench, and temper (QLT) heat treatments on the microstructure and cryogenic mechanical properties of a 7 pct Ni steel are presented. The intercritical temperatures were in the range of 923 K to 983 K (650 °C to 710 °C) and were followed by quenching. The microstructures as determined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction are presented, and the results of low-temperature mechanical property tests are given. It is shown that both the grain size and the martensite lath width increased as the intercritical quench temperature increased, while the measured amount of reversed austenite decreased with increasing temperature. Higher amounts of stabilizing elements, such as Ni and Mn, which can improve the stability of reversed austenite, were absorbed by intercritical quenching from 963 K and 983 K (690 °C and 710 °C) than from 923 K and 943 K (650 °C and 670 °C). Both the stability and the amount of reversed austenite had critical effects on the cryogenic mechanical properties of the steel. An excellent combination of cryogenic strength and toughness was achieved by intercritical quenching from 963 K (690 °C), indicating that based on the cryogenic mechanical properties, 7 pct Ni-QLT steel could be used in place of 9 pct Ni steel for liquefied natural gas projects.

  8. The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Hongzhi; Meng Fanbin; Feng Zhongqiu; Li Yangxian; Zhu Wei; Wu Guangheng; Zhu Xiaoxi; Jiang Chengbao; Xu Huibin

    2010-01-15

    The effect of Fe substitution on the phase transformation and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}NiGa has been studied. A single bcc phase was obtained in Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa (x=0-0.6). With the substitution of Fe for Mn, the lattice constant decreases gradually. The martensitic transformation can be observed when x=0-0.3. Both the martensitic transformation and austenitic transformation temperatures decrease monotonically with increasing Fe content, which is different from common electron concentration dependence in Ni-Mn-Ga system. The saturation magnetizations M{sub s} of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa in both austenitic and martensitic phases increase obviously with the doping of Fe, while the variation of T{sub C} shows an opposite tendency. Theoretical calculations indicate that both austenitic and martensitic phases are ferrimagnets. The Fe moment varies from positive to negative after the tetragonal distortion, which leads to the decrease of the saturation magnetization.

  9. Unoccupied electronic structure of Ni2MnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Maniraj, M.; D׳Souza, S. W.; Rai, Abhishek; ...

    2015-08-20

    Momentum resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements show that the dispersion of the unoccupied bands of Ni2MnGa is significant in the austenite phase. Furthermore, in the martensite phase, it is markedly reduced, which is possibly related to the structural transition to an incommensurate modulated state in the martensite phase. Finally, based on the first principle calculations of the electronic structure of Ni–Mn–Ga, we show that the modification of the spectral shape with surface composition is related to change in the hybridization between the Mn 3d and Ni 3d-like states that dominate the unoccupied conduction band.

  10. Unoccupied electronic structure of Ni2MnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Maniraj, M.; D׳Souza, S. W.; Rai, Abhishek; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Barman, S. R.

    2015-08-20

    Momentum resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements show that the dispersion of the unoccupied bands of Ni2MnGa is significant in the austenite phase. Furthermore, in the martensite phase, it is markedly reduced, which is possibly related to the structural transition to an incommensurate modulated state in the martensite phase. Finally, based on the first principle calculations of the electronic structure of Ni–Mn–Ga, we show that the modification of the spectral shape with surface composition is related to change in the hybridization between the Mn 3d and Ni 3d-like states that dominate the unoccupied conduction band.

  11. Structural and magnetic transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaletina, Yu. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Terentev, P. B.

    2015-02-01

    The structural and magnetic phase transitions in Ni-Mn-Sn-based alloys have been studied. The temperature dependences of the martensitic and magnetic phase transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) have been determined in the case where manganese atoms substitute for nickel atoms. For the studied alloys, the concentration phase diagram has been constructed and the temperature regions of the existence of the high-temperature austenite phase L21 and the low-temperature martensite phase in different magnetic states have been determined.

  12. On the existence of declared 9 R phase in Fe-Ni invar alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanova, I. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    An analysis of recently reported electron diffraction patterns suggests that metastable austenitic Fe-32Ni alloy subjected to α → γ transformation upon slow heating does not exhibit any signs of formation of the 9 R phase; the conventional nanocrystalline γ phase with an fcc lattice is formed instead. Extended lamellae with a layered structure, erroneously identified as a new phase of the (3 R + 9 R) type in Fe-32Ni alloy, are conventional twinning (midrib) regions of each initial α crystal, in which γ-phase twin nanolamellae are formed upon heating.

  13. New Ni-free superelastic alloy for orthodontic applications.

    PubMed

    Arciniegas, M; Manero, J M; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Barrera, J M; Gil, F J

    2013-08-01

    A potential new Ni-free Ti alloy for biomedical applications was assessed in order to investigate the superelastic behavior, corrosion resistance and the biocompatibility. The alloy studied was Ti19.1Nb8.8Zr. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray microanalysis, the thermoelastic martensitic transformation was characterized by high sensitivity calorimeter. The critical stresses were determined by electromechanical testing machine and the corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in artificial saliva immersion at 37°C. The results were compared with six different NiTi orthodontic archwire brands. The biocompatibility was studied by means of cultures of MG63 cells. Ni-free Ti alloy exhibits thermoelastic martensitic transformation with Ms=45°C. The phase present at 37°C was austenite which under stress can induce martensite. The stress-strain curves show a superelastic effect with physiological critical stress (low and continuous) and a minimal lost of the recovery around 150 mechanical cycles. The corrosion resistance improves the values obtained by different NiTi alloys avoiding the problem of the Ni adverse reactions caused by Ni ion release. Cell culture results showed that adhered cell number in new substrate was comparable to that obtained in a commercially pure Ti grade II or beta-titanium alloy evaluated in the same conditions. Consequently, the new alloy presents an excellent in-vitro response.

  14. NiTi superelasticity via atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Piyas; Ren, Guowu; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for the next-generation multifunctional materials. These materials are superelastic i.e. they can fully recover their original shape even after fairly large inelastic deformations once the mechanical forces are removed. The superelasticity reportedly stems from atomic scale crystal transformations. However, very few computer simulations have emerged, elucidating the transformation mechanisms at the discrete lattice level, which underlie the extraordinary strain recoverability. Here, we conduct breakthrough molecular dynamics modelling on the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi single crystals, and unravel the atomistic genesis thereof. The deformation recovery is clearly traced to the reversible transformation between austenite and martensite crystals through simulations. We examine the mechanistic origin of the tension-compression asymmetries and the effects of pressure/temperature/strain rate variation isolatedly. Hence, this work essentially brings a new dimension to probing the NiTi performance based on the mesoscale physics under more complicated thermo-mechanical loading scenarios.

  15. A Feasibility Study on Low Temperature Thermochemical Treatments of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Fluidized Bed Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruman, Esa; Sun, Yong; Triwiyanto, Askar; Manurung, Yupiter H. P.; Adesta, Erry Y.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using an industrial fluidized bed furnace to perform low temperature thermochemical treatments of austenitic stainless steels has been studied, with the aim to produce expanded austenite layers with combined wear and corrosion resistance, similar to those achievable by plasma and gaseous processes. Several low temperature thermochemical treatments were studied, including nitriding, carburizing, combined nitridingcarburizing (hybrid treatment), and sequential carburizing and nitriding. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce expanded austenite layers on the investigated austenitic stainless steel by the fluidized bed heat treatment technique, thus widening the application window for the novel low temperature processes. The results also demonstrate that the fluidized bed furnace is the most effective for performing the hybrid treatment, which involves the simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and carbon together into the surface region of the component in nitrogen and carbon containing atmospheres. Such hybrid treatment produces a thicker and harder layer than the other three processes investigated.

  16. Thermal Stability of Austenite and Properties of Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) Treated AHSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R. M.; Wang, L.; Jin, X. J.

    A Fe-0.2C-1.87Mn-1.42Si-0.0405Al steel subjected to an appropriate Quenching & Partitioning treatment (Q&P) exhibits the combination of high tensile strength (1311 MPa) and high elongation (13.6%). The thermal decomposition of retained austenite in the as-treated steel has been studied at an elevated temperature of 500oC by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energy has been obtained by performing a Kissinger analysis method. The DSC results show that the activation energy of thermal decomposition of the retained austenite in this Q&P steel is 221.3KJ/mol, which is in a good agreement with the result of retained austenite in similar chemical composition steel subjected to a TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) treatment. This investigation helps to investigate the stability of retained austenite in Q&P steels upon cooling or under external stress.

  17. HYDROGEN-ASSISTED FRACTURE IN FORGED TYPE 304L AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, Nathan; Neidt, Ted; Hollenbeck, John; Knutson, J.; Everhart, Wes; Hanlin, R.; Bergen, R.; Balch, D. K.

    2012-09-06

    Austenitic stainless steels generally have good resistance to hydrogen-assisted fracture; however, structural designs for high-pressure gaseous hydrogen are constrained by the low strength of this class of material. Forging is used to increase the low strength of austenitic stainless steels, thus improving the efficiency of structural designs. Hydrogen-assisted racture, however, depends on microstructural details associated with manufacturing. In this study, hydrogen-assisted fracture of forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is investigated. Microstructural variation in multi-step forged 304L was achieved by forging at different rates and temperatures, and by process annealing. High internal hydrogen content in forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is achieved by thermal precharging in gaseous hydrogen and results in as much as 50% reduction of tensile ductility.

  18. Sandblasting induced stress release and enhanced adhesion strength of diamond films deposited on austenite stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Ye, Jiansong; Zhang, Hangcheng; Feng, Tao; Chen, Jianqing; Hu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-01

    We firstly used sandblasting to treat austenite stainless steel and then deposited a Cr/CrN interlayer by close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering on it. After that, diamond films were prepared on the interlayer. It is found that the sandblasting process induces phase transition from austenite to martensite in the surface region of the stainless steel, which decreases thermal stress in diamond films due to lower thermal expansion coefficient of martensite phase compared with that of austenite phase. The sandblasting also makes stainless steel's surface rough and the Cr/CrN interlayer film inherits the rough surface. This decreases the carburization extent of the interlayer, increases nucleation density and modifies the stress distribution. Due to lower residual stress and small extent of the interlayer's carburization, the diamond film on sandblast treated austenite stainless steel shows enhanced adhesion strength.

  19. Residual stresses and retained austenite distribution and evolution in SAE 52100 steel under rolling contact loading

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.C.; Kozaczek, K.J.; Hahn, G.T.

    1996-07-01

    Residual stresses are introduced and modified during manufacturing and also by normal use. In this paper the changes in magnitude and distribution of residual stresses, attending the strain induced transformation of retained austenite are examined. Tests were conducted on SAE 52100 bearing steel with different amounts of retained austenite in a 5-ball-rod rolling contact fatigue machine. The tests were accelerated by applying well-controlled micro- indentations on the wear track and using rough balls. The magnitude and distribution of residual stresses and retained austenite were measured using x-ray diffraction techniques. The contribution of the residual stresses and amount of retained austenite to the rolling contact fatigue life is analyzed.

  20. Role of the Bogachev - Mints Concept of Metastability of Austenite in Choosing Wear-Resistant Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Filippov, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the Bogachev - Mints concept of metastability of austenite for the choice of strain-hardenable steel, cast iron, and facing alloys resisting mechanical kinds of wear (cavitation-, erosion-, and abrasion-induced) is discussed.

  1. Strengthening and toughening mechanisms in low-c microalloyed martensitic steel as influenced by austenite conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Shane C.

    Three low-carbon ASTM A514 microalloyed steels were used to assess the effects of austenite conditioning on the microstructure and mechanical properties of martensite. A range of prior austenite grain sizes with and without thermomechanical processing were produced in a Gleeble RTM 3500 and direct-quenched. Samples in the as-quenched, low temperature tempered, and high temperature tempered conditions were studied. The microstructure was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The uniaxial tensile properties and Charpy V-notch properties were measured and compared with the microstructural features (prior austenite grain size, packet size, block size, lath boundaries, and dislocation density). For the equiaxed prior austenite grain conditions, prior austenite grain size refinement decreases the packet size, decreases the block size, and increases the dislocation density of as-quenched martensite. However, after high temperature tempering the dislocation density decreases with prior austenite grain size refinement. Thermomechanical processing increases the low angle substructure, increases the dislocation density, and decreases the block size of as-quenched martensite. The dislocation density increase and block size refinement is sensitive to the austenite grain size before ausforming. The larger prior austenite grain size conditions have a larger increase in dislocation density, but the small prior austenite grain size conditions have the largest refinement in block size. Additionally, for the large prior austenite grain size conditions, the packet size increases with thermomechanical processing. The strength of martensite is often related to an effective grain size or carbon concentration. For the current work, it was concluded that the strength of martensite is primarily controlled by the dislocation density and dislocation substructure; which is related to a grain

  2. Analysis of neutron diffraction spectra acquired [ital in situ] during stress-induced transformations in superelastic NiTi

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, R. ); Bourke, M.A. ); Dunand, D.C. )

    1999-09-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra were obtained during various stages of a reversible stress-induced austenite to martensite phase transformation in superelastic NiTi. This was accomplished by neutron diffraction measurements on bulk polycrystalline NiTi samples simultaneously subjected to mechanical loading. Analysis of the data was carried out using individual lattice plane ([ital hkl]) reflections as well as by Rietveld refinement. In the Rietveld procedure, strains in austenite were described in terms of an isotropic ([ital hkl] independent) and an anisotropic ([ital hkl] dependent) component. At higher stresses, austenite lattice plane reflections exhibited nonlinear and dissimilar elastic responses which may be attributed to the transformation. The texture evolution is significant in both austenite and martensite phases during the transformation and two approaches were used to describe this evolving texture, i.e., an ellipsoidal model due to March[endash]Dollase and a generalized spherical-harmonic approach. The respective predictions of the phase fraction evolution as a function of applied stress were compared. A methodology is thus established to quantify the discrete phase strains, phase volume fractions, and texture during such transformations. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  4. Corrosion And Thermal Processing In Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Deposited Austenitic Stainless Steel Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    THERMAL PROCESSING IN COLD GAS DYNAMIC SPRAY DEPOSITED AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COATINGS by John A Luhn June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Sarath...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CORROSION AND THERMAL PROCESSING IN COLD GAS DYNAMIC SPRAY DEPOSITED AUSTENITIC...produced by the cold gas dynamic spray process on 316L stainless steel substrates. Previous work on the use of the low-pressure cold spray process to

  5. a Study Into the Effects of AN Austenitic Weld on Ultrasonic Array Imaging Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Zhang, J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    An industrial application of ultrasonic array imaging is the inspection of austenitic welds with high inhomogeneity and anisotropy. These result in attenuation and perturbation of the signals that adversely affects imaging performance. Here, the effects of perturbations introduced by an austenitic weld on array imaging performance are investigated experimentally. It is shown that three major factors contribute to the degradation of image quality: timing errors, phase errors, and multi-path propagation and scattering.

  6. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  7. Effect of the chemical composition and austenitizing conditions on the hardenability of 35GR steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, A. I.; Malikov, I. T.; Urazov, V. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of the content of impurity elements (in particular, chromium), the heating temperature before rolling, and the austenitizing schedule on the hardenability of boron-containing 35 GR steel is studied. It is shown that a change in the heating temperature of the steel for rolling by 50-100°C does not influence the hardenability depth, which is mainly dependent on the austenitizing temperature and time and the chromium content.

  8. Study of Ferrite During Refinement of Prior Austenite Grains in Microalloyed Steel Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Wen, Guanghua; Tang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The formation of coarse prior austenite grain is a key factor to promote transverse crack, and the susceptibility to the transverse crack can be reduced by refining the austenite grain size. In the present study, the high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used to simulate two types of double phase-transformation technologies. The distribution and morphology of ferrites under different cooling conditions were analyzed, and the effects of ferrite distribution and morphology on the double phase-transformation technologies were explored to obtain the suitable double phase-change technology for the continuous casting process. The results indicate that, under the thermal cycle TH0 [the specimens were cooled down to 913 K (640 °C) at a cooling rate of 5.0 K/s (5.0 °C/s)], the width of prior austenite grain boundaries was thick, and the dislocation density at grain boundaries was high. It had strong inhibition effect on crack propagation; under the thermal cycle TH1 [the specimens were cooled down to 1073 K (800 °C) at a cooling rate of 5.0 K/s (5.0 °C/s) and then to 913 K (640 °C) at a cooling rate of 1.0 K/s (1.0 °C/s)], the width of prior austenite grain boundary was thin, and the dislocation density at grain boundaries was low. It was beneficial to crack propagation. After the first phase change, the developed film-like ferrite along the austenite grain boundaries improved the nucleation conditions of new austenitic grains and removed the inhibition effect of the prior austenite grain boundaries on the austenite grain size.

  9. School Designed To Use 80 Percent Less Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The new Terraset Elementary School in Reston, Virginia, uses earth as a cover for the roof area and for about 80 percent of the wall area. A heat recovery system will be used with solar collectors playing a primary role in heating and cooling. (Author/MLF)

  10. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  11. 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna with 33 percent efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, T.-W.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    A 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna (rectenna) has been developed using a microstrip dipole antenna and beam-lead mixer diode. Greater than 33 percent conversion efficiency has been achieved. The circuit should have applications in microwave/millimeter-wave power transmission and detection.

  12. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule of...

  13. Grieving: 22 to 30 Percent of All College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.

    2008-01-01

    At any given time, 22 to 30 percent of college undergraduates are in the first twelve months of grieving the death of a family member or friend. This conclusion, startling to some but accepted by others, comes from a variety of sources at academic sites in the United States and Europe. Information about the prevalence rate resulted from clinical…

  14. Realities and Myths of the Top 10 Percent Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in Texas a baker's dozen years ago, educators look forward with every new legislative session to another round of discussion about the "top 10 percent rule," which guarantees admission to the state's public universities for these talented high school graduates. Originally passed as a way to increase enrollment of…

  15. Assessment of 2001 NLCD percent tree and impervious cover estimates

    Treesearch

    Eric Greenfield; David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton

    2009-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) tree and impervious cover maps provide an opportunity to extract basic land-cover information helpful for natural resource assessments. To determine the potential utility and limitations of the 2001 NLCD data, this exploratory study compared 2001 NLCD-derived values of overall percent tree and impervious cover within...

  16. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  17. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  18. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  19. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48.508 Section 48.508 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.508 Certain 100...

  20. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…