Science.gov

Sample records for percussion drilling improved

  1. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

  2. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  3. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  4. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10 N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400 g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  5. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  6. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  7. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  8. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  9. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  10. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  11. A Study of Specific Fracture Energy at Percussion Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Shadrina; T, Kabanova; V, Krets; L, Saruev

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of rock failure provided by percussion drilling. Quantification and qualitative analysis were carried out to estimate critical values of rock failure depending on the hammer pre-impact velocity, types of drill bits and cylindrical hammer parameters (weight, length, diameter), and turn angle of a drill bit. Obtained data in this work were compared with obtained results by other researchers. The particle-size distribution in granite-cutting sludge was analyzed in this paper. Statistical approach (Spearmen's rank-order correlation, multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test) was used to analyze the drilling process. Experimental data will be useful for specialists engaged in simulation and illustration of rock failure.

  12. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  13. In situ 24 kHz coherent imaging of morphology change in laser percussion drilling.

    PubMed

    Webster, Paul J L; Yu, Joe X Z; Leung, Ben Y C; Anderson, Mitchell D; Yang, Victor X D; Fraser, James M

    2010-03-01

    We observe sample morphology changes in real time (24 kHz) during and between percussion drilling pulses by integrating a low-coherence microscope into a laser micromachining platform. Nonuniform cut speed and sidewall evolution in stainless steel are observed to strongly depend on assist gas. Interpulse morphology relaxation such as hole refill is directly imaged, showing dramatic differences in the material removal process dependent on pulse duration/peak power (micros/0.1 kW, ps/20 MW) and material (steel, lead zirconate titanate PZT). Blind hole depth precision is improved by over 1 order of magnitude using in situ feedback from the imaging system.

  14. Rotary-Percussive Drill for Planetary Exploration and a 3.5 m Vacuum Chamber Enabling Full Scale Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Szczesiak, M.; Glass, B.; McKay, C.; Santoro, C.; Wilson, J.; Craft, J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a 1-meter-class rotary-percussive drill and test results comparing rotary and rotary-percussive drilling in various formations. A 3.5-m large vacuum chamber build for testing drill systems to a depth of >1 m is also presented.

  15. Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the great amount of change in demand for specific sounds and colors from the percussion section, the author provided some hints for selecting sticks and mallets, practice pads, snare drums, cymbals, timpani, and keyboard instruments. (Author/RK)

  16. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  17. A drifting impact oscillator with periodic impulsive loading: Application to percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depouhon, A.; Denoël, V.; Detournay, E.

    2013-09-01

    Percussive drilling is extensively used to drill hard rocks in the earth resource industry, where it performs best compared to other drilling technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel model of the process that consists of a drifting oscillator under impulsive loading coupled with a bilinear force/penetration interface law, together with a kinetic energy threshold for continuous bit penetration. Following the formulation of the model, we analyze its steady-state response and show that there exists a parallel between theoretical and experimental predictions, as both exhibit a maximum of the average penetration rate with respect to the vertical load on bit. In addition, the existence of complex long-term dynamics with the coexistence of periodic solutions in certain parameter ranges is demonstrated.

  18. A Parametric Study for the Design of an Optimized Ultrasonic Percussive Planetary Drill Tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Harkness, Patrick; Worrall, Kevin; Timoney, Ryan; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Traditional rotary drilling for planetary rock sampling, in situ analysis, and sample return are challenging because the axial force and holding torque requirements are not necessarily compatible with lightweight spacecraft architectures in low-gravity environments. This paper seeks to optimize an ultrasonic percussive drill tool to achieve rock penetration with lower reacted force requirements, with a strategic view toward building an ultrasonic planetary core drill (UPCD) device. The UPCD is a descendant of the ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer technique. In these concepts, a transducer and horn (typically resonant at around 20 kHz) are used to excite a toroidal free mass that oscillates chaotically between the horn tip and drill base at lower frequencies (generally between 10 Hz and 1 kHz). This creates a series of stress pulses that is transferred through the drill bit to the rock surface, and while the stress at the drill-bit tip/rock interface exceeds the compressive strength of the rock, it causes fractures that result in fragmentation of the rock. This facilitates augering and downward progress. In order to ensure that the drill-bit tip delivers the greatest effective impulse (the time integral of the drill-bit tip/rock pressure curve exceeding the strength of the rock), parameters such as the spring rates and the mass of the free mass, the drill bit and transducer have been varied and compared in both computer simulation and practical experiment. The most interesting findings and those of particular relevance to deep drilling indicate that increasing the mass of the drill bit has a limited (or even positive) influence on the rate of effective impulse delivered.

  19. Deep drilling and sampling via the wireline auto-gopher driven by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-04-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. The developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline drill that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism, which is driven by a piezoelectric stack, demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with the objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa formation.

  20. Dynamic method of stiffness identification in impacting systems for percussive drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Maolin; Ing, James; Sayah, Mukthar; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces a dynamic method for the stiffness identification of an impacted object via analysis of its corresponding impact duration. To accurately detect the impact durations from experimental signals, nonlinear time series methods are applied. Two low-dimensional dynamical systems, including a piecewise-linear impact oscillator and a rock impacting system, are studied experimentally and numerically to demonstrate the proposed method. Meanwhile, the analytical prediction of the impact duration for the period-one one-impact motion is developed. The results of both systems indicate that, for a certain stiffness, the impact duration of the period-one one-impact motion is nearly constant. The higher the stiffness, the lower the impact duration. This monotone correlation provides a mechanism to estimate the stiffness of the impacted object once the impact duration has been accurately detected. The developed method can be used to optimise percussive drilling parameters.

  1. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  2. Vertical section construction of wells at Kuyumbinsky oil field via percussive-rotary drilling with DTH hammer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanov, K. V.; Nechaeva, L. N.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of sequential use of mobile percussive-rotary drilling sets with DTH hammer and bottom-hole cleaning by foam mud in construction of vertical sections along with at Kuyumbinsky oil field. On the basis of the analysis, an engineering solution is proposed to prevent disastrous mud loss that is the key factor of efficiency in implementation of resource-saving technologies.

  3. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of thin aluminum sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    Modeling and optimization of machining processes using coupled methodology has been an area of interest for manufacturing engineers in recent times. The present paper deals with the development of a prediction model for Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) using the coupled methodology of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). First, 2D axisymmetric FEM based thermal models for LBPD have been developed, incorporating the temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties, and phase change phenomena of aluminum. The model is validated after comparing the results obtained using the FEM model with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper. Secondly, sufficient input and output data generated using the FEM model is used for the training and testing of the ANN model. Further, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process using data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model predicts that hole taper and material removal rates are highly affected by pulse width, whereas the pulse frequency plays the most significant role in determining the extent of HAZ. The optimal process parameter setting shows a reduction of hole taper by 67.5%, increase of material removal rate by 605%, and reduction of extent of HAZ by 3.24%.

  4. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of nickel-based superalloy sheet using Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    The creation of small diameter holes in thin sheets (<3 mm) of superalloys using a laser beam is a challenging task. Knowledge of the effect of laser related process variables on hole related responses with respect to variation of sheet thickness is essential to obtain a hole of requisite quality. Therefore, in this paper a coupled methodology comprising of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to develop a prediction model for the Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) process. First, a 2D axisymmetric FEM-based thermal model for LBPD has been developed incorporating temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties and phase change phenomena of the sheet material. The developed FEM-based thermal model is validated with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper which is further used to generate adequate input and output data for training and testing of the ANN model. Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process utilizing the data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model has been used to predict the performance characteristics of the LBPD process. The results predicted by the ANN model show that with the increase in pulse width and peak power the hole taper, material removal rate (MRR) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases. The acquired combination of optimal process variables produce a hole with good integral quality, i.e., a reduction of hole taper by 32.1%, increase of material removal rate by 28.9% and reduction of extent of HAZ by 4.5%.

  5. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  6. Proper planning improves flow drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J. )

    1994-10-01

    Underbalanced operations reduce formation damage, especially in horizontal wells where zones are exposed to mud for longer time periods. Benefits, risks, well control concerns, equipment and issues associated with these operations are addressed in this paper. Flow drilling raises many concerns, but little has been published on horizontal well control and flow drilling operations. This article covers planning considerations for flow drilling, but does not address horizontal ''overbalanced'' drilling because considerations and equipment are the same as in vertical overbalanced drilling and many references address that subject. The difference in well control between vertical and horizontal overbalanced drilling is fluid influx behavior and how that behavior affects kill operations.

  7. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  8. Percussive Excavation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested using a percussive motion could improve the efficiency of excavation by up to 90%. If this is proven to be true it would be very beneficial to excavation projects on the Moon and Mars. The purpose of this study is to design, build and test a percussive tool which could dig a trench and then compare this data against that of a non-percussive tool of the same shape and size. The results of this test thus far have been inconclusive due to malfunctions in the testbed and percussive bucket; however, experimental results from small scale experiments confirm this higher efficiency and support further testing.

  9. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  10. Percussion tool

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  11. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI.

  12. Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    2000-01-01

    An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.

  13. Better practices and synthetic fluid improve drilling rates

    SciTech Connect

    White, W. ); McLean, A.; Park, S. )

    1995-02-20

    Improved drilling practices, combined with the use of olefin-based synthetic drilling fluids, have dramatically reduced drilling time and costs in a difficult drilling area in the Gulf of Mexico. In the South Pass area, Marathon Oil Co. and other operators have had wells with long drilling times and high costs. In addition to the two wells with record penetration rates, routine drilling rates have also increased from the use of synthetic mud and careful drilling practices. Through application of these improved drilling practices, 2,000--3,000 ft/day can be drilled routinely. Marathon achieves this goal by applying the experience gained on previous wells, properly training and involving the crews, and using innovative drilling systems. Improved drilling practices and systems are just one part of successful, efficient drilling. Rig site personnel are major contributors to safely and successfully drilling at high penetration rates for extended periods. The on site personnel must act as a team and have the confidence and proper mental attitude about what is going on downhole. The paper describes the drilling history in the South Pass area, the synthetic drilling fluid used, cuttings handling, hole cleaning, drilling practices, bottom hole assemblies, and lost circulation.

  14. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  15. Midbrain Raphe Stimulation Improves Behavioral and Anatomical Recovery from Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M.; Blaya, Meghan O.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Bramlett, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4–6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested. PMID:22963112

  16. Midbrain raphe stimulation improves behavioral and anatomical recovery from fluid-percussion brain injury.

    PubMed

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M; Blaya, Meghan O; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-15

    The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4-6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested.

  17. Operators, service companies improve horizontal drilling accuracy offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-04-01

    Continuing efforts to get more and better measurement and logging equipment closer to the bit improve accuracy in offshore drilling. Using current technology, both in measurement while drilling and logging while drilling, a target can consistently be hit within five vertical feet.

  18. Improve dust capture on your surface drill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, S.J.; Listak, J.M.; Reed, R.

    2008-09-15

    Researchers have developed a model to describe airborne respirable dust (ARD) generation on surface coal mine drills. By measuring a few basic parameters and using a graph, a drill operator or engineer can estimate the relative severity of drill dust emissions as well as how much of a reduction in ARD can be obtained by changing any given parameter. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Prediction of penetration rate of rotary-percussive drilling using artificial neural networks - a case study / Prognozowanie postępu wiercenia przy użyciu wiertła udarowo-obrotowego przy wykorzystaniu sztucznych sieci neuronowych - studium przypadku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalizad, Seyed Ali; Rashidinejad, Farshad

    2012-12-01

    Penetration rate in rocks is one of the most important parameters of determination of drilling economics. Total drilling costs can be determined by predicting the penetration rate and utilized for mine planning. The factors which affect penetration rate are exceedingly numerous and certainly are not completely understood. For the prediction of penetration rate in rotary-percussive drilling, four types of rocks in Sangan mine have been chosen. Sangan is situated in Khorasan-Razavi province in Northeastern Iran. The selected parameters affect penetration rate is divided in three categories: rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern. The rock properties are: density, rock quality designation (RQD), uni-axial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, porosity, Mohs hardness, Young modulus, P-wave velocity. Drilling condition parameters are: percussion, rotation, feed (thrust load) and flushing pressure; and parameters for drilling pattern are: blasthole diameter and length. Rock properties were determined in the laboratory, and drilling condition and drilling pattern were determined in the field. For create a correlation between penetration rate and rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used. For this purpose, 102 blastholes were observed and drilling condition, drilling pattern and time of drilling in each blasthole were recorded. To obtain a correlation between this data and prediction of penetration rate, MATLAB software was used. To train the pattern of ANN, 77 data has been used and 25 of them found for testing the pattern. Performance of ANN models was assessed through the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). For optimized model (14-14-10-1) RMSE and R2 is 0.1865 and 86%, respectively, and its sensitivity analysis showed that there is a strong correlation between penetration rate and RQD, rotation and blasthole diameter. High correlation coefficient and low

  20. Proper bit selection improves ROP in coiled tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.W. )

    1994-04-18

    Using the correct type of bit can improve the rate of penetration (ROP) and therefore the economics of coiled tubing drilling operations. Key factors, based on studies of the coiled tubing jobs to date, are that the drilling system must be analyzed as a whole system and that both the drill bit type and the formation compressive strength are critical components in this analysis. Once a candidate job has been qualified technically for drilling with coiled tubing, the job will have to be justified economically compared to conventional drilling. A key part of the economic analysis is predicting the ROP in each formation to be drilled to establish a drilling time curve. This prediction should be based on the key components of the system, including the following: hydraulics, motor capabilities, weight on bit (WOB), rock compressive strength, and bit type. This analysis should not base expected ROPs and offset wells drilled with conventional rigs and equipment. Furthermore, a small-diameter bit should not be selected simply by using the International Association of Drilling Contractor (IADC) codes of large-diameter bits used in offset wells. Coiled tubing drilling is described, then key factors in the selection are discussed.

  1. A Passion for Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    This article profiles James Sewrey, founder of the Percussive Arts Society. A passionate percussionist who's spent more than 60 years teaching at all levels from kindergarten through university, Sewrey was called out of retirement in 2007 to serve as adjunct professor of percussive studies at Wisconsin Lutheran College. As a founding member of the…

  2. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  3. Improved practices, synthetic mud drive record 24-hr drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J.; White, W.W.

    1995-05-01

    Revised and improved drilling practices resulted in increased rate of penetration (ROP), improved hole cleaning, decreased circulating time, fewer instances of stuck pipe and reduced total drilling days. Rig equipment modifications and optimized techniques, combined with olefin-based synthetic fluid, produced significant efficiency improvements and cost reductions. Total-project strategy allows best technologies to be used, even if they are not low bid. In the Gulf of Mexico, a total-project concept helped Marathon drill back-to-back record 24-hr footages. Methods and philosophy described in this article allow drillers to choose optimum technologies, tools, materials and service performance for achieving optimum or lowest cost per foot rather than always using low bid.

  4. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  5. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  6. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  7. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  8. Name that percussive tune: Associative memory and amplitude envelope.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Michael; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; H Baum, Sarah; Roth, Amber

    2017-07-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated novel effects of amplitude envelope on associative memory, with tones exhibiting naturally decaying amplitude envelopes (e.g., those made by two wine glasses clinking) better associated with target objects than amplitude-invariant tones. In Experiment 1 participants learned associations between household objects and 4-note tone sequences constructed of spectrally matched pure tones with either "flat" or "percussive" amplitude envelopes. Those hearing percussive tones correctly recalled significantly more sequence-object associations. Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants hearing percussive tones learned the associations more quickly. Experiment 3 used "reverse percussive" tones (percussive tones played backwards) to test whether differences in overall energy might account for this effect, finding they did not lead to the same level of performance as percussive tones. Experiment 4 varied the envelope at encoding and retrieval to determine which stage of the task was most affected by the envelope manipulation. Participants hearing percussive tones at both encoding and retrieval performed significantly better than the other three groups (i.e., flat at encoding/percussive at retrieval, etc.). We conclude that amplitude envelope plays an important role in learning and memory, a finding with relevance to psychological research on audition and associative memory, as well as practical relevance for improving human-computer interface design.

  9. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.

  10. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  11. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  13. COG1410, an Apolipoprotein E-based Peptide, Improves Cognitive Performance and Reduces Cortical Loss Following Moderate Fluid Percussion Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Nicholas A.; Beare, Jason E.; Tan, Arlene A.; Vitek, Michael P.; McKenna, Suzanne E.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    COG1410, a small, novel ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the receptor binding region of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), has been classified as anti-inflammatory in nature and improves motor, sensorimotor, and cognitive dysfunction following cortical contusion injury (CCI). In order to further examine COG1410’s preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery, the present study evaluated COG1410 following moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI). Animals were prepared with a moderate, unilateral FPI over the hippocampus. Following FPI, animals received a regimen of five doses of COG1410 or vehicle at 2 and 4 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) followed by additional doses administered 24, 48, and 72 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Prior to injury, animals were trained for four days (4 trials/day) in the Morris water maze (MWM) and then tested for retrograde amnesia on post-FPI day 11 and then on a working memory task on day 18. Testing for motor dysfunction on the tapered balanced beam began on day 2 post-FPI. Administration of this regimen of COG1410 significantly improved retention of memory in the retrograde amnesia test compared to vehicle post-FPI. However, COG1410 did not significantly improve acquisition of working memory in the MWM. Motor dysfunction on the tapered beam post-FPI was improved in the COG1410-treated group compared to vehicle treatment. Cortical lesion analysis revealed that the COG1410-treated animals demonstrated significantly less tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. The results of this study suggest that COG1410 significantly limited the behavioral dysfunction and tissue loss associated with FPI and demonstrated continued preclinical efficacy for TBI. PMID:20600347

  14. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOEpatents

    Polsky, Yarom [Oak Ridge, TN; Grubelich, Mark C [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  15. Rotary ultrasonic bone drilling: Improved pullout strength and reduced damage.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Pandey, Pulak M; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-03-01

    Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool. Both techniques were used to drill holes in porcine bones in an in-vitro study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe microcracks and surface morphology. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the number and dimensions of microcracks generated on the inner surface of drilled holes with the RUBD process in comparison to CSBD. It was also observed that a higher rotational speed and a lower feed rate resulted in lower damage, i.e. fewer microcracks. Biomechanical axial pullout strength of a cortical bone screw inserted into a hole drilled with RUBD was found to be much higher (55-385%) than that for CSBD.

  16. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  17. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  18. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  19. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  20. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    percussion primers typically consist of lead styphnate and antimony sulfide. Although highly effective, these heavy material compounds were identified under...Percussion primers, including those used in medium caliber ammunition, typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents...Furthermore, current percussion primer compositions also contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the Environmental Protection

  1. Improved seal for geothermal drill bit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.F.

    1984-07-06

    Each of the two field test bits showed some promise though their performances were less than commercially acceptable. The Ohio test bit ran just over 3000 feet where about 4000 is considered a good run but it was noted that a Varel bit of the same type having a standard O ring seal was completely worn out after 8-1/2 hours (1750 feet drilled). The Texas test bit had good seal-bearing life but was the wrong cutting structure type for the formation being drilled and the penetration rate was low.

  2. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  3. World Percussion Approaches in Collegiate Percussion Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    As world percussion has grown in popularity in American colleges and universities, two main problems have emerged. The first problem is that no known source exists detailing how percussion instructors have incorporated world percussion into their collegiate teaching. A review of the literature has highlighted four main approaches to incorporating…

  4. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  5. Mixed metal hydroxide mud improves drilling in unstable shales

    SciTech Connect

    Sparling, D.P. ); Williamson, D. )

    1991-06-10

    A mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) mud reduced some of the hole problems common to offset wells in the Arkoma basin. By specially engineering the MMH rheology, cuttings removal efficiency increased, and well bore problems were minimized. Wells drilled in the Arkoma basin frequently have experienced problems associated with hole instability: excessive reaming, stuck pipe, packing off, and difficulty in obtaining open hole logs. These problems often occur in the massive shale intervals of Atokan age. The causes of such problems are generally thought to be related to the dissolution of the reactive shales and clays in the Atoka interval, particularly along microfractures created by the tectonic stresses associated with overthrust environment. There exist insufficient data regarding the borehole stress states, primarily the minimum and maximum horizontal stresses. It is also possible that shear failure at the borehole wall is a result of the stress imbalances. In this area, wells are frequently air-drilled to 5,000-8,000 ft, resulting in significant borehole enlargement, which compounds the problems. Operators typically approach the problem in two ways. Oil muds are used worldwide to reduce the trouble time associated with shales. They have been particularly successful in the Arkoma basin for over 25 years.

  6. Improved Screw Placement for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) using Robotically-Assisted Drill Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Koutenaei, Bamshad Azizi; Guler, Ozgur; Wilson, Emmanuel; Thoranaghatte, Ramesh U.; Oetgen, Matthew; Navab, Nassir; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip displacement condition in adolescents. In the standard treatment, the surgeon uses intra-operative fluoroscopic imaging to plan the screw placement and the drill trajectory. The accuracy, duration, and efficacy of this procedure are highly dependent on surgeon skill. Longer procedure times result in higher radiation dose, to both patient and surgeon. A robotic system to guide the drill trajectory might help to reduce screw placement errors and procedure time by reducing the number of passes and confirmatory fluoroscopic images needed to verify accurate positioning of the drill guide along a planned trajectory. Therefore, with the long-term goals of improving screw placement accuracy, reducing procedure time and intra-operative radiation dose, our group is developing an image-guided robotic surgical system to assist a surgeon with pre-operative path planning and intra-operative drill guide placement. PMID:25333154

  7. Research and development of improved cavitating jets for deep-hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Lindenmuth, W.T.; Chahine, G.L.; Conn, A.F.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Improved cavitating nozzles have been developed as part of an on-going program to increase the rate of penetration of deep-hole drill bits. Based on the four criteria of: incipient cavitation number, amplitude of pressure fluctuation (and hence enhanced structuring of the jet flow), rock cutting, and cleaning chips from the hole bottom - these new, STRATOJET (STRuctured Acoustically Tuned Oscillating JET) cavitating nozzle systems have out-performed both conventional drill bit nozzles and the basic CAVIJET cavitating jets. Although nozzle designs which provide large amplitude pressure modulations are now available for the operation in water, additional research is needed to optimize self-resonating jets for use: (a) in mud, (b) in specific drill bit designs, and (c) at higher system pressures than now currently used for deep-hole drilling.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  9. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  10. Auto-Gopher: a wireline deep sampler driven by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  11. Auto-Gopher: A Wireline Deep Sampler Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Jae Lee, Hyeong; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  12. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  13. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  14. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  15. Improvement of aluminum drilling efficiency and precision by shaped femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying; Qi, Hongxia; Chen, Anmin; Hu, Zhan

    2014-10-01

    Shaped femtosecond laser pulses with the plain phase (transform-limited pulse) and sine phase (A = 1.2566, T = 30, T = 10, and T = 5) were used to drill Al sheet in vacuum. Using different phase, the number of pulses required to drill through the sheet was different. With lower laser pulse energy, the ablation rate was the highest when plain phase (corresponding to transform limited pulse) was used. With higher laser energy, the optimized ablation rate can be achieved by increasing the time separation between the subpulses of pulse train produced from the sine phase function. And, with the shaped femtosecond laser, the diameter of ablation holes produced was smaller, the ablation precision was also improved. The results showed that shaped femtosecond laser pulse has great advantages in the context of femtosecond laser drilling.

  16. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  17. Theoretical percussion force of the periotest diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T

    1998-01-01

    The Periotest percussion force acting on a dental implant was estimated by assuming a mass-spring-dashpot model of the implant-bone system constructed on the basis of a clinical experiment. A theoretical value of about 10 N, comparable to hitherto reported experimental values, was obtained for an osseointegrated implant of about 1 g. The percussion force would probably be smaller for a heavier implant.

  18. HPC simulations of grain-scale spallation to improve thermal spallation drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. D.; Lomov, I.; Wideman, T. W.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal spallation drilling and related hard-rock hole opening techniques are transformative technologies with the potential to dramatically reduce the costs associated with EGS well drilling and improve the productivity of new and existing wells. In contrast to conventional drilling methods that employ mechanical means to penetrate rock, thermal spallation methods fragment rock into small pieces ("spalls") without contact via the rapid transmission of heat to the rock surface. State-of-the-art constitutive models of thermal spallation employ Weibull statistical failure theory to represent the relationship between rock heterogeneity and its propensity to produce spalls when heat is applied to the rock surface. These models have been successfully used to predict such factors as penetration rate, spall-size distribution and borehole radius from drilling jet velocity and applied heat flux. A properly calibrated Weibull model would permit design optimization of thermal spallation drilling under geothermal field conditions. However, although useful for predicting system response in a given context, Weibull models are by their nature empirically derived. In the past, the parameters used in these models were carefully determined from laboratory tests, and thus model applicability was limited by experimental scope. This becomes problematic, for example, if simulating spall production at depths relevant for geothermal energy production, or modeling thermal spallation drilling in new rock types. Nevertheless, with sufficient computational resources, Weibull models could be validated in the absence of experimental data by explicit small-scale simulations that fully resolve rock grains. This presentation will discuss how high-fidelity simulations can be used to inform Weibull models of thermal spallation, and what these simulations reveal about the processes driving spallation at the grain-scale - in particular, the role that inter-grain boundaries and micro-pores play in the

  19. Implementation of improved underbalanced drilling in AbuDhabi onshore field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhammadi, Adel Mohammed

    Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) is considering Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) as a means to develop lower permeability units in its fields. In addition to productivity and recovery gains, ADCO also expects reservoir characterization benefits from UBD. Reservoir screening studies were carried out on all of ADCO's reservoirs to determine their applicability for UBD. The primary business benefits of UBD were determined to be reservoir characterization, damage Mitigation, and rate of Penetration "ROP" Improvement. Apart from the primary benefits, some of the secondary benefits of UBD that were identified beforehand included rig performance. Since it's a trial wells, the challenge was to drill these wells safely, efficiently and of course meeting well objectives. Many operators worldwide drill these well in underbalanced mode but complete it overbalanced. In our case the plan was to drill and complete these wells in underbalanced condition. But we had to challenge most operators and come up with special and unique casing hanger design to ensure well control barriers exists while fishing the control line of the Downhole Deployment Valve "DDV". After intensive studies and planning, the hanger was designed as per our recommendations and found to be effective equipment that optimized the operational time and the cost as well. This report will provide better understanding of UBD technique in general and shade on the special designed casing hanger compared to conventional or what's most used worldwide. Even thought there were some issues while running the casing hanger prior drilling but managed to capture the learning's from each well and re-modified the hanger and come up with better deign for the future wells. Finally, the new design perform a good performance of saving the operation time and assisting the project to be done in a safe and an easy way without a major impact on the well cost. This design helped to drill and complete these wells safely with

  20. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  1. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  2. Extended reach drilling advancements dramatically improve performance on Bass Strait wells

    SciTech Connect

    Santostefano, V.; Krepp, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    Esso Australia Ltd. (EAL) has been drilling deviated wells in Bass Strait since 1968. Recent technological developments have been employed on the Mackerel Infill Drilling Project, that have significantly improved EAL`s ability to drill Long Reach (LR)/Extended Reach (ER) wells more economically and consistently. The more notable achievements have been: advancements in hole condition reporting, utilizing torque and drag monitoring; the successful use of non-rotating drillpipe rubbers to reduce surface torque to acceptable levels; deeper casing setting depths, to minimize torque and drag, and to reduce time-dependent hole problems; the use of inhibitive/encapsulating mud systems for control of reactive clays/shales; and use of wellbore stability modeling. These advancements have helped EAL to drill 50% greater meterage than was expected in 1993, at 16% lower cost per meter. This paper chronicles the engineering decisions behind these advancements, their applications in the field, the success/failure story on Mackerel to date, and how these developments have been incorporated in EAL`s future well planning.

  3. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  4. Improved slant drilling well for in situ remediation of groundwater and soil at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yasuhide; Mukai, Kazuhiro; Ohmura, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores. In this study, we investigated an improved technique for slant drilling that can be used around existing structures to treat contaminated soil and groundwater. A key to this novel approach was the use of water-swelling materials as sealants. Research at a test site investigated the accuracy of drilling. Tracer tests were also conducted using sodium chloride and urea. The improved slant borings showed a deviation of less than 2% from the target bore. The spread of the two tracers at different depths was demonstrated. The proposed technique provides a useful approach to the treatment of brownfield sites in countries where in situ remediation has not yet been undertaken.

  5. Analytical model of the contact interaction between the components of a special percussive mechanism for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Luis J.; Malla, Ramesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Special percussive mechanisms, e.g. Auto Gopher and UltraSonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) have been developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms, Corp. to address some of the limitations of current drilling techniques for planetary exploration. The percussive mechanism consists of an ultrasonic horn, a free mass (hammer) and the drill rod. This paper presents the analysis of the interaction between these three components. The impact between the components (i.e. ultrasonic horn and free mass, and free mass and drill rod) is analyzed using solid body collision analysis applying the principle of conservation of momentum. The drill rod is modeled for both undamped and damped cases with equivalent generalized single degree of freedom system. Various values are used for the coefficient of restitution to account for energy loss during impact. The energy transferred to the drill rod by the free mass is obtained determining the change in kinetic energy due to impact. It is observed that the free mass converts the high frequency of oscillation of the ultrasonic horn into lower frequency impacts on the drill rod. A decrease in the coefficient of restitution results in a decrease in the number of impacts, impulse imparted to the drill rod and energy transferred to the drill rod by the impact of the free mass.

  6. Successful management of severe respiratory failure combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Pascal; Scalfaro, Pietro; de Halleux, Quentin; Vermeulen, François; Rappaz, Isabelle; Cotting, Jacques

    2002-03-01

    Heliox has been shown to be beneficial in the management of different obstructive pulmonary disorders. High-frequency percussive ventilation has recently been advocated to treat lung injury in children with reduced lung compliance. We report our experience of combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation in a 5-yr-old boy with severe acute respiratory failure resulting from advanced cystic fibrosis lung disease. The dramatic improvement allowed stabilization and withholding of endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that this approach improved gas exchange by enhancing molecular diffusion and by favoring laminar flow throughout the upper and lower airways. Further investigations should study the mechanisms of this noninvasive bimodal therapy.

  7. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  8. Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

  9. Environmentally Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents. Although highly effective, these heavy metal compounds have been...contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the EPA itself, barium compounds are generally regarded as toxic and likewise should...contains the lead styphnate based FA956 composition2 which is a typical formulation of conventional military ammunition percussion primers. The

  10. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  11. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  12. Mars Technology Rover with Arm-Mounted Percussive Coring Tool, Microimager, and Sample-Handling Encapsulation Containerization Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo J.; Dicicco, Matthew A.; Morgan, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes the PLuto (programmable logic) Mars Technology Rover, a mid-sized FIDO (field integrated design and operations) class rover with six fully drivable and steerable cleated wheels, a rocker-bogey suspension, a pan-tilt mast with panorama and navigation stereo camera pairs, forward and rear stereo hazcam pairs, internal avionics with motor drivers and CPU, and a 5-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. The technology rover was integrated with an arm-mounted percussive coring tool, microimager, and sample handling encapsulation containerization subsystem (SHEC). The turret of the arm contains a percussive coring drill and microimager. The SHEC sample caching system mounted to the rover body contains coring bits, sample tubes, and sample plugs. The coring activities performed in the field provide valuable data on drilling conditions for NASA tasks developing and studying coring technology. Caching of samples using the SHEC system provide insight to NASA tasks investigating techniques to store core samples in the future.

  13. Improve your solids control. [Management of solids during oil and gas well drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.S. ); Love, W.W. )

    1993-10-01

    With today's emphasis on the environmental impact of drilling operations, minimization of drilling fluid and drill cuttings waste is critical. This can be achieved using proper solids removal equipment -- such as high performance shale shakers, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges -- and proper pre-well planning. The method described here is founded in decision matrix theory and focuses on several key variables. These include well parameters, the drilling program, logistics, environmental issues, rig selection, expert advice and cost.

  14. Instrumental Music: Wind and Percussion. Arkansas Public School Course Content Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed by music teachers, curriculum specialists, and Arkansas Department of Education personnel, this course content guide is designed to provide a basis for improving student skills with wind and percussion instruments. Developed on six levels, each level corresponds to one year of instruction and consists of basic skills for developing…

  15. The replacement of alkyl-phenol ethoxylates to improve the environment acceptability of drilling fluid additives

    SciTech Connect

    Getliff, J.M.; James, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Alkyl-phenol ethoxylates (APEO) are a class of surfactants which have been used widely in the drilling fluid industry. The popularity of these surfactants is based on their cost effectiveness, availability and the range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values obtainable. Studies have shown that APEOs exhibit oestrogenic effects, and can cause sterility in some male aquatic species. This may have subsequent human consequences and such problems have lead to a banning of their use in some countries and agreements to phase out their use e.g. PARCOM recommendation 92/8. The use of APEOs as additives in detergents, lubricants and stuck-pipe release agents for drilling fluid applications is discussed. The effectiveness of products formulated with APEOs are directly compared with alternative products which are non-persistent and less damaging to aquatic species. Lubricity measurements using standard and in-house designed equipment and washing tests to compare the efficiency of surfactants are explained and product performance results presented. The results show that alternatives to products containing APEOs are available and that in some cases they show a better technical performance. In addition to the improved environmental acceptability of the base chemicals, the better performance enables lower concentrations to be used, hence reducing the environmental impact even further.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  17. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  18. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  19. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  20. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  1. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  2. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  3. 10 Tips for Wind Players Who Teach Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Wind players who become school band directors often struggle with their percussion section. They are not always sure how to deal with the technical aspects of percussion, such as double-stroke rolls or flares. They may also wonder how to get their drummers to stop talking and be ready to play. These questions reveal common concerns among…

  4. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  5. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  6. Advances in drilling with fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    High brightness quasi- continuous wave (QCW) and continuous wave (CW) fiber lasers are routinely being used for cutting and welding for a range of industrial applications. However, to date very little work has been carried out or has been reported on laser drilling with these laser sources. This work describes laser drilling ((trepan and percussion) of nickel based superalloys (thermal barrier coated and uncoated) with a high power QCW fiber laser. This presentation will highlight some of the most significant aspect of laser drilling, i.e. SmartPierceTM, deep hole drilling and small hole drilling. These advances in processing also demonstrate the potential for fiber laser processing when an advanced interface between laser and an open architecture controller are used.

  7. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  8. Test drilling in basalts, Lalamilo area, South Kohala District, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, Warren E.

    1980-01-01

    Test drilling has determined that a downhole-percussion airhammer can be used effectively to drill basalts in Hawaii. When used in conjunction with a foam-type drilling fluid, the hammer-bit penetration rate was rapid. Continuous drill cuttings from the materials penetrated were obtained throughout the borehole except from extremely fractured or weathered basalt zones where circulation was lost or limited. Cementing of these zones as soon as encountered reduced problems of stuck tools, washouts, and loss of drill-cuttings. Supplies and logistics on the Hawaiian Islands, always a major concern, require that all anticipated drilling supplies, spare rig and tool parts, drilling muds and additives, foam, and miscellaneous hardware be on hand before starting to drill. If not, the resulting rig downtime is costly in both time and money. (USGS)

  9. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  10. Interior Department Suggests Improvements for Offshore Arctic Oil and Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    Shell's "difficulties" during its 2012 program to drill offshore oil and natural gas exploration wells in the Alaskan Arctic Ocean "have raised serious questions regarding its ability to operate safely and responsibly in the challenging and unpredictable conditions offshore Alaska," according to the report "Review of Shell's 2012 Alaska Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration Program," issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) on 8 March. Noting the company's lack of adequate preparation for drilling in the Arctic, its failure to deploy a specialized Arctic Containment System, and the grounding of the Kulluk drilling rig near Kodiak Island last December, the report recommends that Shell develop a comprehensive and integrated plan describing its future drilling program and related operations and that it commission a third-party audit of its management systems, including its safety and environmental management systems program.

  11. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  12. Percussion--a new way to diagnose a pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Smethurst, D

    1999-12-01

    We describe a new clinical sign in a case series of three patients who developed pneumothoraces during mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. All three patients were in the supine position. Two patients had x-rays that were inconclusive before insertion of chest drains and the third had a pneumothorax diagnosed on clinical findings alone. On each occasion we were able to diagnose pneumothorax using sternal percussion and simultaneous auscultation. The method relies on percussion of the sternum while simultaneously ausculating the anterior (superior) chest on the side of the suspected pneumothorax. The stethoscope is then placed on the other side of the chest. The percussion sound on the affected side has an exaggerated, resonant and booming quality. The percussion note is exaggerated partly because a stethoscope is used and partly because, in the supine patient, air localizes upwards to the anterior thorax.

  13. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A.; Gelfgat, M.; Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J.

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  14. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  15. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  16. Application of the IGSN for improved data - sample - drill core linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnken, Andree; Wallrabe-Adams, Hans-Joachim; Röhl, Ursula; Krysiak, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The large number of samples resulting from geoscientific research creates a need for a system that has the ability to allocate unique identifiers for individual samples (cores, core sections, rock samples...). In this abstract we present a solution that utilises the IGSN (1) Registry Metadata Store (2) to automatically register unique IGSN's for samples and submit corresponding metadata. An automated workflow has been set up to register IGSN's and submit metadata for cores stored for example at the IODP (3) Bremen Core Repository (BCR) in Bremen and the BGR National Core Repository for Research Drilling in Berlin, and partly transfer the core information to the GESEP (4) Virtual Core Repository (5). Detailed metadata for these cores are stored in a DIS (6), from which xml files containing all necessary information for IGSN and metadata submission are automatically generated. These files are automatically processed to extract and register the unique IGSN as well as the corresponding metadata. After this parsing process, the IGSN registration and metadata submission processes are triggered by posting the appropriate IGSN API (7) service calls. 1. International Geo Sample Number 2. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/ 3. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program / International Ocean Discovery Program 4. German Scientific Earth Probing Consortium 5. http://www.gesep.org/infrastruktur/kernlager/portal/ 6. Drilling Information System 7. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/static/apidoc

  17. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  18. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  19. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  20. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  1. Quantifying Traces of Tool Use: A Novel Morphometric Analysis of Damage Patterns on Percussive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Matthew V.; Carvalho, Susana; Braun, David R.; Presnyakova, Darya; Haslam, Michael; Archer, Will; Bobe, Rene; Harris, John W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches towards percussive tools have been obscured by a lack of standardized methodologies. Central to this issue have been the use of qualitative, non-diagnostic techniques to identify percussive tools from archaeological contexts. Here we describe a new morphometric method for distinguishing anthropogenically-generated damage patterns on percussive tools from naturally damaged river cobbles. We employ a geomatic approach through the use of three-dimensional scanning and geographical information systems software to statistically quantify the identification process in percussive technology research. This will strengthen current technological analyses of percussive tools in archaeological frameworks and open new avenues for translating behavioral inferences of early hominins from percussive damage patterns. PMID:25415303

  2. Effects of Working Angle on Pneumatic Down-the-hole Hammer Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Yongjie; Shi, Xiangchao; Xiang, Chengliao

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the wor king angle on pneumatic down-the-hole (DTH) hammer drilling was investigated since these hammers were developed for vertical drilling and their performances in inclined positions need to be tested. The investigation begins by establishing a calculation model with which to simulate the percussive drilling of the hammer. The model consists of two parts. The first gives the kinetic energy of the piston at impact by simulating the thermodynamic cycle of the DTH hammer, and the second simulates the percussive drilling process according to the analyses of stress-wave propagation. In the meantime, a laboratory-scale test device was made for multi-angle hammer drilling tests. This device is based on a small pneumatic DTH hammer used in deep well drilling. By analyzing the force acting on the rock during impact at different angles, the percussive drilling process is carefully examined. Theoretical predictions and experimental results appear in fairly good agreement. The hammer's working performance in inclined positions can be obtained directly using the proposed model. Furthermore, when detailed evaluation is required, the hammer can be tested using the method proposed in this paper.

  3. Reducing extra-terrestrial excavation forces with percussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.; Smith, J. D.; Lippitt, T.; Schuler, J.; Nick, A.

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached to a test stand simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 to 700 beats per minute (BPM) were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  4. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Schuler, Jason M.; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Nick, Andrew J.; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  5. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, Jason; Mueller, Robert; Smith, Drew; Nick, Andrew; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. The goal of percussive excavation is to fluidize dry regolith in front of the leading edge of the tool by mechanically separating the microscopic interlocking grains resulting in a reduced force needed to shear the soil. There are several variables involved with this technique; this experiment varied: Impact energy, frequency, and excavation speed and held constant: impact direction, depth of cut, angle of tool, and soil bulk density. The test apparatus consisted of an aluminum truss bridge with a central pivoting arm. Attached to the arm was a winch with a load cell in line that recorded the tension in the cable and therefore the excavation load. The arm could be adjusted for excavation depth which was recorded along with the arm angle relative to the bridge. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of . movement. Internally the mechanism used a set of die springs and barrel cam to produce the percussive blow. By changing the springs and the speed of the motor the impact energy and frequency of percussion could be varied independently. Impact energies from 11.2J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 51% was achieved in this experimental investigation. Smaller percussive digging implements, tested by others, have achieved a

  6. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  7. Drilling head method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, V. R.

    1985-07-30

    A rotary drilling head wherein rotary friction between the rotary spindle assembly and the spindle housing is limited by improvements in bearing and seal lubrication and by seal structure such that the gripping action of a resiliently flexible packer on a drill string provides a rotary drive connection sufficient to impart rotation to the spindle assembly through rotation of the drill string.

  8. Improved assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Govind; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An improved four-node quadrilateral assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom is presented. The formulation is based on Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and the shape functions are formulated directly for the four-node element. The element has 12 membrane degrees of freedom and 12 bending degrees of freedom. It has nine independent stress parameters to describe the membrane stress resultant field and 13 independent stress parameters to describe the moment and transverse shear stress resultant field. The formulation encompasses linear stress, linear buckling, and linear free vibration problems. The element is validated with standard tests cases and is shown to be robust. Numerical results are presented for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses.

  9. Content Analysis of Students' Journals in a Percussion Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical investigation of music education students' journals within a percussion methods course at a Midwestern university in the United States. The findings of this investigation raise issues about music education students' sense of self-awareness, specificity within the journals, and the predominance of discussions…

  10. Historical Review of the Fluid-Percussion TBI Model

    PubMed Central

    Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce the concussive clinical syndrome in animals. The fluid-percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer-controlled systems. Of the many preclinical TBI models, the fluid-percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers who have led to today’s state of the art fluid-percussion animal models of TBI. PMID:27994570

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  12. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  13. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  14. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  15. Drilling speaking valves: a modification to improve vocalization in tracheostomy dependent children.

    PubMed

    Brigger, Matthew T; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric tracheostomy dependence is associated with a variety of sequelae. Vocalization delay is commonplace and may result in long-term communication disability. Passy-Muir speaking valves are routinely used to allow such children to vocalize. Unfortunately, not all tracheostomy dependent children can tolerate the placement of a speaking valve. Elevated transtracheal pressures are often associated with failure. We describe a method of modifying a standard Passy-Muir valve to decrease transtracheal pressures and thus improve tolerance of the valve. In our practice, the modification allows a broader range of children experience the benefit of speaking valve placement.

  16. Drilling update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At its March 31 meeting the governing board of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), designated Texas A&M University to direct scientific operations for the new phase of scientific ocean drilling. William Merrell, associate dean of geosciences at Texas A&M, is leading an interim planning team in implementing the recommendations of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Crustal Studies (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). The ad hoc group, chaired by Charles Drake, recommended that scientific ocean drilling be pursued not with the Glomar Challenger or the Glomar Explorer, but with one of the roughly half-dozen commercial drilling ships that have become available with the slackening of the commercial drilling market.Foremost of the tasks facing the interim planning team is to write a request for proposals (RFP) for a drill ship and to define performance criteria for a commercial drilling platform. The RFP is expected to be issued by Texas A&M in 6-8 weeks, according to Philip Rabinowitz, acting project director and a professor in the university's oceanography department. Once those tasks are completed and a successful bidder is found, a formal proposal will be made to NSF through JOI. The proposal will be subject to the usual NSF peer review process. If the proposal is approved, Rabinowitz said that Texas A&M would expect actual drilling to begin in October 1984. In addition to Merrell and Rabinowitz, the interim planning team also includes acting chief scientist Stefan Gartner.

  17. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  18. Drilling bit

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, F. M.

    1985-07-09

    A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.

  19. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    been associated with a decrease in the incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia and an improvement in mortality among inhalational injury patients... ventilator - associ - ated pneumonia , or mortality. Although intriguing, these clinical reports are lim- ited by small sample sizes, retrospective...of HFPV theory toward improving gas exchange. Furthermore, no discussion has been held regarding the possible risk of HFPV- associated ventilator

  20. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  1. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  2. Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2013-01-01

    Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

  3. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D.B.; Lauzon, R.V.

    1981-11-17

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  4. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D. B.; Lauzon, R. V.

    1984-12-04

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  5. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  6. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  7. Underbalanced drilling solves difficult drilling problems and enhances production

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, R.L.; Vozniak, J.

    1997-02-01

    An alternate approach to drilling, completing and working over new and existing wells has dramatically improved the efficiency of these operations. This method is called underbalanced drilling (UBD). Improvements in both the equipment and technique during the past 5 years have made this process economical and necessary to solve many difficult drilling problems. Additionally, by reducing drilling or workover damage, dramatic improvements in oil and gas production rates and ultimate reserves are realized, resulting in extra profits for today`s operators. This article will detail the advantages of UBD and give specific examples of its applications, A series of related articles will follow, including: new UBD equipment, land and off-shore case histories, coiled tubing drilling, underbalanced workovers, software technology and subsea applications to examine the reality and future of this technology.

  8. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  9. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    solenoid failure . As new instrumentation techniques such as high -speed video and laser interferometry have been introduced into our gun testing...Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply by Peter T. Bartkowski ARL-TR-6987 July 2014...Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply Peter T. Bartkowski Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  10. 49 CFR 178.318 - Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps. 178.318 Section 178.318 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....318 Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps....

  11. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

  12. Percussive and Proboscis Based Lunar Heat Flow Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumm, E.; Zacny, K.; Kumar, N.

    2009-12-01

    The subsurface temperature of the Moon is strongly influenced by the diurnal, annual, and precession fluctuations of the insolation. Therefore, to measure the heat flow, the probe has to be inserted to a depth of at least 3m. There are a number of ways the heat flow probe can be deployed. These methods differ in many ways such as simplicity and mass of the deployment system, power required to deploy it, extent of thermal isolation between temperature sensors and between sensors themselves and surface system (deployment system, lander, electronics box etc), thermal sensor placement within the hole (radiative as opposed to conducive coupling), and methods of deployment. The percussive based heat flow probe utilizes a percussive approach to drive a small diameter (20mm) cone penetrometer to >3 meter depths, deploying ring-like thermal sensors every 30 cm. It leaves only small sensors in the borehole, maximizing measurement sensitivity by minimizing thermal coupling from the lander to the electrical tether. The proboscis based heat flow probe utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach to lower the heat flow probe, a lenticular tape, to 3 meters. The system offers extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment.

  13. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hironaka, Ross; Stanley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A prototype low-force rotary-percussive rock coring tool for use in acquiring samples for geological surveys in future planetary missions was developed. The coring tool could eventually enable a lightweight robotic system to operate from a relatively small (less than 200 kg) mobile or fixed platform to acquire and cache Mars or other planetary rock samples for eventual return to Earth for analysis. To gain insight needed to design an integrated coring tool, the coring ability of commercially available coring bits was evaluated for effectiveness of varying key parameters: weight-on-bit, rotation speed, percussive rate and force. Trade studies were performed for different methods of breaking a core at its base and for retaining the core in a sleeve to facilitate sample transfer. This led to a custom coring tool design which incorporated coring, core breakage, core retention, and core extraction functions. The coring tool was tested on several types of rock and demonstrated the overall feasibility of this approach for robotic rock sample acquisition.

  14. Lateral Fluid Percussion: Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P.; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes 1,2. Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement 3,4. The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response 3,5, and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury 6-8. Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure 9. Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals 10-12, which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities 13,14. Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration 1. The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue 1,15. Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure 16,17. The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific mass on the closed

  15. Lateral fluid percussion: model of traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-08-22

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes (1,2). Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement (3,4). The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response (3,5), and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury (6-8). Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure (9). Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals (10-12), which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities (13,14). Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration (1). The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue (1,15). Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure (16,17). The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific

  16. Human-based percussion and self-similarity detection in electroacoustic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John Anderson, III

    Electroacoustic music is music that uses electronic technology for the compositional manipulation of sound, and is a unique genre of music for many reasons. Analyzing electroacoustic music requires special measures, some of which are integrated into the design of a preliminary percussion analysis tool set for electroacoustic music. This tool set is designed to incorporate the human processing of music and sound. Models of the human auditory periphery are used as a front end to the analysis algorithms. The audio properties of percussivity and self-similarity are chosen as the focus because these properties are computable and informative. A collection of human judgments about percussion was undertaken to acquire clearly specified, sound-event dimensions that humans use as a percussive cue. A total of 29 participants was asked to make judgments about the percussivity of 360 pairs of synthesized snare-drum sounds. The grouped results indicate that of the dimensions tested rise time is the strongest cue for percussivity. String resonance also has a strong effect, but because of the complex nature of string resonance, it is not a fundamental dimension of a sound event. Gross spectral filtering also has an effect on the judgment of percussivity but the effect is weaker than for rise time and string resonance. Gross spectral filtering also has less effect when the stronger cue of rise time is modified simultaneously. A percussivity-profile algorithm (PPA) is designed to identify those instants in pieces of music that humans also would identify as percussive. The PPA is implemented using a time-domain, channel-based approach and psychoacoustic models. The input parameters are tuned to maximize performance at matching participants' choices in the percussion-judgment collection. After the PPA is tuned, the PPA then is used to analyze pieces of electroacoustic music. Real electroacoustic music introduces new challenges for the PPA, though those same challenges might affect

  17. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  18. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  19. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities. PMID:27870877

  20. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  1. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  2. Auto Indexer Auto-Indexer for Percussive Hammers: Vane Motor Dynamometer Testing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Su, Jiann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Options associated with geothermal drilling operations are generally limited by factors such as formation temperature and rock strength. The objective of the research is to expand the "tool box" available to the geothermal driller by furthering the development of a high-temperature drilling motor that can be used in directional drilling applications for drilling high temperature geothermal formations. The motor is specifically designed to operate in conjunction with a pneumatic down-the-hole-hammer. It provides a more compact design compared to traditional drilling motors such as PDMs (positive displacement motors). The packaging can help to enhance directional drilling capabilities. It uses no elastomeric components, which enables it to operate in higher temperatures ( >250 °F). Current work on the motor has shown that is a capable of operating under pneumatic power with a down-the-hole-hammer. Further development work will include continued testing and refining motor components and evaluating motor capabilities. Targets/Milestones Complete testing current motor - 12/31/2010 Make final material and design decisions - 01/31/2011 Build and test final prototype - 04/31/2011 Final demonstration - 07/31/2011 Impacts The development of the motor will help to achieve program technical objectives by improving well construction capabilities. This includes enabling high-temperature drilling as well as enhancing directional drilling. A key component in the auto indexer is the drive motor. It is an air-driven vane motor that converts the energy stored in the compressed air to mechanical energy. The motor is attached to hammer-like components which impart an impulsive load onto the drive shaft. The impulsive force on the drive shaft in turn creates an indexing action. A controlled test was performed to characterize the performance of the the vane motor for a given pressure. The Sandia dynamometer test station was used to determine the performance of the motor for a

  3. Micro drilling using deformable mirror for beam shaping of ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarra, Marco; Strube, Anja; Dickmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Using ultra-short laser pulses for micro structuring or drilling applications reduces the thermal influence to the surrounding material. The best achievable beam profile equals a Gaussian beam. Drilling with this beam profile results in cylindrical holes. To vary the shape of the holes, the beam can either be scanned or - for single pulse and percussion drilling - manipulated by masks or lenses. A high flexible method for beam shaping can be realized by using a deformable mirror. This mirror contains a piezo-electric ceramic, which can be deformed by an electric potential. By separating the ceramic into independent controllable segments, the shape of the surface can be varied individually. Due to the closed surface of the mirror, there is no loss of intensity due to diffraction. The mirror deformation is controlled by Zernike polynomials and results e.g. in a lens behavior. In this study a deformable mirror was used to generate e.g. slits in thin steel foils by percussion drilling using ultra-short laser pulses. The influence of the cylindrical deformation to the laser beam and the resulting geometry of the generated holes was studied. It was demonstrated that due to the high update rate up to 150 Hz the mirror surface can be varied in each scan cycle, which results in a high flexible drilling process.

  4. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  5. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  6. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  7. Automated Classification of Medical Percussion Signals for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md Moinuddin

    Used for centuries in the clinical practice, audible percussion is a method of eliciting sounds by areas of the human body either by finger tips or by a percussion hammer. Despite its advantages, pulmonary diagnostics by percussion is still highly subjective, depends on the physician's skills, and requires quiet surroundings. Automation of this well-established technique could help amplify its existing merits while removing the above drawbacks. In this study, an attempt is made to automatically decompose clinical percussion signals into a sum of Exponentially Damped Sinusoids (EDS) using Matrix Pencil Method, which in this case form a more natural basis than Fourier harmonics and thus allow for a more robust representation of the signal in the parametric space. It is found that some EDS represent transient oscillation modes of the thorax/abdomen excited by the percussion event, while others are associated with the noise. It is demonstrated that relatively few EDS are usually enough to accurately reconstruct the original signal. It is shown that combining the frequency and damping parameters of these most significant EDS allows for efficient classification of percussion signals into the two main types historically known as "resonant" and "tympanic". This classification ability can provide a basis for the automated objective diagnostics of various pulmonary pathologies including pneumothorax.

  8. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  9. Stacked rig refurbished for ultradeep gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Noevig, T.; Gutsche, W. )

    1995-01-09

    A heavy drilling rig, cold stacked for several years, recently underwent numerous structural, equipment, and computer upgrades for drilling ultradeep (8,000 m) gas wells in Germany. The technical improvements on the rig included supplementary installations and modifications to safety, quality, engineering, noise abatement, and environmental protection systems. With a maximal hook load of 700 tons, the drilling rig is one of the heaviest of its kind in Europe. The rig has a drilling depth range of 7,000--8,000 m, and the top drive system enables horizontal drilling. The paper describes the rig site, mast, top drive, substructure, draw works, power station, mud system, instrumentation, and other equipment.

  10. Experimental Study on Micro Hole Drilling Using Ultrashort Pulse Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Andreas; Schille, Joerg; Loeschner, Udo

    This paper discusses latest results obtained in micro hole percussion drilling in stainless steel. In the investigations a femtosecond laser source was used emitting 220 fs pulses at 1.03μm wavelength, whereas the spot size amounted to 31μm. Thereby, important process parameters like pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse number were varied over a wide range in order to evaluate their influence both on the micro hole geometry like hole diameter, roundness, taper angle, and on the drilling quality such as thermal modification and melting residues. First, the required number of pulses for through hole drilling was estimated for material thicknesses ranging between 25μm and 1mm. It was found, that the polarization state of the laser beam has a considerable impact on micro hole formation. Therefore, linear and circular polarized laser radiation was applied. Finally, optimum parameters for highest available drilling quality and speed were identified.

  11. Chuck for delicate drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of oil film technique to couple power between drive spindle and drill chuck for delicate drilling operations is discussed. Oil film permits application of sufficient pressure, but stops rotating when drill jams. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  12. IceBreaker: Mars Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellerowicz, B. L.; Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Dave, A.; Davila, A. F.; Marinova, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the development and testing of a one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sample delivery system. The IceBreaker drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sam-pling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. The drill is deployed from a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robotic arm. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground, ice, and rocks at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This cor-responds to an average energy of 100 Whr. The drill has been extensively tested in the Mars chamber to a depth of 1 meter, as well as in the Antarctic and the Arctic Mars analog sites. We also tested three sample delivery systems: 1) 4 DOF arm with a custom soil scoop at the end; 2) Pneumatic based, and 3) Drill based enabled by the 3 (DOF) drill deployment boom. In all approaches there is an air-gap between the sterilized drill (which penetrates subsurface) and the sample transfer hardware (which is not going to be sterilized). The air gap satisfies the planetary protection requirements. The scoop acquires cuttings sample once they are augered to the surface, and drops them into an in-strument inlet port. The system has been tested in the Mars chamber and in the Arctic. The pneumatic sample delivery system uses compressed gas to move the sample captured inside a small chamber inte-grated with the auger, directly into the instrument. The system was tested in the Mars chamber. In the third approach the drill auger captures the sample on its flutes, the 3 DOF boom positions the tip of the auger above the instrument, and then the auger discharges the sample into an instrument. This approach was tested in the labolatory (at STP). The above drilling and sample delivery tests have shown that drilling

  13. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  14. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  15. Residual Stress Analysis of Laser-Drilled Thermal Barrier Coatings Involving Various Bond Coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinard, C.; Montay, G.; Guipont, V.; Jeandin, M.; Girardot, J.; Schneider, M.

    2015-01-01

    The gas turbine combustion chamber of aero-engines requires a thermal barrier coating (TBC) by thermal spraying. Further heat protection is achieved by laser drilling of cooling holes. The residual stresses play an important role in the mechanical behaviour of TBC. It could also affect the TBC response to delamination during laser drilling. In this work, studies of the cracking behaviour after laser drilling and residual stress distribution have been achieved for different bond coats by plasma spray or cold spray. From interface crack length measured pulse-by-pulse after laser percussion drilling at 20° angle, the role of the various bond coats on crack initiation and propagation are investigated. It is shown that the bond coat drastically influences the cracking behaviour. The residual stresses profiles were also determined by the incremental hole-drilling method involving speckle interferometry. An original method was also developed to measure the residual stress profiles around a pre-drilled zone with a laser beam at 90°. The results are discussed to highlight the influence of TBCs interfaces on the resulting residual stresses distribution before laser drilling, and also to investigate the modification around the hole after laser drilling. It is shown that laser drilling could affect the residual stress state.

  16. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  17. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  18. Trepanning drilling of stainless steel using a high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber ultrafast laser: influence of pulse duration on hole geometry and processing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, John; Dijoux, Mathieu; Devillard, Raphael; Faucon, Marc; Kling, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Percussion drilling is a well-established technique for several applicative markets such as for aircraft and watch industries. Lamp pumped solid state lasers and more recently fiber lasers, operating in millisecond or nanosecond regimes, are classically used for these applications. However, due to their long pulse duration, these technologies are not suitable for emerging applicative market such as fuel injectors for automotive industry. Only the ultrashort laser technology, combined with special drilling optics like trepanning head, has the potential to fulfill the needs for this new market in terms of processing quality, custom-shape capabilities and short drilling time. Although numerous papers dealing with percussion drilling have been reported in the literature, only few papers are dedicated to trepanning drilling. In this context, we present some results on the influence of pulse duration on gas-assisted laser drilling of stainless steel using a trepanning head and a high power Ytterbium doped fiber ultrafast laser (20W). The influence of pulse energy (7- 64μJ), fluence (3-25 J/cm2), drilling time (1-20s), processing gas pressure and drilling strategy will be discussed as well.

  19. Comparative Study Between The Alternative Used By The IMP Type Pecussion Drills And The Version Using Fluid Elements Regarding The Supplying, Command And Automatic Adjustment Systems Of The Injection Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2015-12-01

    Starting from analyzing of an existing solution regarding the injection water feeding system for the pneumatic rotating and percussion drilling installations, which is included in the structure of the perforator installation (IMP-1or IMP-2), the paper presents part of a research regarding an original solution of the automatic command and regulate with monostable fluidic elements, with different physical nature jets. This solution is applicable to this drilling installations type, made in Romania.

  20. Acoustical properties of drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter–gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates. PMID:26483526

  2. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-11-19

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter-gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates.

  3. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  4. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  5. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  6. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  7. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  8. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: hearing the pitch of percussion.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Neil M; Marco, David J T; Wilson, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  9. Hand-held percussion machines with low emission of hazardous vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. J.; Babitsky, V. I.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2007-09-01

    Vibration and impacts are essential features of many domestic and industrial hand-held machines. In many machines vibration cannot be avoided because of the vibro-impact nature of the working process. The only way to minimise an operator's exposure to harmful vibration in this case is to design the machine rationally. In this paper a percussion machine is considered as a multi-body vibro-impact system. The simplest structures have been found and investigated in which a strong vibro-impact process can be obtained with one body (casing/handle) being free of vibration. Computer simulations using Matlab-Simulink software and initial experiments validate the new approach. The main feature of the proposed new design is the use of a mechanism with zero differential stiffness. A hydro-pneumatic unit with zero stiffness was developed and tested. The new engineering solution was applied to a hydraulic breaker. Even a partial modification of the existing design and effective use of existing hydraulic power source demonstrated a significant improvement in performance.

  10. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  11. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  12. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  13. Laser beam drilling of metal-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, H.; Merkel, M.; Ã-chsner, A.

    2014-02-01

    Laser drilling is a highly efficient technique to generate holes in almost any material. The relatively small amount of heat being involved during the process results in a small heat affected zone. This characteristic makes laser processing interesting for composite materials. The drilling process has to be adapted to the special characteristics of the composite material. In this paper investigations were performed with an advanced composite material, that is a metallic hollow sphere structure (MHSS). Numerical simulation was used to predict heat flux and temperature levels for different geometric parameters of the spheres (diameter, wall thickness) in order to optimize the drilling process. The numerical simulation allows a detailed analysis of the physical process in the zone that is influenced by the laser beam, which can hardly be analyzed by any measuring technique. The models for transient numerical analysis consider heat conduction and convection. The experimental work was done by a CO2-laser. The percussion drilling method has been used as drilling technique. The pulse duration was in the millisecond time regime. Investigations have been done with a mean power of 100 W, 200 W and 400 W. Two focal lenses have been used with focal lengths of 5.0´´ and 7.5´´. The laser beam melts the hollow sphere structure inside the beam leaving a hole in the structure as well as in individual hollow spheres. An image processing technique was developed to determine the circularity on the spheres and the drilled diameter in the structure. The circularity declines with increasing drill depth. The diameter as function of depth can be well described with lines of constant intensity of the focussed laser beam, the isophotes.

  14. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  15. Using Flashcard Drill Methods and Self-Graphing Procedures to Improve the Reading Performance of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Hoffman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The increasing numbers of English language learners who are enrolled in schools across the nation, combined with the escalating academic demands placed on all students, warrant the evaluation of instructional strategies designed to improve English language learners' reading performance. In this study, the authors used a multiple baseline design…

  16. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  17. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  18. Evolution of hole shape and size during short and ultrashort pulse laser deep drilling.

    PubMed

    Döring, Sven; Szilagyi, John; Richter, Sören; Zimmermann, Felix; Richardson, Martin; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2012-11-19

    A detailed study of the influence of the pulse duration, from the femtosecond to the nanosecond regime, on the evolution of the hole shape and depth during percussion drilling in silicon is presented. Real-time backlight imaging of the hole development is obtained for holes up to 2 mm deep with aspect ratios extending to 25:1. For low pulse energies, the hole-shape and drilling characteristics are similar for femtosecond, picoseconds and nanosecond regimes. At higher pulse energies, ns-pulses exhibit slower average drilling rates but eventually reach greater final depths. The shape of these holes is however dominated by branching and large internal cavities. For ps-pulses, a cylindrical shape is maintained with frequent small bulges on the side-walls. In contrast, fs-pulses cause only a limited number of imperfections on a tapered hole shape.

  19. Nerve growth factor administration attenuates cognitive but not neurobehavioral motor dysfunction or hippocampal cell loss following fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinson, G; Voddi, M; McIntosh, T K

    1995-11-01

    Lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats results in cognitive deficits, motor dysfunction, and selective hippocampal cell loss. Neurotrophic factors have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases, and nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity. This study evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of intracerebral NGF infusion after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received lateral fluid-percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.3 atm). A miniosmotic pump was implanted 24 h after injury to infuse NGF (n = 34) or vehicle (n = 16) directly into the region of maximal cortical injury. Infusions of NGF continued until the animal was killed at 72 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks after injury. Animals were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction (Morris Water Maze) and regional neuronal cell loss (Nissl staining) at each of the three time points. Animals surviving for 1 or 2 weeks were also evaluated for neurobehavioral motor function. Although an improvement in memory scores was not observed at 72 h after injury, animals receiving NGF infusions showed significantly improved memory scores when tested at 1 or 2 weeks after injury compared with injured animals receiving vehicle infusions (p < 0.05). Motor scores and CA3 hippocampal cell loss were not significantly different in any group of NGF-treated animals when compared with controls. These data suggest that NGF administration, in the acute, posttraumatic period following fluid-percussion brain injury, may have potential in improving post-traumatic cognitive deficits.

  20. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

  1. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  2. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  3. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  4. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drill pipe and drill... defined the subject merchandise as steel drill pipe, and steel drill collars, whether or not conforming...

  5. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  6. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  9. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  10. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  11. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of

  12. Managing drilling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, K.; Peden, J.; Kenworth, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling operations requires the management of a great variety of operations, equipment, people, finances, legal aspects and safety procedures. A thorough understanding of the drilling process and the technologies involved is required to complete a project successfully, on time and within budget. This book presents guidance on the whole sequence of this process from field evaluation and well planning to drilling and optimization for both on- and off-shore projects. There are step-by-step guidelines and checklist which the practitioner can use directly, or with their own modifications. The author has refined these guidelines from his nineteen years of experience managing drilling operations around the world. Graduates in petroleum engineering and economic geology, as well as drilling engineers and drilling operations managers will welcome this handbook for its comprehensive and clear treatment of all the management issue and technologies required for a safe, efficient and economic drilling operation.

  13. Optimal Force Control of Vibro-Impact Systems for Autonomous Drilling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack B.; Okon, Avi B.

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain optimal energy efficiency is critical during the drilling operations performed on future and current planetary rover missions (see figure). Specifically, this innovation seeks to solve the following problem. Given a spring-loaded percussive drill driven by a voice-coil motor, one needs to determine the optimal input voltage waveform (periodic function) and the optimal hammering period that minimizes the dissipated energy, while ensuring that the hammer-to-rock impacts are made with sufficient (user-defined) impact velocity (or impact energy). To solve this problem, it was first observed that when voice-coil-actuated percussive drills are driven at high power, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the electrical current of the device remains in phase with the velocity of the hammer. Otherwise, negative work is performed and the drill experiences a loss of performance (i.e., reduced impact energy) and an increase in Joule heating (i.e., reduction in energy efficiency). This observation has motivated many drilling products to incorporate the standard bang-bang control approach for driving their percussive drills. However, the bang-bang control approach is significantly less efficient than the optimal energy-efficient control approach solved herein. To obtain this solution, the standard tools of classical optimal control theory were applied. It is worth noting that these tools inherently require the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), i.e., a system of differential equations where half the equations have unknown boundary conditions. Typically, the TPBVP is impossible to solve analytically for high-dimensional dynamic systems. However, for the case of the spring-loaded vibro-impactor, this approach yields the exact optimal control solution as the sum of four analytic functions whose coefficients are determined using a simple, easy-to-implement algorithm. Once the optimal control waveform is determined, it can be used

  14. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  15. Evolution of coiled tubing drilling technology accelerates

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.; Adam, B.

    1993-09-01

    This paper reviews the status of coiled tubing technology in oil and gas drilling operations. The paper starts with a description of current coiled tubing technology and provides a cost comparison between conventional and coiled tubing drilling. The results show that offshore operations are already competitive while onshore operations will still lag behind conventional drilling methods. A list of known coiled tubing drilling operations is provided which gives the current borehole diameters and depths associated with this technology. The paper then goes on to provide the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. The advantages include improved well control, a continuous drillstring, reduced mobilization costs, simplified logging and measurement-while drilling measurements, and less tripping required. The disadvantages include high friction with the borehole wall, downhole motors required, limited drillhole size, and fatigued or damaged sections of the tubing cannot be removed. Finally, a review of the reliability of this technology is provided.

  16. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility.

  17. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  18. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  19. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phase investigation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on drill pipe and drill collars... remanding certain aspects of the Commission's affirmative threat determination in Drill Pipe and...

  20. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22, 7304.23... receipt of a petition filed with the Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX;...

  1. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bartlett, P. W.; Glaser, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments to, a target depth currently set at 2 m. Two drilling methods for lunar application have been investigated thus far. The first uses purely rotary drilling, and the second rotary-percussive drilling, similar to what was used by the Apollo astronauts. Both drilling methods utilize an auger for the removal of drilled cuttings. A breadboard drilling system able to function in rotary-drag and rotary-percussive modes was produced to develop and prove out the approach through testing. Spacecraft weight, power, soil properties, and environments are among the key design constraints. The drilling algorithm, rotation and penetration rates, drill bit designs, and auger designs are among the key design variables. The test results presented demonstrate the progress made in simulating the environment, designing an automated system to perform in it, and characterizing the performance of the system. During the initial phase of the research effort, drilling tests were performed in two different lunar soil simulants (FJS-1 and JSC-1, made in Japan and the USA respectively) that were prepared in the following manner. Each soil sample was first mixed with 10wt% distilled water, compacted to 2 g/cc using the Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557), and then frozen at 190K. Under these conditions, the soil became as hard as sandstone and served to simulate the water-rich soils that are theorized to exist in permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. The high bulk density, high water concentration, and binding nature of the water within the regolith were all chosen to serve as a worst case to

  2. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  3. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  4. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  5. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation and Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with inha- lation injury when supported with HFPV compared with conventional modes of...no. (%) 0 (0) 4 (13) .04 HFPV, high-frequency percussive ventilation ; LTV, low-tidal volume ventilation ; VAP, ventila- tor- associated pneumonia ...LTV, low-tidal volume ventilation ; VAP, ventila- tor- associated pneumonia ; NS, nonsignificant. aMean SD. 1973Crit Care Med 2010 Vol. 38, No. 10

  6. A model of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kharatishvili, I; Nissinen, J P; McIntosh, T K; Pitkänen, A

    2006-06-30

    Although traumatic brain injury is a major cause of symptomatic epilepsy, the mechanism by which it leads to recurrent seizures is unknown. An animal model of posttraumatic epilepsy that reliably reproduces the clinical sequelae of human traumatic brain injury is essential to identify the molecular and cellular substrates of posttraumatic epileptogenesis, and perform preclinical screening of new antiepileptogenic compounds. We studied the electrophysiologic, behavioral, and structural features of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by severe, non-penetrating lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. Data from two independent experiments indicated that 43% to 50% of injured animals developed epilepsy, with a latency period between 7 weeks to 1 year. Mean seizure frequency was 0.3+/-0.2 seizures per day and mean seizure duration was 113+/-46 s. Behavioral seizure severity increased over time in the majority of animals. Secondarily-generalized seizures comprised an average of 66+/-37% of all seizures. Mossy fiber sprouting was increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus of animals with posttraumatic epilepsy compared with those subjected to traumatic brain injury without epilepsy. Stereologic cell counts indicated a loss of dentate hilar neurons ipsilaterally following traumatic brain injury. Our data suggest that posttraumatic epilepsy occurs with a frequency of 40% to 50% after severe non-penetrating fluid-percussion brain injury in rats, and that the lateral fluid percussion model can serve as a clinically-relevant tool for pathophysiologic and preclinical studies.

  7. Very large spot size effect in nanosecond laser drilling efficiency of silicon.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Fernando; Burdet, Nicolas; Carzino, Riccardo; Diaspro, Alberto

    2010-10-25

    The effect of the spot diameter in nanosecond excimer laser percussion drilling of through via in silicon wafer is presented. Experimental results show a ten fold increase of the ablation efficiency when decreasing the spot diameter from 220 μm to 9 μm at constant fluence in the range 7.5 J/cm(2) to 13.2 J/cm(2). Such effect is absent when using 60 ps deep-UV laser pulses. A model is developed that explain the findings in terms of plume shielding effect on the laser pulse. The model is successfully applied also on previously published data on deep-UV laser drilling of Polyamide and Alumina.

  8. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  9. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  10. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  11. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  12. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  13. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  14. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  15. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  16. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  17. Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.H.; Money, R.C.; Palmer, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    Deep, hard or directional drilling imposes extraordinary stresses on drill string components. Because of the additional economic risks of deep drilling, the use of drill string components should be based upon their compliance with API or user acceptance standards. Inspection procedures which provide the highest probability of finding and eliminating unacceptable components should also be employed. Often, too much reliance is placed on a ''report'' or ''certification'' that the drill string components have been ''inspected''. The operator assumes that because the material has been inspected, it is suitable for the intended service. This report addresses three areas in which the above approach leads to trouble: Widespread, established practices have resulted in many applicable API guidelines being unintentionally ignored by users and inspection companies. API standards for used drill pipe do not address some items which should concern operators engaged in deep or critical drilling. Inspection companies frequently do not follow simple quality control steps that can markedly improve the results of their work. Examples of shortcomings in present industry practices are given. Corrective actions which have been implemented by several companies in the last 12-18 months are also given. A hand held calculator program which will aid in evaluating the wear limits on rotary shouldered connections is provided in the appendix to this paper.

  18. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  19. Influence of ambient pressure on the hole formation in laser deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, S.; Richter, S.; Heisler, F.; Ullsperger, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the temporal evolution of the hole depth and shape for percussion drilling at different ambient pressure conditions. Deep drilling is performed in silicon as target material by ultrashort laser pulses at 1030 nm and a duration of 8 ps. Simultaneously, the backlit silhouette of the hole is imaged perpendicular to the drilling direction. While typical process phases like depth development and shape evolution are very similar for atmospheric pressure down to vacuum conditions (10-2 mbar), the ablation rate in the initial process phase is significantly increased for reduced pressure. The number of pulses till the stop of the drilling process also increases by a pressure reduction and exceeds drilling at atmospheric conditions by two orders of magnitude for a pressure of ca. 10-2 mbar. Accordingly, the maximum achievable hole depth is more than doubled. We attribute this behavior to an enlarged mean free path for ablation products at reduced pressure and therefore lower or no deposition of particles inside the hole capillary under vacuum conditions while debris fills the hole already after a few thousand pulses at atmospheric pressure. This is supported by scanning electron cross section images of the holes.

  20. Subsurface sediment contamination during borehole drilling with an air-actuated down-hole hammer.

    PubMed

    Malard, Florian; Datry, Thibault; Gibert, Janine

    2005-10-01

    Drilling methods can severely alter physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquifers, thereby influencing the reliability of water samples collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Because of their fast drilling rate, air-actuated hammers are increasingly used for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated sediments. However, oil entrained in the air stream to lubricate the hammer-actuating device can contaminate subsurface sediments. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons, heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd), and nutrients (particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) were measured in continuous sediment cores recovered during the completion of a 26-m deep borehole drilled with a down-hole hammer in glaciofluvial deposits. Total hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr and particulate organic carbon (POC) were all measured at concentrations far exceeding background levels in most sediment cores. Hydrocarbon concentration averaged 124 +/- 118 mg kg(-1) dry sediment (n = 78 samples) with peaks at depths of 8, 14, and 20 m below the soil surface (maximum concentration: 606 mg kg(-1)). The concentrations of hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr, and POC were positively correlated and exhibited a highly irregular vertical pattern, that probably reflected variations in air loss within glaciofluvial deposits during drilling. Because the penetration of contaminated air into the formation is unpreventable, the representativeness of groundwater samples collected may be questioned. It is concluded that air percussion drilling has strong limitations for well installation in groundwater quality monitoring surveys.

  1. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    planned MDT usage. Alternatively, functional and operational tests were run with the MDT inside 4.5 inch tubing at depths of 800-950 ft. The MDT successfully demonstrated On-Off capability, pulled with up to 1465 lbs force, and verified its capability to transmit torque though it from the Orienter. Forces generated by the tractor were limited due to insufficient differential pressure because of the unloaded downhole motor, which is not typical during drilling conditions. Additionally, the Coefficient of Friction between the MDT grippers and the tubing was much less than the anticipated COF of the sandstone formation. Despite these minor limitations, to summarize the MDT operated as expected. Minor modifications to the MDT are being incorporated to improve gripping capability of the tractor. Additional demonstration wells are being arranged to expand on the project's goals of delivering a fully operational utilitarian tool for use throughout the US to improve reserves.

  2. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  3. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 5 - System Evaluations. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    This project is aimed at decreasing the costs and increasing the efficiency of drilling gas wells in excess of 15,000 feet. This volume presents a summary of an evaluation of various drilling techniques. Drilling solutions were compared quantitatively against typical penetration rates derived from conventional systems. A qualitative analysis measured the impact of a proposed system on the drilling industry. The evaluations determined that the best candidates f o r improving the speed and efficiency of drilling deep gas wells include: PDC/TSD bits, slim-hole drilling, roller-cone bits, downhole motors, top-driven systems, and coiled-tubing drilling.

  4. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  5. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Mahlen D. T.; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2002-08-01

    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  6. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P; Jones, Julian D C

    2002-08-20

    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  7. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings 7304... Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the Commission's Rules of Practice...

  8. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  9. Influence of Sex and ERK MAPK on the Pressure Reactivity Index in Newborn Piglets After Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kosty, Jennifer; Riley, John; Liang, Jiaming

    2013-01-01

    Greater impairment in autoregulation is seen in male versus female piglets following fluid percussion injury (FPI). This is partially mediated by a greater upregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK). We hypothesized that these trends would be reflected by the pressure reactivity index (PRx), a clinical measure of autoregulation. We further hypothesized that PRx values would correlate well with pial artery dilatory responses to hypotension. Male and female piglets were subjected to FPI and treated with a vehicle or ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 (1 mg/kg IV) 30 min post-injury. FPI led to upregulation of CSF ERK MAPK in untreated piglets of both sexes, however significantly higher PRx values were seen in male versus female piglets. Following administration of U 0126, elevation of ERK MAPK levels was blocked in both sexes and PRx values were significantly improved in the male. A strong correlation was seen between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity. These data support previous observations that male piglets demonstrate reversible ERK MAPK-mediated impairment in autoregulation following FPI, which is reflected by the PRx. The strong correlation between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity supports the practice of continuously monitoring cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients using this index. PMID:23525515

  10. Enhanced alveolar clearance with chest percussion therapy and positional changes during whole-lung lavage for alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andrew; Rogers, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis has traditionally been treated with whole-lung lavage (WLL). The literature describes a variety of techniques used in performing the WLL, including mechanical vs manual chest percussion, use of prone positioning, and variances in lavage volume. We have quantified and compared the effective alveolar clearance for each component of the lavage by measuring the dry weight of material in the lavage effluent. We measured this in five patients who underwent six consecutive WLLs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We performed the lavage in the following three stages: stage I, passive drainage; stage II, assisted clearance; and stage III, positional clearance. Aliquots of lavage effluent were centrifuged to determine the dry weight of material present in sequentially recorded bottles within each stage. At the initiation of each augmentation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the clearance of material (stage II, p = 0.009; stage III, p = 0.012). Furthermore, we show that lipoproteinaceous material is present in the lavage effluent in all stages of latter portions of the lavage. The effective removal of material would be expected to have an impact on the physiologic and clinical response to WLL. This finding emphasizes the importance of performing an adequate and standardized lavage.

  11. Analysis of surface EMG activation in hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the tempo.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-08-01

    Although instrument playing-based training has been repeatedly reported to improve functional hand movements including grasping, the attempts to present quantitative information on physiological mechanism of grasping have been relatively insufficient to determine the type and the intensity of the exercises involved. This study aimed to examine the muscle activation during hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the playing tempo. A total of twelve healthy older adults with a mean age of 71.5 years participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on three grasping-related muscles: Flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, and flexor pollicis brevis. Participants were instructed to play with the egg shaker, paddle drum mallet and clave involving different types of grasp at three different tempi (i.e., 80, 100, and 120 bpm) and sEMG data were collected during each playing. Significantly greater muscle activation was generated with the small sphere type of egg shaker, compared to the handle type of paddle drum mallet and the small cylinder type of clave. Playing at faster tempo also elicited significantly greater muscle activation than at slower tempo. With regard to the rise time of muscle activation, while tempo significantly affected the rise time, the time to peak muscle did not significantly change depending on the grasping type. This study confirmed that grasping pattern and the tempo of movement significantly influence the muscular activation of grasping involved in instrument playing. Based on these results, clinical implication for instrument selection and structured instrument playing would be suggested.

  12. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  13. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  14. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  15. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  16. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  17. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  18. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  19. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  20. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  1. Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. ); Jakobsen, J. )

    1991-08-26

    Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

  2. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  3. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  4. Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles and Recordings. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 26th Annual Convention, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, William; Berndt, Arnold

    This catalogue lists over 350 phonograph records which feature solo and ensemble music by wind and percussion instruments. Instruments heard on the records include oboe/English horn, flute, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet/cornet, French horn, trombone, baritone, tuba, saxophone, percussion, woodwind ensembles, and brass ensembles. The catalogue is…

  5. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  6. Performance Testing of Twist Drills on AISI 4140 Alloy Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Spiral Point Drill - A New Concept in Drill Point Geometry, Trans, of ASME, 1957 pp. 1059-1072. (2) Galloway, D. F., Some Experiments on the... experimental research in drilling of this material would be a valuable contribution for improvement in manufacturing, based on the original objective to...geometry and chip formation. 10. Conclusion. The scope of this investigation is experimental only and an attempt was made to compare results with

  7. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  8. The single steel drilling caisson: A new arctic drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hippman, A.; Kelly, W.; Merritt, C.

    1983-10-01

    Dome's experience with a new mobile drilling unit - the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC) - is described. The SSDC was designed to enable offshore drilling operations in the Beaufort Sea to continue beyond the short open-water season during which drillships are capable of working. The operator's requirements for storage facilities and rig equipment are discussed with reference to the SSDC, which proved to be well suited to offshore arctic operations. The drilling and testing of the first well are described to illustrate the successful operation of this innovative drilling unit. Problems associated with Beaufort Sea operations are discussed with specific reference to ice management and drilling problems.

  9. PTH(1-34) effects on repairing experimentally drilled holes in rat femur: novel aspects - qualitative vs. quantitative improvement of osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Smargiassi, Alberto; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The timetable of effects on bone repair of the active fraction-parathyroid hormone, PTH(1-34), was analytically investigated from the morphometric viewpoint in 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, whose femurs were drilled at mid-diaphyseal level (transcortical holes). The animals were divided into groups with/without PTH(1-34) administration, and sacrificed at different times (10, 28, 45 days after surgery). The observations reported here need to be framed in the context of our previous investigations regarding bone histogenesis (Ferretti et al. Anat Embryol. 2002; 206: 21-29) in which we demonstrated the occurrence of two successive bone-forming processes during both skeletal organogenesis and bone repair, i.e. static and dynamic osteogenesis: the former (due to stationary osteoblasts, haphazardly grouped in cords) producing preliminary bad quality trabecular bone, the latter (due to typical polarized osteoblasts organized in ordered movable laminae) producing mechanically valid bone tissue. The primary function of static osteogenesis is to provide a rigid scaffold containing osteocytes (i.e. mechano-sensors) for osteoblast laminae acting in dynamic osteogenesis. In the present work, histomorphometric analysis revealed that, already 10 days after drilling, despite the holes being temporarily filled by the same amount of newly formed trabecular bone by static osteogenesis independently of the treatment, the extent of the surface of movable osteoblast-laminae (covering the trabecular surface) was statistically higher in animals submitted to PTH(1-34) administration than in control ones; this datum strongly suggests the effect of PTH(1-34) alone in anticipating the occurrence of dynamic osteogenesis involved in the production of good quality bone (with more ordered collagen texture) more suitable for loading. This study could be crucial in further translational clinical research in humans for defining the best therapeutic strategies to be applied in recovering

  10. Oil base drilling fluid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.; Salandanan, C.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes an improved oil-base drilling fluid composition characterized by thixotropic properties resulting in a yield point of from about 10 to about 75 comprising an oil-base continuous phase and a gelling composition. The gelling composition includes a latex material copolymerized with one or more functional monomers selected from the group consisting of: amides, amines, sulfonates, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and combinations thereof and wherein at least one of the one or more functional monomers is an amide selected from the group consisting of: acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, N-alkyl-acrylamide, vinylacetamide, vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide, vinylformamide and combinations thereof.

  11. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  12. Selective loss of timbre perception for keyboard and percussion instruments following a right temporal lesion.

    PubMed

    Kohlmetz, C; Müller, S V; Nager, W; Münte, T F; Altenmüller, E

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man WDK, who experienced selective loss of timbre perception for keyboard and percussion instruments following a right temporal stroke comprising the anterior superior and medial gyrus and parts of the insular region. Formerly an avid listener to music, the sound of an orchestra appeared to be "flat" to him. WDK and a matched control subject underwent a detailed neuropsychological test battery covering basic auditory function (audiometry and just notable difference for pitch shifts), specific auditory function (recognition of environmental sounds), specific musical functions like discrimination of pitch, interval, contour, rhythm and metre, recognition of familiar melodies, emotional responsiveness, perception of timbre and auditory spectral analysis. While WDK displayed no deficits in primary auditory function, the test battery revealed a selective impairment in the perception of timbre of keyboard and percussion instruments which could be traced to a deficit in discriminating rapid changes of the spectral composition of a tone. Hence, these findings demonstrate the existence of highly specific neural networks underlying isolated aspects of timbre perception in the right anterior temporal lobe.

  13. Variability in an early hominin percussive tradition: the Acheulean versus cultural variation in modern chimpanzee artefacts.

    PubMed

    Gowlett, J A J

    2015-11-19

    Percussion makes a vital link between the activities of early human ancestors and other animals in tool-use and tool-making. Far more of the early human actions are preserved as archaeology, since the percussion was largely used for making hard tools of stone, rather than for direct access to food. Both primate tools and early hominin tools, however, offer a means to exploring variability in material culture, a strong focus of interest in recent primate studies. This paper charts such variability in the Acheulean, the longest-lasting tool tradition, extant form about 1.7 to about 0.1 Ma, and well known for its characteristic handaxes. The paper concentrates on the African record, although the Acheulean was also known in Europe and Asia. It uses principal components and discriminant analysis to examine the measurements from 66 assemblages (whole toolkits), and from 18 sets of handaxes. Its review of evidence confirms that there is deep-seated pattern in the variation, with variability within a site complex often matching or exceeding that between sites far distant in space and time. Current techniques of study allow comparisons of handaxes far more easily than for other components, stressing a need to develop common practice in measurement and analysis. The data suggest, however, that a higher proportion of traits recurs widely in Acheulean toolkits than in the chimpanzee record.

  14. Experimental studies illuminate the cultural transmission of percussive technologies in Homo and Pan.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Andrew

    2015-11-19

    The complexity of Stone Age tool-making is assumed to have relied upon cultural transmission, but direct evidence is lacking. This paper reviews evidence bearing on this question provided through five related empirical perspectives. Controlled experimental studies offer special power in identifying and dissecting social learning into its diverse component forms, such as imitation and emulation. The first approach focuses on experimental studies that have discriminated social learning processes in nut-cracking by chimpanzees. Second come experiments that have identified and dissected the processes of cultural transmission involved in a variety of other force-based forms of chimpanzee tool use. A third perspective is provided by field studies that have revealed a range of forms of forceful, targeted tool use by chimpanzees, that set percussion in its broader cognitive context. Fourth are experimental studies of the development of flint knapping to make functional sharp flakes by bonobos, implicating and defining the social learning and innovation involved. Finally, new and substantial experiments compare what different social learning processes, from observational learning to teaching, afford good quality human flake and biface manufacture. Together these complementary approaches begin to delineate the social learning processes necessary to percussive technologies within the Pan-Homo clade.

  15. Variability in an early hominin percussive tradition: the Acheulean versus cultural variation in modern chimpanzee artefacts

    PubMed Central

    Gowlett, J. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Percussion makes a vital link between the activities of early human ancestors and other animals in tool-use and tool-making. Far more of the early human actions are preserved as archaeology, since the percussion was largely used for making hard tools of stone, rather than for direct access to food. Both primate tools and early hominin tools, however, offer a means to exploring variability in material culture, a strong focus of interest in recent primate studies. This paper charts such variability in the Acheulean, the longest-lasting tool tradition, extant form about 1.7 to about 0.1 Ma, and well known for its characteristic handaxes. The paper concentrates on the African record, although the Acheulean was also known in Europe and Asia. It uses principal components and discriminant analysis to examine the measurements from 66 assemblages (whole toolkits), and from 18 sets of handaxes. Its review of evidence confirms that there is deep-seated pattern in the variation, with variability within a site complex often matching or exceeding that between sites far distant in space and time. Current techniques of study allow comparisons of handaxes far more easily than for other components, stressing a need to develop common practice in measurement and analysis. The data suggest, however, that a higher proportion of traits recurs widely in Acheulean toolkits than in the chimpanzee record. PMID:26483536

  16. Evaluation of metric, topological, and temporal ordering memory tasks after lateral fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Gurkoff, Gene G; Gahan, Jennifer D; Ghiasvand, Rahil T; Hunsaker, Michael R; Van, Ken; Feng, Jun-Feng; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Berman, Robert F; Lyeth, Bruce G; Folkerts, Michael M

    2013-02-15

    Impairments in learning and memory occur in as many as 50% of patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Similar impairments occur in rodent models of TBI, and the development of new memory testing procedures provides an opportunity to examine how TBI affects memory processing in specific neural memory systems. Specifically, metric, topological, and temporal ordering tasks are object-based tests for memory of spatial orientation and temporal sequencing working memory developed for use in rodents. Previous studies demonstrated that specific lesions of the dentate gyrus/CA3 of the hippocampus and the parietal cortex resulted in deficits in the metric and topological spatial orientation tasks, respectively. Lesions of the CA1 impaired a rat's ability to recall the temporal order of odors. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI would generate deficits in these working memory tasks, and whether observed deficits were associated with cell loss in the CA2/3 and/or CA1 of the hippocampus. Two weeks following a moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI, adult rats demonstrated significant deficits in both the metric and temporal ordering tasks (p<0.05) but not in the topological task. Stereological analysis identified a significant reduction in neurons in the CA2/3 (p<0.05) but not the CA1 of the hippocampus. These data demonstrate the utility of three object-based tasks to expand our understanding of how different neural memory systems are affected by TBI.

  17. Experimental studies illuminate the cultural transmission of percussive technologies in Homo and Pan

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of Stone Age tool-making is assumed to have relied upon cultural transmission, but direct evidence is lacking. This paper reviews evidence bearing on this question provided through five related empirical perspectives. Controlled experimental studies offer special power in identifying and dissecting social learning into its diverse component forms, such as imitation and emulation. The first approach focuses on experimental studies that have discriminated social learning processes in nut-cracking by chimpanzees. Second come experiments that have identified and dissected the processes of cultural transmission involved in a variety of other force-based forms of chimpanzee tool use. A third perspective is provided by field studies that have revealed a range of forms of forceful, targeted tool use by chimpanzees, that set percussion in its broader cognitive context. Fourth are experimental studies of the development of flint knapping to make functional sharp flakes by bonobos, implicating and defining the social learning and innovation involved. Finally, new and substantial experiments compare what different social learning processes, from observational learning to teaching, afford good quality human flake and biface manufacture. Together these complementary approaches begin to delineate the social learning processes necessary to percussive technologies within the Pan–Homo clade. PMID:26483537

  18. Downhole tools can increase deep drilling rig productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, D.A.; Doiron, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Explains how there is much to be gained by better utilization of current drilling equipment, particularly for the much more expensive deep drilling. Optimized mud weight, better hydraulics, and higher rpm offer the best opportunities with increased bit weight as a fourth possibility. Current RandD in such areas as shock absorbers, downhole motors, new materials and designs for bits, and improved instrumentation will decrease drilling costs. Concludes that a reasonable projection is that drilling time for deep wells can be halved within the next decade.

  19. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  20. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  1. New jack up designed for safe, efficient drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    A recently built jack up has incorporated the latest automated drilling technology for safe operation in the harsh North Sea environment. Santa Fe drilling Co.'s Magellan jack up rig, delivered in August 1992, was designed to improve drilling operations and operate with zero discharge while keeping the rig workers removed from much of the ordinary dangerous rig operations. The rig underwent sea trials in early 1992 and demonstrated a 310-ft water depth rating for the central North Sea. The rig has complete onboard control of all fluids for a minimum impact on the marine environment. It is designed to maximize collection, retention, treatment, and monitoring of all effluent streams. No environmentally unacceptable solids or fluids are discharged, even during adverse drilling and weather conditions. Additionally, the rig engines are designed to minimize air pollution through use of a lean fuel injection system. The paper describes the exploration drilling; production drilling; automation and safety; and the handling of blowout preventers.

  2. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  3. Ocean drilling surveys planned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

  4. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  5. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  6. Drilling mud proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, W.

    1981-12-01

    A discussion of the disposal of drilling fluids from Texas oil fields was presented. The most common is the transport of the drilling mud to approved landfills. This requires that the waste be fresh waste base mud only, contained in the pit, and be maintained oil free. Other approved methods of disposal include treatment with discharge of effluent to surface streams, land application on farm land (with owner's permission), and subsurface disposal. Some common illegal disposal methods included dumping on roadsides or private property (without owner's permission).

  7. Laser drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by picosecond laser pulses: comparative study of different drilling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, T.; Stolze, M.; L'huillier, J.

    2014-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a lightweight material with superior properties is increasingly being used in industrial manufacturing. Using ultrashort laser pulses can improve the quality in cutting or drilling applications, but at high power levels it is more complicated to maintain the accuracy and precision in CFRP drilling. According to the application requirements for the extent of the heat affected zone, the geometric precision and the productivity different drilling tools can be used. Therefore we report on the application of three different beam delivery systems to drilling processes of CFRP: Galvanometer scanner, trepanning head and diffractive optical elements.

  8. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  9. A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

  10. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  11. Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

  12. Reaching Water: Planetary Deep Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Davis, R.; Hoftun, C.; Lee, P.; Johansen, B.

    2017-02-01

    Deeper drilling to 100m depths is easy on Earth, but an extreme challenge on other solar system bodies. Deeper planetary subsurface access into ocean worlds or to the Mars cryosphere is possible with new drilling concepts.

  13. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  14. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  15. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  16. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  17. New generation drill rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

  18. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  19. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  20. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  1. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 West Drilling

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    President of Cascade Drilling, Bruce, talks about his contract with the Department of Energy and what his team is doing to improve water treatment and environmental cleanup. The small business owner hits on how the Recovery Act saved him from downsizing and helped him stay competitive and safe on site.

  2. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 West Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    President of Cascade Drilling, Bruce, talks about his contract with the Department of Energy and what his team is doing to improve water treatment and environmental cleanup. The small business owner hits on how the Recovery Act saved him from downsizing and helped him stay competitive and safe on site.

  3. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  4. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  5. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  6. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  7. Mixer for drill cuttings and drilling mud on a drilling location

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, J. G. J.; Entrop, W.

    1985-05-14

    A device for mixing of liquids and particulate solids, such as for instance a drilling liquid and drill cuttings on a drilling location. This drilling location can be a deep well drilled for gas and/or oil by means of a drilling tower on-or off-shore. The invention provides an elongated, rectangular open mixing tank on which a series of replacable agitating units having their axes in one vertical plane is mounted. The agitating devices each comprise a unit having a rotatably driven head carrying two support arms of unequal length which each support a mixing screw projecting into the mixture of liquids and particulate solids. This arrangement provides a thorough mixture of the drilling liquid, having a high viscosity and high specific gravity, with the drill cuttings frequently comprising heavy clay and/or rock particles.

  8. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  9. Testing of the Prototype Mars Drill and Sample Acquisition System in the Mars Analog Site of the Antarctica's Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Marinova, M.; Davila, A. F.; Pollard, W. H.; Jackson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the testing of the one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sampling system, called the IceBreaker in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sampling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. In November/December of 2010, the IceBreaker drill was tested in the Uni-versity Valley (within the Beacon Valley region of the Antarctic Dry Valleys). University Valley is a good analog to the Northern Polar Regions of Mars because a layer of dry soil lies on top of either ice-cemeted ground or massive ice (depending on the location within the valley). That is exactly what the 2007 Phoenix mission discovered on Mars. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground and in massive ice at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This corresponds to an average energy of 100 Whr. At the same time, the bit temperature measured by the bit thermocouple did not exceed more than 10 °C above the formation temperature. The temperature also never exceeded freezing, which minimizes chances of getting stuck and also of altering the materials that are being sampled and analyzed. The samples in the forms of cuttings were acquired every 10 cm intervals into sterile bags. These tests have shown that drilling on Mars, in ice cemented ground with limited power, energy and Weight on Bit, and collecting samples in discrete depth intervals is possible within the given mass, power, and energy levels of a Phoenix-size lander and within the duration of a Phoenix-like mission.

  10. Characterization of shallow geology based on direct borehole data and field reports and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling in Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Barry, Hamidou; Beavogui, Massaboye; Garzonio, Roberto; Keita, Alama; Patra, Lalit; Sartorelli, Massimo; Vogt, MarieLouise

    2013-04-01

    Based on previous experience carried out in other African countries by UNICEF, an improved methodology for the characterization of shallow geology and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling has been implemented in Guinea A sample of an approximately 2500 borehole logs distributed in the different regions of Guinea have been collected from SNAPE (National Water Authority of Guinea), after correction of unreliable data, 1540 borehole data have been obtained; for each point the following parameters have been estimated: - predominant lithology between 0 and 15 meters - predominant lithology between 15 and 30 meters - Depth of hard rock - Depth of static water level - Presence and thickness of lateritic crust An estimated category of hardness and permeability has been assigned to each lithology recorded in the database, as well as an estimate class of suitability for manual drilling. Finally a series of maps have been produced with the distribution of the above mentioned parameters. This information has been cross checked with direct field observation and meetings with drillers. Extrapolating these parameters the following output at country level have been produced: - map of suitability between 5-15 m - map of suitability between 15 and 30 m - map of general suitability - map of expected distribution and thickness of lateritic crust - map of specific techniques for manual drilling applicable The main procedure was a reclassification of the geological map: for each geological formation the predominant features for the parameters above mentioned were defined; this estimation was compared with the perception of those technicians who had direct experience of drilling in Guinea. In the map of suitability for manual drilling in Guinea the main factors considered to assign the "class of suitability" are: - thickness of unconsolidated layers - hardness and permeability of shallow layers - presence of hard lateritic crust - depth of water As the scale of the

  11. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  1. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through a drill or a series of drills. The drill(s) must exercise all of the means and procedures listed... ability to perform its duties and functions under the EEP. (d) The date and time of such drills shall be reported in writing by the person in charge at the time of the drill to the owner who shall maintain...

  2. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  3. Rhythm histograms and musical meter: A corpus study of Malian percussion music.

    PubMed

    London, Justin; Polak, Rainer; Jacoby, Nori

    2017-04-01

    Studies of musical corpora have given empirical grounding to the various features that characterize particular musical styles and genres. Palmer & Krumhansl (1990) found that in Western classical music the likeliest places for a note to occur are the most strongly accented beats in a measure, and this was also found in subsequent studies using both Western classical and folk music corpora (Huron & Ommen, 2006; Temperley, 2010). We present a rhythmic analysis of a corpus of 15 performances of percussion music from Bamako, Mali. In our corpus, the relative frequency of note onsets in a given metrical position does not correspond to patterns of metrical accent, though there is a stable relationship between onset frequency and metrical position. The implications of this non-congruence between simple statistical likelihood and metrical structure for the ways in which meter and metrical accent may be learned and understood are discussed, along with importance of cross-cultural studies for psychological research.

  4. 4,300-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The “Chimpanzee Stone Age” pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human–chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence. PMID:17360606

  5. Using Percussion to Improve Attention-to-Tasks in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzic, Brenda L.; Tonkin, Kent; Roberts, Jay B.; Demuth, Barbara R.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. Autism does not discriminate; it occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. It can impair a person's ability to communicate and relate to others, and symptoms can range from very mild to…

  6. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Online drilling mud gas monitoring and sampling during drilling the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Almqvist, Bjarne; Klonowska, Iwona; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The COSC project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) drilled a 2496 m deep hole in Åre (Sweden) to deliver insights into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes from continent-continent collision, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state and geothermal gradient of the mountain belt and to study the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement. COSC was the first slimhole drilling project where online gasmonitoring of drilling mud was conducted during continuous wireline coring. Gas was continuously extracted at the surface from the circulating drilling mud with a gas-water separator, pumped in a nearby laboratory container and analysed in real-time with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for argon, methane, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and krypton. Gas samples were taken from the gas line for laboratory studies on chemical composition of hydrocarbons, noble gas isotopes and stable isotopes. Every drill core created a gas peak identified in the drilling mud ~20-30 min after core arrival at the surface. With known core depth and surface arrival time, these gas peaks could be attributed to depth. As a result, nearly complete gas depth profiles at three meter intervals were obtained from 662 m (installation of the gas-water separator) to 2490 m depth. Maximum concentrations of non-atmospheric gasses in drilling mud were ~200 ppmv helium, ~300 ppmv methane and ~2 vol-% hydrogen. Helium peaks between ~900 m and 1000 m and correlates with enhanced concentrations of methane. Methane and hydrogen exhibit maximum concentrations below 1630 m depth where helium concentrations remain low. Integration of the drilling mud gas monitoring dataset with data from geophysical downhole logging and core analysis is ongoing to help clarifying provenances and origin of gasses.

  8. Pneumatic and Percussive Penetration Approaches for Heat Flow Probe Emplacement on Robotic Lunar Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Nagihara, S.; Hedlund, M.; Paulsen, G.; Shasho, J.; Mumm, E.; Kumar, N.; Szwarc, T.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Taylor, P.; Milam, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the development of heat flow probes for measuring the geothermal gradient and conductivity of lunar regolith are presented. These two measurements are the required information for determining the heat flow of a planetary body. Considering the Moon as an example, heat flow properties are very important information for studying the radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the interior. In order to obtain the best measurements, the sensors must be extended to a depth of at least 3 m, i.e. beyond the depth of significant thermal cycles. Two approaches to heat flow deployment and measurement are discussed in this paper: a percussive approach and a pneumatic approach. The percussive approach utilizes a high frequency hammer to drive a cone penetrometer into the lunar simulant. Ring-like thermal sensors (heaters and temperature sensors) on the penetrometer rod are deployed into the simulant every 30 cm as the penetrometer penetrates to the required 3 m depth. Once the target depth has been achieved, the deployment rod is removed from the simulant, eliminating any thermal path to the lander. The pneumatic approach relies on pressurized gas to excavate, using a cone-shaped nozzle to penetrate the simulant. The nozzle is attached to a coiled stem with thermal sensors embedded along the length of the stem. As the simulant is being lofted out of the hole by the escaping gas, the stem is progressively reeled out from a spool, thus moving the cone deeper into the hole. Thermal conductivity is measured using a needle probe attached to the end of the cone. Breadboard prototypes of these two heat flow probe systems have been constructed and successfully tested under lunar-like conditions to approximately 70 cm, which was the maximum possible depth allowed by the size of the test bin and the chamber.

  9. Research drilling at Katmai, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John C.; Hildreth, Wes

    1986-10-01

    Drilling observations made in a young igneous system following a single, recent, well-described volcanic event can greatly improve our understanding of magmatic and hydrothermal processes and of the rates at which these processes operate. A group of geoscientists (Table 1) has been working since May 1985 to formulate and advance a plan for research at the site of the historically important 1912 eruption at Katmai, Alaska, as part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The plan was presented at the June 12-13, 1986, CSDP Workshop, held in Rapid City, S.Dak., and has now entered a more formal proposal development stage for consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey as an interagency effort. This report is provided to inform the geoscience community of the rationale for CSDP research at Katmai and of the forthcoming opportunities for participation in this multidisciplinary effort in the field of magmatic processes.

  10. Rock drill bit lubrication system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.

    1980-07-08

    A drill bit is described that includes a body part, a first chamber in said body part for containing a fluid lubricat under pressure higher than atmosphere during operation of the drill bit, at least one bit segment extending from said body part, a generally conical cutting element mounted on said bit segment and freely rotatable thereon thus forming a cutting element assembly, the improvement in combination therewith, wherein: said bit segment iclujdes an annular part having inner and outer circumferential bearing surfaces, said conical cutting element has corresponding bearing surfaces adjacent those of said annular part thereby forming two pairs of bearing surfaces defining first and second raceways, the second raceway being radially outward of the first raceway, said second raceway further includes a plurlaity of ball bearing elements distributed therein, this second raceway and ball bearing elements forming a locking bearing for retaining said conical cutting element coupled to said annular part of said bit segment, said cutting element assembly further comprising a plurality of rolling bearing elements distributed in said second raceway forming an inner bearing, and lubrication mens for lubricating said raceways and bearing elements therein.

  11. Effect of ball geometry on endurance limit in bending of drilled balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Four designs of drilled (cylindrically hollow) balls were tested for resistance to bending fatigue. Bending fatigue has been demonstrated to be a limiting factor in previous evaluations of the drilled ball concept. A web reinforced drilled ball was most successful in resisting bending fatigue. Another design of through drilled design, involving a heavier wall than the standard reference ball, also showed significant improvement in resistance to bending fatigue.

  12. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time

  13. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  14. Mounted drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Manten, H.

    1982-07-20

    The drilling apparatus includes a mount in the form of a cylindrical member defining an elongated passageway and being provided with two opposite guiding rails each being formed with an elongated recessed channel communicating with the passageway; a rotary drive for holding a drill rod has a non-rotating casing provided with guiding elements movable in the recesses of the guiding rails; a feeding mechanism for advancing the rotary drive includes either tooth racks arranged in the recesses of the guiding rails and driving pinions mounted on the casing of the rotary drive or cylinder and piston units located in the recesses of the guide rails and cooperating with feed cables or chains. The mount is supported on a mobile undercarriage which is provided with two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting legs.

  15. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  16. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  17. Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish; King, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    To grip rocks on the surfaces of asteroids and comets, and to grip the cliff faces and lava tubes of Mars, a 250 mm diameter omni-directional anchor is presented that utilizes a hierarchical array of claws with suspension flexures, called microspines, to create fast, strong attachment. Prototypes have been demonstrated on vesicular basalt and a'a lava rock supporting forces in all directions away from the rock. Each anchor can support >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A two-actuator selectively- compliant ankle interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for climbing trials. A rotary percussive drill was also integrated into the anchor, demonstrating self-contained rock coring regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, 20mm diameter boreholes were drilled 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples, retaining a 12 mm diameter rock core in 3-6 pieces while in an inverted configuration, literally drilling into the ceiling.

  18. Combined fetal neural transplantation and nerve growth factor infusion: effects on neurological outcome following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sinson, G; Voddi, M; McIntosh, T K

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the histological and behavioral impact of fetal neural transplantation with and without neurotrophin infusion in rats subjected to traumatic brain injury using a clinically relevant model of lateral fluid-percussion brain injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received lateral fluid-percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.3 atm). Twenty-four hours after injury, minced fetal cortical grafts (E16) were stereotactically transplanted into the site of injury cavity formation (in 32 rats). Ten control animals received injections of saline. A third group of 29 animals that received transplants also underwent placement of a miniosmotic pump (immediately after transplantation) to continuously infuse nerve growth factor (NGF) directly into the region of graft placement for the duration of the experiment. A fourth group of eight animals underwent transplantation of fetal cortical cells that had been dissociated and placed in suspension. Animals were evaluated at 72 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks after injury for cognitive function (using the Morris water maze), posttraumatic motor dysfunction, and transplant survival and morphology (using Nissl and modified Palmgren's silver staining techniques). Robust survival of whole-tissue transplants was seen in 65.5% of animals and was not increased in animals receiving NGF infusion. Animals receiving transplants of cell suspension had no surviving grafts. Brain-injured animals receiving transplants showed significant cognitive improvements compared with controls at the 2-week evaluation. Significantly improved memory scores were seen at all evaluation times in animals receiving both NGF and transplants compared with injured controls and compared with animals receiving transplants alone at the 72-hour and 1-week evaluations. Neurological motor function scores were significantly improved in animals receiving transplants alone and those receiving transplants with NGF infusion. Histological

  19. [Optimization of the spiral drill for use in medicine].

    PubMed

    Fuchsberger, A

    1987-01-01

    Cutting tools are used in medicine a long time ago. Varying mechanical and thermal damage to bone tissue results from using cutting tools. These are often commented in the literature, but there is hardly any systematic studies of optimization of cutting tools. This present study was initiated in an attempt to improve the drill bit geometry and machining conditions. The study includes the thermal damage of bone and the soft-tissue injury, especially beyond the bone, by drilling of bone. The result of this study is a new drill bit geometry, which reduces the time of drilling. Thus lower temperature rises and less danger of thermal damage are achieved. It is easy to center and to start the cut with this new drill. The physical effort of the surgeon is substantially lessened. The danger of the soft-tissue injury can be disregarded. Optimized practice in medicine is gained by avoiding thermal and mechanical damage.

  20. Method for detecting drilling events from measuremt while drilling sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, M.; Lesage, M., Falconer, I.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a method for determining subsurface conditions encountered by a drill bit while drilling a borehole. It comprises: during the drilling process, determining rate of penetration and generation a signal indicative thereof; during the drilling process, determining downhole torque and generating a signal indicative thereof; in response to signals indicative of rate of penetration and downhole torque, generating an indication of the occurrence of a subsurface condition selected from the group comprising high formation porosity, a damaged bit bearing and the development of an undergauge bit.

  1. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  2. "Galileo's Machine": Late Notes on Free Fall, Projectile Motion, and the Force of Percussion (ca. 1638-1639)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    My paper focuses upon the problem of determining the nature, establishing the proportionality, and measuring the intensity of the force of percussion of a projected or falling body, as treated in the Sixth Day of Galileo's Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze (1638). This fragment was written around 1638-1639 as part of two additional Days of the Discorsi, which Galileo never finished and remained unpublished until 1718. Galileo's last works on percussion show a significant step towards a generalization of his own views on uniform and accelerated motion that will later lead to the Newtonian principle of inertia. The experiment with two equal weights hanging on a pulley, performed in Arcetri during the same period, is compared with the Paduan 1604-1608 experience of the "water balance." Both account for more than three decades of inquiries into what Galileo called forza della percossa, which marked the transition from preclassical to classical mechanics.

  3. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  4. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. ["... my friend Leopold was percussing her through her bodice...". Leopold von Auenbrugger in Sigmund Freud's dream of Irma's injection].

    PubMed

    Reicheneder, Johann Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a psychoanalytic interpretation of an element in the Irma dream that Freud had ignored in his own interpretation. The allusion to Leopold von Auenbrugger, the originator of percussion as a method of clinical investigation, which appears in the manifest dream reflects Freud's hopes and fears about how his Interpretation of Dreams and the new human science established there would be received by his medical colleagues.

  6. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  7. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  8. Effects of Different Doses of Levetiracetam on Aquaporin 4 Expression in Rats with Brain Edema Following Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongbo; Li, Wenling; Dong, Changzheng; Ma, Li; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effects of different doses of levetiracetam on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rats after fluid percussion injury. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operation group, traumatic brain injury group, low-dose levetiracetam group, and high-dose levetiracetam group. Brain edema models were established by fluid percussion injury, and intervened by the administration of levetiracetam. Samples from the 4 groups were collected at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days after injury. Histological observation was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression was detected using Western blot assay and RT-PCR. Brain water content was measured by the dry-wet method. Results Compared with the traumatic brain injury group, brain water content, AQP4 expression, and AQP4 mRNA expression were lower in the levetiracetam groups at each time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The intervention effects of high-dose levetiracetam were more apparent. Conclusions Levetiracetam can lessen brain edema from fluid percussion injury by down-regulating AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression. There is a dose-effect relationship in the preventive effect of levetiracetam within a certain extent. PMID:26927633

  9. Effects of Different Doses of Levetiracetam on Aquaporin 4 Expression in Rats with Brain Edema Following Fluid Percussion Injury.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongbo; Li, Wenling; Dong, Changzheng; Ma, Li; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Wenqing

    2016-02-29

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the effects of different doses of levetiracetam on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rats after fluid percussion injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operation group, traumatic brain injury group, low-dose levetiracetam group, and high-dose levetiracetam group. Brain edema models were established by fluid percussion injury, and intervened by the administration of levetiracetam. Samples from the 4 groups were collected at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days after injury. Histological observation was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression was detected using Western blot assay and RT-PCR. Brain water content was measured by the dry-wet method. RESULTS Compared with the traumatic brain injury group, brain water content, AQP4 expression, and AQP4 mRNA expression were lower in the levetiracetam groups at each time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The intervention effects of high-dose levetiracetam were more apparent. CONCLUSIONS Levetiracetam can lessen brain edema from fluid percussion injury by down-regulating AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression. There is a dose-effect relationship in the preventive effect of levetiracetam within a certain extent.

  10. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  11. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  12. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  19. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  4. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  9. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  10. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  11. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  12. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  13. Drilling the ``perfect'' well

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    In northeastern British Columbia, near Fort St. John, Calahoo Petroleum is chasing the elusive finger channels of a vast alluvial fan formed by runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The Cadomin formation is a thin, shallow, tight Cretaceous sandstore lying about 1,150m below the surface and loaded with gas at virgin pressure. Reserves are estimated at 3 Bcf per section. The formation is extremely fragile, and subject to damage if drilled improperly. Pores are lined with a thin layer of kaolinite, which when invaded will flocculate and clog pore throats, reducing permeability is estimated at 1 to 2 md, and wells that strike a channel can produce up to 3 MMcf/d of gas. Miss the sweet spot in the channel, and the best one can hope for is 0.5 md and 0.5 MMcf/d of gas. Finding the channels is a real challenge. There are only a few 2D spec seismic lines criss-crossing the play, few offset wells to correlate and a blanket of shallow coal seams above the Cadomin that tunes the seismic image and makes interpretation difficult. The combination of limited formation data and drilling challenges presents a complex set of problems. The paper discusses these challenges and what Calahoo is doing to meet them using a multidisciplinary team approach.

  14. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    side tracking applications. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of laser perforation on multiple samples of rock, cement and steel. The fiber laser was capable of penetrating these materials under a variety of conditions, to an appropriate depth, and with reasonable energy requirements. It was determined that fiber lasers are capable of cutting rock without causing damage to flow properties. Furthermore, the laser perforation resulted in permeability improvements on the exposed rock surface. This report has been prepared in two parts and each part may be treated as a stand-alone document. Part 1 (High Energy Laser Drilling) includes the general description of the concept and focuses on results from experiments under the ambient lab conditions. Part 2 (High Energy Laser Perforation and Completion Techniques) discusses the design and development of a customized laser pressure cell; experimental design and procedures, and the resulting data on pressure-charged samples exposed to the laser beam. An analysis provides the resulting effect of downhole pressure conditions on the laser/rock interaction process.

  15. Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems at Chocolate Mountain

    DOE Data Explorer

    Steven Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits are routinely used in the oil and gas industry for drilling medium to hard rock but have not been adopted for geothermal drilling, largely due to past reliability issues and higher purchase costs. The Sandia Geothermal Research Department has recently completed a field demonstration of the applicability of advanced synthetic diamond drill bits for production geothermal drilling. Two commercially-available PDC bits were tested in a geothermal drilling program in the Chocolate Mountains in Southern California. These bits drilled the granitic formations with significantly better Rate of Penetration (ROP) and bit life than the roller cone bit they are compared with. Drilling records and bit performance data along with associated drilling cost savings are presented herein. The drilling trials have demonstrated PDC bit drilling technology has matured for applicability and improvements to geothermal drilling. This will be especially beneficial for development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems whereby resources can be accessed anywhere within the continental US by drilling to deep, hot resources in hard, basement rock formations.

  16. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  17. Drilling gas hydrates with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Wefer, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are bound in marine gas hydrate deposits. Local conditions like pressure, temperature, gas and pore water compositions define the boundaries of gas hydrate stability within the ocean sediments. Depending on those conditions gas hydrates can occur within marine sediments at depth down to several hundreds of meters up to sea floor. These oceanic methane deposits are widespread along continental margins. By forming cement in otherwise soft sediments gas hydrates are stabilizing the seafloor on continental slopes. Drilling operations are required for understanding the distribution of gas hydrates as well as for sampling them to study the composition, microstructure and its geomechanical and geophysical properties. The sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo200 has the capability to drill down to 200 m below sea floor well within the depth of major gas hydrate occurrences at continental margins. This drill rig is a transportable sea floor drill rig that can be deployed from a variety of multi-purpose research vessels. It is deployed on the sea bed and controlled from the vessel. It is the second generation MeBo (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013) and was developed from 2011 to 2014 by MARUM in cooperation with BAUER Maschinen GmbH. Long term experiences with the first generation MeBo70 that was operated since 2005 on 15 research expeditions largely contributed to the development of MeBo200. It was first tested in October 2014 from the research vessel RV SONNE in the North Sea. In this presentation the suitability of MARUM-MeBo for drilling marine gas hydrates is discussed. We report on experiences drilling gas hydrates on two research expeditions with MeBo70. A research expedition for sampling gas hydrates in the Danube Paleodelta with MeBo200 as well as technical developments for improving the suitability of MeBo for gas hydrate exploration works are planned within the project SUGAR3 funded by the Federal Government for Economy and Energy (BMWi). Freudenthal

  18. 1997 Drilling and production yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    The sixth annual Drilling and Production Yearbook is presented. Data is compiled on drill bit productivity on single run footage, cumulative footage, penetration rate, and hours of service. World records for offshore developments, horizontal wells, coiled tubing applications, stimulation, casing strings, production, seismic shoots, and innovative completions are listed in separate sections. Records set in previous years that remain unbroken are also included.

  19. Novel technology increases drilling potential

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.

    1982-07-01

    This article examines such innovations in drilling technology as a giant semi-submersible rig for Arctic operation; an all-weather jack-up rig; float on/float-off rig transports; environmentally clean oil-based drilling mud; 15,000 psi BOP hardware; a compact subsea test tree; a satellite rig monitor/communications system and a digital driller training system.

  20. Structural Pattern Drills: A Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    The author attempts a reclassification of structural pattern drills, taking into account the theories of Skinner as well as Chomsky on language learning. Her intent is to propose a "systematic progression in the classroom from mechanical learning to the internalizing of competence." Drills could be used more effeciently in foreign language…

  1. How similar are nut-cracking and stone-flaking? A functional approach to percussive technology

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Blandine; Parry, Ross; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Various authors have suggested similarities between tool use in early hominins and chimpanzees. This has been particularly evident in studies of nut-cracking which is considered to be the most complex skill exhibited by wild apes, and has also been interpreted as a precursor of more complex stone-flaking abilities. It has been argued that there is no major qualitative difference between what the chimpanzee does when he cracks a nut and what early hominins did when they detached a flake from a core. In this paper, similarities and differences between skills involved in stone-flaking and nut-cracking are explored through an experimental protocol with human subjects performing both tasks. We suggest that a ‘functional’ approach to percussive action, based on the distinction between functional parameters that characterize each task and parameters that characterize the agent's actions and movements, is a fruitful method for understanding those constraints which need to be mastered to perform each task successfully, and subsequently, the nature of skill involved in both tasks. PMID:26483533

  2. Perspectives on object manipulation and action grammar for percussive actions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Misato

    2015-01-01

    The skill of object manipulation is a common feature of primates including humans, although there are species-typical patterns of manipulation. Object manipulation can be used as a comparative scale of cognitive development, focusing on its complexity. Nut cracking in chimpanzees has the highest hierarchical complexity of tool use reported in non-human primates. An analysis of the patterns of object manipulation in naive chimpanzees after nut-cracking demonstrations revealed the cause of difficulties in learning nut-cracking behaviour. Various types of behaviours exhibited within a nut-cracking context can be examined in terms of the application of problem-solving strategies, focusing on their basis in causal understanding or insightful intentionality. Captive chimpanzees also exhibit complex forms of combinatory manipulation, which is the precursor of tool use. A new notation system of object manipulation was invented to assess grammatical rules in manipulative actions. The notation system of action grammar enabled direct comparisons to be made between primates including humans in a variety of object-manipulation tasks, including percussive-tool use. PMID:26483528

  3. How similar are nut-cracking and stone-flaking? A functional approach to percussive technology.

    PubMed

    Bril, Blandine; Parry, Ross; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-11-19

    Various authors have suggested similarities between tool use in early hominins and chimpanzees. This has been particularly evident in studies of nut-cracking which is considered to be the most complex skill exhibited by wild apes, and has also been interpreted as a precursor of more complex stone-flaking abilities. It has been argued that there is no major qualitative difference between what the chimpanzee does when he cracks a nut and what early hominins did when they detached a flake from a core. In this paper, similarities and differences between skills involved in stone-flaking and nut-cracking are explored through an experimental protocol with human subjects performing both tasks. We suggest that a 'functional' approach to percussive action, based on the distinction between functional parameters that characterize each task and parameters that characterize the agent's actions and movements, is a fruitful method for understanding those constraints which need to be mastered to perform each task successfully, and subsequently, the nature of skill involved in both tasks.

  4. Perspectives on object manipulation and action grammar for percussive actions in primates.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Misato

    2015-11-19

    The skill of object manipulation is a common feature of primates including humans, although there are species-typical patterns of manipulation. Object manipulation can be used as a comparative scale of cognitive development, focusing on its complexity. Nut cracking in chimpanzees has the highest hierarchical complexity of tool use reported in non-human primates. An analysis of the patterns of object manipulation in naive chimpanzees after nut-cracking demonstrations revealed the cause of difficulties in learning nut-cracking behaviour. Various types of behaviours exhibited within a nut-cracking context can be examined in terms of the application of problem-solving strategies, focusing on their basis in causal understanding or insightful intentionality. Captive chimpanzees also exhibit complex forms of combinatory manipulation, which is the precursor of tool use. A new notation system of object manipulation was invented to assess grammatical rules in manipulative actions. The notation system of action grammar enabled direct comparisons to be made between primates including humans in a variety of object-manipulation tasks, including percussive-tool use.

  5. Movement pattern variability in stone knapping: implications for the development of percussive traditions.

    PubMed

    Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Bril, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The earliest direct evidence for tool-use by our ancestors are 2.6 million year old stone tools from Africa. These earliest artifacts show that, already, early hominins had developed the required advanced movement skills and cognitive capacities to manufacture stone tools. Currently, it is not well understood, however, which specific movement skills are required for successful stone knapping and accordingly it is unknown how these skills emerged during early hominin evolution. In particular, it is not clear which striking movements are indicative of skilled performance, how striking movement patterns vary with task and environmental constraints, and how movement patterns are passed on within social groups. The present study addresses these questions by investigating striking movement patterns and striking variability in 18 modern stone knappers (nine experienced and nine novices). The results suggest that no single movement pattern characterizes successful stone knapping. Participants showed large inter-individual movement variability of the elementary knapping action irrespective of knapping experience and knapping performance. Changes in task- and environmental constraints led knappers to adapt their elementary striking actions using a combination of individual and common strategies. Investigation of striking pattern similarities within social groups showed only partial overlap of striking patterns across related individuals. The results therefore suggest that striking movement patterns in modern stone knappers are largely specific to the individual and movement variability is not indicative of knapping performance. The implications of these results for the development of percussive traditions are discussed.

  6. Movement Pattern Variability in Stone Knapping: Implications for the Development of Percussive Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Bril, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The earliest direct evidence for tool-use by our ancestors are 2.6 million year old stone tools from Africa. These earliest artifacts show that, already, early hominins had developed the required advanced movement skills and cognitive capacities to manufacture stone tools. Currently, it is not well understood, however, which specific movement skills are required for successful stone knapping and accordingly it is unknown how these skills emerged during early hominin evolution. In particular, it is not clear which striking movements are indicative of skilled performance, how striking movement patterns vary with task and environmental constraints, and how movement patterns are passed on within social groups. The present study addresses these questions by investigating striking movement patterns and striking variability in 18 modern stone knappers (nine experienced and nine novices). The results suggest that no single movement pattern characterizes successful stone knapping. Participants showed large inter-individual movement variability of the elementary knapping action irrespective of knapping experience and knapping performance. Changes in task- and environmental constraints led knappers to adapt their elementary striking actions using a combination of individual and common strategies. Investigation of striking pattern similarities within social groups showed only partial overlap of striking patterns across related individuals. The results therefore suggest that striking movement patterns in modern stone knappers are largely specific to the individual and movement variability is not indicative of knapping performance. The implications of these results for the development of percussive traditions are discussed. PMID:25426630

  7. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall not pass under or step over a moving stem or auger. (e) In the event of power failure, drill controls...

  8. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  9. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  10. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  11. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  12. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  13. Judgement Method of N-value in Earth Drill Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Sugimura, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kajiro; Nakata, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki

    Piles for uses in construction are fundamental parts of buildings, and are required to be highly reliable in Japan where seismic activities are quite frequent. Under the Earth Drill Method, a pile construction method, the ground is drilled till its hardness indicator, N-value, reaches 50 before the piles are embedded, in order to secure the safety of the buildings. however, at construction sites where the geological layers are structured intricately, the ground hardness data obtained from standard penetration tests and the actual hardness of the drilling spots occasionally can be quite different; and the drilling process halts while the actual N-value is still less than 50. Enabling the operator of an earth boring machine to confirm a 50-plus N-value during a ground drilling process improves the reliability of the piles, which is advantageous not only for the contractors but for the expected residents in terms of safety and security. In this paper, a system is proposed to determine the 50-plus N-value of the ground during an earth drilling process. The system, operated under a support vector machine, revolves the bucket in the Earth Drill Method. This system, as a result, has made it possible to determine the 50-plus N-value with the judgment ratio of 91.3% for the polynominal kernel, 73.9% for the Gaussian kernel, and 82.6% for the sigmoid kernel.

  14. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 4 - System Description. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.E.; Maurer, W.C.; Hood, M.; Cooper, G.; Cook, N.

    1990-06-01

    The first section of this Volume will discuss the ''Conventional Drilling System''. Today's complex arrangement of numerous interacting systems has slowly evolved from the very simple cable tool rigs used in the late 1800s. Improvements to the conventional drilling rig have varied in size and impact over the years, but the majority of them have been evolutionary modifications. Each individual change or improvement of this type does not have significant impact on drilling efficiency and economics. However, the change is almost certain to succeed, and over time--as the number of evolutionary changes to the system begin to add up--improvements in efficiency and economics can be seen. Some modifications, defined and described in this Volume as Advanced Modifications, have more than just an evolutionary effect on the conventional drilling system. Although the distinction is subtle, there are several examples of incorporated advancements that have had significantly more impact on drilling procedures than would a truly evolutionary improvement. An example of an advanced modification occurred in the late 1970s with the introduction of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) drill bits. PDC bits resulted in a fundamental advancement in drilling procedures that could not have been accomplished by an evolutionary improvement in materials metallurgy, for example. The last drilling techniques discussed in this Volume are the ''Novel Drilling Systems''. The extent to which some of these systems have been developed varies from actually being tested in the field, to being no more than a theoretical concept. However, they all have one thing in common--their methods of rock destruction are fundamentally different from conventional drilling techniques. When a novel drilling system is introduced, it is a revolutionary modification of accepted drilling procedures and will completely replace current techniques. The most prominent example of a revolutionary modification in recent history

  15. Drilling optimization in deepwater field development offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, S.P.; Piazza, M.R.; Nogueira, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    Giant deepwater oilfields had been discovered in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, through the eighties. After overcoming initial problems while drilling the exploratory wells, appraisal wells were drilled under regular performance standards, comparing to shallow water previous data. At that time, Albacora and Marlim field development plans were considering improved performances to occur due to the expected learning effects. The combination of the simultaneous use of dynamic positioned and deep anchored rigs with the technical improvements in well operations resulted in an outstanding overall drilling performance for the development campaign of those fields. The drilling program was concluded well ahead of schedule, establishing guidelines for future deepwater field exploitation. This paper describes Petrobras experience of planning and drilling deepwater development wells, showing the principal measures and factors that led to an update of the company`s operational standards. Also, the ultra deepwater drilling R and D projects carried out at the moment are briefly introduced, being their aims to keep or even improve the company`s performance and safety records as water depths up to 2,000 m are considered for oilfield developments offshore Brazil in the future.

  16. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: “metallic and unpleasant” and “powerful”. LAeq had a strong relationship with “powerful impression”, calculated sharpness was positively related to “metallic impression”, and “unpleasant impression” was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating

  17. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a comfortable sound

  18. RBI: Detecting characteristics of rock failure while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaja, M.B.; Kuehn, J.L.; Ratliff, R.; Patten, W.N.

    1994-12-31

    The drilling for hydrocarbon reserves can be made less costly be equipping the drilling rig with instrumentation that can instantaneously assess the state of the drilling process, both at the rig floor. and downhole. Recent and continuing improvements in micro electronic hardware, microcomputers, microcomputers and digital signal processors now make it cost effective to automate information gathering while drilling. The impact that processed real time data could have on the success of a drilling operation is significant. The evaluation in real time of, for example, bit ware, bit location and bit trajectory could conceivably eliminate the need for unproductive tripping for surveys and unscheduled maintenance. Downhole signal conditioning is already employed in MWD systems. What is proposed here is the utilization of smart processors downhole to distill all measurable conditions while drilling. An intelligent micro processor located near the bit could do more than store the value of measured variables; by applying rigorous signal processing methods (e.g. Kalman filtering); it could provide predictions of impending changes in drilling parameters. This brief paper examines the issues that are raised by the possibilities of sensing in situ rock conditions while drilling. The advantage that might be accrued from the real time measurement estimation of rock properties are discussed in the main body of this paper. In order to demonstrate the concepts, the paper describes the result of a laboratory experiment that utilized real time signature analysis of PDC bit/rock interaction. It is shown that this technique may provide a means of detecting changes in rock strength, type, isotropy and bedding characteristics while drilling.

  19. Artic ice and drilling structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sodhl, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea is examined and subdivided into three zones: the fast ice zone, the seasonal pack-ice zone, an the polar pack ice zone. Each zone requires its own type of system. Existing floating drilling systems include ice-strengthened drill ships, conical drilling systems, and floating ice platforms in deep-water land-fast ice. The development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic presents great challenges to engineers, since the structures are required to operate safely under various conditions. Significant progress has yet to be made in understanding the behavior of ice.

  20. Design and Implementation of Multifunctional Automatic Drilling End Effector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanxi; Qin, Xiansheng; Bai, Jing; Tan, Xiaoqun; Li, Jing

    2017-03-01

    In order to realize the automatic drilling in aircraft assembly, a drilling end effector is designed by integrating the pressure unit, drilling unit, measurement unit, control system and frame structure. In order to reduce the hole deviation, this paper proposes a vertical normal adjustment program based on 4 laser distance sensors. The actual normal direction of workpiece surface can be calculated through the sensors measurements, and then robot posture is adjusted to realize the hole deviation correction. A base detection method is proposed to detect and locate the hole automatically by using the camera and the reference hole. The experiment results show that the position accuracy of the system is less than 0.3mm, and the normal precision is less than 0.5°. The drilling end effector and robot can greatly improve the efficiency of the aircraft parts and assembly quality, and reduce the product development cycle.

  1. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data

  2. Progress in the Advanced Synthetic-Diamond Drill Bit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Dennis, T.; Le, Phi; Cohen, J.; Chow, J.

    1995-11-01

    Cooperative research is currently underway among five drill bit companies and Sandia National Laboratories to improve synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock applications. This work, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and individual bit companies, is aimed at improving performance and bit life in harder rock than has previously been possible to drill effectively with synthetic-diamond drill bits. The goal is to extend to harder rocks the economic advantages seen in using synthetic-diamond drill bits in soft and medium rock formations. Four projects are being conducted under this research program. Each project is investigating a different area of synthetic diamond bit technology that builds on the current technology base and market interests of the individual companies involved. These projects include: optimization of the PDC claw cutter; optimization of the Track-Set PDC bit; advanced TSP bit development; and optimization of impregnated-diamond drill bits. This paper describes the progress made in each of these projects to date.

  3. Secondary hypoxia exacerbates acute disruptions of energy metabolism in rats resulting from fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Richard A; Widholm, John; Long, Joseph B

    2005-05-07

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether secondary hypoxia exacerbates the metabolic consequences of fluid percussion injury (FPI). In Experiment I, rats were trained to press a lever for their entire daily ration of food at any time during a 12-h light/dark cycle and run in an activity wheel. After food intake and body weight stabilized, rats were surgically prepared, assigned to one of four groups [FPI+Hypoxia (IH), FPI+Normoxia (IN), Sham Injury+Hypoxia (SH), Sham Injury+Normoxia (SN)] and, after recovery from surgery, anesthetized with halothane delivered by a 21% O2 source. Immediately after injury or sham injury, the O2 source was switched to 13% for rats in Groups IH and SH for 30 min. Post-traumatic hypoxemia exacerbated the ensuing FPI-induced reductions of food intake and body weight, but did not change FPI-induced reduction in wheel running. In Experiment II, rats were assigned to one of three groups (SH, IN, or IH) and subjected to sham injury and 13% O2 or FPI and either 13 or 21% O2. Immediately after 30 min of hypoxia or normoxia, rats were confined to metabolism cages that were used to quantify rates of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and heat production (H). Post-traumatic hypoxia exacerbated the FPI-induced increases in VO2, VCO2, and H. The results of Experiments I and II provide convergent confirmation that secondary hypoxemia exacerbates the FPI-induced hypermetabolic state in rats and therefore might significantly exacerbate the brain injury-induced disruptions of energy metabolism in humans.

  4. Supplement to 1978 Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles. American School Band Directors' Association. Research Committee Reports for the Annual Convention (27th, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Arnold, Comp.

    This catalogue lists phonograph records which feature solo and ensemble music by wind and percussion instruments. It supplements the "1978 Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles" (ED 171 614). Instruments played on the records include oboe/English horn, flute, clarinet, bassoon, saxophone, trumpet/cornet, French horn, woodwind…

  5. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  6. A rapid lateral fluid percussion injury rodent model of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mustafa Q; Goodrich, Grant S; Dhamne, Sameer C; Amandusson, Asa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Mou, Danlei; Wang, Yingpeng; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired epilepsy. Initially described in 1989, lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) has since become the most extensively used and well-characterized rodent traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy model. Universal findings, particularly seizures that reliably develop after an initial latent period, are evident across studies from multiple laboratories. However, the LFPI procedure is a two-stage process, requiring initial surgical attachment of a skull fluid cannula and then reanesthesia for delivery of the epidural fluid pressure wave. We now describe a modification of the original technique, termed 'rapid lateral fluid percussion injury' (rLFPI), which allows for a one-stage procedure and thus shorter operating time and reduced anesthesia exposure. Anesthetized male Long-Evans rats were subjected to rLFPI through a length of plastic tubing fitted with a pipette tip cannula with a 4-mm aperture. The cannula opening was positioned over a craniectomy of slightly smaller diameter and exposed dura such that the edges of the cannula fit tightly when pressed to the skull with a micromanipulator. Fluid percussion was then delivered immediately thereafter, in the same surgery session. rLFPI resulted in nonlethal focal cortical injury in all animals. We previously demonstrated that the rLFPI procedure resulted in post-traumatic seizures and regional gliosis, but had not examined other histopathologic elements. Now, we show apoptotic cell death confined to the perilesional cortex and chronic pathologic changes such as ipsilesional ventriculomegaly that are seen in the classic model. We conclude that the rLFPI method is a viable alternative to classic LFPI, and--being a one-stage procedure--has the advantage of shorter experiment turnaround and reduced exposure to anesthetics.

  7. Modular island drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, Sh. B.

    1985-04-16

    A gravity-type offshore structure, useful as an offshore drilling platform, e.g., is provided for use in ice-covered waters such as offshore of the Alaskan and Canadian North Slope. The structure is composed of a plurality of floatable and controllably ballastable modules, each of which can be fully submerged. The modules are stackable by selective ballasting and deballasting operations in a suitable sequence to define a mobile offshore structure. The structure is assemblable adjacent a site of use and is floatable after assembly to, from and between successive sites of use. At each site of use the assembled structure is ballasted by sea water to be supported by the sea floor and to have sufficient deadweight, in combination with its support by the sea floor, to stand against ice loads urging the structure laterally of the site. Major ones of the modules preferably are constructed of reinforced concrete arranged within the modules in a honeycomb cellular fashion. A reinforced concrete armor belt is removably installed around the structure at its on-site load waterline. The structure is useful in a range of water depths. The armor belt is mountable to the structure at a number of different elevations on the structure to suit differing on-site load waterline locations. Individual modules can be used with other modules of the same or different size in a series of offshore structures individually useful in a characteristic range of water depths.

  8. Simulation of Martian Bedrock Drilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drilling a hole tocollect a rock-powder sample at a target site called "John Klein."Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › ...

  9. Volume I. Percussion Sextet. (original Composition). Volume II. The Simulation of Acoustical Space by Means of Physical Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzara, Leonard Charles

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation is in two parts:. 1. Percussion Sextet. The Percussion Sextet is a one movement musical composition with a length of approximately fifteen minutes. It is for six instrumentalists, each on a number of percussion instruments. The overriding formal problem was to construct a coherent and compelling structure which fuses a diversity of musical materials and textures into a dramatic whole. Particularly important is the synthesis of opposing tendencies contained in stochastic and deterministic processes: global textures versus motivic detail, and randomness versus total control. Several compositional techniques are employed in the composition. These methods of composition will be aided, in part, by the use of artificial intelligence techniques programmed on a computer. Finally, the percussion ensemble is the ideal medium to realize the above processes since it encompasses a wide range of both pitched and unpitched timbres, and since a great variety of textures and densities can be created with a certain economy of means. 2. The simulation of acoustical space by means of physical modeling. This is a written report describing the research and development of a computer program which simulates the characteristics of acoustical space in two dimensions. With the computer program the user can simulate most conventional acoustical spaces, as well as those physically impossible to realize in the real world. The program simulates acoustical space by means of geometric modeling. This involves defining wall equations, phantom source points and wall diffusions, and then processing input files containing digital signals through the program, producing output files ready for digital to analog conversion. The user of the program is able to define wall locations and wall reflectivity and roughness characteristics, all of which can be changed over time. Sound source locations are also definable within the acoustical space and these locations can be changed independently at

  10. Portable Horizontal-Drilling And Positioning Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smigocki, Edmund; Johnson, Clarence

    1988-01-01

    Portable horizontal-drilling and positioning device, constructed mainly of off-the-shelf components, accurately drills horizontal small holes in irregularly shaped objects. Holes precisely placed and drilled in objects that cannot be moved to shop area. New device provides three axes of movement while maintaining horizontal drilling.

  11. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill; operation. 77.1009 Section 77.1009... Control § 77.1009 Drill; operation. (a) While in operation drills shall be attended at all times. (b) Men shall not drill from positions that hinder their access to the control levers, or from insecure...

  9. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  13. 46 CFR 199.250 - Drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drills. 199.250 Section 199.250 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.250 Drills. (a) An abandon-ship drill and a fire drill, as described in § 199.180, must be conducted on each passenger vessel...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a)...

  15. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    PubMed

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  16. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-15

    The second meeting of Federal agency representatives interested in the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program took place on June 15, 1993. The Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted the meeting at the Washington, D.C., offices of DOE. Representatives from the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau of Mines, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and various offices within the Department of Energy attended. For a complete list of attendees see Attachment A. The purpose of the meeting was: (1) to cover the status of efforts to gain formal approval for NADET, (2) to brief participants on events since the last meeting, especially two recent workshops that explored research needs in drilling and excavation, (3) to review some recent technological advances, and (4) to solicit statements of the importance of improving drilling and excavation technologies to the missions of the various agencies. The meeting agenda is included as Attachment B.

  17. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  18. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    PubMed

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  19. Designing the ejector pellet impact drill bit for hard and tough rock drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Aliev, F. R.; Gorbenko, M. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    There are many types of ejector pellet impact drill bit providing impact rock drilling. Basic types of drill strings have been regarded, the essential requirements for the most efficient facilities to drill hard and tough rocks are formulated. With regard to these requirements, the ejector pellet impact drill bit design appropriate for operating under given conditions has been proposed

  20. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  1. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  2. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Methods for In-Situ Real-Time Characterization of Drilling Mud

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-06-01

    A real time multi-functional ultrasonic sensor system is proposed to provide automated drilling fluid monitoring that can improve the capability and development of slimhole and microhole drilling. This type of reliable, accurate, and affordable drilling fluid monitoring will reduce the overall costs in exploration and production. It will also allow more effective drilling process automation while providing rig personnel a safer and more efficient work environment. Accurate and timely measurements of drilling fluid properties such as flow rate, density, viscosity, and solid loading are key components for characterizing rate of drill penetration, providing early warning of lost circulation, and for use in real-time well control. Continuous drilling fluid monitoring enhances drilling economics by reducing the risk of costly drilling downtime, increasing production performance, and improving well control. Investigations conducted to characterize physical properties of drilling mud indicate that ultrasound can be used to provide real-time, in-situ process monitoring and control. Three types of ultrasonic measurements were evaluated which include analysis of in wall, through wall and direct contact signals. In wall measurements provide acoustic impedance (the slurry density and speed of sound product). Through wall and direct contact measurements provide speed of sound and attenuation. This information is combined to determine physical properties such as slurry density, solids concentration and can be used to detect particle size changes and the presence of low levels of gas. The measurements showed that for the frequency range investigated in-wall measurements were obtained over the slurry density range from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3 (10 to 17 pounds solids per gallon of drilling fluid). Other measurements were obtained at densities in the 1500 to 1800 kg/m3 range. These promising measurement results show that ultrasound can be used for real-time in-situ characterization of

  3. A 25,000 foot horizontal drilling system technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.V.; Dickinson, W.; Dickinson, W.; May, S.; Anderson, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    A Horizontal Drilling System (HDS) has been developed for the US Navy by Petrolphysics, Inc. and refined by Western Instrument, Inc. The HDS approach combines three key features to overcome drillstring buckling in long horizontal penetrations: (a) by maintenance of the drillstring tension (b) a steerable water-jet drillhead and (c) a constantly rotating drillstring. With water jet drilling, the drillstring can be maintained in tension and the high compressive load requires for normal mechanical drill bits is eliminated. For the very long 7,600 m trajectories, it was necessary to develop a drillhead that could be steered while drilling. The Steerable Drillhead (SDH) can be pre-programmed or commanded via wireline in real time. It steers by valving on the various water jets as they pass through the direction in which the drillstring needs to move and valves them off as they pass the opposite direction. That process results in an off-round hole for the SDH to follow. The constant rotation of the HDS drillstring reduces the coefficient of friction: once the horizontal pipe is rotating, only a small force is required to move it forward at normal drilling rates. The final key technology for HDS is a high-torque, flush inside/outside joint for the drill string. The improved joint design, even within the limited wall thickness, allows drilling torque to limit the total length at about the same time as buckling. The civilian applications of the HDS could include long-distance river crossings, on-shore to offshore oil drilling, extension of existing drainage of offshore oil fields, environmental remediation applications and other programs. A major value of the HDS is the prospect of requiring fewer high cost platforms to drain large offshore oil accumulations.

  4. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  5. ICDP Drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: the COSC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.; Parrish, R. R.; Rosberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide the first information about deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the Cenozoic uplift history of the Scandes. The drilling program targets the far-traveled (> 400 km) allochthons of the Scandinavian Caledonides and their emplacement across the Baltoscandian foreland basin onto the platform of continent Baltica. Two 2.5 km deep holes are planned. COSC-1, with drilling to be started in the late Spring of 2014, will target the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and its contact to underlying allochthons. COSC-2 will start in the lower thrust sheets, pass through the basal décollement and investigate the character of the deformation in the underlying basement. An international science team, including expertise on Himalaya-Tibet and other young orogens, is running the science program. New high-resolution reflection seismic data provide excellent images of the upper crust, allowing the drilling to also test the origin of the upper crustal reflectivity in this area. The site of COSC-1 is based on a 3D geological model, constructed from surface geology, recent and vintage regional reflection seismic profiles, regional and local gravity data, and high-resolution aeromagnetics, acquired recently by the Geological Survey of Sweden. The drilling will be carried out utilizing the new Swedish scientific drilling

  6. Percussive tool use by Taï Western chimpanzees and Fazenda Boa Vista bearded capuchin monkeys: a comparison

    PubMed Central

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sirianni, Giulia; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Percussive tool use holds special interest for scientists concerned with human origins. We summarize the findings from two field sites, Taï and Fazenda Boa Vista, where percussive tool use by chimpanzees and bearded capuchins, respectively, has been extensively investigated. We describe the ecological settings in which nut-cracking occurs and focus on four aspects of nut-cracking that have important cognitive implications, namely selection of tools, tool transport, tool modification and modulation of actions to reach the goal of cracking the nut. We comment on similarities and differences in behaviour and consider whether the observed differences reflect ecological, morphological, social and/or cognitive factors. Both species are sensitive to physical properties of tools, adjust their selection of hammers conditionally to the resistance of the nuts and to transport distance, and modulate the energy of their strikes under some conditions. However, chimpanzees transport hammers more frequently and for longer distances, take into account a higher number of combinations of variables and occasionally intentionally modify tools. A parsimonious interpretation of our findings is that morphological, ecological and social factors account for the observed differences. Confirmation of plausible cognitive differences in nut-cracking requires data not yet available. PMID:26483529

  7. Percussive tool use by Taï Western chimpanzees and Fazenda Boa Vista bearded capuchin monkeys: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sirianni, Giulia; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Percussive tool use holds special interest for scientists concerned with human origins. We summarize the findings from two field sites, Taï and Fazenda Boa Vista, where percussive tool use by chimpanzees and bearded capuchins, respectively, has been extensively investigated. We describe the ecological settings in which nut-cracking occurs and focus on four aspects of nut-cracking that have important cognitive implications, namely selection of tools, tool transport, tool modification and modulation of actions to reach the goal of cracking the nut. We comment on similarities and differences in behaviour and consider whether the observed differences reflect ecological, morphological, social and/or cognitive factors. Both species are sensitive to physical properties of tools, adjust their selection of hammers conditionally to the resistance of the nuts and to transport distance, and modulate the energy of their strikes under some conditions. However, chimpanzees transport hammers more frequently and for longer distances, take into account a higher number of combinations of variables and occasionally intentionally modify tools. A parsimonious interpretation of our findings is that morphological, ecological and social factors account for the observed differences. Confirmation of plausible cognitive differences in nut-cracking requires data not yet available.

  8. A significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity following fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Jonathan E; Parsons, J Travis; Rana, Aniruddha; Gibson, Cynthia J; Hamm, Robert J; Churn, Severn B

    2005-04-01

    Calcineurin, a neuronally enriched, calcium-stimulated phosphatase, is an important modulator of many neuronal processes, including several that are physiologically related to the pathology of traumatic brain injury. This study examined the effects of moderate, central fluid percussion injury on the activity of this important neuronal enzyme. Animals were sacrificed at several time-points postinjury and cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar homogenates were assayed for calcineurin activity by dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenol phosphate. A significant brain injury-dependent increase was observed in both hippocampal and cortical homogenates under both basal and maximally-stimulated reaction conditions. This increase persisted 2-3 weeks post-injury. Brain injury did not alter substrate affinity, but did induce a significant increase in the apparent maximal dephosphorylation rate. Unlike the other brain regions, no change in calcineurin activity was observed in the cerebellum following brain injury. No brain region tested displayed a significant change in calcineurin enzyme levels as determined by Western blot, demonstrating that increased enzyme synthesis was not responsible for the observed increase in activity. The data support the conclusion that fluid percussion injury results in increased calcineurin activity in the rat forebrain. This increased activity has broad physiological implications, possibly resulting in altered cellular excitability or a greater likelihood of neuronal cell death.

  9. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  10. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  11. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  12. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    PubMed

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  13. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was

  14. Canmar's berm-supported SSDC drilling advances arctic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, K.J.; Berzins, W.E.; Fitzpatrick, J.P.; Hogeboom, H.G.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes design, installation and performance of the single steel drilling caisson (SSDC) on a subsea berm. It details key points learned from the $100-million project by Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. installed in the Beaufort Sea. Unitized construction allows for permanent installation and hookup of the drilling rig package. Mobilization and demobilization is much simpler, resulting in quicker and safer operation than that required with a multi-caisson system. The high freeboard achieved with the SSDC unit gives much greater protection with respect to wave run-up and ice ride-up, resulting in significant operational improvements. The relatively low elevation of the submerged berm at 9 m below sea level results in improved berm stability and erosion resistance.

  15. Limestone percussion tools from the late Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Barsky, Deborah; Vergès, Josep-María; Sala, Robert; Menéndez, Leticia; Toro-Moyano, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of percussion scars and breakage patterns on hammerstones, cores and tools from Oldowan African and Eurasian lithic assemblages. Oldowan stone toolkits generally contain abundant small-sized flakes and their corresponding cores, and are characterized by their structural dichotomy of heavy- and light-duty tools. This paper explores the significance of the lesser known heavy-duty tool component, providing data from the late Lower Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain), dated 1.4–1.2 Myr. Using quantitative and qualitative data from the large-sized limestone industries from these two major sites, we present a new methodology highlighting their morpho-technological features. In the light of the results, we discuss the shortfalls of extant classificatory methods for interpreting the role of percussive technology in early toolkits. This work is rooted in an experimental program designed to reproduce the wide range of percussion marks observed on the limestone artefacts from these two sites. A visual and descriptive reference is provided as an interpretative aid for future comparative research. Further experiments using a variety of materials and gestures are still needed before the elusive traces yield the secrets of the kinds of percussive activities carried out by hominins at these, and other, Oldowan sites. PMID:26483530

  16. Limestone percussion tools from the late Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barsky, Deborah; Vergès, Josep-María; Sala, Robert; Menéndez, Leticia; Toro-Moyano, Isidro

    2015-11-19

    In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of percussion scars and breakage patterns on hammerstones, cores and tools from Oldowan African and Eurasian lithic assemblages. Oldowan stone toolkits generally contain abundant small-sized flakes and their corresponding cores, and are characterized by their structural dichotomy of heavy- and light-duty tools. This paper explores the significance of the lesser known heavy-duty tool component, providing data from the late Lower Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain), dated 1.4-1.2 Myr. Using quantitative and qualitative data from the large-sized limestone industries from these two major sites, we present a new methodology highlighting their morpho-technological features. In the light of the results, we discuss the shortfalls of extant classificatory methods for interpreting the role of percussive technology in early toolkits. This work is rooted in an experimental program designed to reproduce the wide range of percussion marks observed on the limestone artefacts from these two sites. A visual and descriptive reference is provided as an interpretative aid for future comparative research. Further experiments using a variety of materials and gestures are still needed before the elusive traces yield the secrets of the kinds of percussive activities carried out by hominins at these, and other, Oldowan sites.

  17. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  18. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  19. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth.

  20. Rig Side Online Drilling Support System for Prediction and Prevention of Upcoming Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, B.; Winter, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Riedel, F.; Zeiner, H.

    2012-04-01

    Safety requirements play a central role in drilling operations worldwide. Especially, protecting the crew from injury, preventing damage to equipment and avoiding environmental pollution are of utmost importance. Prevailing drilling procedures already provide a high degree of safety; but uncertainties hinder efficient and accurate risk assessment. Uncertainties are primarily introduced due to the unknown structure of the rock formation and other unknowns in the drilling process. Insufficient insight into ongoing processes may therefore lead to unexpected and unwanted critical drilling situations. To support drilling engineers in the early detection and subsequently in the prevention of upcoming crises, we present a modular drilling support system for in-situ usage on rigs which improves insight into processes and current drilling operations. In our case, the system consists of a complete data processing chain including several modules for data acquisition from sensors on the drilling platform, feature generation, online learning and problem-specific visualization. While data acquisition modules collect data from sensors at the rig and produce a live data stream in an appropriate format, the data processing algorithms analyze the data streams in real time and classify the drilling operations, detect emerging potentially critical situations and give appropriate advice to the drilling crew, if possible. A (geo-)physically motivated extended feature generator produces additional features to improve the quality-performance (recognition rate) of the algorithms. Finally, all sensor data streams as well as the output of the extended feature generator, the results of several adaptive online learning algorithms and a set of sensor data quality indicators of the rig are visualized in a novel user interface to support drilling employees at the rig. As a result, the current drilling situation is presented in a comprehensive manner and in real time.

  1. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  2. Abrasive drill for resilient materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

  3. Directional drilling and earth curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, H.S.; Wilson, H.F.

    2000-03-01

    This paper provides a review of current practices for calculating directional drilling placement in the light of modern extended-reach applications. The review highlights the potential for gross errors in the application of geodetic reference information and errors inherent in the calculation method. Both types of error are quantified theoretically and illustrated with a real example. The authors borrow established land surveying calculation methods to develop a revised best practice for directional drilling. For the elimination of gross errors they prescribe increased awareness and a more disciplined approach to the handling of positional data.

  4. The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

  5. Effects of implant drill wear, irrigation, and drill materials on heat generation in osteotomy sites.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hae-Young; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Yang, Jae-Ho; Yeo, In-Sung

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of drill wear on bone temperature during osteotomy preparation with 3 types of drills and compared heat production between drills. The drills used in this study were titanium nitride-coated metal, tungsten carbide carbon-coated metal, and zirconia ceramic drills. An osteotomy 11 mm in depth was formed in bovine scapular bone following the manufacturer's recommended drill sequences. Drilling was performed without irrigation and repeated 20 times; temperature was measured every 5 times. Next, 200 rounds of drilling during irrigation were performed for each drill, with temperature change monitored until round 200. Analysis of variance statistics were used for analyses of the measured data. Drilling without irrigation showed significant thermal increase at all time points compared to drilling with irrigation (P < .001). No significant difference was found between drill materials. Under irrigation, the frequency of previous drilling had minimal effects on thermal change. The repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed major thermal change at the initial time point (P < .0001), and the multiple comparison tests revealed a significant difference in temperature between the initial drills that had been used 50 or fewer times and those that had been used more than 50 times, irrespective of the drill material. The results of this study indicate that the initial drill should be changed in osteotomy preparation with irrigation after they have been used 50 times. Irrigation may be a more critical factor for the control of temperature elevation than is the drill material.

  6. Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; Bao, Feng; Omana, Vanessa; Chiu, Charlotte; Brown, Arthur; Cain, Donald Peter

    2012-01-20

    There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24 h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.

  7. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  8. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  9. Unique Aeolian Transport Mechanisms on Mars: Respective Roles of Percussive and Repercussive Grain Populations in the Sediment Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments show that when sand-size grains impact a sediment surface with energy levels commensurate for Mars, small craters are formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. The experiments were conducted with a modified crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism. Individual grains of sand could be fired at loose sand targets to observe ballistic effects unhindered by aerodynamic mobilization of the bed. Impact trajectories simulated the saltation process on dune surfaces. Impact craters were not elongated despite glancing (15 deg.) bed impact; the craters were very close to being circular. High-speed photography showed them to grow in both diameter and depth after the impactor had ricochetted from the crater site. The delayed response of the bed was "explosive" in nature, and created a miniature ejecta curtain spreading upward and outward for many centimeters for impact of 100-300 um-diameter grains into similar material. This behavior is explained by deposition of elastic energy in the bed by the "percussive" grain. Impact creates a subsurface stress regime or "quasi-Boussinesq" compression field. Elastic recovery of the bed occurs by dilatancy; shear stresses suddenly convert the grains to open packing and they consequently become forcefully ejected from the site. Random jostling of the grains causes radial homogenization of stress vectors and a resulting circular crater. A stress model based on repercussive bed dilatancy and interparticle adhesive forces (for smaller grains) predicts, to first order, the observed crater volumes for various impact conditions. On earth, only a few grains are mobilized by a percussive saltating grain; some grains are "knudged" along the ground, and some are partly expelled on short trajectories. These motions constitute reptation transport. On Mars, saltation and reptation become indistinct: secondary or "repercussive" trajectories have sufficient vertical impulse to create a

  10. Unique Aeolian Transport Mechanisms on Mars: Respective Roles of Percussive and Repercussive Grain Populations in the Sediment Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments show that when sand-size grains impact a sediment surface with energy levels commensurate for Mars, small craters are formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. The experiments were conducted with a modified crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism. Individual grains of sand could be fired at loose sand targets to observe ballistic effects unhindered by aerodynamic mobilization of the bed. Impact trajectories simulated the saltation process on dune surfaces. Impact craters were not elongated despite glancing (15 deg.) bed impact; the craters were very close to being circular. High-speed photography showed them to grow in both diameter and depth after the impactor had ricochetted from the crater site. The delayed response of the bed was "explosive" in nature, and created a miniature ejecta curtain spreading upward and outward for many centimeters for impact of 100-300 micron-diameter grains into similar material. This behavior is explained by deposition of elastic energy in the bed by the "percussive" grain. Impact creates a subsurface stress regime or "quasi-Boussinesq" compression field. Elastic recovery of the bed occurs by dilatancy; shear stresses suddenly convert the grains to open packing and they consequently become forcefully ejected from the site. Random jostling of the grains causes radial homogenization of stress vectors and a resulting circular crater. A stress model based on repercussive bed dilatancy and interparticle adhesive forces (for smaller grains) predicts, to first order, the observed crater volumes for various impact conditions. On earth, only a few grains are mobilized by a percussive saltating grain; some grains are "knudged" along the ground, and some are partly expelled on short trajectories. These motions constitute reptation transport. On Mars, saltation and reptation become indistinct: secondary or "repercussive" trajectories have sufficient vertical impulse to create a

  11. Plastic Drill Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article encourages students to think multidimensionally and in a multidisciplinary fashion with this challenge, and choose a team that can support this kind of thinking. Presented is a challenge in which a major home improvement company makes tools and accessories for use by experienced and new homeowners. This company would like to provide…

  12. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests

  13. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face.

  14. Acoustic data transmission through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-04-21

    Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

  15. Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

    2006-03-01

    Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

  16. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  17. 1999 drilling and production yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, J.M.

    1999-03-01

    This is the eighth official list of world record achievements in the oil and gas industry. Tables are presented on drill bit data with bit style, manufacturer, footage, rate of penetration, location, year, field, and operator. The paper includes descriptions of records set in the following categories: casing and conductors; completions; coiled tubing; horizontal wells; offshore records; seismic records; and miscellaneous records.

  18. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths  (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activites enabled the U.S Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. This program, orginally conceived by Wilfred A. Elders, professor of geology at the University of California at Riverside, was coordinated under an inter-agency accord among the Geological Survey, the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. 

  19. Do You Know the Drill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses one of the best defenses against a violent threat in schools -- practicing emergency and lockdown drills. In some buildings, classroom doors lack locks and exterior doors are old. Other buildings have public announcement systems that do not work well throughout a school building, or that lack speakers in restrooms. Still…

  20. Horizontal drilling installs dutch waterline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    A 32-in. potable water line system, installed by Van Eijk Leidingen B.V. in Holland, was laid through an intensively cultivated vegetable gardening area, and designed to furnish additional irrigation water. Using a horizontally drilled 42-in. hole under the Maasdijk, though a difficult job, reduced the length by more than 3 miles.

  1. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  2. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOEpatents

    Hall; David R. , Fox; Joe

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  3. VERY HIGH-SPEED DRILL STRING COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    2002-11-01

    Testing of a high-speed digital data transmission system for drill pipe is described. Passive transmission of digital data through 1000 ft of telemetry drill pipe has been successfully achieved. Data rates of up to 2 Mbit/sec have been tested through the 1000 ft system with very low occurrence of data errors: required error correction effort is very low or nonexistent. Further design modifications have been made to improve manufacturability and high pressure robustness of the transmission line components. Failure mechanisms of previous designs at high pressure and high temperature are described. Present design limitations include high temperature application.

  4. The effect of drill bit, pin, and wire tip design on drilling.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Bryce M; Jaeblon, Todd

    2011-09-01

    Successful penetration of bone is dependent on several factors, including bone quality, drill bit and pin design, and drilling technique. Wires are also used in bone drilling, and the tip configuration can affect the efficiency of bone penetration. Incorrect use of drill bits, pins, and wires may result in complications such as thermal necrosis and hardware breakage.

  5. Drilling structures in Arctic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sodhi, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    In the last two decades, major offshore exploration for hydrocarbon resources has been taken along the southern coast of the Beaufort Sea. The ice cover in that region presents hazardous to normal offshore operations and is an impediment to navigation. However, an ice cover when it is stable enough can be used as a working platform or for transportation. The sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea can be broadly subdivided into three zones: the fast ice zone, the seasonal pack-ice zone, and the polar pack-ice zone. Further, the sea ice can be classified as first-year or multiyear according to its age. A third classification is based on the deformation of ice during its existence: undeformed and deformed. In the presentation, characteristics of each type of ice will be discussed and illustrated with photographs. An interaction between an ice feature and an exploration drilling structure results in development of forces that may threaten the structural stability and safety. These forces depend to a large extent on the size, speed, and properties of an impacting ice feature, the environmental conditions and the mode of ice failure, if any. Arctic drilling structures are evolving rapidly to adapt to different offshore environments characterized by water depth and ice conditions. Arctic structures are of two types: exploration and production. All structures placed in the Arctic so far have been designed for exploration. Existing arctic drilling systems fall into two broad categories: bottomfounded systems and floating systems. Starting with artificial gravel islands in shallow water, drilling structures have evolved to integrated caisson structures, which can be moved to different locations. In deeper water depths, active floating drilling systems have been used during summer months because of their limited capacity to resist ice forces.

  6. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  7. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  9. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  10. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  11. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  13. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  14. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  15. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  17. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  19. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  20. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...