Science.gov

Sample records for perception measuring instruments

  1. Development of an Instrument for Measuring Clinicians’ Power Perceptions in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Christa E.; Fridsma, Douglas B.; Butler, Brian S.; Penrod, Louis E.; Becich, Michael J.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of an instrument to measure clinicians’ perceptions of their personal power in the workplace in relation to resistance to computerized physician order entry (CPOE). The instrument is based on French and Raven’s six bases of social power and uses a semantic differential methodology. A measurement study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the survey. The survey was administered online and distributed via a URL by email to 19 physicians, nurses, and health unit coordinators from a university hospital. Acceptable reliability was achieved by removing or moving some semantic differential word pairs used to represent the six power bases (alpha range from 0.76–0.89). The Semantic Differential Power Perception (SDPP) survey validity was tested against an already validated instrument and found to be acceptable (correlation range from 0.51–0.81). The SDPP survey instrument was determined to be both reliable and valid. PMID:18375189

  2. Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to measure safety climate perceptions in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Newham, Rosemary; Bennie, Marion; Maxwell, David; Watson, Anne; de Wet, Carl; Bowie, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A positive and strong safety culture underpins effective learning from patient safety incidents in health care, including the community pharmacy (CP) setting. To build this culture, perceptions of safety climate must be measured with context-specific and reliable instruments. No pre-existing instruments were specifically designed or suitable for CP within Scotland. We therefore aimed to develop a psychometrically sound instrument to measure perceptions of safety climate within Scottish CPs. The first stage, development of a preliminary instrument, comprised three steps: (i) a literature review; (ii) focus group feedback; and (iii) content validation. The second stage, psychometric testing, consisted of three further steps: (iv) a pilot survey; (v) a survey of all CP staff within a single health board in NHS Scotland; and (vi) application of statistical methods, including principal components analysis and calculation of Cronbach's reliability coefficients, to derive the final instrument. The preliminary questionnaire was developed through a process of literature review and feedback. This questionnaire was completed by staff in 50 CPs from the 131 (38%) sampled. 250 completed questionnaires were suitable for analysis. Psychometric evaluation resulted in a 30-item instrument with five positively correlated safety climate factors: leadership, teamwork, safety systems, communication and working conditions. Reliability coefficients were satisfactory for the safety climate factors (α > 0.7) and overall (α = 0.93). The robust nature of the technical design and testing process has resulted in the development of an instrument with sufficient psychometric properties, which can be implemented in the community pharmacy setting in NHS Scotland. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Developing an Instrument for Measuring Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Workplace Diversity: An Initial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meuse, Kenneth P.; Hostager, Todd J.

    2001-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to (1) identify emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to diversity; (2) develop an instrument; and (3) test the instrument with 110 students and 66 workers. The Reaction-to-Diversity Inventory was deemed useful for assessing attitudes and perceptions prior to diversity training. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  4. Development of an Instrument Measuring Valence of Ethnicity and Perception of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardo, Lorelynn Mirage

    1994-01-01

    Used instrument designed using models of identity awareness for black Americans and for diverse multicultural populations on at-risk college students (n=165). Results indicated that levels of ethnic awareness and perception of discrimination were crucial when counseling students on academic, personal, and career-related matters. (Author/NB)

  5. Development of an Instrument Measuring Valence of Ethnicity and Perception of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardo, Lorelynn Mirage

    1994-01-01

    Used instrument designed using models of identity awareness for black Americans and for diverse multicultural populations on at-risk college students (n=165). Results indicated that levels of ethnic awareness and perception of discrimination were crucial when counseling students on academic, personal, and career-related matters. (Author/NB)

  6. Measurement Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    International Technology Corporation (INTEC) manufactures a line of instruments used for determining the optical properties of materials used in solar energy applications. Some of INTEC's instruments are based on NASA technology, including the Willey Alpha Meter and McDonald Emissometer. The emissometer is a commercial version of a system developed by Lewis Research Center to test efficiency- increasing coatings on solar panels. These instruments are used by manufacturers of solar equipment, government, university and private laboratories.

  7. Development and Factor Analysis of an Instrument to Measure Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Sami

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure student teachers' perception of digital learning objects. The participants included 308 voluntary senior students attending courses in a college of education of a public university in Turkey. The items were extracted to their related factors by the principal axis factoring method.…

  8. Development and Factor Analysis of an Instrument to Measure Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Sami

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure student teachers' perception of digital learning objects. The participants included 308 voluntary senior students attending courses in a college of education of a public university in Turkey. The items were extracted to their related factors by the principal axis factoring method.…

  9. The Development and Validation of an Instrument That Measures Student Perceptions of Teacher Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapan, Stephen D.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to collect student judgments regarding their teacher's credibility. Items were developed and evidence of content validity generated. A pilot sample and a final sample of high school students were administered the Source Credibility Measure (SCM) so that actual response data could…

  10. Creating an instrument to measure people's perception of community capacity in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in five dimensions (communication, sense of community, youth, elders, and language/culture). In addition, subscales of women and leadership were included in one tribe each. Confirmatory factor analysis primarily supported the factorial structure of the instruments, and the seven dimensions were found to correlate with previously validated measures of social capital, historical trauma, community influence, and physical health in expected directions.

  11. Revisiting the D-RECT tool: Validation of an instrument measuring residents' learning climate perceptions.

    PubMed

    Silkens, Milou E W M; Smirnova, Alina; Stalmeijer, Renee E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2016-05-01

    Credible evaluation of the learning climate requires valid and reliable instruments in order to inform quality improvement activities. Since its initial validation the Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) has been increasingly used to evaluate the learning climate, yet it has not been tested in its final form and on the actual level of use - the department. Our aim was to re-investigate the internal validity and reliability of the D-RECT at the resident and department levels. D-RECT evaluations collected during 2012-2013 were included. Internal validity was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Reliability was assessed using generalizability theory. In total, 2306 evaluations and 291 departments were included. Exploratory factor analysis showed a 9-factor structure containing 35 items: teamwork, role of specialty tutor, coaching and assessment, formal education, resident peer collaboration, work is adapted to residents' competence, patient sign-out, educational atmosphere, and accessibility of supervisors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable to good fit. Three resident evaluations were needed to assess the overall learning climate reliably and eight residents to assess the subscales. This study reaffirms the reliability and internal validity of the D-RECT in measuring residency training learning climate. Ongoing evaluation of the instrument remains important.

  12. The H-PEPSS: an instrument to measure health professionals' perceptions of patient safety competence at entry into practice.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Liane; Castel, Evan; Tregunno, Deborah; Norton, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Enhancing competency in patient safety at entry to practice requires introduction and integration of patient safety into health professional education. As efforts to include patient safety in health professional education increase, it is important to capture new health professionals' perspectives of their own patient safety competence at entry to practice. Existing instruments to measure patient safety knowledge, skills and attitudes have been developed largely to examine the impact of specific patient safety curricular initiatives and the psychometric analyses of the instruments used thus far have been exploratory in nature. Confirmatory factor analytic approaches are used to extensively test the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey (H-PEPSS), a newly designed survey rooted in a patient safety competency framework and designed to measure health professionals' self-reported patient safety competence around the time of entry to practice. The H-PEPSS focuses primarily on the socio-cultural aspects of patient safety including culture, teamwork, communication, managing risk and understanding human factors. Results support a parsimonious six-factor measurement model of health professionals' perceptions of patient safety competency. These results support the validity of a reduced version of the H-PEPSS and suggest it can be appropriately used at or near training completion with a variety of health professional groups. Given increased demands for patient safety competency among health professionals at entry to practice and slow, but emerging changes in health professional education, ongoing research to understand the extent of patient safety competency among health professionals around the time of entry to practice will be important.

  13. Technical Data on the Student's Perception of Ability Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Elementary School Children. Research and Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, Frederic J.; And Others

    The Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was developed in response to a need for a reliable and valid instrument to measure academic, rather than general, self-concept in elementary school children. This scale was designed for use with children in Grades 3 to 6. Descriptive data on the SPAS were discussed in terms of its substantive,…

  14. Creating an Instrument to Measure People's Perception of Community Capacity in American Indian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in…

  15. Creating an Instrument to Measure People's Perception of Community Capacity in American Indian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in…

  16. What is a Caucasian 'fine' hair? Comparing instrumental measurements, self-perceptions and assessments from hair experts.

    PubMed

    Bouabbache, S; Galliano, A; Littaye, P; Leportier, M; Pouradier, F; Gillot, E; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine the various factors contributing to what Caucasian women describe as 'fine hair'. Three complementary approaches were used, namely self-evaluation by the volunteer, assessment by a sensorial expert and instrumental measurements, in order to determine some of the possible parameters taken into account by Caucasian women when they describe the notion of fine hair. One hundred fifty one women of Caucasian origin participated in the study. They varied in age, and varied in that some considered themselves as having fine hair, and others not. The instrumental measurements carried out included hair diameter measurements, hair density measurements, hair breakage force, hair flexibility and scalp sebum levels. From six parameters defined initially, four parameters were found to be in common with the three approaches: hair abundance (density), hair thickness, hair resistance and the volume of the hair on the head. The commonly used term 'body' was only common to self and expert evaluation, whereas the influence of curliness was only common to expert evaluation and instrumental measurements. This study has shown close agreement between sensorial and instrumental findings, and also illustrates how the women participating can subtly and adequately describe their own hair. It is important to note that the words 'fine hair' describes a lot more than just physically thin hair fibres. Ageing is an additional factor that clearly impacts certain parameters associated with 'fine hair' among the volunteers. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  18. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  4. Development of an instrument to measure patient perception of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services at the national hospital of sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Senarat, Upul; Gunawardena, Nalika S

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure patient perception of quality of nursing care and related hospital services in a tertiary care setting. We compiled an instrument with 72 items that patients may perceive as quality of nursing care and related hospital services, following an extensive literature search, discussions with patients and care pro-I viders and a brainstorming session with an expert panel. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. A sample (n = 120) of patients stayed in general surgical or medical units responded to the interviewer administered instrument upon discharge. Item analysis and principal component factor analysis were performed to assess validity, and internal consistency was calculated to measure reliability. Of the 72 items, 18 had greater than 20% of responses as 'not relevant'. A further 11 items were eliminated since item-total correlations were less than .2. Factor analysis was performed on remaining 43 items which resulted in 36 items classifying into eight factors accounting for 71% of the variation. Factor loadings in the final solution after Varimax rotation were interpersonal aspects (.68-.85), efficiency (.62-.79), competency (.66-.68), comfort (.60-.84), physical environment (.65-.82), cleanliness (.81-.85), personalized information (.76-.83), and general instructions (.61-.78). The instrument had high Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .91). We developed a comprehensive, reliable and valid, 36-item instrument that may be used to measure patient perception of quality of nursing care in tertiary care settings. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  6. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  7. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  8. Nursing students' perception of academic support in the practicum: Development of a reliable and valid measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Arribas-Marín, Juan; Hernández-Franco, Vicente; Plumed-Moreno, Calixto

    The importance of practicum training in health sciences disciplines places prominence on the academic support received by students in this learning environment, both due to its leverage over their perceived level of satisfaction of academic proficiency as well as its impact on their academic performance. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale which facilitates the evaluation of academic support perceived by nursing students during their practicum. The sample is made up of 710 students from three academic levels of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing. An instrument to evaluate the level of academic support perceived by the students was developed and validated. Subsequently, a measurement model of the dimensions which comprise the academic support in the practicum was created. The Academic Support in the Practicum Scale demonstrated high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha value=0.913. The validation of the measurement instrument was carried out using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-sample analysis techniques, which presented positive goodness-of-fit indices. The developed tool has shown sufficient validity and high internal consistency. Its adequate psychometric properties lead to the conclusion that the scale provides a reliable and valid measurement of academic support perceived by students during their placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood adversity: a review of measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Burgermeister, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Measurement instruments are needed to stimulate research on the long-term outcomes of childhood adversity. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to locate, describe, and assess instruments to measure retrospective perceptions of childhood adversity. An electronic search of instruments was conducted using a combination of keywords that included child maltreatment, child trauma, and childhood stressful events. Nine instruments were located and described according to format, definition of childhood adversity as measured by the instrument, characteristics of the sample used in development and testing, reliability and validity evidence, and feasibility for use. Six out of the nine instruments were suitable for investigators who require a comprehensive measure of childhood adversity. Corroboration with independent sources and use of randomized samples are needed to improve upon reports of validity.

  10. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  11. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  12. The Student's Perception of Ability Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, Frederic J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was developed for use with students in grades 3 to 6. The test was determined to have relatively high reliability and reasonably strong validity. Data showed SPAS clearly differentiates between learning disabled and non-learning-disabled students. (Author/CTM)

  13. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  14. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  15. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  16. Radiometric and Spectral Measurement Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-18

    NSWCCR/RDTN-92/0003 AD-A250 771LI~ llliii11l li l l iillt111 RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS CRANE DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE... INSTRUMENTS 6. AUTHOR(S) B. E. DOUDA H. A. WEBSTER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) a. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NIJMBER...Maxiry-um 200 w ords) THIS IS A DESCRIPTION OF AN ASSORTMENT OF RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL INSTRUMENTATION USED FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIATIVE OUTPUT OF

  17. An Investigation of Faculty Perceptions of the Use of a Student Evaluation of Faculty Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Julie Cordell

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the faculty perception of the use of a student evaluation of faculty instrument. The areas considered were use of the current Student Evaluation of Faculty (SEF) instrument to measure teaching effectiveness; use of the current instrument for annual faculty review; faculty involvement in developing the instrument; utilizing…

  18. Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Learning Engineering: Content and Construct Validation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan-Wiles, Daphne S.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent addition of engineering to most K-12 testable state standards, efficient and comprehensive instruments are needed to assess changes in student knowledge and perceptions of engineering. In this study, I developed the Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Learning Engineering (STAPLE) instrument to quantitatively measure fourth…

  19. Instruments That Measure Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Materials are presented that resulted from a search for a measure of self-concept to be used in the evaluation of Project R.E.A.D., a program to improve the quality of education in urban schools. Most of the instruments listed are appropriate for the elementary level. In addition to a list of the instruments, this document also contains a listing…

  20. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  1. Viscosity measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinstein, S. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for enabling the measurement of the viscosity of substances, especially those containing volatiles at elevated temperatures, with greater accuracy and at less cost than before. The apparatus includes a cylinder with a narrow exit opening at one end and a piston which closely slides within the cylinder to apply force against a sample in the cylinder to force the sample through the exit opening. In order to more rapidly heat a sample the ends of the cylinder and piston are tapered and the sample is correspondingly tapered, to provide a large surface to volume ratio. A corresponding coal sample is formed by compressing particles of coal under high pressure in a mold of appropriate shape.

  2. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  3. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  4. The development of an instrument to assess chemistry perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Raymond R.

    The instrument, developed in this study, attempted to correct the deficiencies of previous instruments. Statements of belief and opinion can be validly included under the construct of chemistry perceptions. Further, statements that might be better characterized as science attitudes, math attitudes, or attitudes toward a specific course or program were not included. Eliminating statements of math anxiety and test anxiety insured that responses to statements of anxiety were perceptions of anxiety solely related to chemistry. The results of the expert judges' responses to the Validation of Proposed Perception Statements forms were detailed to establish construct and content validity. The nature of Likert scale construction and calculation of internal consistency also supported the validity of the instrument. A pilot Chemistry Perception Questionnaire (CPQ) was then constructed based on agreement of the appropriate subscale and mean importance of the perception statements. The pilot CPQ results were subjected to an item analysis based on three sets of statistics: the frequency of each response and the percentage of respondents making each response for each perception statement, the mean and standard deviations for each item, and the item discrimination index which correlated the item scores with the subscale scores. With no zero or negative correlations to the subscale scores, it was not necessary to replace any of the perception statements contained in the pilot instrument. Therefore, the piloted Chemistry Perception Questionnaire became the final instrument. Factor analysis confirmed the multidimensionality of the instrument. The instrument was administered twice with a separation interval of approximately one month in order to perform a test-retest reliability analysis. One hundred and forty-one pairs were matched and results detailed. The correlation between forms, for the total instrument, was 0.9342. The mean coefficient alpha, for the total instrument, was 0

  5. ac-resistance-measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.J.

    1981-04-22

    An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

  6. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  7. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  8. The Primary Practices Questionnaire (PPQ): The Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Teachers' Perceptions of Their Implementation of "Developmentally Appropriate" Responsive Practices in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a newly developed survey instrument, the "Primary Practices Questionnaire" ("PPQ"), designed to measure first, second, and third grade teachers' perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices. The initial item pool was reviewed for content…

  9. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  10. 40 CFR 1066.120 - Measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement instruments. 1066.120... CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment, Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and Analytical Gas Specifications § 1066.120 Measurement instruments. The measurement instrument requirements in 40 CFR part 1065...

  11. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  12. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  13. Measuring perception as a component of a security assessment.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Although there are many excellent ways available to conduct a security assessment of a hospital, measurement of the perception of security--a key ingredient in any security plan--is often lacking. In this article, the author describes and illustrates a survey instrument for measuring perception of security.

  14. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  15. Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

  16. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  17. Development of a new haptic perception instrument: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Leonardo Penteado; Martini, Joyce; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Hand sensory tests do not consider distinct physiological receptors, nor detect normal range variations concerning developmental or pathological changes. We developed an instrument with a set of tests with timing and scoring for assessing haptic perception, which is the interaction between sensory and motor systems, in surfaces exploration, by moving hands. Firstly, group meetings were set for test/manual conception and materials testing. The test/manual were submitted to 30 reviewers in 3 stages (10 reviewers on each stage). The Hand Haptic Perception Instrument (HHPI) evaluates hand sensorimotor performance on six domains: depression, elevation, texture, compressibility, weight (barognosis) and form perception. Each domain requires specific materials. Score ranges from 0 to 57, being 0 the worst rating. This methodological process allowed the development of six domains and instructions to assess haptic perception. This version of HHPI is a pilot model. Further studies will determine reliability and normality ranges.

  18. Measuring interdisciplinary perceptions of collaboration on hospice teams.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Debra Parker; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine M; Day, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This project modified the Index for Interdisciplinary Collaboration to create a tool that could measure perceptions of collaboration by all members of the hospice team. Questions on the 42-item instrument were reworded to be more inclusive. This new Modified Index for Interdisciplinary Collaboration (MIIC) showed strong reliability for the total instrument and the original instrument subscales. Further use and testing of this instrument is recommended.

  19. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  20. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  1. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  2. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...

  3. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

  4. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  5. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22 Section 201.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a...

  6. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  7. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  8. ABLE: An Instrument for Assessing Elementary Students' Perceptions of Access to Books, Beliefs, and Literacy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Maria H.; Moorefield-Lang, Heather; Barksdale, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote voluntary reading in elementary school, students need to have access to books they want to read, to believe they can read, and to be in an environment conducive to reading. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument intended to measure students' perceptions in these areas. An exploratory factor analysis…

  9. Perception of acoustic scale and size in musical instrument sounds

    PubMed Central

    van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2010-01-01

    There is size information in natural sounds. For example, as humans grow in height, their vocal tracts increase in length, producing a predictable decrease in the formant frequencies of speech sounds. Recent studies have shown that listeners can make fine discriminations about which of two speakers has the longer vocal tract, supporting the view that the auditory system discriminates changes on the acoustic-scale dimension. Listeners can also recognize vowels scaled well beyond the range of vocal tracts normally experienced, indicating that perception is robust to changes in acoustic scale. This paper reports two perceptual experiments designed to extend research on acoustic scale and size perception to the domain of musical sounds: The first study shows that listeners can discriminate the scale of musical instrument sounds reliably, although not quite as well as for voices. The second experiment shows that listeners can recognize the family of an instrument sound which has been modified in pitch and scale beyond the range of normal experience. We conclude that processing of acoustic scale in music perception is very similar to processing of acoustic scale in speech perception. PMID:17069313

  10. The measurement accuracy of passive radon instruments.

    PubMed

    Beck, T R; Foerster, E; Buchröder, H; Schmidt, V; Döring, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the data having been gathered from interlaboratory comparisons of passive radon instruments over 10 y with respect to the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy is discussed in terms of the systematic and the random measurement error. The analysis shows that the systematic measurement error of the most instruments issued by professional laboratory services can be within a range of ±10 % from the true value. A single radon measurement has an additional random measurement error, which is in the range of up to ±15 % for high exposures to radon (>2000 kBq h m(-3)). The random measurement error increases for lower exposures. The analysis especially applies to instruments with solid-state nuclear track detectors and results in proposing criteria for testing the measurement accuracy. Instruments with electrets and charcoal have also been considered, but the low stock of data enables only a qualitative discussion.

  11. Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that global cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when global cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients. PMID:16822730

  12. Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. G.

    1967-01-01

    Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

  13. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  14. Instrument for Measuring Cryo CTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Hadaway, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion is an integral part of the performance of optical systems, especially for those, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement of the coefficient of relevant materials has been of continuous interest. Besides commercial measurement sources, development of one-of-a-kind tools have always been of interest due to local needs. This paper describes one such development at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The approach involves two vertical rods (one sample and one reference) on a flat platform. A probe bar is held horizontally atop the two samples. A temperature change will generally cause rotation of the probe bar. A mirrored surface on one end of the probe bar is used to measure the rotation using the reflection of an incident laser beam upon it. A position-sensing detector measures the change of the reflected beam spot position. Using other known quantities, the change determines the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample material as a function of temperature. A parallel measurement of the rotation of the sample support platform is also performed to account for any unwanted background effects. This system has been demonstrated in a cryogenic chamber at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We present the system details, achievable sensitivity, and up-to-date experimental performance.

  15. Instrumentation for Surface Flux Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    National Park , she used the sonic and a Li-Cor C02-H20 analyzer at a height of 3 m to measure the vertical turbulent flux of C02 downwind of...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 3. REPORT TYPE...and subgrid-scale array measurements In summer 2000 we lent 7 of the CSAT3 sonics to the National Center for Atmo- spheric Research (NCAR) for use in

  16. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Scott T.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  17. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  18. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  19. The Household Risk Perception Instrument and the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction Instrument: psychometric testing using principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oneal, Gail; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Postma, Julie; Hill, Wade; Butterfield, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Household Risk Perception and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction Instruments using principle components analysis. Background There are limited instruments available to test household risk perception and self-efficacy related to environmental health behaviors. The Household Risk Perception Instrument was developed to measure personal perceptions of household environmental health risks. The Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction Instrument was designed to measure caregivers’ confidence in taking steps to reduce household risks. Method Baseline data from 235 caregivers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing a healthy housing intervention were collected between 2006 and 2009. Principal components analysis was used to determine principal components from measured responses to each instrument. Results Components were explored and compared to constructs used to design the original instruments. A five component structure showed the simplest solution and explained 65% of variance in the Household Risk Perception analysis. Cronbach’s alpha values indicated satisfactory internal consistency for four of five identified components. Risk perception varied according to available sensory input of the specific risk. A four component structure explained 64% of the variance in the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction analysis. Cronbach’s alpha values were satisfactory. Items mapped to steps in an action-oriented process versus agent-specific actions. Results from both analyses suggest that Environmental Tobacco Smoke is perceived differently than other household risks. Conclusion Previously, both instruments relied on item reliability and content validity testing. This study provides a basis for further instrument revision and theoretical testing. PMID:23294314

  20. The Hospice Environmental Survey (HES): Pilot Test of a New Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jean H.; Perrill, Norman K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of the Hospice Environmental Survey (HES) to measure user's perception of the homelike atmosphere provided by a hospital inpatient unit called Hospice House. Presents the HES instrument, methodology, and pilot study data. (Author/NB)

  1. Dental hygienists' perception of preparation and use for ultrasonic instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Asadoorian, J; Botbyl, D; Goulding, M J

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic scaling technology has evolved dramatically providing greater clinical utility subgingivally including instrumentation of light deposits and biofilm disruption. It is unknown whether dental hygiene curriculum has kept pace with the progression and reflects current applications. The first part of this two-part study aimed to determine new dental hygiene graduates' use and perceptions of preparedness in ultrasonic instrumentation. Part 2 investigates ultrasonic curriculum from the programme director perspective and will be reported on in a subsequent paper. Part 1 of the study surveys recently graduated Canadian dental hygienists about their use and perceptions of preparedness with ultrasonic instruments through an electronic questionnaire developed for this study. Participants reported using ultrasonics about half of their instrumentation time predominantly with magnetostrictive technology. Use focussed on heavier deposits with straight, slim inserts. Subjects were generally satisfied with ultrasonic education and felt reasonably well prepared in using ultrasonics. Higher levels of perceived preparedness were most associated with graduates from the 3-year diploma programme, whereas graduates from 18-month programmes were associated with greater levels of confidence in using ultrasonics. Confidence with ultrasonics did not have an effect on subsequent use - mostly all participants increased use once in practice. An earlier introduction and more practice time in school were both associated with increased feelings of preparation and confidence. New dental hygiene graduates perceive greater preparedness, confidence and use of ultrasonic instrumentation within a more traditional paradigm. In addition, the results indicate a potential incorrect and/or inappropriate application of current technology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fundamental Measurements and Instrumentation " CKM "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelos, A.; Engelfried, J.; Mata, J.; Torres, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.

    2002-07-01

    The physics being pursued by CKM (E921) 1, an experiment recently approved at Fermilab, has as goal testing the description of CP Violation within the Standard model. Measuring the branching ratio of K+ [right arrow] pi+vv with 10% accuracy, we can extract the magnitude of Vtd with an overall precision (including theoretical uncertainties) of 10%. Within the collaboration, the experimental high energy physics group at IF-UASLP has the responsibility for designing, testing, and building two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The present status of the experiment is shown in this poster.

  3. Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

  4. Nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring: an instrument based on Watson's Theory of Transpersonal Caring.

    PubMed

    Wade, Gail Holland; Kasper, Natalie

    2006-05-01

    This study describes the development and testing of an instrument to measure nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring. Originally, 69 statements about instructors' caring behaviors, based on Watson's 10 carative factors, were created with Dr. Jean Watson. The Nursing Students' Perceptions of Instructor Caring (NSPIC) instrument uses a 6-point Likert scale for students' responses to the statements. After pretesting the instrument with a small group of nursing students, the NSPIC was tested with 133 baccalaureate nursing students. Based on item analysis, factor analysis, and student comments, the number of statements were reduced to 31. Psychometric testing revealed that the NSPIC is internally consistent (alpha = 0.97) and contains five subscales. Convergent validity was established between the NSPIC and a semantic differential scale of students' perceptions of instructor caring. Predictive validity was assessed with Coates Caring Efficacy Scale. Although the NSPIC is in its early stages of development, its psychometric properties indicate that it is a valid and reliable measure of nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring.

  5. Patient Perceptions of Clinician's Empathy: Measurement and Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; DeSantis, Jennifer; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2017-06-01

    The prominence of reciprocal understanding in patient-doctor empathic engagement implies that patient perception of clinician's empathy has an important role in the assessment of the patient-clinician relationship. In response to a need for an assessment tool to measure patient's views of clinician empathy, we developed a brief (5-item) instrument, the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE). This review article reports evidence in support of the validity and reliability of the JSPPPE.

  6. Statistical study of color-measurement instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Marcus, R T; Billmeyer, F W

    1974-06-01

    In a statistical study of the variability of instrumental color-measurement data, two instruments (a Kollmorgen KCS-40 colorimeter-abridged spectrophotometer and a General Electric Recording Spectrophotometer equipped with a Davidson and Hemmendinger digital tristimulus integrator) provided three modes of measurement. Ten samples were measured 48 times in each mode. Frequency distributions were constructed for several colorimetric quantities, including tristimulus values, chromaticity coordinates, and color differences from the mean. To allow study of the error involved in the measurement of color-difference pairs, three such pairs were included in the ten samples. The beneficial effects of averaging were quantified.

  7. Comparative performance of color-measuring instruments.

    PubMed

    Billmeyer, F W

    1969-04-01

    The comparative performance of fifteen different color-measuring instruments was studied for precision (short-term repeatability) and accuracy of color measurement and of color difference measurement. For estimates of accuracy, a GE spectrophotometer was considered the referee instrument. The instruments tested included two integrating sphere spectrophotometers, six integrating sphere colorimeters (four of which were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates), and seven 45 degrees / normal calorimeters (four of which were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates). Up to fifty-three samples were measured, most of them several times, on each instrument. Paint panels, plastics, porcelain enamels, and ceramic tiles were among the samples used. Overall, the well-established IDL D-1 Signature Color-Eye colorimeter-abridged spectrophotometer and the Hunter D25 Color and Color Difference Meter demonstrated the best and next best performance, respectively, in all categories. Several other instruments, both well established and new, were outstanding in one or more respects. All production instruments tested gave generally satisfactory results.

  8. Virtual instrumentation for electro–analytical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Economou, A. S.; Volikakis, G. J.; Efstathiou, C. E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with some applications of Virtual Instrumentation to electroanalytical measurements. Virtual Instruments (VIs) are software programmes that simulate the external appearance and functions of a real instrument on the screen of a computer. In this work, programmes have been developed to control the potential of a working electrode (through a suitable potentiostat), acquire the current response, process the acquired current signal, and control a peristaltic pump and injection valve. The sequence of operations was controlled by the VI. The programmes developed have been applied to amperometric and voltammetric measurements in static and flowing solutions. The Vl package that has been used was Lab VIEW 4.0.1 from National Instruments. PMID:18924841

  9. Minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this work we study the minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments. We show that usually the apparatus' Hilbert space in such a model is unitarily isomorphic to the minimal Stinespring dilation space of the instrument. However, if the Hilbert space of the system is infinite-dimensional and the multiplicities of the outcomes of the associated observable (POVM) are all infinite then this may not be the case. In these pathological cases the minimal apparatus' Hilbert space is shown to be unitarily isomorphic to the instrument's minimal dilation space augmented by one extra dimension.

  10. Teachers' perception of oral health status. Design and validation of an evaluation instrument.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Noemi; Cadile, María del Carmen; Sotelo, Romelia; Squassi, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of health status is a complex process that requires the use of indicators that assess health both in terms of disease and of the impact the health-disease-care process has on the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate teachers 'perceptions of oral health status. The sample comprised 78 teachers of 4 schools (province of Buenos Aires). DESIGN OF THE INSTRUMENT: (a) identification of the 5 categories that compose the instrument and can measure the object of study based on evidence; (b) creation of a questionnaire that contains 32 items by two researchers; (c) evaluation of the questionnaire by 5 professionals of 4 different professions to standardize criteria (Ventegodt et al, 2003) applying an ordinal scale. Items were reduced to 25 (Index of perception of oral health: IPOH). VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT: the following parameters were evaluated: reliability employing the test-retest method at 30 days; internal consistency employing Cronbach's a coefficient (1951); content validity determined by two experts; construct validity employing the method of extreme groups (Student's t test). The established categories were knowledge on oral health, personal experience with oral health care, expectations regarding their students 'families, expectations regarding dentistry, satisfaction with his/her role as a teacher The instrument proved to be reliable as evidenced by a value of r = 0.80 in the test-retest method; a satisfactory intra-items consistency was evidenced by Cronbach's alpha coefficient value of 0.82. The differences between the results of the groups of teachers in the extreme groups were statistically significant (p = 2.2). The instrument designed to measure the teachers' perception of oral health status would be valid. It would be desirable to enlarge the sample and determine criterion validity by comparison with other instruments.

  11. Development of an Instrument To Assess Student Perceptions of the Quality of Pharmaceutical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdford, David; Reinders, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a 41-item instrument to assess educational service quality in pharmacy schools, defined as student perceptions of school service performance. The instrument assessed both perceptions of educational process (functional quality) and outcome (technical quality). Fourth-year pharmacy students completed the instrument, and its validity and…

  12. Measuring space radiation with ADIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Merk, J.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of radiation in space, cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles, date back to the dawn of space flight. Solid state detectors, the basis of most modern high energy charged particle instruments, first flew in space in the 1960's. Modern particle spectrometers, such as ACE/CRIS, ACE/SIS and Ulysses/HET, can measure the elemental and isotopic composition of ions through the iron peak. This is achieved by using position sensing detectors (PSD's) arranged into hodoscopes to measure particle trajectories through the instrument, allowing for pathlength corrections to energy loss measurements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) technique measures particle angle of incidence using a simple system of detectors inclined to the instrument axis. It achieves elemental resolution well beyond iron, and isotopic resolution for moderate mass elements without the complexity of position sensing detectors. An ADIS instrument was selected to fly as the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) on NPOESS, but was de-scoped with the rest of the space weather suite. Another ADIS instrument, the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), is being developed for GOES-R. UNH has built and tested a engineering unit of the EHIS. Applications for manned dosimetery on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are also being explored. The basic ADIS technique is explained and accelerator data for heavy ions shown.

  13. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  14. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  15. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  16. The Impact of Instrument-Specific Musical Training on Rhythm Perception and Production

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Tomas E.; Thibodeau, Joseph N. L.; Gunther, Brian P.; Penhune, Virginia B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies comparing musicians and non-musicians have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that training can result in rhythm processing advantages, but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players) and a control group of non-musicians were tested. Within-task differences in performance showed that factors such as meter, metrical complexity, tempo, and beat phase significantly affected the ability to perceive and synchronize taps to a rhythm or beat. Musicians showed better performance on all rhythm tasks compared to non-musicians. Interestingly, our results revealed no significant differences between musician groups for the vast majority of task measures. This was despite the fact that all musicians were selected to have the majority of their training on the target instrument, had on average more than 10 years of experience on their instrument, and were currently practicing. These results suggest that general musical experience is more important than specialized musical experience with regards to perception and production of rhythms. PMID:26869969

  17. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  18. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given. PMID:25931075

  19. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    DOE PAGES

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; ...

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of datamore » normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.« less

  20. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; hide

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  1. Surface exploration using laparoscopic surgical instruments: the perception of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Brydges, R; Carnahan, H; Dubrowski, A

    2005-06-10

    During laparoscopic surgery video images are used to guide the movements of the hand and instruments, and objects in the operating field often obscure these images. Thus, surgeons often rely heavily on tactile information (sense of touch) to help guide their movements. It is important to understand how tactile perception is affected when using laparoscopic instruments, since many surgical judgements are based on how a tissue 'feels' to the surgeon, particularly in situations where visual inputs are degraded. Twelve naïve participants used either their index finger or a laparoscopic instrument to explore sandpaper surfaces of various grits (60, 100, 150 and 220). These movements were generated with either vision or no vision. Participants were asked to estimate the roughness of the surfaces they explored. The normal and tangential forces of either the finger or instrument on the sandpaper surfaces were measured. Results showed that participants were able to judge the roughness of the sandpaper surfaces when using both the finger and the instrument. However, post hoc comparisons showed that perceptual judgements of surface texture were altered in the no vision condition compared to the vision condition. This was also the case when using the instrument, compared to the judgements provided when exploring with the finger. This highlights the importance of the completeness of the video images during laparoscopic surgery. More normal and tangential force was used when exploring the surfaces with the finger as opposed to the instrument. This was probably an attempt to increase the contact area of the fingertip to maximize tactile input. With the instrument, texture was probably sensed through vibrations of the instrument in the hand. Applications of the findings lie in the field of laparoscopic surgery simulation techniques and tactile perception.

  2. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  3. Classroom Social Capital: Development of a Measure of Instrumental Social Support within Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shecter, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…

  4. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  5. Classroom Social Capital: Development of a Measure of Instrumental Social Support within Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shecter, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…

  6. Development of an Instrument for the Measurement of Leadership Commitment to Organizational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to create a new instrument designed to examine the commitment of an organization's leadership to following organizational processes, as measured by stakeholder perceptions. This instrument was designed to aid in closure of a gap in the field of leadership studies relative to the impact that a leader's…

  7. Measuring the Computer Classroom Environment: Lessons Learned from Using a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Keri A.; Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research over the last four decades has shown that the classroom learning environment impacts on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to measure students' perceptions of their learning environment, and this has led to the development of a large number of survey instruments. One such instrument is the…

  8. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  9. Instrumentation For Detector Spectral / Spatial Uniformity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Ronald W.; Bronson, Robert M.

    1989-09-01

    The information presented in this report describes an instrument which is used for precision measurements of detector spectral response and spatial response. Emphasis will be placed on detector spatial uniformity measurements. To allow spatial uniformity testing at selected wavelengths, an instrument was designed by applying existing spectral response instrumentation technology with the addition of special exit optics, a dual axis motorized positioning table, and supporting software. Supporting components consisted of a computer controlled radiometer and a monochromator with a high intensity light source attached. Spectral response is determined by measuring the wavelength response photosensitivity of a stationary specimen to the irradiance of a calibrated monochromatic light source over the wavelength range of interest at evenly spaced intervals. Data is presented in a pictorial format by graphing the RESPONSE versus the WAVELENGTH. Detector spatial response is determined by measuring the variation in photosensitivity over the surface of the test detector by moving the detector in an X,Y grid at evenly spaced intervals under a small monochromatic spot of light. Several versions of the instrument were built and test results are provided which represent data from the spatial uniformity testing of Ge, PbS, and PbSe detectors. Data acquired is presented as a 3-Dimensional surface map by plotting the RESPONSE versus the X POSITION versus the Y POSITION.

  10. Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

  11. Validity and Reliability Issues in Measurement Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Harriet; Rasher, Sue Pinzur

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of validity and reliability as concepts related to the overall quality of test instruments. Describes the nature and interpretation of content, face, criterion, and construct validity and identifies several approaches for measurement and improvement of reliability. (Author/CS)

  12. Angle measurement with laser feedback instrument.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxue; Zhang, Shulian; Long, Xingwu

    2013-04-08

    An instrument for angle measurement based on laser feedback has been designed. The measurement technique is based on the principle that when a wave plate placed into a feedback cavity rotates, its phase retardation varies. Phase retardation is a function of the rotating angle of the wave plate. Hence, the angle can be converted to phase retardation. The phase retardation is measured at certain characteristic points identified in the laser outputting curve that are then modulated by laser feedback. The angle of a rotating object can be measured if it is connected to the wave plate. The main advantages of this instrument are: high resolution, compact, flexible, low cost, effective power, and fast response.

  13. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    Policy Points: Investigations on systematic methodologies for measuring integrated care should coincide with the growing interest in this field of research. A systematic review of instruments provides insights into integrated care measurement, including setting the research agenda for validating available instruments and informing the decision to develop new ones. This study is the first systematic review of instruments measuring integrated care with an evidence synthesis of the measurement properties. We found 209 index instruments measuring different constructs related to integrated care; the strength of evidence on the adequacy of the majority of their measurement properties remained largely unassessed. Integrated care is an important strategy for increasing health system performance. Despite its growing significance, detailed evidence on the measurement properties of integrated care instruments remains vague and limited. Our systematic review aims to provide evidence on the state of the art in measuring integrated care. Our comprehensive systematic review framework builds on the Rainbow Model for Integrated Care (RMIC). We searched MEDLINE/PubMed for published articles on the measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care and identified eligible articles using a standard set of selection criteria. We assessed the methodological quality of every validation study reported using the COSMIN checklist and extracted data on study and instrument characteristics. We also evaluated the measurement properties of each examined instrument per validation study and provided a best evidence synthesis on the adequacy of measurement properties of the index instruments. From the 300 eligible articles, we assessed the methodological quality of 379 validation studies from which we identified 209 index instruments measuring integrated care constructs. The majority of studies reported on instruments measuring constructs related to care integration (33%) and patient

  14. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  15. [Measuring Instruments of the Quality of Life Pediatric Palliative Care].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joana; Dourado, Marília; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care is closely linked to the concept of quality of life. In this work we will focus our interest on the need to assess quality of life in oncologic paediatric palliative care. To describe/compare instruments for measuring quality of life in Oncologic paediatric palliative care. A literature review of the sever a instruments for measuring quality of life of children under palliative care, in English and Portuguese, between 2000 and 2013, was carried out in the recognized databases for this purpose. We found fifteen measuring instruments: 10 of them were generic and 5 specific. For each instrument the country of origin, the target age group, fill manner, number of evaluated dimensions, description of dimensions, and number of questions, psychometric properties and validation for the Portuguese language were identified. There has been a growing concern in measuring quality of life in pediatric age. Most measuring instruments were designed, in the United States, after 1994, coinciding with the World Health Organization definition of quality of life. As regards to age, most of the instruments were developed for children aged eight or more years old and there is no one to be answered only by the child. We can see that the majority of measuring instruments, namely the most current, seeking to involve the child in evaluating his/her own health related quality of life through auto-population (n = 10). However, there is still a substantial dependence on parents for the measurement of health related quality of life of their children, despite studies demonstrates differences between the child and parents, on perception of health related quality of life. But, since many children are not able to provide data on health related quality of life either due to their age or because they are ill or with functional incapacity, the only possibility to get information about the health related quality of life of these children is to appeal to parents, who are asked to reflect

  16. Eighth-Grade Violinists' Instrument Tuning Ability: A Comparison of Pitch Perception and Tuning Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between eighth-grade violinists' pitch perception and instrument tuning skill. The perceptual task was a researcher-developed computer-based Violin Tuning Perception Test. The instrument tuning task involved tuning two violins, one mistuned flat and the other mistuned sharp. Participants (N…

  17. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  18. Lightning instrumentation for warning and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A presentation of instrumentation techniques used at Kennedy Space Center for assessing the hazards of lightning, measure lightning currents, induced voltage effects and assess the probability of lightning strikes to launch structures. The electric field and sferics are measured to determine the lightning hazard from the clouds. Measurements are made on launch structures to determine the magnitude of lightning currents and the induced voltages. Photographs are taken to ascertain the location of lightning strikes. Data is analyzed and presented on operations personnel and the Weather Office for assessment of impact on launch critical electromechanical systems and industrial operations.

  19. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  20. JWST science instrument pupil alignment measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubalak, Dave; Sullivan, Joe; Ohl, Ray; Antonille, Scott; Beaton, Alexander; Coulter, Phillip; Hartig, George; Kelly, Doug; Lee, David; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Schweiger, Paul; Telfer, Randal; Te Plate, Maurice; Wells, Martyn

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy ( 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. OSIM is a full field, cryogenic, optical simulator of the JWST OTE. It is the "Master Tool" for verifying the cryogenic alignment and optical performance of ISIM by providing simulated point source/star images to each of the four Science Instruments in ISIM. Included in OSIM is a Pupil Imaging Module (PIM) - a large format CCD used for measuring pupil alignment. Located at a virtual stop location within OSIM, the PIM records superimposed shadow images of pupil alignment reference (PAR) targets located in the OSIM and SI pupils. The OSIM Pupil Imaging Module was described by Brent Bos, et al, at SPIE in 2011 prior to ISIM testing. We have recently completed the third and final ISIM cryogenic performance verification test before ISIM was integrated with the OTE. In this paper, we describe PIM implementation, performance, and measurement results.

  1. An instrument for measuring turbulent pressure fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitrakis, Yiannis Alex; Hsu, En Yu; Street, Robert L.

    1986-04-01

    An instrument is described for laboratory measurements of the fluctuating static pressure in the turbulent boundary layer above progressive water waves. It consists of a disk-shaped sensing head properly designed to minimize the dynamic pressure variation to an acceptable level, a commercially available piezocrystal transducer housed inside a casing, and a forward-bent connecting tube. Pressure fluctuations sampled by the disk are converted into an electrical signal by the piezocrystal transducer. Through low-pass filtering, only the frequency range of interest is retained. The instrument was tested successfully for frequency response, dynamic and mechanical noise sensitivity, and response to spurious pressure fluctuations (produced when operating in a Eulerian wave-following mode) inside a cylindrical chamber and in a wind-wave facility, and some sample results along with the calibration procedures and data analysis are presented.

  2. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Janine T; Viehoff, Peter B; Beurskens, Carien H G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; van der Wees, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were used, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Clinical studies on measurement instruments assessing lymphedema were reviewed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) scoring instrument for quality assessment. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted. Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (.89) for bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) in the lower extremities and high intrarater and interrater ICCs for water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry (.98-.99) in the upper extremities. In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3.6% (σ=0.7%) for water volumetry, 5.6% (σ=2.1%) for perometry, and 6.6% (σ=2.6%) for tape measurement. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0.73 to 0.90, and specificity values varied from 0.72 to 0.78. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking. Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema, blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants. Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume

  3. A Novel Instrumentation Circuit for Electrochemical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li-Te; Wang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Yang-Chiuan; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+ ion-selective electrodes and urea electrodes, respectively. The experimental data shows that this measuring structure has a linear pH response for the concentration range within pH 2 and 12, and the dynamic range for urea concentration measurement is in the range of 0.25 to 64 mg/dL. The designed instrumentation circuit possesses a calibration function and it can be applied to different sensing electrodes for electrochemical analysis. It possesses the advantageous properties of being multi-purpose, easy calibration and low cost. PMID:23012565

  4. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  5. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  6. SWIFT instrument testbed for stratospheric wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Reza; Gault, William A.; Brown, Stephen

    2000-11-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport Studies is a limb viewing satellite instrument which is intended to measure stratospheric wind velocities in the altitude range of 20 to 40 km. Tandem etalon filters made of Germanium and a field-widened Michelson interferometer operating in mid- infrared are major components of this instrument. A He-Ne laser and a CCD camera were used to observe Haidinger and Fizeau fringes in visible light and compare their characteristics with mid-infrared measurements. The Fizeau fringes in the visible can be used to observe the irregularities in the Michelson interferometer's path difference. In addition a CO2 laser operating at 9.26 micrometers has been used to test the Michelson interferometer and the filters together. The filters are thermally tuned to the CO2 laser line and the filter output was incident on a diffuse surface in front of the Michelson input aperture. The Michelson interferometer was then pressure scanned to observe its performance in combination with the filters.

  7. Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

    2003-10-01

    Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

  8. A critical appraisal of instruments to measure outcomes of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Oates, Matthew; Davidson, Megan

    2015-04-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is believed to prepare health professional graduates for successful collaborative practice. A range of instruments have been developed to measure the outcomes of IPE. An understanding of the psychometric properties of these instruments is important if they are to be used to measure the effectiveness of IPE. This review set out to identify instruments available to measure outcomes of IPE and collaborative practice in pre-qualification health professional students and to critically appraise the psychometric properties of validity, responsiveness and reliability against contemporary standards for instrument design. Instruments were selected from a pool of extant instruments and subjected to critical appraisal to determine whether they satisfied inclusion criteria. The qualitative and psychometric attributes of the included instruments were appraised using a checklist developed for this review. Nine instruments were critically appraised, including the widely adopted Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS). Validity evidence for instruments was predominantly based on test content and internal structure. Ceiling effects and lack of scale width contribute to the inability of some instruments to detect change in variables of interest. Limited reliability data were reported for two instruments. Scale development and scoring protocols were generally reported by instrument developers, but the inconsistent application of scoring protocols for some instruments was apparent. A number of instruments have been developed to measure outcomes of IPE in pre-qualification health professional students. Based on reported validity evidence and reliability data, the psychometric integrity of these instruments is limited. The theoretical test construction paradigm on which instruments have been developed may be contributing to the failure of some instruments to detect change in

  9. Perception of competence in middle school physical education: instrument development and validation.

    PubMed

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A multiphase design was used consisting of an intensive theoretical review, elicitation study, prepilot study, pilot study, content validation study, and final validation study (N=1281). Data analysis included a multistep iterative process to identify the best model fit. A three-factor model for POC was tested and resulted in root mean square error of approximation = .09, root mean square residual = .07, goodness offit index = .90, and adjusted goodness offit index = .86 values in the acceptable range (Hu & Bentler, 1999). A two-factor model was also tested and resulted in a good fit (two-factor fit indexes values = .05, .03, .98, .97, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an instrument using a three- or two-factor model provides reliable and valid scores ofPOC measurement in middle school PE.

  10. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of...

  12. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Instruments and measuring... § 24.36 Instruments and measuring devices. All instruments and measuring devices required by this part to be furnished by the proprietor for the purpose of testing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  15. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instruments and measuring... § 24.36 Instruments and measuring devices. All instruments and measuring devices required by this part to be furnished by the proprietor for the purpose of testing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  17. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instruments and measuring... § 24.36 Instruments and measuring devices. All instruments and measuring devices required by this part to be furnished by the proprietor for the purpose of testing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile...

  18. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instruments and measuring... § 24.36 Instruments and measuring devices. All instruments and measuring devices required by this part to be furnished by the proprietor for the purpose of testing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile...

  19. Small mass measurement instrument for measuring weight under weightless conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, R. F., Jr.

    1984-05-01

    A small mass measurement instrument (SMMI), developed for NASA experiments conducted in the near zero environment is described. The SMMI is based on the principle of an oscillating spring-mass system, for which a period of oscillation is a function of the system's mass. It has the capacity of weighing specimens in the weight range of below 1 g to over 10,000 g, with an accuracy of 0.05 percent. The instrument has a keyboard, liquid crystal display, and microprocessor, which provide capabilities for entering and deleting data, display of messages, prompts, and specimen weight values, memory, and self-calibration features. The SMMI is scheduled for use beginning with Spacelab 4. Included in the description are the SMMI block diagram, detailed descriptions of the principles involved in the construction of the assemblies of the instrument, and photographs of its various parts.

  20. Assessing College Students' Perceptions of a Case Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using a Newly Developed Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…

  1. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  2. Surface exploration using instruments: the perception of friction.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cindy; Dubrowski, Adam; Gonzalez, David; Carnahan, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability to discriminate friction during surface exploration using a finger and surgical instrument under normal vision and when vision was absent. Participants explored surfaces with either with the finger or with an instrument and rated the slipperiness. Results showed that the explorations with the instrument were estimated to be more slippery and less sensitive than those for the finger. There were no effects for visual condition. This study showed that novices who use instruments to make estimations of tissue slipperiness require practice and training in order to adequately perceive friction. Novices' reduced ability to perceive friction with instruments should be integrated into simulator design.

  3. Measuring the Reader Self-Perceptions of Adolescents: Introducing the RSPS2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, William A.; Marinak, Barbara A.; Melnick, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new affective instrument for assessing the reader self-perceptions of students in grades seven through ten. The Reader Self-Perception Scale 2 (RSPS2) builds upon its predecessor, the RSPS, a tool that measures the reading efficacy beliefs of children in grades four through six. New items were created for the RSPS2 to…

  4. An Approach to Measuring Software Quality Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Radoslaw

    Perception measuring and perception management is an emerging approach in the area of product management. Cognitive, psychological, behavioral and neurological theories, tools and methods are being employed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of a consumer's attitude and decision processes. Software is also being defined as a product, however this kind of product is significantly different from all other products. Software products are intangible and it is difficult to trace their characteristics which are strongly dependant on a dynamic context of use.

  5. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  6. Developing a Psychometric Instrument to Measure Physical Education Teachers' Job Demands and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources model, the study developed and validated an instrument that measures physical education teachers' job demands-resources perception. Expert review established content validity with the average item rating of 3.6/5.0. Construct validity and reliability were determined with a teacher sample (n = 397). Exploratory…

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

  8. The Development of an Instrument to Assess Perceptions of Residence Director Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the creation of an instrument to assess perceptions of job satisfaction for professional staff fulfilling the role of residence directors. With many costs associated with the exit of an employee (Cascio, 1987), it is hoped that the instrument may be used by the senior housing administrators to limit lateral turnover,…

  9. Research on an intelligent ball-screw measuring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Pan; Chen, Yong-Le; Zeng, Quan-Kun; Xiang, Lin-Kui

    1993-09-01

    Ball screw are widely used in the steering-gear of automobile, aero-mechanism, machine tools and precision instrument. Since the thread form is referred to as a Gothic arch, so it is difficult to measure the ball screw. The traditional screw measuring method is "three wire" method or "three ball" method. The weakness of these methods is that the measuring process is too complicated or the measuring precision is not high. We have developed an intelligent ball screw measuring instrument. The instrument can measure the ball center diameter of ball screw. Using a new measuring method("two wire and one ball" method), the instrument has high measuring precision, high reliability and it is easy to operate.The 8098 microcomputer system in the instrument can control the measuring process and accomplish data collecting and processing automatically. This measuring instrument can be used on the production site for fast and precise measurement of ball screw.

  10. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  11. An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

  12. An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

  13. The Internet Self-Perception Scale: Measuring Elementary Students' Levels of Self-Efficacy regarding Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Janice; DiStefano, Christine; Daniel, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated fourth grade students' perceptions of abilities to use the Internet. The 31-item research instrument measuring Internet Self-Perceptions was adapted for use from the Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS) developed by Henk and Melnick (1995). The RSPS survey was based upon Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1995) research in the areas of…

  14. The Internet Self-Perception Scale: Measuring Elementary Students' Levels of Self-Efficacy regarding Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Janice; DiStefano, Christine; Daniel, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated fourth grade students' perceptions of abilities to use the Internet. The 31-item research instrument measuring Internet Self-Perceptions was adapted for use from the Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS) developed by Henk and Melnick (1995). The RSPS survey was based upon Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1995) research in the areas of…

  15. Validation of a teamwork perceptions measure to increase patient safety.

    PubMed

    Keebler, Joseph R; Dietz, Aaron S; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Almeida, Sandra A; Toor, Phyllis A; King, Heidi B; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) is a team-training intervention which shows promise in aiding the mitigation of medical errors. This article examines the construct validity of the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire (T-TPQ), a self-report survey that examines multiple dimensions of perceptions of teamwork within healthcare settings. Using survey-based methods, 1700 multidisciplinary healthcare professionals and support staff were measured on their perceptions of teamwork. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the five TeamSTEPPS dimensions: Leadership, Mutual Support, Situation Monitoring, Communication, and Team Structure. The analysis indicated that the T-TPQ measure is more reliable than previously thought (Cronbach's α=0.978). Further, our final tested model showed a good fit with the data (x(2) (df) 3601.27 (546), p<0.0001, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.942, Comparative fit index (CFI)=0.947, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.057), indicating that the measure appears to have construct validity. Further, all dimensions correlated with one another, but were shown to be independent constructs. The T-TPQ is a construct-valid instrument for measuring perceptions of teamwork. This has beneficial implications for patient safety and future research that studies medical teamwork. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Five instruments for measuring tree height: an evaluation

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Williams; William A. Bechtold; V.J. LaBau

    1994-01-01

    Five instruments were tested for reliability in measuring tree heights under realistic conditions. Four linear models were used to determine if tree height can be measured unbiasedly over all tree sizes and if any of the instruments were more efficient in estimating tree height. The laser height finder was the only instrument to produce unbiased estimates of the true...

  17. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  18. Perceptions of individuals living with spinal cord injury toward preference-based quality of life instruments: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, David G T; Suryaprakash, Nitya; Engel, Lidia; Mittmann, Nicole; Noonan, Vanessa K; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Bryan, Stirling

    2014-04-14

    Generic preference-based health-related quality of life instruments are widely used to measure health benefit within economic evaluation. The availability of multiple instruments raises questions about their relative merits and recent studies have highlighted the paucity of evidence regarding measurement properties in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI). This qualitative study explores the views of individuals living with SCI towards six established instruments with the objective of identifying 'preferred' outcome measures (from the perspective of the study participants). Individuals living with SCI were invited to participate in one of three focus groups. Eligible participants were identified from Vancouver General Hospital's Spine Program database; purposive sampling was used to ensure representation of different demographics and injury characteristics. Perceptions and opinions were solicited on the following questionnaires: 15D, Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimension (AQoL-8D), EQ-5D-5L, Health Utilities Index (HUI), Quality of Well-Being Scale Self-Administered (QWB-SA), and the SF-36v2. Framework analysis was used to analyse the qualitative information gathered during discussion. Strengths and limitations of each questionnaire were thematically identified and managed using NVivo 9 software. Major emergent themes were (i) general perceptions, (ii) comprehensiveness, (iii) content, (iv) wording and (v) features. Two sub-themes pertinent to content were also identified; 'questions' and 'options'. All focus group participants (n = 15) perceived the AQoL-8D to be the most relevant instrument to administer within the SCI population. This measure was considered to be comprehensive, with relevant content (i.e. wheelchair inclusive) and applicable items. Participants had mixed perceptions about the other questionnaires, albeit to varying degrees. Despite a strong theoretical underpinning, the AQoL-8D (and other AQoL instruments) is infrequently used outside its

  19. [Impact of the instrumental vaginal delivery on pain perception at two months].

    PubMed

    Weslinck, N; De Jonckheere, J; Storme, L; Logier, R; Appel, M; Thomas, D; Rakza, T

    2014-06-01

    Although instrumental vaginal delivery reduces the risk of neonatal mortality, it increases the risk of specific morbidity including prolonged neonatal discomfort. Previous studies suggest that neonatal exposure to acute pain could have long-term effects on the pain response later in life. The aim of the study was to investigate whether instrumental vaginal delivery may alter the response to a noxious stimulus at the age of two months. Newborn infants were enrolled in this prospective observational study after parental consent. A group of children born by instrumental vaginal delivery (group 2) were compared to matched controls born by vaginal delivery (group 1). Pain was assessed in each newborn infant between two and four hours after birth using the scale of pain and discomfort of the newborn baby (EDIN). These children were reassessed for pain response to immunizations (Infanrix(®) and Prevenar(®)) at two months of age using the DAN scale. Thirteen children were enrolled in this study, six in group 1 and seven in group 2. Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, and umbilical arterial blood were similar in both groups. The EDIN measured between H2 and H4 was significantly higher in group 2 (median, 4 [IQ, 3] versus 0 [3.25], P<0.05). While the DAN score before and during immunization was similar in the two groups, it was statistically higher in group 2 than in group 1 (4 [3] versus 2 [2.25], P<0.01) within the15 min following the injections. These results indicate that birth by instrumental vaginal delivery causes discomfort after birth and increases the pain response to immunization at the age of two months. This study supports the hypothesis that instrumental vaginal delivery may alter pain perception later in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Instrumental textural perception of food and comparative biomaterials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Texture is an important food quality attribute affecting consumer acceptance. Consumers characterize texture as either crispy or crunchy, and the moisture content and internal structure of the products are significant factors in its perception. Exposing an extruded corn snack (ECS), an extruded biod...

  1. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  2. Instruments to assess the perception of physicians in the decision-making process of specific clinical encounters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Moher, David; Elwyn, Glyn; LeBlanc, Annie; Gravel, Karine

    2007-10-15

    The measurement of processes and outcomes that reflect the complexity of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters is an important area of research to pursue. A systematic review was conducted to identify instruments that assess the perception physicians have of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters. For every year available up until April 2007, PubMed, PsycINFO, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts were searched for original studies in English or French. Reference lists from retrieved studies were also consulted. Studies were included if they reported a self-administered instrument evaluating physicians' perceptions of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters, contained sufficient description to permit critical appraisal and presented quantitative results based on administering the instrument. Two individuals independently assessed the eligibility of the instruments and abstracted information on their conceptual underpinnings, main evaluation domain, development, format, reliability, validity and responsiveness. They also assessed the quality of the studies that reported on the development of the instruments with a modified version of STARD. Out of 3431 records identified and screened for evaluation, 26 potentially relevant instruments were assessed; 11 met the inclusion criteria. Five instruments were published before 1995. Among those published after 1995, five offered a corresponding patient version. Overall, the main evaluation domains were: satisfaction with the clinical encounter (n = 2), mutual understanding between health professional and patient (n = 2), mental workload (n = 1), frustration with the clinical encounter (n = 1), nurse-physician collaboration (n = 1), perceptions of communication competence (n = 2), degree of comfort with a decision (n = 1) and information on medication (n = 1). For most instruments (n = 10), some reliability and validity

  3. Instruments to assess the perception of physicians in the decision-making process of specific clinical encounters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Moher, David; Elwyn, Glyn; LeBlanc, Annie; Gravel, Karine

    2007-01-01

    Background The measurement of processes and outcomes that reflect the complexity of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters is an important area of research to pursue. A systematic review was conducted to identify instruments that assess the perception physicians have of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters. Methods For every year available up until April 2007, PubMed, PsycINFO, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts were searched for original studies in English or French. Reference lists from retrieved studies were also consulted. Studies were included if they reported a self-administered instrument evaluating physicians' perceptions of the decision-making process within specific clinical encounters, contained sufficient description to permit critical appraisal and presented quantitative results based on administering the instrument. Two individuals independently assessed the eligibility of the instruments and abstracted information on their conceptual underpinnings, main evaluation domain, development, format, reliability, validity and responsiveness. They also assessed the quality of the studies that reported on the development of the instruments with a modified version of STARD. Results Out of 3431 records identified and screened for evaluation, 26 potentially relevant instruments were assessed; 11 met the inclusion criteria. Five instruments were published before 1995. Among those published after 1995, five offered a corresponding patient version. Overall, the main evaluation domains were: satisfaction with the clinical encounter (n = 2), mutual understanding between health professional and patient (n = 2), mental workload (n = 1), frustration with the clinical encounter (n = 1), nurse-physician collaboration (n = 1), perceptions of communication competence (n = 2), degree of comfort with a decision (n = 1) and information on medication (n = 1). For most instruments (n = 10), some

  4. The perception of size in musical instrument sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    There is size information in natural sounds. For example, as humans grow in height their vocal tract increases in length, and this produces a predictable decrease in formant frequency. Recent studies have shown that listeners can judge the relative size of two individuals with considerable precision, and they can recognize vowels scaled well beyond the range normally experienced. This paper reports two psychophysical studies designed to extend the research to musical instrument sounds. The first showed that listeners can discriminate the relative size of instruments reliably, although not quite as well as for voices. The second showed that listeners can recognize instrument sounds scaled in size and pitch well beyond the range of normal experience. The research supports the hypothesis that the auditory system applies some kind of active normalization to all input sounds. [Work supported by the U.K. Medical Research Council (G9901257, G9900362), and ONRIFO (Grant N00014-03-1-1023).

  5. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  6. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  7. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition.

  8. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized... domains, instruments, and measures is occurring now because of the multi-phased survey development and... consistency, test-retest, etc) and validity (content, construct, criterion-related). Results of...

  9. A review of instruments measuring nurse-physician collaboration.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Mary B; Larson, Elaine

    2005-05-01

    To review instruments used to measure nurse-physician collaboration and compare the strengths and potential opportunities of each instrument. Nurse-physician collaboration has been studied using a variety of instruments. The ability to generalize the outcomes of studies and build on the findings is predicated on acceptable validity and reliability metrics of these instruments. A literature search using PubMed and Health and Psychological Instruments databases was conducted for articles published between 1990 and May 2004 to identify instruments measuring staff nurse-physician collaboration. After the instruments were identified, a second search was conducted to identify at least one peer-reviewed article describing the psychometrics of the instrument. Articles identified were then entered into the ISI Web of Science Citation Index to identify the instruments that had been used in at least 2 other studies. These selected instruments were then reviewed for the following information: background for the development of the tool, description of the tool, initial psychometric testing, and strengths and potential applications for each instrument. Five instruments met study criteria: the Collaborative Practice Scale, Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions, ICU Nurse-Physician Questionnaire, Nurses Opinion Questionnaire, and the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician Nurse Collaboration. The identified instruments have undergone initial reliability and validity testing and are recommended for future research on nurse-physician collaboration.

  10. Instruments to measure behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Rianne M; Stephan, Blossom C M; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol

    2014-03-01

    Reliable and valid measurement of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is important for research and clinical practice. Here we provide an overview of the different instruments and discuss issues involved in the choice of the most appropriate instrument to measure BPSD in research. A list of BPSD instruments was generated. For each instrument Pubmed and SCOPUS were searched for articles that reported on their use or quality. Eighty-three instruments that are used to measure BPSD were identified. Instruments differ in length and detail, whether the interview is with participants, informants or by observation, the target sample and the time frames for use. Reliability and validity is generally good, but reported in few independent samples. When choosing a BPSD instrument for research the research question should be carefully scrutinised and the symptoms of interest, population, quality, detail, time frame and practical issues should be considered.

  11. Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

  12. Development and validation of EMP-3: an instrument to measure physician's attitudes toward ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Stephanie; Willems, Sara; De Maeseneer, Jan; Deveugele, Myriam

    2010-04-01

    The growing diversity of patient populations challenges health care providers. Physicians' attitudes and perceptions toward cultural diversity in health care could be partly contributing to difficulties in communication between physicians and ethnic minority patients. To evaluate these attitudes and perceptions, an instrument was developed and validated. A preliminary version of the instrument was developed through literature research and expert consultation and completed by 112 family physicians. Factor analysis was performed and reliability and construct validity tested. The instrument revealed three factors that were interpreted as: (1) physicians' task perception and ideas on cultural differences in health and health care, (2) physicians' attitudes toward physician-patient communication with minority patients, and (3) physicians' perception of minority patients' needs in communication. Moderate but significant correlations were found between factors of the EMP-3 and practice organization, practice location, and physicians' gender. Several factors of the Jefferson Empathy Scale, the Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale, and the Health Beliefs and Attitude Scale related to the first two factors of the EMP-3. This instrument, designed specifically to measure physicians' attitudes toward cultural diversity, showed moderate validity and reliability results. Further adaptations and evaluation could be useful.

  13. Standardization of near infrared spectra measured on multi-instrument.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-11

    Calibration model transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. An approach for calibration transfer based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm is proposed in this work. From the three-way spectral matrix measured on different instruments, the relative intensity of concentration, spectrum and instrument is obtained using trilinear decomposition. Because the relative intensity of instrument is a reflection of the spectral difference between instruments, the spectra measured on different instruments can be standardized by a correction of the coefficients in the relative intensity. Two NIR datasets of corn and tobacco leaf samples measured with three instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra measured on one instrument can be correctly predicted using the partial least squares (PLS) models built with the spectra measured on the other instruments.

  14. Laptop photothermal reflectance measurement instrument assembled with optical fiber components.

    PubMed

    Yarai, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Takuji

    2007-05-01

    In this article, we propose a laptop photothermal reflectance measurement instrument assembled with optical fiber components. The primary feature of this instrument is that all of the optical routes for the pumping and probing beams, as well as the beam sources using a laser diode, are composed of optical fiber and optical fiber components. With this configuration, the problems related to the technical shortcomings of the conventional instrument can be solved completely. Our proposed instrument is also appropriate for in situ measurement of the thermoproperties of thin film. The dimensions of our instrument's case are 400 mm wide, 250 mm deep, and 60 mm tall, and its weight is approximately 1 kg, containing the power supply for driving the laser diode of the pumping beam and electronics for the detection of photothermal reflectance. These are at least 120 and 150 smaller than the volume and weight of the conventional commercial instrument, respectively. Nevertheless, it is only necessary to prepare a synchronous detection instrument for signal recovery (e.g., lock-in amplifier) with our instrument. To evaluate our instrument's thermoproperty measurement capability, we measured the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Au thin film. The thermal diffusivity of 1.5-microm-thick Au film measured by our instrument matched previously reported values within a margin of error of a few percent.

  15. An instrument for measuring cancer patients' preferences for support groups.

    PubMed

    Smoczyk, C M; Zhu, W; Whatley, M H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cancer patients' preferences for all types of social support and organizational features of cancer support groups. The content of the instrument was the result of a detailed analysis of four resources: (1) literature relating to cancer support group interventions, (2) program materials from existing groups, (3) interviews with individuals who developed or directed groups, and (4) interviews with patients who have participated in cancer support groups. A jury of six experts was used to establish content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was examined by measuring a sample of 258 cancer patients. The reliability coefficients of the instrument were all above .80, except for two types of social support (instrumental and informational-educational), which were .72 and .78, respectively. It was concluded that the instrument produces valid and reliable measurements of cancer patients' preferences for cancer support groups.

  16. Quantifying the information measured by neutron scattering instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.

    1997-09-01

    The concept of the information content of a scientific measurement is introduced, and a theory is presented which enables the information that may be obtained by a neutron scattering instrument to be calculated. When combined with the time taken to perform the measurement the bandwidth of the instrument is obtained. This bandwidth is effectively a figure of merit which is of use in three respects: in the design of neutron instrumentation, the optimisation of measurements, and in the comparison of one instrument with another.

  17. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-09-01

    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  18. Client perceptions of satisfaction with AIDS services: an instrument development.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Joe; Vance, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) can develop their own instruments to assess client satisfaction by using support from academic partners. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) is an example of this process. The initial 12-item CSQ was piloted using a sample of 46 HIV-infected men and women, resulting in a revised 8-item CSQ that was assessed by using a sample of 121 HIV-infected men and women. The initial CSQ (12-item) yielded three factors, volunteer's skill/access, volunteer's attitude, and volunteer's caring, accounting for 74.6% of the explained variance (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). The revised CSQ (8-item) resulted in one factor accounting for 67% of the explained variance (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). Findings indicated acceptable reliability and validity of the CSQ to assess client satisfaction as an outcome of ASO client-agency interaction. Guidelines for instrument development by ASOs are proposed. Strategies to collaborate with the academic community to facilitate instrument development are discussed.

  19. Refinement and Validation of the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Fike, David S.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Engle, Jeffrey A.; MacLaughlin, Eric J.; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Seibert, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To refine the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education (SPICE) instrument to address deficiencies observed in previous studies and to demonstrate external validity and reliability of the refined instrument in a broad population of medical and pharmacy students. Methods. The original SPICE instrument plus four pilot items generated via cognitive interviewing of students was administered to 1708 medical and pharmacy students at five academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify candidate model structures and evaluate their psychometric properties. Results. An improved version of the instrument was created (SPICE 2) by incorporating three pilot items and removing three original items. Validity and reliability were demonstrated. Conclusion. The SPICE 2 instrument addresses the limitations observed to date in model structure while increasing its utility. The authors recommend use of the SPICE 2 instrument moving forward. PMID:27170818

  20. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  4. [Interpersonal attention management inventory: a new instrument to capture different self- and external perception skills].

    PubMed

    Blaser, Klaus; Zlabinger, Milena; Hinterberger, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal Attention Management Inventory (IAMI) represents a new instrument to capture self- and external perception skills. The underlying theoretical model assumes 3 mental locations of attention (the intrapersonal space, the extrapersonal space, and the external intrapersonal space) of the other. The IAMI was studied regarding its factor structure; it was shortened and statistical values as well as first reference values were calculated based on a larger sample (n = 1089). By factor analysis, the superordinate scales could be widely validated. The shortened version with 31 items and 3 superordinate scales shows a high reliability of the global value (Cronbach's α = 0.81) and, regarding the convergent validity, a modest correlation (r = 0.41) of the global value and mindfulness, measured with the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Further validation studies are invited so that the IAMI can be used as an instrument for (course) diagnosis in the therapy of psychiatric disorders as well as for research in social neuroscience, e.g., in investigations on mindfulness, compassion, empathy, theory of mind, and self-boundaries.

  5. Microcomputer based instrument for measuring a novel pulmonary function test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a prototype instrument for measuring the end-tidal concentration of carbon monoxide during human respiration is presented. The instrument automatically samples the final sixty cubic centimeters of exhaled breath, from successive breathing cycles, by coordinating a pump and the breathing cycle with a set of vacuum and pressure sensors. The concentration of carbon monoxide is measured using a nondispersive infrared spectrophotometer. The amount of carbon monoxide present is measured relative to the source air concentration eliminating the need for calibrating the instrument. The testing protocol and measurements can be controlled by a microcomputer connected to the instrument through a standard RS-232 serial interface. When at equilibrium, the end-tidal concentration of CO can be measured in a simple and reproducible fashion. This simplified technology allows for the construction of a small, portable, easy to use instrument that will allow the application of this new pulmonary function test at the point of contact with patients.

  6. An instrumented fastener for shear force measurements in joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James W.; Rothgeb, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary investigation of instrumented fasteners for use as sensors to measure the shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. Calibration and load verification tests were conducted for instrumented fasteners installed at three fastener torque levels. Calibration test results show that the shear strains obtained from the instrumented fasteners vary linearly with the applied load and that the instrumented fasteners can be effectively used to measure shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. The load distribution between individual fasteners is found to be dependent on the location of the fastener in the joint and the fastener torque level.

  7. Using a Developed Instrument to Evaluate University Students' Perceptions of Six Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate university students' perceptions of six teachers' PCK (pedagogical content knowledge) development, using a developed instrument and workshop intervention, in order to help the university teachers understand their teaching better. The survey was conducted twice in this study, with the pre-test carried out during the…

  8. One-to-One Tuition in a Conservatoire: The Perceptions of Instrumental and Vocal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2008-01-01

    One-to-one instrumental/vocal tuition forms a core part of the professional education offered to undergraduate and postgraduate music students in a conservatoire. However, whilst anecdotal evidence is plentiful, there is little research underpinning its practices. This article provides an analysis of the perceptions of 20 principal study teachers…

  9. A Survey of the Characteristics and Perceptions of Urban and Suburban Secondary Instrumental Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey and compare the characteristics and perceptions of randomly selected urban and suburban (N=20) secondary instrumental music teachers in the Chicago area. Descriptive analysis of the demographic data demonstrated the following: suburban participants had higher levels of educational attainment than their urban…

  10. Student Perceptions about the Effectiveness and Quality of Online Musical Instrument Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Willie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences between how online instrumental music students perceive the effectiveness of e-learning as opposed to traditional face-to-face learning. The Perceived Interaction Survey was used to gather data about the perceptions of a randomly selected study group, comprised of…

  11. The measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings: a systematic review of measurement properties of instruments.

    PubMed

    Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Register of Controlled Trials, Emerald Fulltext, MD Consult Australia, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Informit Health Databases, Scopus, UpToDate and Web of Science. The search for unpublished studies included EThOS (Electronic Thesis Online Service), Index to Theses and ProQuest- Dissertations and Theses. The assessment of methodological quality of the included studies was undertaken using the COSMIN checklist which is a validated tool that assesses the process of design and validation of healthcare measurement instruments. An Excel spreadsheet version of COSMIN was developed for data collection which included a worksheet for extracting participant characteristics and interpretability data. Statistical pooling of data was not possible for this review. Therefore, the findings are presented in a narrative form including tables and figures to aid in data presentation. To make a synthesis of the assessments of methodological quality of the different studies, each instrument was rated by accounting for the number of studies performed with an instrument, the appraisal of methodological quality and the consistency of results between studies. Twenty-one studies of 12 instruments were included in the review. The studies were diverse in their theoretical underpinnings, target population/setting and measurement objectives. Measurement objectives included: investigating beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, perceptions and relationships associated with collaboration; measuring collaboration between different levels of care or within a multi-rater/target group; assessing collaboration across teams; or assessing internal participation of both teams and patients.Studies produced validity or interpretability data but none of the studies assessed all validity and reliability properties. However, most of the included studies produced a factor structure or referred to prior factor analysis. A narrative synthesis of the individual study factor structures was

  12. Developing an instrument to measure effective factors on Clinical Learning

    PubMed Central

    DADGARAN, IDEH; SHIRAZI, MANDANA; MOHAMMADI, AEEN; RAVARI, ALI

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although nursing students spend a large part of their learning period in the clinical environment, clinical learning has not been perceived by its nature yet. To develop an instrument to measure effective factors on clinical learning in nursing students. Methods This is a mixed methods study performed in 2 steps. First, the researchers defined “clinical learning” in nursing students through qualitative content analysis and designed items of the questionnaire based on semi-structured individual interviews with nursing students. Then, as the second step, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated using the face validity, content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency evaluated on 227 students from fourth or higher semesters. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed, and then, they were analyzed using Max Qualitative Data Analysis and all of qualitative data were analyzed using SPSS 14. Results To do the study, we constructed the preliminary questionnaire containing 102 expressions. After determination of face and content validities by qualitative and quantitative approaches, the expressions of the questionnaire were reduced to 45. To determine the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was applied. The results indicated that the maximum variance percentage (40.55%) was defined by the first 3 factors while the rest of the total variance percentage (59.45%) was determined by the other 42 factors. Results of exploratory factor analysis of this questionnaire indicated the presence of 3 instructor-staff, students, and educational related factors. Finally, 41 expressions were kept in 3 factor groups. The α-Cronbach coefficient (0.93) confirmed the high internal consistency of the questionnaire. Conclusion Results indicated that the prepared questionnaire was an efficient instrument in the study of the effective factors on clinical learning as viewed by nursing students since it involves 41 expressions and

  13. Comparative performance of color-measuring instruments; second report.

    PubMed

    Billmeyer, F W; Campbell, E D; Marcus, R T

    1974-06-01

    The comparative performance of twelve different late-model color-measuring instruments was studied for precision (short-term repeatability) and conformance of color measurement and color-difference measurement.The instruments tested included four true and two abridged spectrophotometers and six colorimeters, all being integrating-sphere instruments except three 45 degrees /0 degrees colorimeters. All the colorimeters were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates. Forty-four samples taken from the group studied in the previous paper were measured three times on each instrument, by three different well-trained operators. Again, a GE spectrophotometer was considered the reference instrument for conformance studies. Overall, the GE spectrophotometer, the Hunterlab D25D colorimeter, and the Kollmorgen KCS-18 and KCS-40 abridged spectrophotometers demonstrated the best performance. Statistical treatment of the data has been improved vastly since the earlier paper, and some recalculated results are included.

  14. Dissociable neural pathways for the perception and recognition of expressive and instrumental gestures.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Helen L; Frith, Christopher D

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have sought to characterize the neural correlates of gesture representation. However, little is yet known about the representation of different categories of gesture. Here we contrasted the perception of hand gestures that express inner feeling states, e.g. I am angry, I do not care, with the perception of instrumental gestures intended to change the behavior of others by communicating commands, e.g. come here, look over there. We hypothesised that recognition of expressive gestures would activate a network of brain regions associated with mentalising ('theory of mind') whereas instrumental gestures would activate different neural pathways. Twelve normal volunteers underwent fMRI while they watched a series of short videos (3 s duration) of actors performing expressive and instrumental gestures. The volunteers had either to recognise the gesture or to monitor the positions of the hands. As predicted, different neural networks were activated by the observation of instrumental or expressive gestures. The perception of expressive gestures elicited activity in the anterior paracingulate cortex, the amygdala and the temporal poles bilaterally and the right superior temporal sulcus. These regions have all previously been activated during the performance of mentalising tasks. In contrast, instrumental gestures elicited activity in a left-lateralised system previously associated with language and motor imitation.

  15. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  16. An Instrument to Measure Self-Righteousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Belk, Sharyn S.

    A seven item Likert-type scale was developed to measure self-righteousness, defined as the conviction that one's beliefs and actions are correct, especially in contrast to the beliefs and actions of others. The Self Righteousness Questionnaire (SRQ) measures three components of self-righteousness: belittlement, acceptance, and uncertainty. The…

  17. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2-65 years were involved, scales with 3-7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  19. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  20. Solar variability. [measurements by spaceborne instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reference is made to direct measurements carried out by space-borne detectors which have shown variations of the solar constant at the 0.2 percent level, with times scales ranging from days to tens of days. It is contended that these changes do not necessarily reflect variations in the solar luminosity and that, in general, direct measurements have not yet been able to establish (or exclude) solar luminosity changes with longer time scales. Indirect techniques, however, especially radius measurements,suggest that solar luminosity variations of up to approximately 0.7 percent have occurred within a period of tens to hundreds of years.

  1. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  2. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

  3. Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Civil and Uncivil Behaviors in the Hospital Clinical Environment: Implications for Nurse Leaders.

    PubMed

    Tecza, Bonnie M; Boots, Brenda K; Clay, Patricia M; Kirkman, Kendra S; Mains, Brandi C; Newton, Erin E; Olney, Adrienne; Bartlett, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure nursing students' (NSs') perceptions of civil and uncivil behaviors displayed by direct care nurses in the hospital clinical environment. Incivility in nursing has been well documented. However, little is known about perceptions of incivility by NSs in the hospital clinical environment and its effects on NSs' transition to professional practice. A 13-item instrument was developed using literature, faculty feedback, and a semistructured focus group. The instrument was administered to convenience samples of NSs at a Midwest, Magnet-designated pediatric hospital (N = 496). Findings indicated high reliability and validity of the instrument, with a Cronbach's α of .930. This study has produced a valid and reliable survey instrument to measure the perception of civil and noncivil behaviors on the part of clinical nurses as rated by NSs in hospital clinical settings. The use of this instrument will be beneficial to nurse executives in measuring these perceptions in their clinical settings.

  5. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  6. INSTRUMENTAL and OPERATIONAL IMPACTS on SPECTROPHOTOMETER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cottons have been performed on the Uster® High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Two color parameters specific to cotton—Rd (reflectance) and +b (yellowness)—are used to express the color of cotton. Since Rd and +b do not readily...

  7. Road transducer - Objective brake balance measurement without vehicle instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolanin, M.J.; Baptist, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    During braking, the ability to utilize available tire-road friction is determined by brake balance. Previous methods for objectively measuring balance require various degrees of vehicle instrumentation and modification. The Road Transducer is a new measurement technique based on instrumented sections of roadway. Individual braking forces developed by each wheel are measured without vehicle instrumentation, modification, or special set up. This facilitates assessment of many vehicles required for statistical analyses. Brake balance data for several hundred vehicles are presented and provide insight to the nominal levels and variability of braking efficiencies found in the field.

  8. Microcomputer control soft tube measuring-testing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanzhou; Jiang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Yi

    1993-09-01

    Soft tube are key and easily spoiled parts used by the vehicles in the transportation with large numbers. Measuring and testing of the tubes were made by hands for a long time. Cooperating with Harbin Railway Bureau recently we have developed a new kind of automatical measuring and testing instrument In the paper the instrument structure property and measuring principle are presented in details. Centre of the system is a singlechip processor INTEL 80C31 . It can collect deal with data and display the results on LED. Furthermore it brings electromagnetic valves and motors under control. Five soft tubes are measured and tested in the same time all the process is finished automatically. On the hardware and software counter-electromagnetic disturbance methods is adopted efficiently so the performance of the instrument is improved significantly. In the long run the instrument is reliable and practical It solves a quite difficult problem in the railway transportation.

  9. Wind-instrument reflection function measurements in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Keefe, D H

    1996-04-01

    Theoretical and computational analyses of wind-instrument sound production in the time domain have emerged as useful tools for understanding musical instrument acoustics, yet there exist few experimental measurements of the air-column response directly in the time domain. A new experimental, time-domain technique is proposed to measure the reflection function response of woodwind and brass-instrument air columns. This response is defined at the location of sound regeneration in the mouthpiece or double reed. A probe assembly comprised of an acoustic source and microphone is inserted directly into the air column entryway using a foam plug to ensure a leak-free fit. An initial calibration phase involves measurements on a single cylindrical tube of known dimensions. Measurements are presented on an alto saxophone and euphonium. The technique has promise for testing any musical instrument air columns using a single probe assembly and foam plugs over a range of diameters typical of air-column entryways.

  10. Robonaut 2 Humanoid Robot holds instrument to measure air velocity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148268 (14 March 2012) --- Controlled by teams on the ground, Robonaut 2 humanoid robot holds an instrument to measure air velocity during another system check out in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. Robonaut 2 Humanoid Robot holds instrument to measure air velocity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148257 (14 March 2012) --- Controlled by teams on the ground, Robonaut 2 humanoid robot holds an instrument to measure air velocity during another system check out in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. Robonaut 2 Humanoid Robot holds instrument to measure air velocity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148260 (14 March 2012) --- Controlled by teams on the ground, Robonaut 2 humanoid robot holds an instrument to measure air velocity during another system check out in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. Robonaut 2 Humanoid Robot holds instrument to measure air velocity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148273 (14 March 2012) --- Controlled by teams on the ground, Robonaut 2 humanoid robot holds an instrument to measure air velocity during another system check out in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  15. A photophonic instrument concept to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, C. D.

    1982-03-01

    A laboratory model of an instrument to measure the absorption of atmospheric aerosols was designed, built, and tested. The design was based on the photophonic phenomenon discovered by Bell and an acoustic resonator developed by Helmholtz. Experiments were done to show ways the signal amplitude could be improved and the noise reduced and to confirm the instrument was sensitive enough to be practical. The research was undertaken to develop concepts which show promise of being improvements on the instruments that are presently used to measure the absorption of the Sun's radiation by the Earth's atmospheric aerosols.

  16. Designing an Instrument to Measure the QoS of a Spanish Virtual Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abajo, Beatriz Sainz; de La Torre Díez, Isabel; Salcines, Enrique García; Fernández, Javier Burón; Pernas, Francisco Díaz; Coronado, Miguel López; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    This article describes the development of an instrument, in the form of a survey, which is distributed to users of a B2C website selling electronic books in order to ascertain their satisfaction. The opinions compiled from a pilot sample and the exploratory factor analysis carried out point to factors that best summarise the quality of the application analysed here. Analysis of the initial survey, with a total of 40 items, shaped the final instrument, encompassing 18 items divided into 6 dimensions, which measure the perceptions of users of the application in order to improve the contents of the website. Subsequently, a confirmatory factorial analysis is performed, ensuring the reliability of the study and which confirms that the structure of the instrument developed truly measures service quality in accordance with the requirements of the website in terms of offering a space that fulfils consumer expectations in the Information Society.

  17. Patients' perceptions of palliative care: adaptation of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective instrument for use in palliative care, and description of patients' perceptions of care received.

    PubMed

    Sandsdalen, Tuva; Rystedt, Ingrid; Grøndahl, Vigdis Abrahamsen; Hov, Reidun; Høye, Sevald; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-11-02

    Instruments specific to palliative care tend to measure care quality from relative perspectives or have insufficient theoretical foundation. The instrument Quality from the Patient's Perspective (QPP) is based on a model for care quality derived from patients' perceptions of care, although it has not been psychometrically evaluated for use in palliative care. The aim of this study was to adapt the QPP for use in palliative care contexts, and to describe patients' perceptions of the care quality in terms of the subjective importance of the care aspects and the perceptions of the care received. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 which included 191 patients (73% response rate) in late palliative phase at hospice inpatient units, hospice day-care units, wards in nursing homes that specialized in palliative care and homecare districts, all in Norway. An explorative factor analysis using principal component analysis, including data from 184 patients, was performed for psychometric evaluation. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and paired t-tests were used to describe patients' perceptions of their care. The QPP instrument was adapted for palliative care in four steps: (1) selecting items from the QPP, (2) modifying items and (3) constructing new items to the palliative care setting, and (4) a pilot evaluation. QPP instrument specific to palliative care (QPP-PC) consists of 51 items and 12 factors with an eigenvalue ≥1.0, and showed a stable factor solution that explained 68.25% of the total variance. The reliability coefficients were acceptable for most factors (0.79-0.96). Patients scored most aspects of care related to both subjective importance and actual care received as high. Areas for improvement were symptom relief, participation, continuity, and planning and cooperation. The QPP-PC is based on a theoretical model of quality of care, and has its roots in patients' perspectives. The instrument was

  18. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  19. The quantitative measurement of nursing care quality: a systematic review of available instruments.

    PubMed

    Koy, V; Yunibhand, J; Angsuroch, Y

    2016-09-01

    Measuring nursing care quality is essential for nursing practice. However, because of its complexity, such a quality is difficult to define and measure appropriately and a review of available instruments to measure this is important. This systematic review reports on contemporary quantitative instruments for evaluating nursing care quality and suggests some directions for further study. A comprehensive search was conducted in 2015 to review five databases CINAHL, HINARI, ScienceDirect, Google and PubMed, and 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The search covered the earliest literature found up until November 2015. We found that instruments could be categorized from three different measuring perspectives (1) nurses, (2) patients and (3) both nurses and patients. First, only English language literature was sought and only five databases were reviewed. Second, the instruments reviewed are of varying dimensions. Finally, some authors did not provide the psychometric properties of the instruments studied. Many reviews published in peer-reviewed journals have serious methodological flaws that focus on different perspectives in relation to instruments to measure nursing care quality. As the result of this systematic review instruments are focused on different perspectives of nursing care quality for nurse managers. In addition, the findings of this systematic review enhance better understanding of the perspectives in regard to both nurses and patients in the health-care facilities. The results of this systematic review contribute to the ability of nurse managers to improve and consider the measurement of nursing care quality in clinical practice. The first suggests the need to understand the different perceptions of both nurses and patients' instruments regarding NCQ. Also, a health-care quality-related policy should also be formulated to reduce adverse events. The recording system policy must be designed appropriately in order to monitor patient outcomes every year

  20. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sue E; Bosch, Marije; Buchan, Heather; Green, Sally E

    2013-02-14

    Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or its effectiveness). Forty instruments were included for

  1. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or

  2. Young Children's Perceptions of Teacher-Child Relationships: An Evaluation of Two Instruments and the Role of Child Gender in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota Y.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric qualities of two instruments that measure children's perceptions of teacher-child relationships were evaluated in a sample of kindergartners (N = 150): The Young Children's Appraisals of Teacher Support (Y-CATS) and the Kindergartner-Teacher Interaction Computer (KLIC) test. On the Y-CATS, children judged propositions on a…

  3. Development of a Computerized Multifunctional Form and Position Measurement Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Tian, W. Y.

    2006-10-01

    A model machine of multifunctional form and position measurement instrument controlled by a personal computer has been successfully developed. The instrument is designed in rotary table type with a high precision air bearing and the radial rotation error of the rotary table is 0.08 μm. Since a high precision vertical sliding carriage supported by an air bearing is used for the instrument, the straightaway motion error of the carriage is 0.3 μm/200 mm and the parallelism error of the motion of the carriage relative to the rotation axis of the rotary table is 0.4 μm/200 mm. The mathematical models have been established for assessing planar and spatial straightness, flatness, roundness, cylindricity, and coaxality errors. By radial deviation measurement, the instrument can accurately measure form and position errors of such workpieces as shafts, round plates and sleeves of medium or small dimensions with the tolerance grades mostly used in industry.

  4. Influence of pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of instrument dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Marco; Friberg, Anders

    2011-10-01

    The effect of variations in pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of the dynamics of isolated instrumental tones is investigated. A full factorial design was used in a listening experiment. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived dynamics of each stimulus on a scale from pianissimo to fortissimo. Statistical analysis showed that for the instruments included (i.e., clarinet, flute, piano, trumpet, and violin) timbre and loudness had equally large effects, while pitch was relevant mostly for the first three. The results confirmed our hypothesis that loudness alone is not a reliable estimate of the dynamics of musical tones.

  5. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  6. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Dawn Langkamp; Lane, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. Design/methodology/approach: A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1,100…

  7. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Dawn Langkamp; Lane, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. Design/methodology/approach: A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1,100…

  8. Calculations of flexibility module in measurements instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    Piezoelectricity has found a lot of applications since it were discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. There are many applications of the direct piezoelectric effect - the production of an electric potential when stress is applied to the piezoelectric material, as well as the reverse piezoelectric effect - the production of strain when an electric field is applied. This work presents a mathematical model of a new model of vibration sensor. The principle of operation of currently used sensors is based on the idea: changes in thickness of the piezoelectric plates cause the vibration of the mechanical element, so-called “fork”. If the “forks” are not buried by the material deformation of the full tiles broadcasting is transmitted to receiver piezoelectric plate. As a result of vibration of receiver plates the cladding is formed on the potential difference proportional to the force. The value of this voltage is processed by an electronic circuit. In the case of backfilling “forks” the electric signal is lower. At the same time is not generated the potential for cladding tiles. Such construction have a lot of drawbacks, for example: need to use several piezoelectric plates, with the increase in number of components is increased failure of sensors, sensors have now produced two forks resonance, using these sensors in moist materials is often the case that the material remains between the forks and at the same time causes a measurement error. Mentioned disadvantages do not appear in the new proposed sensor design. The Galerkin method of the analysis of considered systems will be presented started from development of the mathematical model, to determine the graphs of flexibility and confirm two methods: exact and approximate. Analyzed beam is a part of the vibration level sensor and the results will be used to identify the electrical parameters of the generator. Designing of technical systems containing piezoelectric transducers is a complex process

  9. Studying teacher attitudes and student perceptions of physics laboratories using a Q-type assessment instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon; Demaree, Dedra; Lin, Yuhfen; Zou, Xulie

    2004-10-01

    A modified version of the Laboratory Program Variables Inventory (LPVI),[1] a Q-type instrument originally developed to assess chemistry laboratories, has been used to study the correlation between instructor expectations and student descriptions. Careful study of the correlation among different classes shows that Q-type assessment is an effective tool for describing course types (as reported in a companion poster). Here we examine correlations between instructor expectations and student perceptions among different sections of the same course, as well as differences in student perceptions among the sections taught by the same instructor. This Q-type assessment tool may be used to diagnose problems in curriculum development and instructor education. 1. M. R. Abraham, `A descriptive instrument for use in investigating science laboratories,' Journal of Research in Science Teaching 19 (2) 155-165 (1982).

  10. Measuring Faculty Attitudes and Perceptions toward Disability at a Four-Year University: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop and field test the ExCEL survey instrument, intended to measure faculty attitudes toward and perceptions about students with disabilities at four-year colleges and universities. A secondary purpose was to examine how demographic characteristics of the sample and prior disability-focused training…

  11. The CANEP Scale: Preliminary Psychometric Findings of a Measure of Youths' Perception of Their Neighborhood Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisegger, Corinna; Cloetta, Bernhard; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the environment on the quality of life and health is considered to be important for adults as well as for children and adolescents. To include the subjective view of children and adolescents in this context, instruments for measuring the perception of the environment are needed. The new scale CANEP (Children's and Adolescents'…

  12. Measuring Faculty Attitudes and Perceptions toward Disability at a Four-Year University: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop and field test the ExCEL survey instrument, intended to measure faculty attitudes toward and perceptions about students with disabilities at four-year colleges and universities. A secondary purpose was to examine how demographic characteristics of the sample and prior disability-focused training…

  13. A systematic review of measurement properties of instruments assessing presenteeism.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Maria B; Dennett, Liz; Waye, Arianna; Jacobs, Phillip; Thompson, Angus H

    2015-02-01

    Presenteeism (decreased productivity while at work) is reported to be a major occupational problem in many countries. Challenges exist for identifying the optimal approach to measure presenteeism. Evidence of the relative value of presenteeism instruments to support their use in primary studies is needed. To assess and compare the measurement properties (ie, validity, reliability, responsiveness) and the quality of the evidence of presenteeism instruments. Systematic review. Comprehensive searches of electronic databases were conducted up to October 2012. Twenty-three presenteeism instruments were examined. Methodological quality was appraised with the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) checklist. A best-evidence synthesis approach was used in the analysis. The titles and abstracts of 1767 articles were screened, with 289 full-text articles reviewed for eligibility. Of these, 40 studies assessing the measurement properties of presenteeism instruments were identified. The 3 presenteeism instruments with the strongest level of evidence on more than 1 measurement property were the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, 6-item version (content validity, internal consistency, construct validity, convergent validity, and responsiveness); the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (internal consistency, convergent validity, and responsiveness); and the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ; internal consistency and structural validity). Only the HWQ was assessed for criterion validity, with unknown quality of the evidence. Most presenteeism instruments have been examined for some form of validity; evidence for criterion validity is virtually absent. The selection of instruments for use in primary studies depends on weak forms of validity. Further research should focus on the goal of a comprehensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of existing tests of presenteeism, with emphasis on criterion validity.

  14. Analysis and performance of a parallel axis flatness measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Eric; Schalcosky, David; Couey, Jeremiah; Vallance, Ryan

    2006-02-15

    This article describes the design, analysis, and performance of a flatness inspection instrument to measure workpieces with up to 1 mm departure from flatness. The instrument uses two air bearing spindles arranged with parallel axes to simultaneously rotate a workpiece and slowly pass a capacitance probe over the spinning surface. Capacitance probes offer user-selectable sensitivity to provide multiple combinations of measurement range and resolution. In tests with a high sensitivity probe, the instrument demonstrated measurement repeatability of 25 nm on a null-set 75 mm workpiece. This article presents a complete homogeneous transformation matrix analysis of the propagation of errors into the measurement as well as sample measurements on diamond turned workpieces.

  15. Selective loss of timbre perception for keyboard and percussion instruments following a right temporal lesion.

    PubMed

    Kohlmetz, C; Müller, S V; Nager, W; Münte, T F; Altenmüller, E

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man WDK, who experienced selective loss of timbre perception for keyboard and percussion instruments following a right temporal stroke comprising the anterior superior and medial gyrus and parts of the insular region. Formerly an avid listener to music, the sound of an orchestra appeared to be "flat" to him. WDK and a matched control subject underwent a detailed neuropsychological test battery covering basic auditory function (audiometry and just notable difference for pitch shifts), specific auditory function (recognition of environmental sounds), specific musical functions like discrimination of pitch, interval, contour, rhythm and metre, recognition of familiar melodies, emotional responsiveness, perception of timbre and auditory spectral analysis. While WDK displayed no deficits in primary auditory function, the test battery revealed a selective impairment in the perception of timbre of keyboard and percussion instruments which could be traced to a deficit in discriminating rapid changes of the spectral composition of a tone. Hence, these findings demonstrate the existence of highly specific neural networks underlying isolated aspects of timbre perception in the right anterior temporal lobe.

  16. Performance evaluation of RF electric and magnetic field measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesmith, B. C. W.; Ruggers, P. S.

    1982-03-01

    The need to quantify the electromagnetic fields emitted by industrial, scientific, or medical (ISM) products operating in the 10 to 300 MHs region requires the testing of instrumentation suitable for use in RF radiation hazard surveys. To meet this requirement, several procedures were devised to test the accuracy of the RF survey instrumentation. Measurement systems and protocols were developed and evaluated. The electric (E) an magnetic (H) field measuring instruments were tested for linearity, calibration accuracy, amplitude modulation response, directivity, antenna patterns, temperature response, drift and noise, radiofrequency interference and polarization response. Tests were performed on three commercially available RF survey instruments and a one-of-a-kind device over the 10 to 100 MHs region. Complete tests were only performed at the ISM frequency of 27.12 MHs. Errors for each of the tests are presented in tabular form.

  17. Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-05-05

    Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

  18. Third-generation FAGE instrument for tropospheric hydroxyl radical measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Hard, T. M.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; George, L. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    A single-stage, frequency-doubled, copper vapor laser-pumped dye laser has been constructed to be used in the measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations. A new photon counting instrument is used for HO fluorescence detection. Theoretical and experimental studies of instrument performance show better sensitivities and reduced photolytic interferences than have been possible with previous systems based upon Nd:YAG pumping.

  19. Standardization Procedure for Two Instruments for Color Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    contract and reported separately. In one of these contracts Billmeyer and Alessi addressed the general reliability of commercial color instruments...collection and the standardization test procedure. 1. F. W. Billmeyer , Jr. and P. J. Alessi (1979, "Assessment of Color- Measuring Instruments for Objective...U.S. Army Natick Research and De- velopment Command, Natick, HA 01760 (ADA094163) Billmeyer , F. W., Jr. and Alessi, P.J. (1979), "Assessment of

  20. 40 CFR 1066.130 - Measurement instrument calibrations and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air flow; the linearity verification described in § 1066.135 applies for the following measurements... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment, Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and... apply for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow. (b) The linearity verification...

  1. An Assessment Instrument to Measure Geospatial Thinking Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…

  2. An Instrument to Measure Chickering's Vector of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; Delworth, Ursula

    1980-01-01

    Describes the construction of an instrument to measure identity, primarily based on Chickering's approach, i.e., the Erwin Identity Scale (EIS), designed to measure the three main concepts comprising identity: confidence, sexual identity, and conceptions about body and appearance. (Author)

  3. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  4. An algorithm for stylus instruments to measure aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Ock; Park, Kilsu; Chon Park, Byong; Lee, Yoon Woo

    2005-05-01

    A reliable algorithm is developed for the analysis of machined aspheric surfaces with a stylus instrument. This research has been done prior to the evaluation of uncertainties in the aspheric surface analysis. The algorithm considers two factors: the pickup configuration (pivoted arm) and the stylus radius. It also compensates for the sample tilt and the axis offset (the setup error) in the best-fit least-squares process. The algorithm consists of two parts for instrument calibration and aspheric surface analysis, and has been coded by means of C++ and MATLAB. Further it was also applied to the instrument calibration and the aspheric surface measurement, and the results were compared with the instrument-produced ones. The developed algorithm shows better performance over the commercial instrument in both the instrument calibration and the analysis of aspheric surfaces. Besides the uncertainty analysis, the developed algorithm will be a basis for the applications that the commercial instrument cannot provide with its own built-in code.

  5. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide.

  6. The dynamic response of instruments measuring instantaneous solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Suehrcke, H.; Ling, C.P.; McCormick, P.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Conventional thermal pyranometers and pyheliometers used to measure solar radiation are unable to follow rapid changes of radiation associated with clear/cloudy transitions during partly cloudy conditions. As a consequence, significant errors can occur in the measurement of individual instantaneous radiation values. A simple model for the dynamic response of thermal radiation instruments is developed. The model suggests that the readings of a thermal radiometer can be corrected using the rate of change of the indicated reading and the instrument time constant. It is shown experimentally that the error correction applied to the signal of a thermal pyranometer yields almost identical results as a photovoltaic pyranometer. The error correction allows conventional thermal radiation instruments to be used for instantaneous radiation measurements.

  7. Reliability of the Respiratory Movement Measuring Instrument, RMMI.

    PubMed

    Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Romberg, Karin

    2010-09-01

    A new instrument to measure breathing movements, Respiratory Movement Measuring Instrument (RMMI), has been developed. There is still a lack of knowledge about the reliability of the instrument. The aim was to investigate reliability of the RMMI. In this trial, RMMI (ReMo Inc. Keldnaholt, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used. Inter- and intrarater reliability was performed on 30 volunteers who were tested three times in the supine position. Two of the tests were performed by one of the authors and the third test by the other. Intrasubject reliability was tested on 10 volunteers 12 times randomly during 1 h. Intra-instrument reliability was performed by measuring 12 solid surfaces where the instrument was placed horizontally against a couch or vertically against a chair. Intra-rater reliability: The correlations were moderate to strong (r = 0.54-0.94) except for the left lower thoracic position r = 0.35. Inter-rater reliability: The correlations were strong (r = 0.71-0.99) except for the left lower thoracic position r = 0.35. The strongest correlations were seen on the tests on abdominal breathing movements. Intra subject reliability: The over-all difference within and between the participants and test was non-significant (P = 0.98). The average difference between the tests was 1.4 mm. Intra instrument: The differences between the measurements were small (mean 0.15 mm). The over-all difference was non-significant (P = 0.79). The RMMI is a reliable instrument and usable in both clinical practice and research.

  8. Optimizing Collocation of Instrument Measurements and Field Sampling Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, G. T.; Durden, D.; Ayres, E.; Barnett, D.; Krauss, R.; Luo, H.; Meier, C. L.; Metzger, S.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will provide data from automated instrument measurements and manual sampling activities. To reliably infer ecosystem driver-response relationships, two contradicting requirements need to be considered: Both types of observations should be representative of the same target area while minimally impacting each other. For this purpose, a simple model was created that determines an optimal area for collocating plot-based manual field sampling activities with respect to the automated measurements. The maximum and minimum distances of the collocation areas were determined from the instrument source area distribution function in combination with sampling densities and a threshold, respectively. Specifically, the maximum distance was taken as the extent from within which 90% of the value observed by an instrument is sourced. Sampling densities were then generated through virtually distributing activity-specific impact estimates across the instrument source area. The minimum distance was determined as the position closest to the instrument location where the sampling density falls below a threshold that ensures <10% impact on the source area informing the instrument measurements. At most sites, a 30m minimum distance ensured minimal impact of manual field sampling on instrument measurements, however, sensitive sites (e.g., tundra) required a larger minimum distance. To determine how the model responds to uncertainties in its inputs, a numerical sensitivity analysis was conducted based on multivariate error distributions that retain the covariance structure. In 90% of all cases, the model was shown to be robust against 10% (1 σ) deviations in its inputs, continuing to yield a minimum distance of 30 m. For the remaining 10% of all cases, preliminary results suggest a prominent dependence of the minimum distance on climate decomposition index, which we use here as a proxy for the sensitivity of an environment to disturbance.

  9. Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V. Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) is a new custom-built instrument for the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The CPL can provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its state-of-the-art technology gives it a high repetition rate, and photon-counting detection, and includes a low-pulse-energy laser. The CPL was first deployed at the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  10. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  11. Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

  12. Towards a measurement instrument for determinants of innovations

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Margot A.H.; Paulussen, Theo G.W.M.; Van Dommelen, Paula; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a short instrument to measure determinants of innovations that may affect its implementation. Design We pooled the original data from eight empirical studies of the implementation of evidence-based innovations. The studies used a list of 60 potentially relevant determinants based on a systematic review of empirical studies and a Delphi study among implementation experts. Each study used similar methods to measure both the implementation of the innovation and determinants. Missing values in the final data set were replaced by plausible values using multiple imputation. We assessed which determinants predicted completeness of use of the innovation (% of recommendations applied). In addition, 22 implementation experts were consulted about the results and about implications for designing a short instrument. Setting Eight innovations introduced in Preventive Child Health Care or schools in the Netherlands. Participants Doctors, nurses, doctor's assistants and teachers; 1977 respondents in total. Results The initial list of 60 determinants could be reduced to 29. Twenty-one determinants were based on the pooled analysis of the eight studies, seven on the theoretical expectations of the experts consulted and one new determinant was added on the basis of the experts' practical experience. Conclusions The instrument is promising and should be further validated. We invite researchers to use and explore the instrument in multiple settings. The instrument describes how each determinant should preferably be measured (questions and response scales). It can be used both before and after the introduction of an innovation to gain an understanding of the critical change objectives. PMID:24951511

  13. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

  14. Spectral ultraviolet radiation instrument and preliminary measurements in Mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirmhirn, Inge; Sreedharan, C. R.; Venugopal, G.

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of spectral ultraviolet irradiance require spectroradiometers with high resolution and stability, and well known behavior of the instrument. A UV-spectrophotometer is described and methods of calibrations are shown. A set of measurements in the Utah Rocky Mountains (Snowbird-Hidden Peak, in 3300 m elevation) compared to those at the Wasatch Front (Logan, 1400 m) is discussed. Several sets of measurements are used to show the effect of solar zenith angle, elevation and cloudcover on direct solar and diffuse irradiance.

  15. Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

  16. Reliability and validity of a new instrument to measure tolerance of everyday risk for children.

    PubMed

    Hill, A; Bundy, A C

    2014-01-01

    A modicum of everyday risk provides opportunities for children to extend the limits of their competence. However, increasingly negative perceptions of risk have led to risk-averse behaviours in adults, including severely restricting children's play. The degree to which risk in play is tolerated by adults impacts on the lives and experiences of children. However, no measure of adult tolerance to everyday risk exists. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument examining adults' tolerances of risk during children's play. A 31-item survey of risk tolerance was developed based on a Norwegian model of risky play; 100 parents and teachers of children aged 3 to 13 years completed the instrument. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis. Psychometric properties of the data were examined. Iterative analyses produced an instrument with goodness of fit statistics in the acceptable range, a logical item hierarchy, person separation index >2 and reliability index of 0.87. There was a strong positive relationship between participants' self-perceived risk tolerance and scores on the instrument, and between the age of the child and scores on the instrument. The Tolerance of Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) yields valid and reliable data for measuring the success of interventions to change adults' everyday risk beliefs, and for exploring the impact of adults' risk tolerance on children's play and development. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Algorithm for stylus instruments to measure aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byong C.; Lee, Y. W.; Lee, Chang-ock; Park, Kilsu

    2005-02-01

    A reliable algorithm was developed for the analysis of the machined aspheric surfaces with the stylus instrument. The research has been done as a prior step, with the intent to evaluate the uncertainties in the aspheric surfaces analysis as well as to make the applications that the commercial instruments cannot provide with its own code implemented inside. The algorithm considered two important factors in the instrument-calibration and the aspheric analysis: pickup configuration (pivoted arm) and the stylus radius. It also compensates for the sample tilt and axis offset due to the setup error in the analysis of aspheric surface. The algorithm has been coded by means of C++ and MATLAB. The algorithm was also applied to the real measurement, and compared with the instrument-produced results. Our algorithm found calibration constants better fitting the calibration ball in the instrument-calibration without noticeable cost of the speed. In conclusion, the developed algorithm can cover, and further, shows better performance over the commercial one in both of the instrument-calibration and analysis of aspheric surfaces.

  18. [History of instrumental measuring of hearing acuity: the first acumeter].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1992-09-01

    The necessity of measuring the acuity of hearing in a reproducible way arose for the first time when the invention of Volta's pile in 1800 seemed to present the opportunity of curing deafness. For this purpose Chr. H. Wolke in Jever, Northern Germany, in 1802 devised two instruments which he called "acumeter". Details of these instruments were hardly known, and Wolke's publication was believed to be lost. The author has now succeeded in tracing Wolke's publication and another associated paper by J. J. A. Sprenger. Hence, the circumstances of Wolke's and Sprenger's work and details of these first acumeters are now being published together with original figures and the correct dimensions of the instruments. The acumeters had a pendulum-like hammer that would strike against a plate swinging down from varying heights that could be read in degrees of angle from a scale. One of the instruments was made of wood. It was 1.50 m high, with the pendulum raised to the maximal position 2.70 m. The other instrument of similar construction was made of metal and about half the size of the first one, with a height of 0.70 m or 1.30 m respectively. For comparison Itard's acumeter is presented which was published in 1821. It worked on the same principle, and it is likely that Itard had been inspired by Wolke's paper. The development of mechanical acumeters after Wolke's and Itard's instruments is outlined briefly.

  19. Measuring the post-adoption customer perception of mobile banking services.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Fang, Kwoting

    2009-02-01

    With liberalization and internalization in the financial market and progress in information technology, banks face dual competitive pressures to provide service quality and administrative efficiency. That these recent developments are fueled by technology might misleadingly suggest that the adoption of mobile banking is largely based on technological criteria. The purpose of this study is to establish a better measurement model for postadoption user perception of mobile banking services. Based on 458 valid responses of mobile banking users, the results show that the instrument, consisting of 21 items and 6 factors, is a reliable, valid, and useful measurement for assessing the postadoption perception of mobile banking.

  20. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Zhang, Z M; Wang, Y J; Li, D W; Zhou, W; Tang, H H; Liu, Y T; Chai, P; Shuai, L; Huang, X C; Liu, S Q; Zhu, M L; Jiang, X P; Zhang, Y W; Li, T; Ma, B; Sun, S F; Sun, L Y; Wang, Q; Lu, Z R; Zhang, T; Wei, L

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  1. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  2. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. J.; Zhang, Z. M.; Wang, Y. J.; Li, D. W.; Zhou, W.; Tang, H. H.; Liu, Y. T.; Chai, P.; Shuai, L.; Huang, X. C.; Liu, S. Q.; Zhu, M. L.; Jiang, X. P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Li, T.; Ma, B.; Sun, S. F.; Sun, L. Y.; Wang, Q.; Lu, Z. R.; Zhang, T.; Wei, L.

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  3. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  4. Miniature implantable instrument measures and transmits heart function data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Heart diameter is derived from measured transit time of 2.25 MHz ultrasonic pulse between two piezoelectric crystals attached to diametrically opposite heart surfaces. Miniature instrument implanted in chest telemeters information to external receiver-converter. System permits continual dimensional data recording taken from awake animals during long-term experiments.

  5. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Community College Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure community college students' satisfaction with their educational experiences. The initial survey included 95 questions addressing community college student experiences. Data were collected from 558 community college students during spring of 2001. An exploratory…

  6. Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    2003-01-01

    A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

  7. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  8. Measurement of acute nonspecific low back pain perception in primary care physical therapy: reliability and validity of the brief illness perception questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hallegraeff, Joannes M; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G

    2013-02-01

    The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in common musculoskeletal disorders like acute low back pain have not been adequately studied. Patients' perceptions vary across different populations and affect coping styles. Thus, our aim was to determine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Dutch language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in acute non-specific low back pain patients in primary care physical therapy. A non-experimental cross-sectional study with two measurements was performed. Eighty-four acute low back pain patients, in multidisciplinary health care center in Dutch primary care with a sample mean (SD) age of 42 (12) years, participated in the study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest procedures (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and limits of agreement) were evaluated at a one-week interval. The concurrent validity of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was examined by using the Mental Health Component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 - 0.83); and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test-retest reliability was acceptable: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.82), however, the limits of agreement were large. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient measuring concurrent validity 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 - 0.80). The Dutch version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring patients' perceptions in acute low back pain patients, showing acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Concurrent validity is adequate, however, the instrument may be unsuitable for detecting changes in low

  9. Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi; Shimada, Kazuhito

    2008-05-15

    A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

  10. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  11. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  12. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  13. Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.C.

    1980-09-01

    A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A portable absorbed dose measuring instrument with gamma discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quam, W. M.; Wilde, W. I.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of an electronic instrument for measuring the radiation dose absorbed by tissues are presented. The detector is a sphere of tissue-equivalent plastic with a single wire located on a diameter of the sphere. The electronic circuits and method of operation of the detector are described. Advantages are the small size and easy portability plus ability to selectively measure neutron and gamma plus neutron events.

  15. Direct Comparisons of Radiances Measured by Independent Contemporary ERB Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeffelin, Martial; Wielicki, Bruce; Priestley, Kory; Duvel, Jean Philippe; Viollier, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of radiance measurements from overlapping independent Earth and cloud radiation budget (ERB) missions are an important contribution to the validation process of the these missions and are essential to the construction of a consistent long-term record of ERB observations. Measurements from the CERES instrument on TRMM are compared to ScaRaB on Resurs (Jan-Mar 1999) and CERES on Terra (Mar-Apr 2000).

  16. Design of a compact, low-price, lifetime measuring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.; Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin

    1994-08-01

    The technical requirements for a small, rugged, and moderately- priced device for measuring fluorescence lifetimes have been investigated. The suitability and performance of various lifetime measuring schemes were compared. Based on these investigations a compact time-domain instrument was developed allowing measurement of fluorescence decays with a time resolution well below 1 ns. A semiconductor laser (frequency-doubled, if necessary) is used as a light source. Detection is done with a miniaturized photomultiplier. In favorable cases measurement of a fluorescent decay curve is accomplished within less than one minute.

  17. Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight

    PubMed Central

    Ginis, Harilaos; Sahin, Onurcan; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Optical measurement of straylight in the human eye is a challenging task. Issues such as illumination geometry, detector sensitivity and dynamic range as well as various inherent artifacts must be addressed. We developed a novel instrument based on the principle of double-pass optical integration adapted for fast measurements in a clinical setting. The experimental setup was validated using four different diffusers introduced in front of the eyes of ten subjects. Measurement limitations and future implications of rapid optical measurement of straylight in ophthalmic diagnosis are discussed. PMID:25401017

  18. Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to compare career choice influences and perceptions of nursing among healthcare students.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Sok Ying; Wu, Ling Ting; Lopez, Violeta; Chow, Yeow Leng; Lim, Siriwan; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Wang, Wenru

    2017-04-27

    With the availability of more healthcare courses and an increased intake of nursing students, education institutions are facing challenges to attract school leavers to enter nursing courses. The comparison of career choice influences and perception of nursing among healthcare students can provide information for recruitment strategies. An instrument to compare the influences of healthcare career choice is lacking. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to compare the influences of healthcare career choice with perceptions of nursing as a career choice. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase one, two sets of scales with parallel items that measure the influences of healthcare career choice and perceptions of nursing as a career choice were developed through an earlier qualitative study, literature review, and expert validation. Phase two involved testing the construct validity, concurrent validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 283 first year healthcare students who were recruited at two education institutions in Singapore. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 35-parallel items in a six-factor solution (personal interest, prior healthcare exposure, self-efficacy, perceived nature of work, job prospects, and social influences) that explained 59 and 64% of the variance for healthcare career choice and nursing as a career choice respectively. A high correlation (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) was obtained with an existing tool, confirming the concurrent validity. The internal consistency was sufficient with Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 for healthcare career choice and 0.94 for nursing as a career choice. The test-retest reliability was acceptable with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.63 for healthcare career choice and 0.60 for nursing as a career choice. The instrument provides opportunities for understanding the differences between influences of healthcare career choice and

  19. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  20. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  1. Ozone absorption coefficients' role in Dobson instrument ozone measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The differences of 10% or more between the laboratory measurements of UV absorption coefficients by different investigators indicate accuracies that are quite inadequate for current needs in the measurement of atmospheric ozone. The standard band-integrated set of coefficients now used with the Dobson instrument are mutually consistent to about 2%, but their absolute accuracy is still in question. The accurate calculation of band-integrated coefficients must take account of their dependence on source spectral irradiance, atmospheric spectral transmittance, mean ozone temperature, and instrument spectral transmittance. A careful examination shows that Komhyr's (1980) case for an error of about +5% in the standard Dobson AD ozone estimation is subject to large uncertainties and certain lacks of independence. The obvious solution to this accuracy problem lies in better laboratory measurements of ozone absorption.

  2. Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Benito, Antonio; Nourrit, Vincent; Artal, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    A compact and robust instrument for measuring the alignment of ocular surfaces has been designed and used in living eyes. It is based on recording Purkinje images (reflections of light at the ocular surfaces) at nine different angular fixations. A complete analysis on the causes of misalignments of Purkinje images and its relations with those physical variables to be measured (global eye tilt, lens decentration and lens tilt) is presented. A research prototype based on these ideas was built and tested in normal and pseudophakic eyes (after cataract surgery). The new analysis techniques, together with the semicircular extended source and multiple fixation tests that we used, are significant improvements towards a robust approach to measuring the misalignments of the ocular surfaces in vivo. This instrument will be of use in both basic studies of the eye’s optics and clinical ophthalmology.

  3. Review of the Literature on Survey Instruments Used to Collect Data on Hospital Patients' Perceptions of Care

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Nicholas G; Brown, Julie; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hays, Ron D

    2005-01-01

    Objective To review the existing literature (1980–2003) on survey instruments used to collect data on patients' perceptions of hospital care. Study Design Eight literature databases were searched (PubMED, MEDLINE Pro, MEDSCAPE, MEDLINEplus, MDX Health, CINAHL, ERIC, and JSTOR). We undertook 51 searches with each of the eight databases, for a total of 408 searches. The abstracts for each of the identified publications were examined to determine their applicability for review. Methods of Analysis For each instrument used to collect information on patient perceptions of hospital care we provide descriptive information, instrument content, implementation characteristics, and psychometric performance characteristics. Principal Findings The number of institutional settings and patients used in evaluating patient perceptions of hospital care varied greatly. The majority of survey instruments were administered by mail. Response rates varied widely from very low to relatively high. Most studies provided limited information on the psychometric properties of the instruments. Conclusions Our review reveals a diversity of survey instruments used in assessing patient perceptions of hospital care. We conclude that it would be beneficial to use a standardized survey instrument, along with standardization of the sampling, administration protocol, and mode of administration. PMID:16316435

  4. Measuring the Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Staff toward Older People: Sensitivity of Measurement Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers…

  5. NCTM workshop splinter session, IR thermal measurement instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    The splinter session dealing with commercial industrial thermal measurement state-of-the-hardware had a total attendance of 15. Two papers were presented in the splinter session as follows: (1) Development of an Infrared Imaging System for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Alexander D. Pline, NASA LeRC; (2) A Space-qualified PtSi Thermal Imaging System, Robert W. Astheimer, Barnes Engineering Div., EDO Corp. In addition a brief description of SPRITE detector technology was presented by Richard F. Leftwich of Magnovox. As anticipated, the discussions were concerned mainly with thermal imaging figures of merit rather than those for point measurement instruments. The need for uniform guidelines whereby infrared thermal imaging instruments could be specified and evaluated was identified as most important, particularly where temperature measurements are required. Presently there are differences in the way different manufacturers present significant performance parameters in their instrument data sheets. Furthermore, the prospective user has difficulty relating these parameters to actual measurement needs, and procedures by which performance can be verified are poorly defined. The current availability of powerful thermal imaging diagnostic software was discussed.

  6. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  7. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  8. Measurements Verifying the Optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa; Kletzing, Craig; Bounds, Scott; Sigsbee, Kristine M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the process of breaking and reconnecting of opposing magnetic field lines, and is often associated with tremendous energy transfer. The energy transferred by reconnection directly affects people through its influence on geospace weather and technological systems - such as telecommunication networks, GPS, and power grids. However, the mechanisms that cause magnetic reconnection are not well understood. The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) will use four spacecraft in a pyramid formation to make three-dimensional measurements of the structures in magnetic reconnection occurring in the Earth's magnetosphere.The spacecraft will repeatedly sample these regions for a prolonged period of time to gather data in more detail than has been previously possible. MMS is scheduled to be launched in March of 2015. The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) will be used on MMS to measure the electric fields associated with magnetic reconnection. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This paper concentrates on measurements of the EDI’s optics system. The testing process includes measuring the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state. The measurements agree well with simulations and we are confident in the performance of the EDI instrument.

  9. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  10. Brief Report: Attention Effect on a Measure of Social Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Butcher, Brianne; Walkowiak, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A measure of social perception (CASP) was used to assess differences in social perception among typically developing children, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Significant between-group differences were found in recognition of emotions in video, with children…

  11. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  12. Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument.

    PubMed

    Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, José; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

    2013-01-01

    The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused.

  13. Intradiscal pressure measurements above an instrumented fusion. A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Weinhoffer, S L; Guyer, R D; Herbert, M; Griffith, S L

    1995-03-01

    An in vitro study to determine the intradiscal pressure changes during flexion in levels above a simulated fusion was performed. To determine if intradiscal pressure increases more during flexion in discs above an instrumented spinal segment compared to an uninstrumented segment. The progressive degeneration of intervertebral discs adjacent to a fused or fixed segment is a phenomenon that is noted but poorly understood. Intuitively, the degeneration appears to be a function of altered biomechanics of the motion segments in the spine. Two intervertebral disc levels were evaluated, L3-L4 and L4-L5 from each of six fresh frozen cadaver spines. Pressure measurements were taken with the spine uninstrumented, with bilateral pedicle screw-rod instrumentation from L5 to S1, and with bilateral pedicle screw-rod instrumentation from L4 to S1. Pressure measurements were accomplished with Millar Mikro-Tip pressure transducers. The transducers were placed within the nucleus pulposus of L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral discs. Pressure data were recorded by computer data acquisition. The pressure data were compared by intervertebral level and by the effects of added instrumentation. In general, the addition of instrumentation significantly affected the intradiscal pressure in the levels above a simulated fusion. The intradiscal pressure increased as the amount of levels involved in the simulated fusion increased. The intradiscal pressure increased as flexion motion increased. A greater increase was seen at the L4-L5 level than the L3-L4 level. When L5-S1 fixation was added, the intradiscal pressure increased. When L4-S1 fixation was added, the intradiscal pressure further increased. This study demonstrated increasing intradiscal pressures during flexion.

  14. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance... or 0.2% of max K 0.2% of pt. K or 0.1% of max K 0.1% of max. Dewpoint sensor for intake air, PM.... Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow meters c n 1 s 1 Hz means of 5 Hz samples 2.5% of pt....

  15. Instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Improved instrumentation suitable for measuring aircraft noise and sonic booms is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable and amplified by a zero drive amplifier. The converter consists of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor mixer, and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. The improvements include automatic tuning compensation against changes in static microphone capacitance and means for providing a remote electrical calibration capability.

  16. Spectral Measurements of PMCs from SBUV/2 Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The SBUV/2 (Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet, model 2) instrument is designed to monitor ozone stratospheric profile and total column ozone using measurements of the Earth's backscattered ultraviolet albedo. We have previously demonstrated that the normal radiance measurements from SBUV/2 instruments, which sample 12 discrete wavelengths between 252 and 340 nm during each scan, can be used to identify polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Some SBUV/2 instruments also periodically view the earth in continuous scan mode, covering the wavelength range 160-400 nm with 0.15 nm sampling. Analysis of these data show PMC occurrence rates similar to the normal discrete scan results, although the observation technique reduces the number of daily measurements by a factor of six. PMC observed by SBUV/2 instruments show a monotonic variation in the residual spectral albedo over the wavelength range 250 300 nm, with maximum enhancements of 10 15% at 250 nm. This result is consistent with microphysical model predictions from Jensen [1989. A numerical model of polar mesospheric cloud formation and evolution, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Colorado]. We find no evidence for a systematic localized increase in PMC residual albedo for wavelengths near 260 nm, in contrast to the recently reported results from the MSX UVISI instrument [Carbary J.F., et al., 2004. Evidence for bimodal particle distribution from the spectra of polar mesospheric clouds. Geophysics Research. Letters 31, L13108]. This result is observed for three different SBUV/2 instruments in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere data over a 13-year span. Our Mie scattering calculations show that the location and magnitude of the 260 nm hump feature is dependent upon the specific scattering angles appropriate to the MSX measurements. Although it explains the MSX spectrum, the bimodal size distribution proposed by Carbary et al. (2004), cannot explain the lack of scattering angle dependence of the SBUV/2 spectral shapes. The

  17. Measurements verifying the optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa M.

    This thesis concentrates on laboratory measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), focussing primarily on the EDI optics of the system. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This drift velocity is determined using two electron beams directed perpendicular to the magnetic field returning to be detected by the spacecraft. The EDI will be used on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission. The EDI optic's testing process takes measurements of the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state via simulation. The optics state tables were created in simulations and we are using these measurements to confirm their accuracy. The setup consisted of an apparatus made up of the EDI's optics and sensor electronics was secured to the two axis gear arm inside a vacuum chamber. An electron beam was projected at the apparatus which then used the EDI optics to focus the beam into the micro-controller plates and onto the circular 32 pad annular ring that makes up the sensor. The concentration of counts per pad over an interval of 1ms were averaged over 25 samples and plotted in MATLAB. The results of the measurements plotted agreed well with the simulations, providing confidence in the EDI instrument.

  18. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmans, R. H.; Nieuwenkamp, H. J.; Kok, G. J. P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Tevoert, M.; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a small polymer coated aspherical lens with a clear aperture of about 12 mm, and a large conical convex lens with a clear aperture of 300 mm developed for the ESO Very Large Telescope. The participating laboratories were allowed to follow their own measurement strategies. Both tactile and optical measuring instruments were used, as well as single point and imaging techniques. The measured data were compared with respect to the root-mean-square (RMS), peak-to-valley and Zernike polynomial representations of the measured deviations from the nominal shape. The comparison shows for five out of eight measuring instruments/methods a very good agreement of the measured topographies within 14 nm (RMS).

  19. Issues in selection of instruments to measure negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David Gordon

    2013-11-01

    Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Marder Negative Factor and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of spectral irradiances from broadband instrument measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Susana B.; Nelson, Donald W.; Deferrari, Guillermo; Camilion, Carolina

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of the ozone hole the use of spectral and multiband instruments in UV radiation measurements became more common, but time series for these instruments are still relatively short to determine trends. Nevertheless, systematic measurements of ozone column have been performed since late fifties at several stations and with worldwide coverage since late seventies, and long time series of broadband instruments (Pyranometers, UV and erythemally weighted) are also available at stations all over the world. In this paper we introduce a multi- regressive model that allows inference of spectral or narrowband irradiances from ozone total column and broadband irradiances, in places where a relatively short time series of spectral irradiances is available. To test the model, measurements under all weather, solar zenith angle and ground conditions performed at three of the stations of the NSAF UV Radiation Monitoring Network were used. The model generated very good results over a wide variety of situations. Broadband pyranometer data from the NOAA/CMDL surface radiation budget database for the South Pole Station were used in the model to estimate the daily-integrated narrowband irradiances. A time series of monthly means for the narrowband 303.030-307.692 nm were then computed, dating back to 1978.

  1. Measuring community coalition effectiveness using the ICE instrument.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Atwood, Jan R; Stoner, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the development and psychometric testing of the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE) instrument, which was based on the conceptual model Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy. Sixty-one items were derived from literature about successful coalitions, and the ICE instrument was tested for reliability and validity. A national panel of eight experts conducted content validity. Remaining tests involved a sample of 61 members and leaders of a large midwestern coalition (77% response rate, n=47). Content validity involved a two-stage process for rigorous item development and quantification (0.88, p<0.05). Internal consistency was based on bivariate Pearson's correlation of 0.30-0.70 for two-item scales and Cronbach's alpha(alpha=0.70). Construct validity was assessed by correlation analysis, independent Student's t tests, and informal coalition feedback. The final 30-item version of ICE is psychometrically sound. Findings were shared with the local coalition, and, in support of the instrument's validity, members and leaders found this information useful for promoting coalition sustainability by identifying internal strengths and areas for improvement. The ICE instrument adds to the body of literature by measuring critical constructs of coalition effectiveness and has significant application for public health nurses working as evaluators for coalitions engaged in community health programming.

  2. An intelligent radiological instrument for field samples and contamination measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarevic, Vujo R.; Djuric, Danko J.

    1993-09-01

    A new intelligent radiological instrument for fast and accurate measurements of mass α and β activities of samples of human and animal food and other materials and for the detection of surface contamination of different objects have been developed. The original concept of an iterative dialogue operator-instrument, based on the built-in intelligence into the instrument—has reduced to a minimum the chance of obtaining an erroneous result. The built-in intelligence specifies: the sequence of the measurements, the subsequence of selecting the necessary absorber for mass β activity measurement, the algorithms for all necessary calculations. Minimum detectable β activity of measured samples (40K) is 0.17 Bq/g with an error not exceeding ±30% and measurement time 1000 s. The sensitivity of α activity measurement is related to the method of sample preparation; it ranges from 0.04 up to 10 Bq/g, with a selectivity with respect to β activity exceeding 104.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring... § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. (a) Compliance with § 75.1719-1(d) shall be determined by MSHA by measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness). (b) In...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring... § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. (a) Compliance with § 75.1719-1(d) shall be determined by MSHA by measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness). (b) In...

  5. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  6. Sudanese Students' Perceptions of Their Class Activities: Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of My Class Activities--Arabic Language Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Nielsen; Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah; Gentry, Marcia; Balhmar, Tahani Abdulrahman; Hakami, Sultan Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Arabic version of "My Class Activities" (MCA), an instrument designed to measure students' perceptions of interest, challenge, choice, and enjoyment in classrooms. Scores of 3,516 Sudanese students in Grades 2 to 8 were used. Confirmatory factor analysis…

  7. Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic

  8. CRiSP: An Instrument for Assessing Student Perceptions of Classroom Response Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument for evaluating classroom response systems (CRS). While a number of studies evaluating CRS have been published to date, no standardised instrument exists as a means of evaluating the impact of using the CRS. This means that comparing the different systems, or evaluating the benefits of using the CRS in different ways or settings, is very difficult despite the number of published reports, as indicated by Kay and LeSage (2009). An instrument was developed, called the classroom response system perceptions (CRiSP) questionnaire, which allows the evaluation of varied CRS on three scales: the usability; the impact on student engagement; and the impact on student learning. The development of CRiSP was undertaken in three universities, using different CRS, and evaluated through focus groups, one-on-one interviews and a factor analysis of the survey responses. We found no evidence of difference on the scales according to gender or age groups. The final CRiSP questionnaire consists of 26 base questions, with additional optional questions available. This paper proposes that the CRiSP Questionnaire could, in its current state or with minor changes, be used to evaluate the impact on learning of other classroom technologies also.

  9. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heinl, D; Prinsen, C A C; Deckert, S; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; Ofenloch, R; Humphreys, R; Sach, T; Chamlin, S L; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C

    2016-03-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified quality of life (QoL) as a core outcome domain to be evaluated in every eczema trial. It is unclear which of the existing QoL instruments is most appropriate for this domain. Thus, the aim of this review was to systematically assess the measurement properties of existing measurement instruments developed and/or validated for the measurement of QoL in adult eczema. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase identifying studies on measurement properties of adult eczema QoL instruments. For all eligible studies, we assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties and the methodological quality with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis summarizing findings from different studies was the basis to assign four degrees of recommendation (A-D). A total of 15 articles reporting on 17 instruments were included. No instrument fulfilled the criteria for category A. Six instruments were placed in category B, meaning that they have the potential to be recommended depending on the results of further validation studies. Three instruments had poor adequacy in at least one required adequacy criterion and were therefore put in category C. The remaining eight instruments were minimally validated and were thus placed in category D. Currently, no QoL instrument can be recommended for use in adult eczema. The Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis (QoLIAD) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are recommended for further validation research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  11. Instrumented Bolts Would Measure Shear Forces In Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Mcwithey, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Bolts instrumented with strain gauges used to measure shear forces. Bolts installed in multiple-bolt lap joints to obtain data on distribution of stresses and deformations in and around joints. Strain gauges indicate share of applied load borne by each individual bolt. In original application, bolted panels made of advanced refractory composite materials designed to withstand use at temperatures up to 4,000 degrees F. Also applicable to other joint materials and measurement of shear loads in other connections such as, shear loads on shafts in pulleys or gears.

  12. Cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results.

    PubMed

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

    2002-06-20

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  13. Instrumented Bolts Would Measure Shear Forces In Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Mcwithey, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Bolts instrumented with strain gauges used to measure shear forces. Bolts installed in multiple-bolt lap joints to obtain data on distribution of stresses and deformations in and around joints. Strain gauges indicate share of applied load borne by each individual bolt. In original application, bolted panels made of advanced refractory composite materials designed to withstand use at temperatures up to 4,000 degrees F. Also applicable to other joint materials and measurement of shear loads in other connections such as, shear loads on shafts in pulleys or gears.

  14. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  15. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  16. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  17. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Alette E E; Leeman, Jolan; Middelkoop, Esther

    2009-11-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable measurement instrument for nursing workload in burn care, in order to match quality of patient care with staffing needs. In the first phase, a time study by semi-structured interviews and observations was used to assess direct and indirect care activities. A total of 34 nursing activities were identified, defined, connected to educational levels and attached to time standards. Two independent raters completed a test computer program by assessing performed nursing activities in 36 patients. This yielded intra-class correlations of 0.82, indicating good reliability. In the second phase, a computer program was developed to process quantity and quality of available staff and the sum of time standards of nursing activities per patient per day and to calculate the balance. After 1 year of running this program, the database was used to distinguish patients' care demand into five care categories. This instrument justifies the investment of time by nursing staff needed for daily activities in the burn unit. It provides quick insight into the balance between care demand and staffing needs and can be used to optimise resource planning.

  18. Instrument and methods for surface dilatational rheology measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russev, Stoyan C.; Alexandrov, Nikola; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Danov, Krassimir D.; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Vulchev, Vassil; Bilke-Krause, Christine

    2008-10-01

    We describe an instrument combining the advantages of two methods, axisymmetric drop shape analysis for well-deformed drops and capillary pressure tensiometry for spherical drops, both used for measuring the interfacial tension and interfacial rheological parameters. The rheological parameters are the complex interfacial elasticity, and the surface elasticity and viscosity of Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell rheological models. The instrument is applicable for investigation of the effect of different types of surfactants (nonionic, ionic, proteins, and polymers) on the interfacial rheological properties both of air/water and oil/water interfaces, and of interfaces between liquids with equal mass densities. A piezodriven system and a specially designed interface unit, implemented in the instrument, ensure precise control for standard periodic waveforms of surface deformation (sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth) at a fixed frequency, or produce surface deformation at constant rate. The interface unit ensures accurate synchronization between the pressure measurement and the surface control, which is used for real-time data processing and feedback control of drop area in some of the applications.

  19. A Simple Instrument for Measuring Surface Forces in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, James; Tromp, Rudolf; Haight, Richard; Ellis, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed a simple instrument to measure the interaction force between two surfaces in solution, or in vacuum. Specifically, we measure the interaction between a lens and a thin silicon cantilever. Either the lens, or the cantilever (or both) can be coated with the species of interest. When the lens is brought close to the cantilever surface, the force of interaction causes the cantilever to bend. By measuring the deflection as a function of the distance between the lens and cantilever, the long-range interactions between the two surfaces can be determined. Our approach includes three important innovations. First, a commercial lens with a radius of ~ 1 cm is used for one surface. The relatively large radius of curvature enhances force sensitivity of the method. Second, we use optical interference (Newton's Rings) to determine the distance between lens and cantilever with ~ 1 nm accuracy. Third, we make use of thin crystalline cantilevers (100 μm thick) whose elastic properties can be easily measured. We have achieved a force sensitivity F / R better than 0.001 mN/m. I will discuss the theory of operation of the new instrument and describe measurements made on SiO2 and metal oxide surfaces in water.

  20. A compact DOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Sintermann, Joerg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high time-resolution measurements of NH3 in ambient air are still a challenge due to the stickiness of this molecule and its interactions with inlet or instrument surfaces. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with open-path arrangement offers a contact-free in-situ approach to determine ambient NH3. We present a DOAS instrument, optimised for open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). This device, operating in the UV range over paths of up to 100 m, is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression was used. In order to fit differential absorption cross-sections to the measurements, multiple linear regression is performed including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model. In this presentation we discuss the influence of filter and fit procedure on the precision and accuracy of the system with examples of field measurements with artificial NH3 sources. Volten, H., Bergwerff, J. B., Haaima, M., Lolkema, D. E., Berkhout, A. J. C., van der Hoff, G. R., Potma, C. J. M., Wichink Kruit, R. J., van Pul, W. A. J. and Swart, D. P. J.: Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere, Atmospheric Meas. Tech., 5(2), 413-427, doi:10.5194/amt-5-413-2012, 2012.

  1. Project Vanguard Magnetic-Field Instrumentation and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Storarik, J. D.; Shapiro, I. R.; Cain, J. C.

    1960-01-01

    The Vanguard III Satellite, 1959 Eta, placed in orbit on September 18, 1959, contained a proton precessional magnetometer for magnetic-field studies of exceptional accuracy. Throughout the 85 days of battery life, the instrumentation functioned according to plan. Measurements of the absolute total field were obtained in the meridian belts of Minitrack stations at altitudes 510 to 3750 kilometers and at latitudes +/- 33.4 degrees. Surface magnetic observatories were operated at eight of the Minitrack stations to furnish correlative information. This paper reviews briefly the instrumentation employed in these experiments, and the data collection and reduction procedures. Emphasis is given to results from a preliminary analysis. Specifically, this analysis bears on the accuracy of computed fields, the stability of the earth's field in space, the Capetown anomaly, and magnetic-storm effects.

  2. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  3. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and how to select an outcome measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Mokkink, Lidwine B; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Bouter, Lex M; Vet, Henrica C W de; Terwee, Caroline B

    2016-01-19

    COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing tools for selecting the most appropriate available instrument. In this paper these tools are described, i.e. the COSMIN taxonomy and definition of measurement properties; the COSMIN checklist to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties; a search filter for finding studies on measurement properties; a protocol for systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; a database of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; and a guideline for selecting outcome measurement instruments for Core Outcome Sets in clinical trials. Currently, we are updating the COSMIN checklist, particularly the standards for content validity studies. Also new standards for studies using Item Response Theory methods will be developed. Additionally, in the future we want to develop standards for studies on the quality of non-patient reported outcome measures, such as clinician-reported outcomes and performance-based outcomes. In summary, we plea for more standardization in the use of outcome measurement instruments, for conducting high quality systematic reviews on measurement instruments in which the best available outcome measurement instrument is recommended, and for stopping the use of poor outcome measurement instruments.

  4. Constructing a consensus-based prevention outcome measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Siegal, H A; Lane, D T; Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G; Rahman, A; Chambers, D T

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP). The purpose of the project was to develop a process and instrument to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers from throughout the state in the evaluation instrument development. The effort produced a self-administered questionnaire to capture data on young peoples' drug use practices, attitudes toward drugs, and problematic behaviors. Most significantly, the product produced was the acceptance and endorsement of community-based programs. The forty-one-item questionnaire has good to excellent reliability for virtually all measures, as assessed by the test-retest method. The instrument is a product of a process that brought together a university-based research team, state alcohol and drug abuse prevention administrators, and representatives of public programs. PEP demonstrates how to productively link service providers, administrators, and evaluators to develop a process for assessing the effectiveness of prevention programs. The process and tools described serve as a model for other communities wanting to evaluate their prevention programming.

  5. Development of instrumentation for differential spectroscopic measurements at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Schillaci, A.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the spectral-spatial anisotropy of the high-latitude mm-wave sky is a powerful tool of cosmology. It can be used to provide deep insight in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, the Cosmic Infrared Background, the anisotropy of the CMB, using the spectral dimension to provide substantially increased information with respect to what is achievable by means of standard multiband photometry. Here we focus on spectral measurements of the SZ effect. Large mm-wave telescopes are now routinely mapping photometrically the SZ effect in a number of clusters, estimating the comptonisation parameter and using them as cosmological probes. Low-resolution spectroscopic measurements of the SZ effect would be very effective in removing the degeneracy between parameters inevitable in photometric measurements. We describe a real-world implementation of this measurement strategy, based on an imaging, efficient, differential Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The instrument is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) configuration. We combined two MPIs working synchronously to use the entire input power. In our implementation the observed sky field is divided into two halves along the meridian. Each half-field corresponds to one of the two input ports of the MPI. Each detector in the FTS focal planes measures the difference in brightness between two sky pixels, symmetrically located with respect to the meridian. Exploiting the high common mode rejection of the MPI, tiny sky brightness gradients embedded in an overwhelming isotropic background might be measured. We investigate experimentally the common-mode rejection achievable in the MPI at mm wavelengths, and discuss the use of such an instrument to measure the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and the SZ effect.

  6. Gaussian beam measurement for HIFI instrument: Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Ermisch, Karsten; Fredrixon, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus; Belitsky, Victor

    2004-09-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) is part of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory Project. The instrument is intended for high-resolution spectroscopy and has a frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz band in five receiver bands and 1410 to 1910 GHz in two additional bands. HIFI is built based on a modular principle: the mixers together with their respective optics are integrated into Mixer Sub-Assemblies (MSA). Each frequency band has two MSAs allocated for horizontal and vertical polarization. In this paper, we present the work done on the design and construction of a Gaussian beam measurement range. One of the unique features of the developed method is a possibility to measure the beam parameters of the MSAs in the absolute coordinate system referred to the device under test. This along with other methods should allow integration of the entire HIFI with the best possible coupling of the antenna beam to the receivers and achieving ultimate performance in such a complicated optical system. The range houses the measured MSA, which is at 4 K ambient temperature, and a continuous wave source placed on a precise scanner entirely under vacuum. Developed triangulation system provides mechanical reference data on the MSA, in-situ, after the entire system is evacuated and the cooling is finished. We adopted a scalar measurement approach where the test source scans the receiver input beam and the mixer IF power is measured. The data collected from 3-4 planar scans are used to calculate the orientation and position of the optical axis. We present results from the first beam measurements for MSA HIFI bands 1 and 2 (480 and 640 GHz), the measurement system performance and accuracy analysis.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  9. Quantitative Hardness Measurement by Instrumented AFM-indentation.

    PubMed

    Caron, Arnaud

    2016-11-22

    In this work, a combination of amplitude-modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy is applied for instrumented hardness measurements on an Au(111) surface with atomistic resolution of single plasticity events. A careful experimental procedure is described that includes the force sensor selection, its calibration, the calibration of the cantilever deflection detection system, and the minimization of instrumental drift for accurate and reproducible force-distance measurements. Also, a method for the data analysis is presented that allows the extraction of force-penetration curves from recorded force-distance curves. A typical curve displays a clear elastic deformation regime up to the first plasticity event, or pop-in, with a length in the range of one to two Burger's vectors. Later plasticity events exhibit the same magnitude. The work of plasticity is further extracted from the measurements. Finally, the hardness is determined in combination with the indentation curve using non-contact atomic force microscopy images of the remaining indents.

  10. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khreishi, Manal; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mclean, Kyle F.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LR's ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikon's MV-224/350 LR and Leica's Absolute Tracker AT401/402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the "direct and through" (D&T), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the D&T shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  11. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khreishi, M.; Ohl, R.; Mclean, K.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hayden, J.

    2017-01-01

    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LRs ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikons MV-224350 LR and Leicas Absolute Tracker AT401402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the direct and through (DT), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the DT shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  12. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Measurement comparisons and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D.; Bruhn, D.; Day, L. A.; Kasemir, K. U.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Ledford, J.; Lysenko, W.; Madsen, D. W.; Martinez, D. G.; O'Hara, J. F.; Pieck, M.; Power, J. F.; Sellyey, W.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility has been used to characterize the pulsed- and cw-beam performance of a 6.7 MeV, 100 mA radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Diagnostic instrumentation, primarily located in a short beam transport downstream of the RFQ, allow facility commissioners and operators to measure and monitor the RFQ's accelerated and total beam transmission, beam loss, bunched beam current, beam energy and output phase, and beam position. Transverse beam profile measurements are acquired under both low and high duty-factor pulsed beam conditions using a slow wire scanner and a camera that images beam-induced fluorescence. The wire scanner is also used to acquire transverse beam emittance information using a technique known as a "quad scan". This paper reviews the measurement performance and discusses the resulting data.

  13. [Validating an instrument for measuring the perceived quality of services received by people using hospitals in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo A; Londoño-Pimienta, Jaime L; Bello-Parías, León D

    2008-01-01

    Validating an instrument for measuring the perceived quality of services received by people using hospitals forming part of the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection's restructuring, redesigning and modernisation programme for health-service providing networks. Sánchez and Echeverri's guidelines for validating health quality measurement scales were followed due to the lack of a valid instrument for doing this in Colombia. Conceptual synthesis led to identifying a structure of constituent indicators, domains and sub-domains regarding the perception of health service quality. A list of reactions (having a scale for categorising the replies) was analysed according to the validity of appearance, construct, criteria and utility as criteria for sensitivity and usefulness. Successive revisions and three rounds of field-trials led to producing PECASUSS, an acronym given to the instrument for measuring users' perception of health service quality (Percepción de Calidad Según Usuarios de Servicios de Salud). The guidelines effectively orientated the validation of the instrument required for measuring the perceived quality of health services received by people using hospitals forming part of the programme.

  14. Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in

  15. Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Amber E; Tabak, Rachel G; Bryant, Maria J; Ward, Dianne S

    2013-05-20

    During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in

  16. Instrument to measure psychological contract violation in pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R

    2010-08-10

    To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.

  17. Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations. PMID:21045949

  18. Quantifying soil CO2 respiration measurement error across instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creelman, C. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of instrumental methodologies have been developed in an attempt to accurately measure the rate of soil CO2 respiration. Among the most commonly used are the static and dynamic chamber systems. The degree to which these methods misread or perturb the soil CO2 signal, however, is poorly understood. One source of error in particular is the introduction of lateral diffusion due to the disturbance of the steady-state CO2 concentrations. The addition of soil collars to the chamber system attempts to address this perturbation, but may induce additional errors from the increased physical disturbance. Using a numerical 3D soil-atmosphere diffusion model, we are undertaking a comprehensive comparative study of existing static and dynamic chambers, as well as a solid-state CTFD probe. Specifically, we are examining the 3D diffusion errors associated with each method and opportunities for correction. In this study, the impact of collar length, chamber geometry, chamber mixing and diffusion parameters on the magnitude of lateral diffusion around the instrument are quantified in order to provide insight into obtaining more accurate soil respiration estimates. Results suggest that while each method can approximate the true flux rate under idealized conditions, the associated errors can be of a high magnitude and may vary substantially in their sensitivity to these parameters. In some cases, factors such as the collar length and chamber exchange rate used are coupled in their effect on accuracy. Due to the widespread use of these instruments, it is critical that the nature of their biases and inaccuracies be understood in order to inform future development, ensure the accuracy of current measurements and to facilitate inter-comparison between existing datasets.

  19. Teaching Behavior and Well-Being in Students: Development and Concurrent Validity of an Instrument to Measure Student-Reported Teaching Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pössel, Patrick; Moritz Rudasill, Kathleen; Adelson, Jill L.; Bjerg, Annie C.; Wooldridge, Don T.; Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn

    2013-01-01

    Teaching behavior has important implications for students' emotional well-being. Multiple models suggest students' perceptions of teaching behaviors are more critical than other measures for predicting well-being, yet student-report instruments that measure concrete and specific teaching behavior are limited. The purpose of the present studies is…

  20. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurements of carbon monoxide from space using the MOPITT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J.; Kar, J.; Liu, J.; Zou, J.; Nichitiu, F.; Edwards, D.; Gille, J.

    The Measurements Of Pollution in The Troposphere MOPITT instrument was launched on December 19 th 1999 and has now completed over six years of measurements of carbon monoxide from space providing the most extensive and complete data set of a tropospheric minor constituent over the planet in both space and time During the mission -- which is still continuing -- events have been observed at many time and space scales ranging from planetary-scale changes from extensive forest fires persisting for many months to sharp concentration changes over 100km persisting only for a few days This wealth of phenomena has given us a new view of the troposphere and its chemical and dynamical behavior With such an extensive dataset it is now possible to try to assess the average behaviour of carbon monoxide over the planet The intriguing result is that the average proves very elusive and the typical year has yet to be determined Random surface events are frequent enough that carbon monoxide is frequently perturbed from its background state This has implications for modeling and forecasting of future concentrations This paper will highlight some of the events that perturb the carbon monoxide concentration drawing from examples over the MOPITT mission time frame and discuss how these feed into the global picture We will also discuss what implications this has for future missions to continue the dataset The MOPITT instrument has been supported by the Canadian Space Agency MOPITT data processing is supported by NASA MOPITT data analysis has

  2. Flipping the Continuing Medical Education Classroom: Validating a Measure of Attendees' Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Christopher R; Wang, Amy T; Szostek, Jason H; Bonnes, Sara L; Ratelle, John T; Mahapatra, Saswati; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    New teaching approaches for CME are needed. In flipped classrooms, coursework is completed beforehand and applied during class time. Studies of flipped classrooms and their potential benefits in CME have not been published. We sought to develop and validate an instrument measuring flipped classroom perceptions, identify whether participation changed perceptions, and determine which flipped classroom components were perceived as most effective. In this cross-sectional validation study, 167 participants in the Mayo Clinic's 2015 Internal Medicine Board Review course received surveys. Online modules were developed to deliver content before flipped classroom courses on acid-base disorders and electrolyte disorders. A flipped classroom perception instrument (FCPI) was developed and validated. The FCPI, with eight items structured on 5-point Likert scales, was given to participants before and after their flipped classroom experiences. Of the 167 participants, 111 returned surveys. Flipped classroom perceptions improved, with mean (SD) FCPI scores increasing from 3.74 (0.75) to 3.94 (0.76) (P < .001). The percentage of participants who preferred flipped classrooms increased from 38% before the course to 53% after (P = .002). Positive changes in FCPI scores were unrelated to module completion. Most participants thought knowledge was enhanced by in-class sessions and online modules equally. The FCPI, the first validated measure of participants' perceptions of a CME flipped classroom, has strong validity evidence. Participants' perceptions of and preference for the flipped classroom improved after experiencing the flipped CME classroom. These findings support the need to further explore flipped classroom models in CME.

  3. Human perception of dental porcelain translucency correlated to spectrophotometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chieh; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Vargas, Marcos A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between instrumental measurements and subjective visual assessment of differences in dental porcelain translucency. Unshaded feldspathic porcelain was used with controlled amounts of tin oxide to create two groups of 12-mm diameter disks with incremental changes in opacity. Contrast ratio (CR = Yb/Yw) was determined with a spectrophotometer, and used as a measure of porcelain translucency (Group A = 0.20 to 0.40; Group B = 0.6-0.8). Within each group, there were 14 specimens with 11 CRs. Three observer groups (first year dental students, residents, faculty with >10 years of shade matching experience) were recruited to assess the translucency between porcelain disks under two lighting conditions (reflected light, transmitted light). Each subject's ability to distinguish between specimens of differing translucency was determined. Descriptive statistics and three-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test were used to evaluate the translucency perception threshold (TPT) of subjects (alpha= 0.05). The overall mean TPT (DeltaC) was 0.07, while 50% of the subjects could perceive a 0.06 CR difference between porcelain specimens. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in translucency perception among the observer groups (p < 0.0001), whereas the main effects for porcelain opacity (p= 0.3038) and lighting condition (p= 0.0645) were not significant, and no significant interactions were found. Post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test indicated that the mean TPT observed in the faculty group (DeltaC = 0.04) was significantly lower than those observed in student (DeltaC = 0.09) and resident groups (DeltaC = 0.08), while there was no significant difference between students and residents. The overall mean TPT of all subjects was 0.07, and 50% of the study population perceived a 0.06 CR difference in translucency. Increased shade matching experience (> or =10 years) significantly improved the ability to perceive differences in

  4. Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

  5. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  6. Perception of Teacher Support and Reaction towards Questioning: Its Relation to Instrumental Help-Seeking and Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozanitis, Anastassis; Desbiens, Jean-Francois; Chouinard, Roch

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of students' perception of both teacher support and students' reaction to questioning on the instrumental help-seeking strategy used by students. The researchers also examined the relationships between these three variables and the motivational components of achievement goal theory. A…

  7. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  8. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  9. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  10. Measuring parent perceptions of school climate.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Beth E; Capotosto, Lauren; Bahena, Sofía; McIntyre, Joseph; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2014-03-01

    Parents' attitudes about their children's schools matter. Their views can shape their children's attitudes about school, affect their levels of family-school engagement, and influence their residential and school enrollment decisions. In this article, we describe the development of a survey scale to assess parent perceptions of the climate of their child's school. Our comprehensive scale development process incorporated feedback from academics and potential respondents from the outset of the design process to enhance scale quality. We conducted 3 studies with national samples of parents (n = 385; n = 253; n = 266) to gather evidence of scale score reliability and valid score inferences based on convergent and discriminant validity. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we identified a theoretically grounded factor structure that fit the data well but found no evidence that parental response patterns distinguish between academic and social elements of school climate. Furthermore, we found that parents of younger children, on average, had a more positive perception of the school's climate than did parents of older children. We conclude by discussing how researchers and Pre-K-12 schools and districts can use the scale to aid school improvement efforts. 2014 APA

  11. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  12. Design and implementation of a slope measuring instrument for measurement of charged particle temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, S. S.; Garg, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports the design considerations, implementation, and performance of an instrument, used to measure the slope of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of ionospheric plasma, for onboard measurement of charged particle temperatures. The instrument measures the reflected ac signal in the probe current, when an ac voltage is superposed over the probe bias, and is designed for the slope measurement from 6.3×10-14 A/V2 to 6.3×10-9 A/V2 with full scale resolution of 0.2%.

  13. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  14. Measurement of endotracheal tube cuff pressure: Instrumental versus conventional method

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mueen Ullah; Khokar, Rashid; Qureshi, Sadia; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Aqil, Mansoor; Shiraz, Motasim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the conventional practice of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation and pressure measurement as compared to the instrumental method. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2014–July 2014). Methods: A total of 100 adult patients were observed according to the syringe size used Group-1 (10 ml) and Group-2 (20 ml) for ETT cuff inflation in general anesthesia. Patients with anticipated difficult intubation, risk for aspiration, known anatomical laryngotracheal abnormalities, and emergency cases were excluded. Trachea was intubated with size 8 or 8.5 mm and 7.0 or 7.5 mm ETT in male and female patients respectively. The ETT cuff was inflated with air by one of the anesthesia technician. Cuff pressures were measured using aneroid manometer. ETT cuff pressure of 20–30 cm of water was considered as standard. Results: In 69% of the patients, the cuff pressure measurements were above the standard. Age (P = 0.806), weight (P = 0.527), height (P = 0.850), and gender (P = 1.00) were comparable in both groups. The mean cuff pressure in Group-1 and Group-2 was 32.52 ± 6.39 and 38.90 ± 6.60 cm of water (P = 0.001). The cuff inflation with 20 ml syringe resulted in higher cuff pressure as compared to 10cc syringe 37.73 ± 4.23 versus 40.74 ± 5.01 (86% vs. 52%, P = 0.013). Conclusion: The conventional method for ETT cuff inflation and pressure measuring is unreliable. As a routine instrumental cuff pressure, monitoring is suggested. PMID:27833487

  15. IRCM spectral signature measurements instrumentation featuring enhanced radiometric accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantagne, Stéphane; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Roy, Claude; Willers, Cornelius J.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral Infrared (IR) signature measurements are performed in military applications including aircraft- and -naval vessel stealth characterization, detection/lock-on ranges, and flares efficiency characterization. Numerous military applications require high precision measurement of infrared signature characterization. For instance, Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) systems and Infrared Counter-Countermeasure (IRCCM) system are continuously evolving. Infrared flares defeated IR guided seekers, IR flares became defeated by intelligent IR guided seekers and Jammers defeated the intelligent IR guided seekers [7]. A precise knowledge of the target infrared signature phenomenology is crucial for the development and improvement of countermeasure and counter-countermeasure systems and so precise quantification of the infrared energy emitted from the targets requires accurate spectral signature measurements. Errors in infrared characterization measurements can lead to weakness in the safety of the countermeasure system and errors in the determination of detection/lock-on range of an aircraft. The infrared signatures are analyzed, modeled, and simulated to provide a good understanding of the signature phenomenology to improve the IRCM and IRCCM technologies efficiency [7,8,9]. There is a growing need for infrared spectral signature measurement technology in order to further improve and validate infrared-based models and simulations. The addition of imagery to Spectroradiometers is improving the measurement capability of complex targets and scenes because all elements in the scene can now be measured simultaneously. However, the limited dynamic range of the Focal Plane Array (FPA) sensors used in these instruments confines the ranges of measurable radiance intensities. This ultimately affects the radiometric accuracy of these complex signatures. We will describe and demonstrate how the ABB hyperspectral imaging spectroradiometer features enhanced the radiometric accuracy

  16. A brief instrument to measure patients' overall satisfaction with primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Louis, Daniel Z; Maxwell, Kaye; Markham, Fred W; Wender, Richard C; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2011-06-01

    A brief and psychometrically sound scale to measure patients' overall satisfaction with their primary care physicians would be useful in studies where a longer instrument is impractical. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometrics of a brief instrument to measure patients' overall satisfaction with their primary care physicians. Research participants included 535 outpatients (between 18--75 years old, 66% female) who completed a mailed survey that included 10 items for measuring overall satisfaction with their primary care physician who was named on the survey. Patients were also asked about their perceptions of physician empathy, preventive tests recommended by the physician (colonoscopy, mammogram, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for age and gender appropriate patients) and demographic information. Factor analysis of the patient satisfaction items resulted in one prominent component. Corrected item-total score correlations of the patient satisfaction scale ranged from 0.85 to 0.96; correlation between patient satisfaction scores and patient perception of physician empathy was 0.93, and correlation with recommending the physician to family and friends was 0.92. Criterion-related validity coefficients were mostly in the 0.80s and 0.90s. Patient satisfaction scores were significantly higher for those whose physicians recommended preventive tests (colonoscopy, mammogram, and PSA-compliance rates >.80). Cronbach's coefficient alpha for patient satisfaction scale was 0.98. Empirical evidence supported the validity and reliability of a brief patient satisfaction scale that has utility in the assessments of educational programs aimed at improving patient satisfaction, medical services, and patient outcomes in primary care settings.

  17. A miniDOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, Jörg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Bell, Michael; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    We present a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument, called "miniDOAS", optimised for optical open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The instrument is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra we use a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression. Multiple linear regression including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model is used to determine concentrations. For NH3 the random uncertainty is about 1.4 % of the concentration, and not better than 0.2 µg m-3. Potential biases for the slope of the calibration are given by the precision of the differential absorption cross sections (±3 %) and for the offset by the precision of the estimation of concentration offsets (cref) introduced by the reference spectrum Iref. Comparisons of miniDOAS measurements to those by NH3 acid trap devices showed good agreement. The miniDOAS can be flexibly used for a wide range of field trials, such as micrometeorological NH3 flux measurements with approaches based upon horizontal or vertical concentration differences. Results from such applications covering concentration dynamics of less than one up to several hundreds of µg m-3 are presented.

  18. Modelling Electrostatic Sheath Effects on Swarm Electric Field Instrument Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) was designed to measure ionospheric ion flow velocities, temperatures and distribution functions at the ram face of the European Space Agency’s Swarm spacecraft. These flow velocities, combined with the known orbital velocity of the satellite and local magnetic field, will be used to infer local electric fields from the relation E=- v× B. EFI is among a class of many particle sensors and flow meters mounted on satellites to monitor in situ plasma conditions. The interpretation of the measurements made with EFI and similar sensors relies on a spacecraft sheath model. A common approach, valid in the relatively cold and dense ionospheric plasma, is to assume a potential drop in a thin sheath through which particle deflection and energisation can be calculated analytically. In such models, sheath effects only depend on the spacecraft floating potential, and on the angle of incidence of particles with respect to the normal to the surface. Corrections to measurements are therefore local as they do not depend on the geometry of nearby objects. In an actual plasma, satellites are surrounded by electrostatic sheaths with a finite thickness. As a result, local corrections to particle distribution functions can only be seen as an approximation. A correct interpretation of measured particle fluxes or particle distribution functions must, at least in principle, account for the extent and shape of the sheath in the vicinity of the measuring instrument. This in turn requires a careful analysis of the interaction of the satellite with the surrounding plasma, while accounting for detailed aspects of the geometry, as well as for several physical effects. In this paper, the validity of the thin sheath model is tested by comparing its predictions with detailed PIC (Particle In Cell) calculations of satellite-plasma interaction. Deviations attributed to sheath finite thickness effects are calculated for EFI measurements, with representative plasma

  19. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  20. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  1. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  2. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  3. Continuous Large-Area Micrometeoroid Flux Measuring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, R.; Liou, J. C.; Giovane, F.; Tsou, P.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of dust populations between 100 microns and 1 cm is a key component to improving our understanding of the ongoing physical processes of asteroids, comets, Kuiper Belt objects, planetary rings and planetary satellites. It is also critical for satellite impact risk assessments in the near Earth environment, and future explorations to the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. There is a lack of data in this critical size regime, with present in situ detection capability limited to particles 10 microns or smaller.The instrument described here is capable of continuously measuring the flux of orbital debris in the near Earth environment, and micrometeoroids present in interplanetary space or on planetary surfaces for future solar system exploration missions. It uses a fiber optic displacement sensor suite installed on the framework supporting the thin fabric film. This sensor suite monitors fabric motion generated by particle impacts, while also providing a record of fabric tension and integrity. Such an instrument is particularly well suited for use on large area structures, such as inflatable structures and solar sails (Fig. 1).

  4. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  5. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space

  6. Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY): properties of a self-report instrument for research on children's health and development.

    PubMed

    Pachter, Lee M; Szalacha, Laura A; Bernstein, Bruce A; Coll, Cynthia García

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of racial discrimination have been demonstrated to be related to racial and ethnic disparities in mental and physical health and healthcare. There has been little study, however, of the relationship between racism and health in children, and few psychometrically valid and reliable instruments to measure Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY) exist. This paper reports on the development and testing of such an instrument, the PRaCY. Development of the instrument began with open-ended qualitative interviews, from which a proto-questionnaire was created. The questionnaire gathered information on the prevalence, attribution, emotional responses, and coping responses to 23 situations identified by participants in the qualitative phase. The proto-questionnaire was administered to 277 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (38% Latino/a, 31% African-American, 19% multiracial/multicultural, 7% West Indian/Caribbean, and 5% Other). Item analysis resulted in two developmentally appropriate 10-item instruments (one for ages 7-13, another for ages 14-18). Internal consistency reliability was strong (alpha = 0.78 for both versions of the instrument). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit for both versions (younger-Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.967, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.047; older-CFI: 0.934, RMSEA: 0.056). Differential item functioning analyses demonstrated no group-specific biases in item response. PRaCY scores were appropriately associated with higher depressive symptom scores and elevated anxiety scores in the younger sample. Results indicate that the PRaCY is a valid and reliable instrument that measures perceptions of racism and discrimination in children and youth aged 8-18 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.

  7. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  8. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  9. Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Patrick A.; Gosseye, Thierry P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor) is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1) that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2) that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other. PMID:24285705

  10. Development and testing of an instrument to measure holistic nursing values in nurse practitioner care.

    PubMed

    Kinchen, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    As primary care delivery evolves in the United States with nurse practitioners (NPs) as key providers, exploring the patient's perception of the nature and quality of NPs' care is of critical importance to healthcare consumers, providers, educators, policy makers, and underwriters. The aim of this study was to describe the development and testing of the Nurse Practitioner Holistic Caring Instrument, a new, investigator-developed measure of the preservation of holistic nursing values in NP care. Results suggest that NPs provide patient-centered, comprehensive, and clinically competent care, rendering them ideally suited to leading primary health care delivery. However, further testing in more diverse populations and settings is needed to strengthen preliminary findings.

  11. An instrument for measuring thermal inertia in the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Features and test results of a thermal inertial meter (TIM) for cataloging the thermal inertial of surface material in situ as a basis for satellite remote sensing of geologic materials are described. The instrument is employed to determine the temperature rise of the materials in the field, with the assumptions that the sample and a standard are homogeneous in composition, the heat flux density is constant at the surface of each material, and the specimens are thick enough to be treated as semi-infinite bodies. A formula for calculating thermal inertia is presented, and the components of the TIM are detailed. A box with three compartments, two holding standards, is placed on the sample surface with the third compartment open to the specimen. Dolomite and quartz are used as references when all samples are measured after heating. Tests with rocks and sand in Nevada and California revealed that chert has a higher thermal inertia than barite.

  12. Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

  13. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  14. An instrumented cylinder measuring pinch force and orientation

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Daniel; Frak, Victor; Pilon, Jean-François; Goyette, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background The function of a cylinder allowing simultaneous measurements of the opposition axis of the index finger and thumb of the hand and the magnitude of pinch force is described. Methods The apparatus is made of two half-cylinders that are bonded together through a 6-axis force/torque sensor and allows the measurement of 3D orthogonal forces and moments of force. The amplitude of the pinch force exerted on the cylinder by the fingers is defined as the resultant of the forces in the different axes. A software program was developed to measure the barycentre of the forces on the instrumented cylinder, allowing calculation of the angle of the opposition axis between the fingers and the location of the resulting pinch force on the cylinder, assuming that the pinch or grip forces are co-linear through the center of the cylinder. In order to assess the validity and reliability of the measurements, the cylinder was mounted on a milling table and seven calibrated weights (from 100 to 500 g) were successively applied perpendicularly to a 9*9 matrix of sites separated by 1 cm. With the exception of the extreme lateral parts of the cylinder, the dispersion of the calculated vertical position of the resulting force was always within 1 mm of the application point, suggesting a high reliability of these measurements. In addition, the errors in the angles of the applied force were calculated and found to be less than 2 degree with no clear patterns of variation across the different locations of the cylinder. Results The usefulness of the cylinder is demonstrated by evaluating the pinch force and the opposition axis in six healthy subjects lifting the cylinder from the table using three different orientations of their right hand. The magnitude of the grip force was not significantly different across orientations (45, 22 and -22 degrees relative to the midline of the subject) suggesting that force grip is controlled. Conclusion From these results, it has been concluded that

  15. Measuring quality of life: a new and practical survey instrument.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Greenberg, J S; Brown, R

    1997-05-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of measuring the quality of life (QOL) of people with severe mental illness, such assessments are seldom carried out because of the lack of an efficient, easy-to-use, and valid measurement instrument. To facilitate the gathering of QOL information from clients in evaluation, program improvement, or other efforts, the authors present a new short (24-item) self-administered questionnaire called the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ). The questionnaire assesses subjective QOL in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the QLQ is based on data gathered from 971 clients with serious mental illness who were receiving publicly funded mental health services at the time of the study. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis using a random split-half procedure indicated that a seven-factor solution fit the data well. Scores on the QLQ also correlated significantly with the client's functioning and satisfaction with services, providing support for the validity of the QLQ. The advantages of the QLQ over existing measures include low-cost administration and some superior psychometric properties.

  16. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  17. The development of an instrument for measuring healing.

    PubMed

    Meza, James Peter; Fahoome, Gail F

    2008-01-01

    Our lack of ability to measure healing attributes impairs our ability to research the topic. The specific aim of this project is to describe the psychological and social construct of healing and to create a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing. A content expert conducted a domain analysis examining the existing literature of midrange theories of healing. Theme saturation of content sampling was ensured by brainstorming more than 220 potential items. Selection of items was sequential: pile sorting and data reduction, with factor analysis of a mailed 54-item questionnaire. Criterion validity (convergent and divergent) and temporal reliability were established using a second mailing of the development version of the instrument. Construct validity was judged with structural equation modeling for goodness of fit. Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was .869 and the final scale was .862. The test-retest reliability was .849. Eigenvalues for the 2 factors were 8 and 4, respectively. Divergent and convergent validity using the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and SF-36 mental health and emotional subscales were consistent with predictions. The root mean square error of approximation was 0.066 and Bentler's Comparative Fit Index was 0.871. Root mean square residual was 0.102. We developed a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing, which we named the Self-Integration Scale v 2.1. By creating a new variable, new areas of research in humanistic health care are possible.

  18. Field evaluation of boat-mounted acoustic Doppler instruments used to measure streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The use of instruments based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun field validation of the instruments used to make discharge measurements from a moving boat. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made using a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures concurrent with the acoustic instruments at each site. Discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with discharges measured with Price AA current meters and the USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating.

  19. Measuring family physician identity: the development of a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Saultz, John W; Jones, Samuel; Fogarty, Colleen T; Corboy, Jane E; Green, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument designed to assess family medicine identity in residency training sites and compare responses from physician faculty and residents. We conducted 28 focus groups between 2007--2008, 14 with faculty and 14 with residents who were part of the Preparing Personal Physicians for Practice (P4) Project. The first 22 focus groups were exploratory, and the second six were confirmatory where we shared working variable statements scored using a 5-point Likert scale. We then administered the survey to 223 faculty and 147 residents who were part of the P4 Project, followed by a principal component (factor) analysis, retaining items that reflected domains with eigenvalues higher than 1.0. A total of 223 family physician faculty and 147 residents completed the identity survey. The item analysis extraction loadings ranged from 0.36 to 0.70. Based on item grouping patterns, five domains were reflected in the data: Patient/Family Relationships, Patient Advocacy, Career Flexibility, Balancing the Breadth and Depth in Practice, and Comprehensive Nature of Patient Care. Compared to residents, faculty conveyed stronger agreement about being comfortable balancing the breadth and depth of medical knowledge needed in practice and using a variety of approaches to supplement their medical knowledge about patient care compared to residents (90.6% versus 68.7% for breadth and depth, 95.9% versus 88.3 for using a variety of approaches). Compared to faculty, residents agreed more strongly that the ability to choose many options in how to build their practice appeals to them compared to faculty (89.1% versus 82.9%). We successfully developed and tested a survey designed to measure family medicine identity in residencies, with five domains. Survey item responses were different between residents and faculty, which indicates the instrument may be sensitive to important changes over time.

  20. Brief report: attention effect on a measure of social perception.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Butcher, Brianne; Walkowiak, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    A measure of social perception (CASP) was used to assess differences in social perception among typically developing children, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Significant between-group differences were found in recognition of emotions in video, with children diagnosed with ADHD or ASD performing more poorly than controls on measures of knowledge of nonverbal cues and emotional expression. The number of inattention symptoms was found to be a significant contributor to poorer video interpretation across diagnostic groups. An effect of attention on poor social perception was found that may be unique to the ASD group. Clinicians may overestimate the social deficits of children with ASD if they also have symptoms of inattention, while researchers may need to control for the effects of inattention in their studies.

  1. Nurses' perceptions of feedback to nursing teams on quality measurements: An embedded case study design.

    PubMed

    Giesbers, A P M Suzanne; Schouteten, Roel L J; Poutsma, Erik; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; van Achterberg, Theo

    2016-12-01

    Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses' well-being and performance. Building on the Job Demands-Resources model this study explores: (1) whether and how nurses' perceptions of feedback on quality measurements (as a burdening job demand or rather as an intrinsically or extrinsically motivating job resource) are respectively related to nurses' well-being and performance; and (2) whether and how team reflection influences nurses' perceptions. An embedded case study. Four surgical wards within three different acute teaching-hospital settings in the Netherlands. During a period of four months, the nurses on each ward were provided with similar feedback on quality measurements. After this period, interviews with eight nurses and the ward manager for each ward were conducted. Additionally, observational data were collected from three oral feedback moments on each of the participating wards. The data revealed that individual nurses perceive the same feedback on quality measurements differently, leading to different effects on nurses' well-being and performance: 1) feedback can be perceived as a job demand that pressures nurses to improve the results on the quality measurements; 2) feedback can be perceived as an extrinsically motivating job resource, that is instrumental to improve the results on quality measurements; 3) feedback can be perceived as an intrinsically motivating job resource that stimulates nurses to improve the results on the quality measurements; and 4) feedback can be perceived neither as a job demand, nor as a job resource, and has no effect on nurses' well-being and performance. Additionally, this study indicates that team reflection after feedback seems to be very low in practice, while our data also provides evidence that nursing teams using the

  2. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  3. Diver-Operated Instruments for In-Situ Measurement of Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    IMPACT/APPLICATION The new instruments are intended to advance the state of the art in diver-operated tools for underwater spectral measurements. They...Diver-Operated Instruments for In-Situ Measurement of Optical Properties Charles Mazel Physical Sciences Inc. 20 New England Business Center Andover...improved diver-operated instrumentation for making reflectance and fluorescence spectral measurements from benthic features in situ. The new instrument

  4. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

  5. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids).

    PubMed

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-10-01

    Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A questionnaire measuring staff perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbrunner, Monica; Bengtsson, Lars; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Engström, Maria

    2017-03-24

    During the past decade, the concept of Lean has spread rapidly within the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of instruments that can measure staff's perceptions of Lean adoption. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring Lean in healthcare, based on Liker's description of Lean, by adapting an existing instrument developed for the service sector. A mixed-method design was used. Initially, items from the service sector instrument were categorized according to Liker's 14 principles describing Lean within four domains: philosophy, processes, people and partners and problem-solving. Items were lacking for three of Liker's principles and were therefore developed de novo. Think-aloud interviews were conducted with 12 healthcare staff from different professions to contextualize and examine the face validity of the questionnaire prototype. Thereafter, the adjusted questionnaire's psychometric properties were assessed on the basis of a cross-sectional survey among 386 staff working in primary care. The think-aloud interviews led to adjustments in the questionnaire to better suit a healthcare context, and the number of items was reduced. Confirmatory factor analysis of the adjusted questionnaire showed a generally acceptable correspondence with Liker's description of Lean. Internal consistency, measured using Cronbach's alpha, for the factors in Liker's description of Lean was 0.60 for the factor people and partners, and over 0.70 for the three other factors. Test-retest reliability measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the four factors. We designed a questionnaire capturing staff's perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare on the basis of Liker's description. This Lean in Healthcare Questionnaire (LiHcQ) showed generally acceptable psychometric properties, which supports its usability for measuring Lean adoption in healthcare. We suggest that further research focus on verifying the usability of

  7. The Development of an Instrument for Measuring Healing

    PubMed Central

    Meza, James Peter; Fahoome, Gail F.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Our lack of ability to measure healing attributes impairs our ability to research the topic. The specific aim of this project is to describe the psychological and social construct of healing and to create a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing. METHODS A content expert conducted a domain analysis examining the existing literature of midrange theories of healing. Theme saturation of content sampling was ensured by brainstorming more than 220 potential items. Selection of items was sequential: pile sorting and data reduction, with factor analysis of a mailed 54-item questionnaire. Criterion validity (convergent and divergent) and temporal reliability were established using a second mailing of the development version of the instrument. Construct validity was judged with structural equation modeling for goodness of fit. RESULTS Cronbach’s α of the original questionnaire was .869 and the final scale was .862. The test-retest reliability was .849. Eigenvalues for the 2 factors were 8 and 4, respectively. Divergent and convergent validity using the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and SF-36 mental health and emotional subscales were consistent with predictions. The root mean square error of approximation was 0.066 and Bentler’s Comparative Fit Index was 0.871. Root mean square residual was 0.102. CONCLUSIONS We developed a valid and reliable measurement scale for attributes of healing, which we named the Self-Integration Scale v 2.1. By creating a new variable, new areas of research in humanistic health care are possible. PMID:18626036

  8. Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

  9. Curriculum Alignment: Exploring Student Perception of Learning Achievement Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Kerri-Ann L.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of constructively aligned curriculum is well understood in higher education. Based on the principles of constructive alignment, this research considers whether student perception of learning achievement measures can be used to gain insights into how course activities and pedagogy are assisting or hindering students in accomplishing…

  10. Perception Based Principal Leadership Measurement: Does It Work in Pakistan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niqab, Muhammad; Sharma, Sailesh; Ali, Niaz; Mubarik, Muhammad Shujaat

    2015-01-01

    Adequacy of relevant knowledge and interpersonal skills, interalia, are vital contributors to a successful leadership. However, leadership is not a self-centered phenomenon but followers through their actions and views profess it. Extant literature suggests teachers' and principals' perceptions as a prominent tool for measuring school leadership.…

  11. Construct Validation of an Instrument Measuring Teacher Career Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Charlotte M.; Daniel, Larry G.

    Many studies of the reasons people select teaching as a career have used quantitative instruments featuring a checklist of reasons one might enter teaching to which subjects respond using a checklist or a continuously scaled Likert format. In this study, results of an effort to establish the construct validity of such an instrument are reported. A…

  12. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  13. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  14. Measuring perception of elements in outdoor environments

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller; Robert MacLachlan; Douglas A. Morrison

    1974-01-01

    The meanings of 10 concepts that describe elements of natural outdoor environments were measured with the semantic differential technique. Each concept was evaluated on three factors of meaning - evaluation, potency, and activity. Sixty recreationists were surveyed from each of three user groups - campers, picnickers, and wilderness hikers. Similarities and differences...

  15. An instrument for the direct measurement of electron temperature in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V.; Genov, V.; Bliznakov, K.

    An instrument based on a modified Langmuir-probe method is described which is used to measure ratios of the electron currents of two identical probes in the electron-deceleration region of the volt-ampere characteristics. The instrument makes it possible to perform precise measurements of temperature with a relatively simple processing method. A block diagram of the instrument is presented.

  16. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  17. Digital correlator for the portable channel prober measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peo, George E., Jr.

    1987-12-01

    This document describes a Digital Correlator for the Portable Channel Prober Measurement Instrument being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in experiments designed to characterize high frequency (HF) radio channels. This Digital Correlator is a digital signal processor designed and constructed by Stow Computer, 111 old Bolton Road, Stow, MA 01775, (617/508) 897-6838. Two Digital Correlators are integrated into the existing Digital Pre-processor to make a Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer will be located at the receiving site of the channel probing experiment and is situated between the coherent radio receiver and the microcomputer used for data recording and analysis. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer computes the delay power spectrum of the received waveform. The in-phase and quadrature outputs of the receiver are sampled and converted to digital values by the Analog to Digital Converter, integrated by the Integrator, and correlated with a stored replica of the transmitted waveform by two Digital Correlators. The resulting tap gains are then read by the system microcomputer using the microcomputer interface.

  18. A new instrument for high statistics measurement of photomultiplier characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, C. M.; Bozza, C.; Chiarusi, T.; Costa, M.; Di Capua, F.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Mele, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Pellegrino, C.; Riccobene, G.; Vivolo, D.

    2016-08-01

    Since the early days of experimental particle physics photomultipliers (PMTs) have played an important role in the detector design. Thanks to their capability of fast photon counting, PMTs are extensively used in the new-generation of astroparticle physics experiments, such as air, ice and water Cherenkov detectors. Small size PMTs (<= 3 inches diameter) show little sensitivity to the Earth magnetic field, small transit time, stable transit time spread; the price per photocathode area is less comparing to the one for the large area PMTs, typically used so far in such applications. Together with developments and reduced price of multichannel electronics, the use of PMTs of 3-inches or smaller diameter is a promising option even for nowadays large volume detectors. In this paper we report on the design and performance of a new instrument for mass characterisation of PMTs (from 1 inch to 3 inches size), capable to calibrate hundreds of PMTs per day and provide measurements of dark counts, signal amplitude, late-, delayed-, pre- and after-pulses, transit time and transit time spread.

  19. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  20. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  1. A comparison of rainfall measurements by multiple instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. C.; Gao, T. C.; Liu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of rainfall collected by a tipping bucket rain gauge, a weighing bucket rain gauge, an optical rain gauge, a present weather detector, a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer, and a 2-D video disdrometer during January to October 2012 were analyzed to evaluate how accurately they measure rainfall and drop size distributions (DSDs). For the long-term observations, there were different discrepancies in rain amounts from six instruments in the order of 0 to 27.7%. The ORG, JWD, and 2DVD underestimated, and the TBRG overestimated the rain rate when R < 20 mm h-1; the TBRG agreed well with the reference values, while the PWD and 2DVD overestimated, WRG and JWD underestimated the rain rate when R > 20 mm h-1. The TBRG and WRG underestimated more than 50% of rainfall duration substantially in the light rainfall, ORG underestimated the rainfall duration for about 12.7%, while the JWD and 2DVD overestimated the rainfall duration for more than 30%. The overall DSDs of JWD and 2DVD agreed well with each other, while the JWD had a higher volume mean diameter, lower raindrop numbers and liquid water content than that of 2DVD. The overestimation of small-size drops (D < 1 mm) and underestimation of very large-size drops (D > 4 mm) by JWD suggests the JWD's inaccuracy of measurement of small-size drops and very large-size drops; the underestimation of small raindrops by 2DVD suggested that DSDs in the heavy rainfall by 2DVD should be handled carefully.

  2. Measuring activity and participation in children and adolescents with disabilities: a literature review of available instruments.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Olds, Tim; Boshoff, Kobie; Lane, Alison E

    2013-08-01

    This article aims to (1) identify instruments available to measure activity and participation in children with disabilities; (2) describe the reliability and validity of these instruments; and (3) consider whether the available instruments capture the extent of involvement, as well as the difficulty and satisfaction/enjoyment associated with performance in all life areas. A literature review was completed by undertaking an electronic search to identify instruments that measure activity and participation in children with disabilities. A further electronic search was conducted to obtain an adequate description of the instruments, including psychometric properties. The search identified 20 instruments purporting to measure activity and participation, however, no single instrument measured extent of involvement, difficulty and satisfaction/enjoyment in all life areas. There were instances in which each of these aspects was captured, but not within the one instrument. Instruments assessed combinations of frequency, difficulty, assistance, environment and satisfaction across varying contexts, for example, school, domestic life, recreational tasks, leisure tasks or all life areas. Although a large number of instruments exist to measure varying aspects of activity and participation, there is currently no single instrument available to measure the extent of involvement, difficulty and satisfaction/enjoyment in all life areas. This finding indicates that there is the opportunity to develop a single instrument to measure activity and participation across all life areas. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. The Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey: an instrument to assess expert-like views and dispositions among undergraduate mathematics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Code, Warren; Merchant, Sandra; Maciejewski, Wes; Thomas, Matthew; Lo, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    One goal of an undergraduate education in mathematics is to help students develop a productive disposition towards mathematics. A way of conceiving of this is as helping mathematical novices transition to more expert-like perceptions of mathematics. This conceptualization creates a need for a way to characterize students' perceptions of mathematics in authentic educational settings. This article presents a survey, the Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (MAPS), designed to address this need. We present the development of the MAPS instrument and its validation on a large (N = 3411) set of student data. Results from various MAPS implementations corroborate results from analogous instruments in other STEM disciplines. We present these results and highlight some in particular: MAPS scores correlate with course grades; students tend to move away from expert-like orientations over a semester or year of taking a mathematics course; and interactive-engagement type lectures have less of a negative impact, but no positive impact, on students' overall orientations than traditional lecturing. We include the MAPS instrument in this article and suggest ways in which it may deepen our understanding of undergraduate mathematics education.

  4. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the proprietor...

  5. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the proprietor...

  6. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the proprietor...

  7. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the proprietor...

  8. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

  9. An instrumented spatial linkage for measuring knee joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Rosvold, Joshua M; Atarod, Mohammad; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the design and development of a highly accurate instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) for kinematic analysis of the ovine stifle joint is described. The ovine knee is a promising biomechanical model of the human knee joint. The ISL consists of six digital rotational encoders providing six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) to its motion. The ISL makes use of the complete and parametrically continuous (CPC) kinematic modeling method to describe the kinematic relationship between encoder readings and the relative positions and orientation of its two ends. The CPC method is useful when calibrating the ISL, because a small change in parameters corresponds to a small change in calculated positions and orientations and thus a smaller optimization error, compared to other kinematic models. The ISL is attached rigidly to the femur and the tibia for motion capture, and the CPC kinematic model is then employed to transform the angle sensor readings to relative motion of the two ends of the linkage, and thereby, the stifle joint motion. The positional accuracy for ISL after calibration and optimization was 0.3±0.2mm (mean +/- standard deviation). The ISL was also evaluated dynamically to ensure that accurate results were maintained, and achieved an accuracy of 0.1mm. Compared to the traditional motion capture methods, this system provides increased accuracy, reduced processing time, and ease of use. Future work will be on the application of the ISL to the ovine gait and determination of in vivo joint motions and tissue loads. Accurate measurement of knee joint kinematics is essential in understanding injury mechanisms and development of potential preventive or treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncology patients' perceptions of the good nurse: an explorative study on the psychometric properties of the Flemish adaptation of the Care-Q instrument.

    PubMed

    Rchaidia, Leila; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Verbeke, Geert; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were to translate the Care-Q into Dutch, adapt it for use in oncological care settings in Flanders and explore its psychometric properties in oncology patients. The 'good nurse' is a difficult concept to measure. Patients' experiences are essential for understanding what characterises good nurses in the oncology setting. Although the Care-Q is one of the most widely used instruments to measure cancer patients' perceptions of good nurses, no translated, validated instrument has been developed for Flanders. A quantitative, descriptive, non-experimental research design was used. We translated the Care-Q into Dutch, adapted it and assessed its face and content validity. Its psychometric properties were examined in 100 oncology patients. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability was assessed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Spearman's rho coefficient. Factor structure was studied using explorative factor analysis derived from principal component analysis with varimax rotation, and the user-friendliness was examined using descriptive statistics. Several items from the original Care-Q were removed or adapted, and new items were added. The content validity index was 0·83. Five reliable, consistent and meaningful subscales were identified that explained 49·7% of the total variance: good nurses are empathic (towards patients and family), professional, patient-centred, respectful and communicative. Cronbach's alpha was 0·92 for the whole instrument and 0·65-0·81 for the subscales. User-friendliness was deemed favourable. The Flemish adaptation of the Care-Q has favourable psychometric properties. It appears to be a useful instrument for studying cancer patients' perceptions of good nurses in Flanders. The Flemish adaptation of the Care-Q is useful for helping nurses to reflect critically on the care they offer and to adapt and improve care to the real needs and expectations of patients

  11. Measuring changes in client-level treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC) with the Dimensions of Change Instrument (DCI).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Edelen, Maria O; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Ebener, Patricia; Mandell, Wallace; Dahl, James

    2007-01-01

    The Dimensions of Change Instrument (DCI) measures treatment process in residential therapeutic community (TC) settings. It summarizes eight factors of treatment process from a client perspective. We present evidence of the reliability of the DCI for assessing both adult (N = 519) and adolescent (N = 474) client perceptions of treatment process. The DCI factors significantly increase over time, with increases consistently seen across all DCI factors for adults. We highlight areas for future DCI modifications to broaden its applicability to adolescents. Our findings show that clinicians can use the DCI to evaluate adult client progress and target areas for improving quality of care.

  12. Elaboration of an instrument to investigate the acquisition of minimal contrast perception in the Brazilian sign language.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Diéssica Zacarias; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Kessler, Themis Maria

    2017-07-20

    To design an instrument to check the perception of minimal contrasts by through pairs of signs, which differ in one the following parameters: handshape, hand location, hand movement and hand orientation. An inventory of minimal pairs was made and some pictures were drawn by a visual artist. These pictures were organized into three columns, which could be equal or different from each other in the pair. A video file with an interpreter making two signs at a time was played to the individual taking the test and this was expected to watch the signs and point to the pictures that corresponded to them. Raters analyzed the pairs and decided whether or not they were accurate. They could modify the pairs or ask for particular pairs to be removed; they also checked if the pictures were clear and if they were part of the children's vocabulary. The analysis of agreement among raters had a significant result for the criterion rated as 'not a minimal pair'. Thus, 13 items were removed from the instrument because they differed as to more than one parameter, and were considered either analogous or not minimal pairs. Additionally, 16 pairs were modified, and seven pairs which differed in orientation, were added. As a consequence, there was a total of 35 minimal pairs in the final version of the instrument. The purpose of designing an instrument for evaluation of the perception of minimal contrasts was achieved. Some adjustments were made during the assessment of the content of the instrument as suggested by raters. The final instrument was composed of 35 pairs which differ from each other in only one parameter.

  13. Development and validation of a survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Fear, Kathleen; Chaffee, Bruce W; Zimmerman, Christopher R; Karls, Edward M; Gatwood, Justin D; Stevenson, James G; Pearlman, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    To develop a theoretically informed and empirically validated survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts. The survey is grounded in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and an adapted accident causation model. Development of the instrument was also informed by a review of the extant literature on prescribers' attitude toward computerized medication safety alerts and common prescriber-provided reasons for overriding. To refine and validate the survey, we conducted a two-stage empirical validation study consisting of a pretest with a panel of domain experts followed by a field test among all eligible prescribers at our institution. The resulting survey instrument contains 28 questionnaire items assessing six theoretical dimensions: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived fatigue, and perceived use behavior. Satisfactory results were obtained from the field validation; however, a few potential issues were also identified. We analyzed these issues accordingly and the results led to the final survey instrument as well as usage recommendations. High override rates of computerized medication safety alerts have been a prevalent problem. They are usually caused by, or manifested in, issues of poor end user acceptance. However, standardized research tools for assessing and understanding end users' perception are currently lacking, which inhibits knowledge accumulation and consequently forgoes improvement opportunities. The survey instrument presented in this paper may help fill this methodological gap. We developed and empirically validated a survey instrument that may be useful for future research on DDI alerts and other types of computerized medication safety alerts more generally.

  14. An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2006-01-01

    Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

  15. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  16. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  17. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  18. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  19. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...

  20. Development of an Instrument to Measure Medical Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Andrew B.; Fish, Reva; McGuigan, Denise; Fox, Jeffery; Akl, Elie A.

    2012-01-01

    As curricula to improve medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities are developed, instruments are needed to guide the process and evaluate effectiveness. The authors developed an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities. A pilot instrument with 30 items in four sections was administered to…

  1. Validation of an Adapted Instrument to Measure Students' Attitude towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Sook Fui; Lim, Hooi Lian

    2016-01-01

    Attitude towards science (ATS) is a major concern in science education. Although many ATS instruments have been developed, they are based on different cultural systems and having some limitations. This study aims to validate an instrument for measuring students' ATS in Malaysia context. The instrument was adapted from Test of Science-Related…

  2. Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

  3. NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [calibration, functional checks, and operation of measuring instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Information required to calibrate, functionally check, and operate the Instrumentation Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The calibration section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and calibrated by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.

  4. Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure the caring behaviour of nurses in Italian acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Piredda, Michela; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fenizia, Elisa; Marchetti, Anna; Petitti, Tommasangelo; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Sili, Alessandro

    2017-07-16

    To develop and psychometrically test the Italian-language Nurse Caring Behaviours Scale, a short measure of nurse caring behaviour as perceived by inpatients. Patient perceptions of nurses' caring behaviours are a predictor of care quality. Caring behaviours are culture-specific, but no measure of patient perceptions has previously been developed in Italy. Moreover, existing tools show unclear psychometric properties, are burdensome for respondents, or are not widely applicable. Instrument development and psychometric testing. Item generation included identifying and adapting items from existing measures of caring behaviours as perceived by patients. A pool of 28 items was evaluated for face validity. Content validity indexes were calculated for the resulting 15-item scale; acceptability and clarity were pilot tested with 50 patients. To assess construct validity, a sample of 2,001 consecutive adult patients admitted to a hospital in 2014 completed the scale and was split into two groups. Reliability was evaluated using nonlinear structural equation modelling coefficients. Measurement invariance was tested across subsamples. Item 15 loaded poorly in the exploratory factor analysis (n = 983) and was excluded from the final solution, positing a single latent variable with 14 indicators. This model fitted the data moderately. The confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1018) returned similar results. Internal consistency was excellent in both subsamples. Full scalar invariance was reached, and no significant latent mean differences were detected across subsamples. The new instrument shows reasonable psychometric properties and is a promising short and widely applicable measure of inpatient perceptions of nurse caring behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Image quality measurements with a neural brightness perception model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Timothy A.; Wu, Mei

    1991-06-01

    A computational model for the human perception of image brightness has been advanced by Cohen, Grossberg, and Todorovic. The research describes how this model can be used to assess perceived image quality. The implementation of the model is extended to allow the processing of larger images and an increased dynamic range of the gray scale. The model is validated by examining the simulation of some classical brightness perception phenomena including the Herman grid illusion, and the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effect. Results of a comparative evaluation of three halftoning algorithms are offered which indicate that the model is useful for the evaluation of image processing algorithms. Human subjects ranked the quality of the images halftoned with each of three different algorithms at three different viewing distances. Objective measures of the halftoned images were obtained after preprocessing to account for the different viewing distances. The ranking of the objective measures did not correspond to those of the majority of the human observers. However, after processing by the brightness perception model, ranking of the objective measures do correspond with the rankings assigned by human observers.

  6. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27 September 2007. ISMTII 2007 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE, Technical Committee of Intelligent Measurement with Nanoscale), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and Tohoku University. The conference was also supported by Center for Precision Metrology of UNC Charlotte and Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology. A total of 220 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2007, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nano-metrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The guest editors recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2007 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. The first two papers were presented in ISMTII 2007 as keynote papers. Takamasu et al from The University of Tokyo report uncertainty estimation for coordinate metrology, in which methods of estimating uncertainties using the coordinate measuring system after calibration are formulated. Haitjema, from Mitutoyo Research Center Europe, treats the most often used interferometric measurement techniques (displacement interferometry and surface interferometry) and their major sources of errors. Among

  7. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  8. 27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary equipment to determine proof or volume. (b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors to gauge spirits... those prescribed in 27 CFR part 30. Proprietors shall make frequent tests of their hydrometers and...

  9. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  10. SHIM-Free Breadboard Instrument Design, Integration, and First Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-23

    The concept is similar to a Michelson interferometer with the return mirrors replaced by fixed, tilted diffraction gratings. Figure 1 shows the basic...Cardon, R.R. Conway, C.M. Brown, J. Wimperis, "Robust monolithic ultraviolet interferometer for the SHIMMER instrument on STPSat-l," Applied Optics, 42

  11. An Instrument To Measure Spatial-Symbolic Information Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    The ability to recognize, extend, and relate patterns and sequences to numeric, figural, and word representations plays a prominent role in science education. This study provided validation information for an instrument to assess childrens' ability to recognize and extend patterns and sequence in different representational forms. A 57-item…

  12. Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

  13. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  14. Measuring Latinos’ Perceptions of Depression: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Illness Perception Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Lagomasino, Isabel T.; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Hansen, Marissa C.; Xie, Bin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted for a clinical sample of low-income Latinos suffering from depression. Participants (N = 339) were recruited from public primary care centers. Their average age was 49.73 years and the majority was foreign born females of either Mexican or Central American descent. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factor structure of this measure. Construct and discriminant validity and internal consistency were evaluated. After the elimination of three items because of low factor loadings (< .40) and the specification of seven error covariances, a revised model composed of 24 items had adequate goodness-of-fit indices and factor loadings, supporting construct validity. Each of the subscales reported satisfactory internal consistency. Intercorrelations between the 5 illness perception factors provided initial support for the discriminant validity of these factors in the context of depression. The establishment of the psychometric properties of this adapted measure will pave the way for future studies examining the role illness perceptions play in the help seeking and management of depression among Latinos. PMID:18954174

  15. Measuring Latinos' perceptions of depression: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Lagomasino, Isabel T; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Hansen, Marissa C; Xie, Bin

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted for a clinical sample of low-income Latinos suffering from depression. Participants (N = 339) were recruited from public primary care centers. Their average age was 49.73 years and the majority was foreign born females of either Mexican or Central American descent. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factor structure of this measure. Construct and discriminant validity and internal consistency were evaluated. After the elimination of three items because of low factor loadings (< .40) and the specification of seven error covariances, a revised model composed of 24 items had adequate goodness-of-fit indices and factor loadings, supporting construct validity. Each of the subscales reported satisfactory internal consistency. Intercorrelations between the 5 illness perception factors provided initial support for the discriminant validity of these factors in the context of depression. The establishment of the psychometric properties of this adapted measure will pave the way for future studies examining the role illness perceptions play in the help seeking and management of depression among Latinos.

  16. Public risk perception of relaxation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) measures in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dressel, K; Perazzini, A; Ru, G; Van Wassenhove, W

    2011-01-01

    The so-called "TSE roadmap" was published by the European Commission on July 15, 2005. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) roadmap suggests relaxation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies measures in the short, medium, and long term. According to the TSE roadmap, "Any relaxation of BSE measures following the scientific assessment should be initiated by an open discussion with all stakeholders and supported by a strong communication strategy" ( European Commission 2005 , 5). Bearing this in mind, a social scientific project was designed to (1) involve different stakeholder groups, governmental risk managers, and their scientific advisors and (2) obtain their perception of the TSE roadmap and of its implications for precautionary consumer protection in five European Union (EU) Member States. This study describes the risk perception and risk management of TSE in Europe as exemplified by the TSE roadmap. The following query guided the international comparative study: How is TSE risk perceived by four interviewed stakeholder groups in five studied countries? The risk perceptions of TSE of risk managers from the ministries in charge in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, as well as their scientific advisors and stakeholder groups, were determined. The stakeholder groups were from three different areas involved with TSE, including farmers, consumers, and the meat/food industry. The issue to be addressed is roadmapping an adequate instrument for stakeholder involvement and for risk decision making.

  17. Development of a 15-Item Scale to Measure Parental Perceptions of Their Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, Robin; Gray, Andrew; Reeder, Anthony Ivor; Holt, Alec; Waters, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioecological theory suggests that there are a range of influences that affect the physical activity levels of children, including parents' perceptions of the neighborhood. A questionnaire instrument to quantify parental neighborhood perceptions was developed for the Location of Children's Activity in Their Environment study as a potential…

  18. Veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment as measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) has been widely used to evaluate the learning environment within health sciences education, however, this tool has not been applied in veterinary medical education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the DREEM tool in a veterinary medical program and to determine veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment. Methods The DREEM is a survey tool which quantitatively measures students’ perceptions of their learning environment. The survey consists of 50 items, each scored 0–4 on a Likert Scale. The 50 items are subsequently analysed within five subscales related to students’ perceptions of learning, faculty (teachers), academic atmosphere, and self-perceptions (academic and social). An overall score is obtained by summing the mean score for each subscale, with an overall possible score of 200. All students in the program were asked to complete the DREEM. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the 50 items, the five subscale scores and the overall score. Cronbach’s alpha was determined for the five subscales and overall score to evaluate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Results 224 responses (53%) were received. The Cronbach’s alpha for the overall score was 0.93 and for the five subscales were; perceptions of learning 0.85, perceptions of faculty 0.79, perceptions of atmosphere 0.81, academic self-perceptions 0.68, and social self-perceptions 0.72. Construct validity was determined to be acceptable (p < 0.001) and all items contributed to the overall validity of the DREEM. The overall DREEM score was 128.9/200, which is a positive result based on the developers’ descriptors and comparable to other health science education programs. Four individual items of concern were identified by students. Conclusions In this setting the DREEM was a reliable and valid tool to measure

  19. Veterinary students' perceptions of their learning environment as measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Jacquelyn M; Hodgson, Jennifer L; Werre, Stephen R

    2014-03-24

    The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) has been widely used to evaluate the learning environment within health sciences education, however, this tool has not been applied in veterinary medical education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the DREEM tool in a veterinary medical program and to determine veterinary students' perceptions of their learning environment. The DREEM is a survey tool which quantitatively measures students' perceptions of their learning environment. The survey consists of 50 items, each scored 0-4 on a Likert Scale. The 50 items are subsequently analysed within five subscales related to students' perceptions of learning, faculty (teachers), academic atmosphere, and self-perceptions (academic and social). An overall score is obtained by summing the mean score for each subscale, with an overall possible score of 200. All students in the program were asked to complete the DREEM. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the 50 items, the five subscale scores and the overall score. Cronbach's alpha was determined for the five subscales and overall score to evaluate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. 224 responses (53%) were received. The Cronbach's alpha for the overall score was 0.93 and for the five subscales were; perceptions of learning 0.85, perceptions of faculty 0.79, perceptions of atmosphere 0.81, academic self-perceptions 0.68, and social self-perceptions 0.72. Construct validity was determined to be acceptable (p < 0.001) and all items contributed to the overall validity of the DREEM. The overall DREEM score was 128.9/200, which is a positive result based on the developers' descriptors and comparable to other health science education programs. Four individual items of concern were identified by students. In this setting the DREEM was a reliable and valid tool to measure veterinary students' perceptions of their learning

  20. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2001-04-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  1. Measuring Pilot Proficiency on an Instrument Training Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    featmr• of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) could be suc- cess tuj ly used to facilitate the development and validation of a recording...for the instrument training maneuver Vertical S-A in which the unique record/playback features of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) were...the ASPT revealed several format and observe--workload problems that needed correction. SFollowing revision, the booklet (Appendix A) was given a

  2. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  3. Measuring a caring culture in hospitals: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    Hesselink, G; Kuis, E; Pijnenburg, M; Wollersheim, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. Study selection Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring aspects of a caring culture in a hospital setting. Studies had to report psychometric data regarding the reliability or validity of the instrument. Potentially useful instruments that were identified after the title and abstract scan were assessed on relevance by an expert panel (n=12) using the RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Results Of the 6399 references identified, 75 were examined in detail. 7 studies each covering a unique instrument met our inclusion criteria. On average, 24% of the instrument's items were considered relevant for measuring aspects of the hospital's caring culture. Studies showed moderate-to-high validity and reliability scores. Validity was addressed for 6 of the 7 instruments. Face, content (90%) and construct (60%) validity were the most frequently reported psychometric properties described. One study (14%) reported discriminant validity of the instrument. Reliability data were available for all of the instruments. Internal consistency was the most frequently reported psychometric property for the instruments and demonstrated by: a Cronbach's α coefficient (80%), subscale intercorrelations (60%), and item–total correlations (40%). Conclusions The ultimate standard for measuring a caring culture in hospitals does not exist. Existing instruments provide partial coverage and lack information on discriminant validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Characteristics of the instruments included in this review could provide useful input for the design of a

  4. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  5. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  6. Provider attitudes toward pay-for-performance programs: development and validation of a measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Meterko, Mark; Young, Gary J; White, Bert; Bokhour, Barbara G; Burgess, James F; Berlowitz, Dan; Guldin, Matthew R; Nealon Seibert, Marjorie

    2006-10-01

    perceptions of the other six characteristics of P4P programs. It is possible to identify and measure the key salient features of P4P programs using a valid and reliable 26-item survey. This instrument may now be used in further studies to better understand the impact of P4P programs on physician behavior.

  7. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  8. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Deringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life prediction tests of arrays were selected.

  9. CRiSP: An Instrument for Assessing Student Perceptions of Classroom Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument for evaluating classroom response systems (CRS). While a number of studies evaluating CRS have been published to date, no standardised instrument exists as a means of evaluating the impact of using the CRS. This means that comparing the different systems, or evaluating the…

  10. CRiSP: An Instrument for Assessing Student Perceptions of Classroom Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument for evaluating classroom response systems (CRS). While a number of studies evaluating CRS have been published to date, no standardised instrument exists as a means of evaluating the impact of using the CRS. This means that comparing the different systems, or evaluating the…

  11. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method: Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results: No…

  12. An Instrument to Measure the Cognitive Ability Evaluation of the Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaff, John F.

    Described is the development of an instrument designed to measure the cognitive ability of evaluation in high school chemistry students. The instrument was composed of several situations found in chemistry courses, each designed to measure a student's evaluation ability based on his knowledge of kinetic-molecular theory as it applied to gases,…

  13. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development of a Measurement Instrument to Assess Students' Electrolyte Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shanshan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    To assess students' conceptual understanding levels and diagnose alternative frameworks of the electrolyte concept, a measurement instrument was developed using the Rasch model. This paper reports the use of the measurement instrument to assess 559 students from grade 10 to grade 12 in two cities. The results provided both diagnostic and summative…

  15. Development of a Measurement Instrument to Assess Students' Electrolyte Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shanshan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    To assess students' conceptual understanding levels and diagnose alternative frameworks of the electrolyte concept, a measurement instrument was developed using the Rasch model. This paper reports the use of the measurement instrument to assess 559 students from grade 10 to grade 12 in two cities. The results provided both diagnostic and summative…

  16. Measuring Approaches to Learning in Preschoolers: Validating the Structure of an Instrument for Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbu, Otilia C.; Marx, Ronald W.; Yaden, David B., Jr.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a 13-item instrument measuring approaches to learning (AtL) as a component of school readiness in the context of early childhood socio-emotional development. Few instruments, limited to preschool teacher ratings, measure AtL among kindergarteners with short easy-to-use questionnaires. We investigated psychometric properties of…

  17. Measuring Approaches to Learning in Preschoolers: Validating the Structure of an Instrument for Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbu, Otilia C.; Marx, Ronald W.; Yaden, David B., Jr.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a 13-item instrument measuring approaches to learning (AtL) as a component of school readiness in the context of early childhood socio-emotional development. Few instruments, limited to preschool teacher ratings, measure AtL among kindergarteners with short easy-to-use questionnaires. We investigated psychometric properties of…

  18. The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriram, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

  19. Measuring Teacher Perceptions of the "How" and "Why" of Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Davis, Kendrick A.; Sullivan, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of educational psychology, there is diverse and active research in motivation for learning and achievement. Many instruments exist for assessing students' motivation, primarily as self-report. Fewer instruments are available for assessing "teachers'" perceptions of their students' motivation, and fewer still for assessing teachers'…

  20. Measuring pictorial balance perception at first glance using Japanese calligraphy

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, Sharon; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    According to art theory, pictorial balance acts to unify picture elements into a cohesive composition. For asymmetrical compositions, balancing elements is thought to be similar to balancing mechanical weights in a framework of symmetry axes. Assessment of preference for balance (APB), based on the symmetry-axes framework suggested in Arnheim R, 1974 Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), successfully matched subject balance ratings of images of geometrical shapes over unlimited viewing time. We now examine pictorial balance perception of Japanese calligraphy during first fixation, isolated from later cognitive processes, comparing APB measures with results from balance-rating and comparison tasks. Results show high between-task correlation, but low correlation with APB. We repeated the rating task, expanding the image set to include five rotations of each image, comparing balance perception of artist and novice participant groups. Rotation has no effect on APB balance computation but dramatically affects balance rating, especially for art experts. We analyze the variety of rotation effects and suggest that, rather than depending on element size and position relative to symmetry axes, first fixation balance processing derives from global processes such as grouping of lines and shapes, object recognition, preference for horizontal and vertical elements, closure, and completion, enhanced by vertical symmetry. PMID:23145242

  1. Measuring pictorial balance perception at first glance using Japanese calligraphy.

    PubMed

    Gershoni, Sharon; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    According to art theory, pictorial balance acts to unify picture elements into a cohesive composition. For asymmetrical compositions, balancing elements is thought to be similar to balancing mechanical weights in a framework of symmetry axes. Assessment of preference for balance (APB), based on the symmetry-axes framework suggested in Arnheim R, 1974 Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), successfully matched subject balance ratings of images of geometrical shapes over unlimited viewing time. We now examine pictorial balance perception of Japanese calligraphy during first fixation, isolated from later cognitive processes, comparing APB measures with results from balance-rating and comparison tasks. Results show high between-task correlation, but low correlation with APB. We repeated the rating task, expanding the image set to include five rotations of each image, comparing balance perception of artist and novice participant groups. Rotation has no effect on APB balance computation but dramatically affects balance rating, especially for art experts. We analyze the variety of rotation effects and suggest that, rather than depending on element size and position relative to symmetry axes, first fixation balance processing derives from global processes such as grouping of lines and shapes, object recognition, preference for horizontal and vertical elements, closure, and completion, enhanced by vertical symmetry.

  2. Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Motivation to Study English in Saudi Arabia: Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Perceptions and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherzi, Sena

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study describes Effat University students' perceptions of their classroom climate and their motivation to study English, and investigates the validity and reliability of an Arabic questionnaire for measuring student perceptions and motivation. Method: To this end, 137 female students participated in the cross-cultural validation…

  3. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  4. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  5. An instrument to measure job satisfaction of certified nurse assistants.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2010-11-01

    We first presented the steps taken to develop the nursing home certified nurse assistant job satisfaction questionnaire (NH-CNA-JSQ) and, second, the psychometric properties of this instrument. Certified nurse assistants (CNAs) from 22 nursing homes in Pennsylvania were mailed the NH-CNA-JSQ. Of the 726 surveys mailed, 479 usable surveys were returned, giving a 66% response rate. The factor analyses show that the items were representative of the underlying factors, representing seven subscales. The percentage of CNAs not providing responses for each question was low (1.5%), and the floor and ceiling effects of the responses for each of the 19 questions were low (i.e., 9.4% and 5.2%, respectively). The item-scale internal consistency analyses determined that the correlation of items within indexes was higher than those of items with other indexes. Cronbach's alpha values for the domains ranged from .72 to .83 and were all higher than the usually recommended levels. Criterion validity was high (.77) as was the index of content validity (p > .05). We believe that we have produced a short psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A.

    1989-11-15

    The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

  7. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-31

    Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  8. Measuring verticality perception after stroke: why and how?

    PubMed

    Pérennou, D; Piscicelli, C; Barbieri, G; Jaeger, M; Marquer, A; Barra, J

    2014-01-01

    About 80 papers dealing with verticality after stroke have been published in the last 20years. Here we reviewed the reasons and findings that explain why measuring verticality perception after stroke is interesting. Research on verticality perception after stroke has contributed to improve the knowledge on brain mechanisms, which build up and update a sense of verticality. Preliminary research using modern techniques of brain imaging has shown that the posterior lateral thalamus and the parietal insular cortex are areas of interest for this internal model of verticality. How they interact and are critical remains to be investigated. From a clinical standpoint, it has now been clearly established that biases in verticality perception are frequent after a stroke, causing postural disorders. Measuring the postural vertical with the wheel paradigm has allowed elucidating the mechanisms of lateropulsion, leading or not to a pushing. Schematically, patients with a hemispheric stroke align their erect posture with an erroneous reference of verticality, tilted to the side opposite the lesion. In patients with a brainstem stroke lateropulsion is usually ipsilesional, and results rather from a pathological asymmetry of tone, through vestibulo-spinal mechanisms. These evolutions of concepts and measurement standards of verticality representation should guide the emergence of rehabilitation programs specifically dedicated to the sense of verticality after stroke. Indeed, several pilot studies using appropriate somatosensory stimulation suggest the possibility to recalibrate the internal model of verticality biased by the stroke, and to improve uprightness. Vestibular stimulations seem to be less relevant and efficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: IC-10-dPT

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Control Rod Drive Bypass Flow IC-10-dPT. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading of zero flow which could indicate it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning.

  10. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: CF-2-LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J E; Smith, J T; Mathis, M V

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Core Flood Tank 1A level monitor CF-2-LT2. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading which implied it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning.

  11. Measuring patient's expectation and the perception of quality in LASIK services.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Juin; Sheu, Ing-Cheau; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Bair, Alex; Hung, Che-Yu; Yeh, Yuan-Hung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2009-07-10

    , perceptions, and loyalty. The results of this research appear to show that the SERVQUAL instrument is a useful measurement tool in assessing and monitoring service quality in LASIK service, and enabling staff to identify where improvements are needed, from the patients' perspective. There were service quality gaps in the reliability, assurance, and empathy. This study suggested that physicians should increase their discussions with patients; which has, of course, already been proven to be an effective way to increase patient's satisfaction with medical care, regardless of the procedure received.

  12. Measuring patient's expectation and the perception of quality in LASIK services

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Deng-Juin; Sheu, Ing-Cheau; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Bair, Alex; Hung, Che-Yu; Yeh, Yuan-Hung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2009-01-01

    in concept on expectations, perceptions, and loyalty. Conclusion The results of this research appear to show that the SERVQUAL instrument is a useful measurement tool in assessing and monitoring service quality in LASIK service, and enabling staff to identify where improvements are needed, from the patients' perspective. There were service quality gaps in the reliability, assurance, and empathy. This study suggested that physicians should increase their discussions with patients; which has, of course, already been proven to be an effective way to increase patient's satisfaction with medical care, regardless of the procedure received. PMID:19591682

  13. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Climate Change Knowledge and Perceptions: The Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Scott L.; McNeal, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) was developed to measure knowledge and perceptions of global climate change, while also considering information sources that respondents 'trust.' The CSS was drafted using a three-stage approach: development of salient scales, writing individual items, and field testing and analyses. Construct validity and…

  14. The development of an integrated assessment instrument for measuring analytical thinking and science process skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwanto, Rohaeti, Eli; LFX, Endang Widjajanti; Suyanta

    2017-05-01

    This research aims to develop instrument and determine the characteristics of an integrated assessment instrument. This research uses 4-D model, which includes define, design, develop, and disseminate. The primary product is validated by expert judgment, tested it's readability by students, and assessed it's feasibility by chemistry teachers. This research involved 246 students of grade XI of four senior high schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data collection techniques include interview, questionnaire, and test. Data collection instruments include interview guideline, item validation sheet, users' response questionnaire, instrument readability questionnaire, and essay test. The results show that the integrated assessment instrument has Aiken validity value of 0.95. Item reliability was 0.99 and person reliability was 0.69. Teachers' response to the integrated assessment instrument is very good. Therefore, the integrated assessment instrument is feasible to be applied to measure the students' analytical thinking and science process skills.

  15. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional team-based primary care.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Parchman, Michael L; Fuda, Kathleen Kerwin; Schaefer, Judith; Levin, Jessica; Hunt, Meaghan; Ricciardi, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional team-based care is increasingly regarded as an important feature of delivery systems redesigned to provide more efficient and higher quality care, including primary care. Measurement of the functioning of such teams might enable improvement of team effectiveness and could facilitate research on team-based primary care. Our aims were to develop a conceptual framework of high-functioning primary care teams to identify and review instruments that measure the constructs identified in the framework, and to create a searchable, web-based atlas of such instruments (available at: http://primarycaremeasures.ahrq.gov/team-based-care/ ). Our conceptual framework was developed from existing frameworks, the teamwork literature, and expert input. The framework is based on an Input-Mediator-Output model and includes 12 constructs to which we mapped both instruments as a whole, and individual instrument items. Instruments were also reviewed for relevance to measuring team-based care, and characterized. Instruments were identified from peer-reviewed and grey literature, measure databases, and expert input. From nearly 200 instruments initially identified, we found 48 to be relevant to measuring team-based primary care. The majority of instruments were surveys (n = 44), and the remainder (n = 4) were observational checklists. Most instruments had been developed/tested in healthcare settings (n = 30) and addressed multiple constructs, most commonly communication (n = 42), heedful interrelating (n = 42), respectful interactions (n = 40), and shared explicit goals (n = 37). The majority of instruments had some reliability testing (n = 39) and over half included validity testing (n = 29). Currently available instruments offer promise to researchers and practitioners to assess teams' performance, but additional work is needed to adapt these instruments for primary care settings.

  16. A systematic review of psychometric testing of instruments that measure intention to work with older people.

    PubMed

    Che, Chong Chin; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Chong, Mei Chan

    2017-09-01

    To review systematically the psychometric properties of instruments used to measure intention to work with older people. Nursing students are part of the future healthcare workforce; thus, being aware of their intention to work with older people would give valuable insights to nursing education and practice. Despite a plethora of research on measuring intention to work with older people, a valid and reliable instrument has not been identified. A systematic literature review of evidence and psychometric properties. Eight database searches were conducted between 2006 - 2016. English articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The COSMIN checklist was used to assess instruments reporting a psychometric evaluation of validity and reliability. Of 41 studies identified for full text review, 36 met the inclusion criteria. Seven different types of instruments were identified for psychometric evaluation. Measures of reliability were reported in eight papers and validity in five papers. Evidence for each measurement property was limited, with each instrument demonstrating a lack of information on measurement properties. Based on the COSMIN checklist, the overall quality of the psychometric properties was rated as poor to good. No single instrument was found to be optimal for use. Studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the measurement properties of the instruments that are currently available. Until such studies are available, we recommend using existing instruments with caution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cosmogonic Perceptions in the Armenian Traditional Musical Instrument-crafting Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikichian, Hripsime

    2015-07-01

    Based on research data and materials recorded by folk musicians and craftsmen, the article presents the musical instrument-crafting in traditional culture, its contribution in to re-establishment of cosmic order. In this context, the several issues are reviewed in detail: individuality of craftsmen and musicians, the raw materials for the creation of instrument, the instrument structure, the manufacturing process, the ornaments and application. According to the traditional view, using the elements of nature and imitating the sounds of nature and human psychological states the master imitates God repeating the process of creation of the Universe. So, the Instrument is held capable to influence the society contributing to the eternity of life.

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of a New Instrument to Evaluate School Nurses' Perceptions on Concussion Care Management.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathleen H

    2017-10-01

    The rate of concussions in adolescents has risen over the last decade, resulting in cognitive and emotional problems. Neurologists recommend cognitive and physical rest during the recovery period, followed by a transitional return-to-classroom protocol. The purpose of the study was to develop and test an instrument that explores the beliefs and roles of school nurses in concussion care management. The instrument was a cross-sectional descriptive survey based on the theory of planned behavior, using Qualtrics®. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed through exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability of the instrument was assessed for internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's α. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin for sample adequacy was .8; Cronbach's α strong (.851).

  19. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Battered Women's Perceptions of Risk Versus Risk Factors and Instruments in Predicting Repeat Reassault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckert, D. Alex; Gondolf, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    This study partially replicates and expands on a previous study that showed women's perceptions of risk to be a strong predictor of reassault among batterers. The current study employed a larger and multisite sample, a longer follow-up period of 15 months, and multiple outcomes including "repeated reassault" (n = 499). According to the multinomial…

  1. Battered Women's Perceptions of Risk Versus Risk Factors and Instruments in Predicting Repeat Reassault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckert, D. Alex; Gondolf, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    This study partially replicates and expands on a previous study that showed women's perceptions of risk to be a strong predictor of reassault among batterers. The current study employed a larger and multisite sample, a longer follow-up period of 15 months, and multiple outcomes including "repeated reassault" (n = 499). According to the multinomial…

  2. Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Dutton, E.; Rubes, M.; Nelson, D.; Stoffel, T.; Wesely, M.; Splitt, M.; Deluisi, J.; Environmental Research; State Univ. of New York; Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab.; Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Studies; National Renewable Energy Lab.; Univ. of Oklahoma; Surface Radiation Research Branch

    1999-01-01

    Although most measurements of total downwelling shortwave irradiance are made with pyranometers, the World Climate Research Program's Baseline Surface Radiation Network has recommended the use of the summation of shortwave components in which the direct normal irradiance is measured and multiplied by the cosine of the solar zenith angle and then added to the diffuse horizontal irradiance measured by a pyranometer that is shaded from direct solar radiation by a disk. The nonideal angular response of most pyranometers limits their accuracy to about 3%, or 20-30 W m{sup -2}, for instantaneous clear-sky measurements. An intensive study of 21 separate measurements of total horizontal irradiance was conducted during extreme winter conditions of low sun and cold temperatures over 12 days at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. The experiment showed that the component sum methodology could lower the uncertainty by a factor of 2 or 3. A clear demonstration of this improvement was realized in a separate experiment conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site during April 1996. Four independent measurements of downwelling shortwave irradiance using the component sum technique showed typical differences at solar noon of about 10 W m{sup -2}. The mean of these summed measurements at solar noon was lower than the mean of the most-well-calibrated pyranometer measurements, acquired simultaneously, by about 30 W m{sup -2}, which is consistent with the typical angular response of many pyranometers.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-05-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument was conceptualized. This paper is a progress report of the instrument development process. Version 1 of the instrument was administered to 335 first-year students majoring in food and agriculture fields in a pre-post fashion relative to a brief exposure to nanotechnology in the classroom. Following item analysis of Version 1 responses, a revision of the instrument was completed. Version 2 was administered to 1,426 first-year engineering students for the purpose of conducting item and factor analyses. Results indicate that the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument shows potential to provide valid information about student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. The instrument is not a valid measure of nano-knowledge and this subscale was dropped from the final version of the instrument. Implications include the use of the instrument to evaluate programs, interventions, or courses that attempt to increase student awareness of nanotechnology. Further study is necessary to determine how the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument functions as a pre-post measure.

  5. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contents of tanks and other storage containers, and scales and measuring devices for weighing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile fruit-flavor concentrate, or materials received and used in the production or treatment of wine. Where winemaking materials or other materials used in the treatment of wine are used...

  6. New Concepts in Instrumentation Development to Measure the Perry Scheme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marcia

    The Perry scheme of intellectual and ethical development has become widely used in a range of academic disciplines and such areas as career training and faculty consultation. However, current measurement techniques for the scheme, whether interview format or paper and pencil measures, do not adequately address issues related to assessing cognitive…

  7. The quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Terwee, C B; Prinsen, C A C; Ricci Garotti, M G; Suman, A; de Vet, H C W; Mokkink, L B

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments are important tools for the selection of instruments for research and clinical practice. Our aim was to assess the quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments and to determine whether the quality has improved since our previous study in 2007. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE between July 1, 2013, and June 19, 2014. The quality of the reviews was rated using a study-specific checklist. A total of 102 reviews were included. In many reviews the search strategy was considered not comprehensive; in only 59 % of the reviews a search was performed in EMBASE and in about half of the reviews there was doubt about the comprehensiveness of the search terms used for type of measurement instruments and measurement properties. In 41 % of the reviews, compared to 30 % in our previous study, the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. In 58 %, compared to 55 %, the quality of the included instruments was assessed. In 42 %, compared to 7 %, a data synthesis was performed in which the results from multiple studies on the same instrument were somehow combined. Despite a clear improvement in the quality of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments in comparison with our previous study in 2007, there is still room for improvement with regard to the search strategy, and especially the quality assessment of the included studies and the included instruments, and the data synthesis.

  8. Balloon and surface UV radiation measurements with the NILU-CUBE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylling, A.; Danielsen, T.; Webb, A.; Blumthaler, M.; Schreder, J.

    2003-04-01

    The NILU-CUBE instrument measures the irradiance on the six faces of a cube. On each face the radiation is measured at 312~nm and 340~nm with a bandwidth of approximately 10~nm at full width half maximum. The instrument is designed to be flown as part of balloon payloads. It may also readily be operated on the ground. The instrument and its characteristics are presented and the calibration procedure outlined. Photodissociation rates derived from measurements made during a twilight stratospheric balloon flight from Gap-Tallard, France, are presented. From two hot-air balloon flights over East-Anglia, England, measurements by the instrument were used to derive the surface albedo. Finally, surface measurements are used to describe the incoming irradiance on vertical and horizontal surfaces. All measurements are compared with model simulations.

  9. [Mobility assessment in elderly people. Description of measuring instruments for mobility: a review].

    PubMed

    Rubio Castañeda, Francisco Javier; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Muro Baquero, Carmen; Chico Guerra, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    People over 65 are the ones who have higher levels of functional limitations. There are many instruments to measure mobility in this age range that causes a lack of international consensus on what are the most suitable for this purpose. The aim is to analyze and identify which instruments provide greater data reliability and validity in measuring mobility in elderly people. Systematic review of the instruments used to measure mobility in people over 65 years published between 2001-2013, conducted in PubMed and Science Direct. The 34 items selected instruments were grouped into 4 categories: doubly labeled water (DLW), motion detectors, objective measures of mobility and questionnaires. We identified, 23 are questionnaires, 4 accelerometers, 3 to objective measures of mobility and 2 both pedometers as DLW. The other 2 to combined analysis of different instruments. We conclude that assessing objective and subjective data obtains the most accurate measures of mobility. To obtain objective data, objective measures of mobility will be opposed to pedometers and accelerometers, while questionnaires were selected for subjective data due to its ease of use and sociodemographic data that provides. Among these instruments, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Minnesota Leisure Time are the most appropriate instruments to estimate the mobility of the elderly in Spain.

  10. Commercial Instrument for Automated Specific Heat Measurements at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neils, W. K.; Martien, Dinesh; Bauer, E. D.; Mixson, D.; Hur, N.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    The specific heat of CeRhIn5-xSnx was measured down to 55 mK using a novel, fully automated measurement system. The system consists of a dilution refrigerator designed to operate in a Quantum Design Physical Property Measurement System, a calorimeter optimized for millikelvin temperatures and very low addenda heat capacity, electronics to perform the measurement, and software to automate the measurement. The compound CeRhIn5 exhibits antiferromagnetism at a Neel temperature of TN = 3.8 K which is suppressed at a critical pressure Pc ˜ 25 kbar, indicating a quantum critical point (QCP). At pressures above ˜ 15 kbar, CeRhIn5 exhibits antiferromagnetism and superconductivity simultaneously. Measurement of the specific heat of CeRhIn5-xSnx in magnetic field offers an additional tool to probe the antiferromagnetic QCP. Preliminary measurements up to H = 3 T for CeRhIn4.77Sn0.23 are reported.

  11. Dental students' perceptions about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel files.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renata Castro; Seijo, Marília Oliveira Saraiva; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptions of Brazilian undergraduate dental students about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontic disciplines. The students were divided into 3 groups: G1, students who had treated straight canals with SS hand instruments; G2, students who had treated curved canals with SS hand instruments; and G3, students who had treated both straight and curved canals with NiTi rotary instruments. The number of endodontic treatments performed, types of treated teeth, students' learning, time spent, encountered difficulties, quality of endodontic treatment and characteristics of the employed technique were analyzed. There was a 91.3% rate of return for the questionnaires. Mandibular molars were the most frequently treated teeth, followed by maxillary incisors. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no differences in learning (p=0.528) or in the characteristics of the technique employed (p=0.560) among the three groups. G3 students performed a greater number of endodontic treatments (p<0.001) in a smaller time (p<0.001) than did G1 and G2 students. Difficulties were reported primarily by students in G2 and G3 compared with G1 (p=0.048). The quality of endodontic treatments differed only between G1 and G2 (p=0.045). The use of NiTi rotary instruments should be included in undergraduate dental curriculum, contributing to the increase of patients assisted and consequently to improve the clinical experience of the students.

  12. An interdisciplinary approach to the development of accessible computer-administered measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Magasi, Susan; Harniss, Mark; Heinemann, Allen W

    2017-09-04

    Principles of fairness in testing require that all test takers, including people with disabilities, have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their capacity in the construct being measured. Measurement design features and assessment protocols can pose barriers for people with disabilities. Fairness in testing is a fundamental validity issue at all phases in the design, administration and interpretation of measurement instruments in clinical practice and research. There is limited guidance for instrument developers in how to develop and evaluate the accessibility and usability of measurement instruments. This paper describes a 6-stage iterative process for developing accessible computer-administered measurement instruments based on our work in several major measurement initiatives. Interdisciplinary teams of accessibility experts, content and measurement experts, information technology experts and people with disabilities should work together to ensure that measurement instruments are accessible and usable by a wide range of users. The development of accessible measurement instruments is not only an ethical requirement, it also ensures better science by minimizing measurement bias, missing data, and attrition due to mismatches between the target population and test administration platform and protocols. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.R.R. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

  14. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  15. A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

  16. The effect of the instrument function on Doppler ion temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Peacock, N. J.

    1988-09-01

    The measurement of ion temperatures from the Doopler broadening of spectral lines is discussed. Calculations are used to show that the shape of the instrument function of the spectrometer can have a significant effect on the measured value, even when the broadening is large (˜10X) compared with the half-width of the instrument function. The discussion is illustrated by the optical example of measurements made using an XUV grating spectrometer.

  17. Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

  18. Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

  19. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  20. Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…