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Sample records for percussion drilling improved

  1. Investigation of percussion drills for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A series of tests was conducted to provide data for an economic evaluation of percussion drilling in geothermal reservoirs. Penetration rate, operation on aqueous foam, and high temperature vulnerabilities of downhole percussion tools are described.

  2. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

  3. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  4. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  5. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10 N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400 g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  6. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  7. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  8. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  9. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  10. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  11. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  12. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  13. Percussion drilling of metals using bursts of nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Hendow, Sami T; Romero, Rosa; Shakir, Sami A; Guerreiro, Paulo T

    2011-05-23

    The effect of ns bursting on percussion drilling of metal is investigated experimentally and analytically, and compared with the efficiency and quality of drilling using single ns pulses. Key advantages are demonstrated, correlating well with the results from a thermal theoretical model. The 1064 nm bursts contain up to 14 pulses of various pulse widths and spacing, and at frequencies of tens of MHz within the burst. The individual pulses have pulse widths of 10 to 200 ns, and up to 12 kW peak power. Burst repetition frequency is single shot to 500 kHz.

  14. A Study of Specific Fracture Energy at Percussion Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Shadrina; T, Kabanova; V, Krets; L, Saruev

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of rock failure provided by percussion drilling. Quantification and qualitative analysis were carried out to estimate critical values of rock failure depending on the hammer pre-impact velocity, types of drill bits and cylindrical hammer parameters (weight, length, diameter), and turn angle of a drill bit. Obtained data in this work were compared with obtained results by other researchers. The particle-size distribution in granite-cutting sludge was analyzed in this paper. Statistical approach (Spearmen's rank-order correlation, multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test) was used to analyze the drilling process. Experimental data will be useful for specialists engaged in simulation and illustration of rock failure.

  15. Rotary and Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Maksymuk, M.; Wilson, J.; Santoro, C.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Roberts, D.; Kumar, N.; Kusack, A.

    2008-12-01

    Honeybee Robotics has been developing a rotary and a rotary-preliminary drill system for planetary exploration. This is a test drill with a power rating of 1000 Watt, whose purpose it to test various drill bits and augers in rotary and rotary percussive operation. It is not optimized for power or mass but rather to acquire qualitative drilling data such as penetration rate, power, and torque, temperature, Weight on Bit, vibration energy and others. In addition, the design of the drill allows it to acquire drill bit temperatures and use pneumatic system (instead of augers) for removing of rock cuttings. The drill is designed to have a 1 meter stroke. In addition to the drill system, we have been developing a matching split vacuum chamber, which is 3ft wide, 3ft deep and 11 feet tall. The chamber consists of two smaller chambers (84 inches tall and 48 inches tall) assembled on top of each other. This allows for additional flexibility if only a smaller chamber is required for some testing. The chamber will be able to maintain pressure of below 1 torr. Maintaining sample temperature will be achieved by closed loop cooling system down to -40C or by using liquid nitrogen that allows a temperature of 77K. The test samples can be varied raging from solid rocks, to loose soils to icy soils and pure ice. The sample holder could also be integrated with temperatures for acquiring of thermal data during drilling process.

  16. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  17. Analysis of the hole shape evolution in fs-pulse percussion drilling with bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämmer, H.; Dreisow, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the use of bursts of ultra-short pulses in order to improve drilling efficiency and quality. Silicon is used as a non-transparent model material, in which the behavior of laser percussion drilling with 1030 nm bursts consisting of 200 fs pulses separated by a time delay between 1 ps and 4 ns was investigated. The deep drilling process is directly imaged perpendicular to the drilling direction using a CCD camera and an illumination beam at 1064 nm, where the silicon sample is transparent. The results are compared to drilling without bursts for different pulse energies. The efficiency of the drilling process, hole quality, as well as reproducibility of the hole shape are analyzed. Pulse separation times within the burst from 1 ps to 8 ps result in deeper holes with a larger silhouette area, however equal or reduced hole quality and reproducibility compared to drilling with individual pulses. In contrast with pulse separation times from 510 ps to 4 ns a quality and reproducibility improvement is visible. For these delay times the achieved depth was equal or higher compared to micromachining without bursts.

  18. In situ 24 kHz coherent imaging of morphology change in laser percussion drilling.

    PubMed

    Webster, Paul J L; Yu, Joe X Z; Leung, Ben Y C; Anderson, Mitchell D; Yang, Victor X D; Fraser, James M

    2010-03-01

    We observe sample morphology changes in real time (24 kHz) during and between percussion drilling pulses by integrating a low-coherence microscope into a laser micromachining platform. Nonuniform cut speed and sidewall evolution in stainless steel are observed to strongly depend on assist gas. Interpulse morphology relaxation such as hole refill is directly imaged, showing dramatic differences in the material removal process dependent on pulse duration/peak power (micros/0.1 kW, ps/20 MW) and material (steel, lead zirconate titanate PZT). Blind hole depth precision is improved by over 1 order of magnitude using in situ feedback from the imaging system.

  19. Percussion

    MedlinePlus

    ... body part produces a sound, like playing a drum. The sound is a sign of the type of tissue within the body part or organ. Lungs sound hollow on percussion because they are filled with air. Bones, joints, ...

  20. Rotary-Percussive Drill for Planetary Exploration and a 3.5 m Vacuum Chamber Enabling Full Scale Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Szczesiak, M.; Glass, B.; McKay, C.; Santoro, C.; Wilson, J.; Craft, J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a 1-meter-class rotary-percussive drill and test results comparing rotary and rotary-percussive drilling in various formations. A 3.5-m large vacuum chamber build for testing drill systems to a depth of >1 m is also presented.

  1. Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the great amount of change in demand for specific sounds and colors from the percussion section, the author provided some hints for selecting sticks and mallets, practice pads, snare drums, cymbals, timpani, and keyboard instruments. (Author/RK)

  2. Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the great amount of change in demand for specific sounds and colors from the percussion section, the author provided some hints for selecting sticks and mallets, practice pads, snare drums, cymbals, timpani, and keyboard instruments. (Author/RK)

  3. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  4. The influence of temporal pulse train modulation during laser percussion drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, D. K. Y.; Li, L.; Byrd, P. J.

    2001-03-01

    The temporal pulse train modulation during laser percussion drilling was found to effect significant changes to the material ejection processes. In particular, distinct differences in the material ejection processes have been observed between a temporal pulse train shaping technique termed as sequential pulse delivery pattern control (SPDPC) and the normal delivery pattern (NDP), wherein the parameters of successive laser pulses were constant. Due to the reduced upward material removal fractions in SPDPC drilling, the spatter deposition area was reduced from approximately 6.7 to 2.7 mm2. In addition, the melt layer thicknesses at the hole bottom were significantly increased from 11-61 to 18- 369 μm. Such changes were identified as being due to the low laser pulse intensities before beam breakthrough associated with the SPDPC method. It was observed that the use of the linearly increasing SPDPC method increased the downward material removal fractions, from 20% to 28% observed in NDP drilling, to 34%-39%. Such an increase in the downward material ejection mechanism in SPDPC drilling was identified as being primarily due to the pointed blind-hole profile generated before the onset of beam breakthrough. The work has shown that modulating the entire pulse train in laser percussion drilling could control the material ejection processes. Furthermore, the fundamental elements of the SPDPC technique are given in terms of the rate of energy deposition and total pulse train energy.

  5. A drifting impact oscillator with periodic impulsive loading: Application to percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depouhon, A.; Denoël, V.; Detournay, E.

    2013-09-01

    Percussive drilling is extensively used to drill hard rocks in the earth resource industry, where it performs best compared to other drilling technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel model of the process that consists of a drifting oscillator under impulsive loading coupled with a bilinear force/penetration interface law, together with a kinetic energy threshold for continuous bit penetration. Following the formulation of the model, we analyze its steady-state response and show that there exists a parallel between theoretical and experimental predictions, as both exhibit a maximum of the average penetration rate with respect to the vertical load on bit. In addition, the existence of complex long-term dynamics with the coexistence of periodic solutions in certain parameter ranges is demonstrated.

  6. A Parametric Study for the Design of an Optimized Ultrasonic Percussive Planetary Drill Tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Harkness, Patrick; Worrall, Kevin; Timoney, Ryan; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Traditional rotary drilling for planetary rock sampling, in situ analysis, and sample return are challenging because the axial force and holding torque requirements are not necessarily compatible with lightweight spacecraft architectures in low-gravity environments. This paper seeks to optimize an ultrasonic percussive drill tool to achieve rock penetration with lower reacted force requirements, with a strategic view toward building an ultrasonic planetary core drill (UPCD) device. The UPCD is a descendant of the ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer technique. In these concepts, a transducer and horn (typically resonant at around 20 kHz) are used to excite a toroidal free mass that oscillates chaotically between the horn tip and drill base at lower frequencies (generally between 10 Hz and 1 kHz). This creates a series of stress pulses that is transferred through the drill bit to the rock surface, and while the stress at the drill-bit tip/rock interface exceeds the compressive strength of the rock, it causes fractures that result in fragmentation of the rock. This facilitates augering and downward progress. In order to ensure that the drill-bit tip delivers the greatest effective impulse (the time integral of the drill-bit tip/rock pressure curve exceeding the strength of the rock), parameters such as the spring rates and the mass of the free mass, the drill bit and transducer have been varied and compared in both computer simulation and practical experiment. The most interesting findings and those of particular relevance to deep drilling indicate that increasing the mass of the drill bit has a limited (or even positive) influence on the rate of effective impulse delivered.

  7. Deep drilling and sampling via the wireline auto-gopher driven by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-04-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. The developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline drill that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism, which is driven by a piezoelectric stack, demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with the objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa formation.

  8. Dynamic method of stiffness identification in impacting systems for percussive drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Maolin; Ing, James; Sayah, Mukthar; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces a dynamic method for the stiffness identification of an impacted object via analysis of its corresponding impact duration. To accurately detect the impact durations from experimental signals, nonlinear time series methods are applied. Two low-dimensional dynamical systems, including a piecewise-linear impact oscillator and a rock impacting system, are studied experimentally and numerically to demonstrate the proposed method. Meanwhile, the analytical prediction of the impact duration for the period-one one-impact motion is developed. The results of both systems indicate that, for a certain stiffness, the impact duration of the period-one one-impact motion is nearly constant. The higher the stiffness, the lower the impact duration. This monotone correlation provides a mechanism to estimate the stiffness of the impacted object once the impact duration has been accurately detected. The developed method can be used to optimise percussive drilling parameters.

  9. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  10. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  11. Vertical section construction of wells at Kuyumbinsky oil field via percussive-rotary drilling with DTH hammer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanov, K. V.; Nechaeva, L. N.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of sequential use of mobile percussive-rotary drilling sets with DTH hammer and bottom-hole cleaning by foam mud in construction of vertical sections along with at Kuyumbinsky oil field. On the basis of the analysis, an engineering solution is proposed to prevent disastrous mud loss that is the key factor of efficiency in implementation of resource-saving technologies.

  12. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of thin aluminum sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    Modeling and optimization of machining processes using coupled methodology has been an area of interest for manufacturing engineers in recent times. The present paper deals with the development of a prediction model for Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) using the coupled methodology of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). First, 2D axisymmetric FEM based thermal models for LBPD have been developed, incorporating the temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties, and phase change phenomena of aluminum. The model is validated after comparing the results obtained using the FEM model with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper. Secondly, sufficient input and output data generated using the FEM model is used for the training and testing of the ANN model. Further, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process using data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model predicts that hole taper and material removal rates are highly affected by pulse width, whereas the pulse frequency plays the most significant role in determining the extent of HAZ. The optimal process parameter setting shows a reduction of hole taper by 67.5%, increase of material removal rate by 605%, and reduction of extent of HAZ by 3.24%.

  13. Percussion hole drilling of metals with a fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG laser studied by defocused laser speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, Natalia; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Sárady, Istvan

    2005-06-10

    Defocused speckle correlation is introduced as a tool for measuring the response in metal sheets during percussion laser drilling. For this procedure the fourth-harmonic Nd:YAG wavelength (266 nm) was used in pulsed mode. The method provides a cost-efficient and robust alternative to speckle interferometry for the study of the small deformations that appear during laser processing. The accuracy was shown to be of the order of a few tens of microradians for the tilt component that is measured, which translates to a few nanometers in deflection when the component is spatially integrated. In the measurements, deflections in the form of craters as large as 50 nm were detected on the back sides of silver and copper sheets. The diameters of the craters were 300 microm in the silver and 150 microm in the copper sheet; the output diameter of the hole was -5 microm.

  14. A fibre-optic-based sensor for optimization and evaluation of the laser percussion drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan P.; Peters, Chris; Haran, Frank M.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    1997-06-01

    A non-intrusive inter-process measurement technique to determine the diameter of laser-drilled holes is demonstrated. This allows holes to be analysed immediately after processing, before drilling additional holes in the same part. Remedial action can therefore be taken if necessary. The sensor also measures the position of the workpiece relative to the focal point of the drilling laser to ensure optimal processing.

  15. Effects of assist gas on the physical characteristics of spatter during laser percussion drilling of NIMONIC 263 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, D. K. Y.; Li, L.; Corfe, A. G.

    2000-02-01

    The effects of different assist gases, O 2, Ar, N 2 and compressed air, during laser percussion drilling are investigated with regard to the physical features, i.e., thickness and surface geometry, of the resulting spatter and its bonding strength. Laser drilling was conducted on NIMONIC 263 alloy sheets, 2.6 mm thick, using a fibre-optic delivered 400-W Nd:YAG laser. The work has revealed that the spatter generated with O 2 assist gas is distinctly different from those produced with N 2, Ar and compressed air. The influence of the assist gas type on the mechanism of material ejection/removal is reported. The spatter bonding strength has been found to be associated with the 'inertness' of the assist gas employed, in which a progressive increase was observed in the order of O 2, compressed air, and N 2 and Ar. It appears that the spatter bonding strength is dependent on the assist gas type and the workpiece material composition. In addition, it was found that the overlapping of spatter between adjacent holes, in closely spaced array holes, possessed higher bonding strengths. Consequently, the removal of overlapped spatter produced with inert assist gases is difficult to achieve without causing undesired modification to the material surface and hole geometry.

  16. The effects of process parameters on spatter deposition in laser percussion drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, D. K. Y.; Li, L.; Byrd, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on the characterisation and analysis of spatter deposition during laser drilling in Nimonic 263 alloy for various laser processing parameters using a fibre-optic delivered 400 W Nd:YAG laser. The principal findings are a large proportion of the spatter (approx. > 70%) was deposited due to the initial laser pulses (before beam breakthrough) required to drill a through-hole. Short pulse widths, low peak powers and high pulse frequencies generated smaller spatter deposition areas. At high pulse frequencies, the spatter distribution/thickness can be altered as a result of laser-ejected material interaction. Focal plane positions between -0.5 and +1.5 mm produced relatively similar spatter areas of about 14 mm2. As a result of the reduction in the material removed per pulse, a longer focal length of 160 mm generated smaller areas of spatter deposition in comparison to a shorter focal length of 120 mm. In addition, a generic relationship between the spatter area and dentrance/ dexit with increasing total laser energy has been established.

  17. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of nickel-based superalloy sheet using Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    The creation of small diameter holes in thin sheets (<3 mm) of superalloys using a laser beam is a challenging task. Knowledge of the effect of laser related process variables on hole related responses with respect to variation of sheet thickness is essential to obtain a hole of requisite quality. Therefore, in this paper a coupled methodology comprising of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to develop a prediction model for the Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) process. First, a 2D axisymmetric FEM-based thermal model for LBPD has been developed incorporating temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties and phase change phenomena of the sheet material. The developed FEM-based thermal model is validated with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper which is further used to generate adequate input and output data for training and testing of the ANN model. Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process utilizing the data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model has been used to predict the performance characteristics of the LBPD process. The results predicted by the ANN model show that with the increase in pulse width and peak power the hole taper, material removal rate (MRR) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases. The acquired combination of optimal process variables produce a hole with good integral quality, i.e., a reduction of hole taper by 32.1%, increase of material removal rate by 28.9% and reduction of extent of HAZ by 4.5%.

  18. Proper planning improves flow drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J. )

    1994-10-01

    Underbalanced operations reduce formation damage, especially in horizontal wells where zones are exposed to mud for longer time periods. Benefits, risks, well control concerns, equipment and issues associated with these operations are addressed in this paper. Flow drilling raises many concerns, but little has been published on horizontal well control and flow drilling operations. This article covers planning considerations for flow drilling, but does not address horizontal ''overbalanced'' drilling because considerations and equipment are the same as in vertical overbalanced drilling and many references address that subject. The difference in well control between vertical and horizontal overbalanced drilling is fluid influx behavior and how that behavior affects kill operations.

  19. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  20. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  1. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  2. Percussive Excavation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested using a percussive motion could improve the efficiency of excavation by up to 90%. If this is proven to be true it would be very beneficial to excavation projects on the Moon and Mars. The purpose of this study is to design, build and test a percussive tool which could dig a trench and then compare this data against that of a non-percussive tool of the same shape and size. The results of this test thus far have been inconclusive due to malfunctions in the testbed and percussive bucket; however, experimental results from small scale experiments confirm this higher efficiency and support further testing.

  3. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary–percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  4. Percussion tool

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  5. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI.

  6. Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    2000-01-01

    An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.

  7. Better practices and synthetic fluid improve drilling rates

    SciTech Connect

    White, W. ); McLean, A.; Park, S. )

    1995-02-20

    Improved drilling practices, combined with the use of olefin-based synthetic drilling fluids, have dramatically reduced drilling time and costs in a difficult drilling area in the Gulf of Mexico. In the South Pass area, Marathon Oil Co. and other operators have had wells with long drilling times and high costs. In addition to the two wells with record penetration rates, routine drilling rates have also increased from the use of synthetic mud and careful drilling practices. Through application of these improved drilling practices, 2,000--3,000 ft/day can be drilled routinely. Marathon achieves this goal by applying the experience gained on previous wells, properly training and involving the crews, and using innovative drilling systems. Improved drilling practices and systems are just one part of successful, efficient drilling. Rig site personnel are major contributors to safely and successfully drilling at high penetration rates for extended periods. The on site personnel must act as a team and have the confidence and proper mental attitude about what is going on downhole. The paper describes the drilling history in the South Pass area, the synthetic drilling fluid used, cuttings handling, hole cleaning, drilling practices, bottom hole assemblies, and lost circulation.

  8. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  9. Short radius drilling system improves directional control

    SciTech Connect

    Leazer, C.

    1995-08-01

    Horizontal drilling capabilities and applications have been dramatically increased with development of Becfield Drilling Services` Short Radius Horizontal Drilling System utilizing the Articulated Downhole Drilling Motor (ADM). The system gives precise directional control, predictability , and reliability not previously available in short-radius operations. Because of the unique, patented design of the ADM, the short-radius system can be rotated during lateral drilling operations. This is a significant development in short-radius horizontal drilling technology. This paper reviews the design and operation of this equipment.

  10. Operators, service companies improve horizontal drilling accuracy offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-04-01

    Continuing efforts to get more and better measurement and logging equipment closer to the bit improve accuracy in offshore drilling. Using current technology, both in measurement while drilling and logging while drilling, a target can consistently be hit within five vertical feet.

  11. Improve dust capture on your surface drill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, S.J.; Listak, J.M.; Reed, R.

    2008-09-15

    Researchers have developed a model to describe airborne respirable dust (ARD) generation on surface coal mine drills. By measuring a few basic parameters and using a graph, a drill operator or engineer can estimate the relative severity of drill dust emissions as well as how much of a reduction in ARD can be obtained by changing any given parameter. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. A modified fluid percussion device.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, T; Murakami, N; Iwamoto, Y; Yoshino, E; Nakagawa, Y; Ueda, S; Horikawa, J; Tsujii, T

    1994-10-01

    This report examines a modified fluid percussion device with specific improvements made to address deficiencies found in previously reported devices. These improvements include the use of a cylindrical saline reservoir made of stainless steel, placement of the reservoir in a 15-degree head-up position for the easy release of air bubbles, placement of the fluid flushing outlet and the pressure transducer close to the piston on the same plane, with both perpendicular to the direction of the piston, and adjustable reservoir volume to vary the waveform of the pressure pulse, and a metallic central injury screw secured to the animal's skull over the exposed dura. Using this device, midline fluid percussion (MFP) and lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injuries were performed in 70 rats. Histopathologic findings included diffuse axonal injury in the MFP model and cortical contusion in the LFP model. Survival rate was 41.4% in MFP animals and 100% in LFM animals when the device settings were 178 mm3 of the cylindrical reservoir and 50 degrees-60 degrees in height of the pendulum. Our results suggest that this modified fluid percussion device may offer significant improvements over previously reported fluid percussion models for use in experimental head injury.

  13. Prediction of penetration rate of rotary-percussive drilling using artificial neural networks - a case study / Prognozowanie postępu wiercenia przy użyciu wiertła udarowo-obrotowego przy wykorzystaniu sztucznych sieci neuronowych - studium przypadku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalizad, Seyed Ali; Rashidinejad, Farshad

    2012-12-01

    Penetration rate in rocks is one of the most important parameters of determination of drilling economics. Total drilling costs can be determined by predicting the penetration rate and utilized for mine planning. The factors which affect penetration rate are exceedingly numerous and certainly are not completely understood. For the prediction of penetration rate in rotary-percussive drilling, four types of rocks in Sangan mine have been chosen. Sangan is situated in Khorasan-Razavi province in Northeastern Iran. The selected parameters affect penetration rate is divided in three categories: rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern. The rock properties are: density, rock quality designation (RQD), uni-axial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, porosity, Mohs hardness, Young modulus, P-wave velocity. Drilling condition parameters are: percussion, rotation, feed (thrust load) and flushing pressure; and parameters for drilling pattern are: blasthole diameter and length. Rock properties were determined in the laboratory, and drilling condition and drilling pattern were determined in the field. For create a correlation between penetration rate and rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used. For this purpose, 102 blastholes were observed and drilling condition, drilling pattern and time of drilling in each blasthole were recorded. To obtain a correlation between this data and prediction of penetration rate, MATLAB software was used. To train the pattern of ANN, 77 data has been used and 25 of them found for testing the pattern. Performance of ANN models was assessed through the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). For optimized model (14-14-10-1) RMSE and R2 is 0.1865 and 86%, respectively, and its sensitivity analysis showed that there is a strong correlation between penetration rate and RQD, rotation and blasthole diameter. High correlation coefficient and low

  14. Midbrain Raphe Stimulation Improves Behavioral and Anatomical Recovery from Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M.; Blaya, Meghan O.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Bramlett, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4–6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested. PMID:22963112

  15. Midbrain raphe stimulation improves behavioral and anatomical recovery from fluid-percussion brain injury.

    PubMed

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M; Blaya, Meghan O; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-15

    The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4-6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested.

  16. Proper bit selection improves ROP in coiled tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.W. )

    1994-04-18

    Using the correct type of bit can improve the rate of penetration (ROP) and therefore the economics of coiled tubing drilling operations. Key factors, based on studies of the coiled tubing jobs to date, are that the drilling system must be analyzed as a whole system and that both the drill bit type and the formation compressive strength are critical components in this analysis. Once a candidate job has been qualified technically for drilling with coiled tubing, the job will have to be justified economically compared to conventional drilling. A key part of the economic analysis is predicting the ROP in each formation to be drilled to establish a drilling time curve. This prediction should be based on the key components of the system, including the following: hydraulics, motor capabilities, weight on bit (WOB), rock compressive strength, and bit type. This analysis should not base expected ROPs and offset wells drilled with conventional rigs and equipment. Furthermore, a small-diameter bit should not be selected simply by using the International Association of Drilling Contractor (IADC) codes of large-diameter bits used in offset wells. Coiled tubing drilling is described, then key factors in the selection are discussed.

  17. Introduction to drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  18. Posttreatment with high-dose albumin reduces histopathological damage and improves neurological deficit following fluid percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Belayev, L; Alonso, O F; Huh, P W; Zhao, W; Busto, R; Ginsberg, M D

    1999-06-01

    We have recently shown that high-dose human serum albumin (HSA) therapy confers marked histological protection in experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with high-dose HSA would protect in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four hours prior to TBI, the fluid percussion interface was positioned parasagittally over the right cerebral cortex. On the following day, fasted rats were anesthetized with 3% halothane, 70% nitrous oxide, and 30% oxygen and received right parieto-occipital parasagittal fluid-percussion injury (1.5-2.0 atm). Cranial and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the experiment and held at normothermic levels (36.5-37.5 degrees C) by a warming lamp above the animal's head. The agent (25% human serum albumin, HSA) or vehicle (sodium chloride 0.9%) was administered i.v. (1% of body weight) 15 min after trauma. Behavioral function was evaluated in all rats before and after TBI (at 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days). Neurological function was graded on a scale of 0-12 (normal score = 0; maximal score = 12). Seven days after TBI, brains were perfusion-fixed, coronal sections at various levels were digitized, and contusion areas in the superficial, middle and deep layers of cortex and in the underlying fimbria were measured. HSA significantly improved the neurological score compared to saline at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TBI (6.0 +/- 0.6 [albumin] versus 8.4 +/- 0.5 [saline]; 3.6 +/- 0.7 versus 6.8 +/- 1.0; and 2.6 +/- 0.6 versus 5.7 +/- 0.8, respectively; p < 0.05). HSA therapy also significantly reduced total contusion area (0.89 +/- 0.2 versus 1.82 +/- 0.3 mm2; p = 0.02). Our findings document that high-concentration albumin therapy instituted 15 min after trauma significantly improves the neurological score and reduces histological damage. We believe that this pharmacological agent may have promising potential for the clinical treatment of brain

  19. A Passion for Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    This article profiles James Sewrey, founder of the Percussive Arts Society. A passionate percussionist who's spent more than 60 years teaching at all levels from kindergarten through university, Sewrey was called out of retirement in 2007 to serve as adjunct professor of percussive studies at Wisconsin Lutheran College. As a founding member of the…

  20. A Passion for Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    This article profiles James Sewrey, founder of the Percussive Arts Society. A passionate percussionist who's spent more than 60 years teaching at all levels from kindergarten through university, Sewrey was called out of retirement in 2007 to serve as adjunct professor of percussive studies at Wisconsin Lutheran College. As a founding member of the…

  1. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  2. Improved practices, synthetic mud drive record 24-hr drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J.; White, W.W.

    1995-05-01

    Revised and improved drilling practices resulted in increased rate of penetration (ROP), improved hole cleaning, decreased circulating time, fewer instances of stuck pipe and reduced total drilling days. Rig equipment modifications and optimized techniques, combined with olefin-based synthetic fluid, produced significant efficiency improvements and cost reductions. Total-project strategy allows best technologies to be used, even if they are not low bid. In the Gulf of Mexico, a total-project concept helped Marathon drill back-to-back record 24-hr footages. Methods and philosophy described in this article allow drillers to choose optimum technologies, tools, materials and service performance for achieving optimum or lowest cost per foot rather than always using low bid.

  3. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  4. Extended-length power sections improve PDM drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Moles, H.

    1995-12-01

    Since being introduced in the 1960s, downhole positive displacement motors (PDMs) have evolved steadily from early applications. Initially considered only for high-speed, medium-torque, initial directional kickoffs; and short, corrective directional operations, these tools were not expected to operate for more than a few hours at a time. Progressive improvements have led to tools that are capable of extended runs in a variety of configurations. Current generation PDMs have a broad range of applications and include fully steerable systems for directional or horizontal drilling, and instrumented motors incorporating formation evaluation measurement-while-drilling (FEMWD) systems for geological steering and reservoir navigation. Design improvements also expanded PDM applications to include hole sections traditionally drilled with conventional rotary-driven bottomhole assemblies (BHAs). This paper reviews these new motor designs and provides case histories of their performance.

  5. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  6. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.

  7. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  8. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  9. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  10. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  11. Auscultatory percussion of the head.

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, J R

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-nine consecutive patients with suspected intracranial masses were examined by auscultatory percussion in a blind study to assess the sensitivity of the procedure. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain as part of his medical care, and the results were compared with those of auscultatory percussion. Fifty-one of the patients had abnormal CT scans, of whom 44 (86%) had abnormal (positive) findings on auscultatory percussion; seven (13%) yielded false-negative results. Each of the patients with subdural haematomas had distinctly positive findings by auscultatory percussion. Of the 38 patients with normal CT scans, 11 had strokes with hemiparesis, and each had positive findings in the contralateral hemisphere by auscultatory percussion. The remaining 27 patients with normal CT scans were healthy; 25 had normal findings on auscultatory percussion, two (7%) gave false-positive results. Twenty subjects were studied with phonoscopy. Auscultatory percussion is easy to perform and is clinically useful. PMID:6802411

  12. Name that percussive tune: Associative memory and amplitude envelope.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Michael; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; H Baum, Sarah; Roth, Amber

    2017-07-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated novel effects of amplitude envelope on associative memory, with tones exhibiting naturally decaying amplitude envelopes (e.g., those made by two wine glasses clinking) better associated with target objects than amplitude-invariant tones. In Experiment 1 participants learned associations between household objects and 4-note tone sequences constructed of spectrally matched pure tones with either "flat" or "percussive" amplitude envelopes. Those hearing percussive tones correctly recalled significantly more sequence-object associations. Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants hearing percussive tones learned the associations more quickly. Experiment 3 used "reverse percussive" tones (percussive tones played backwards) to test whether differences in overall energy might account for this effect, finding they did not lead to the same level of performance as percussive tones. Experiment 4 varied the envelope at encoding and retrieval to determine which stage of the task was most affected by the envelope manipulation. Participants hearing percussive tones at both encoding and retrieval performed significantly better than the other three groups (i.e., flat at encoding/percussive at retrieval, etc.). We conclude that amplitude envelope plays an important role in learning and memory, a finding with relevance to psychological research on audition and associative memory, as well as practical relevance for improving human-computer interface design.

  13. [History of chest percussion].

    PubMed

    Chrobák, L

    2001-01-01

    Although percussion of the abdomen was already known to the Greek physician Galenos (2nd century A. D.) who used it to distinguish between ascites and meteorism, the Viennese physician Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) started to use, the percussion of the chest as a diagnostic tool. In 1761 he published his experience in a treatise called "New Method for Detecting Hidden Ailments of the Chest by Percussion of the Thorax" (Inventum novum ex percussione thoracis hummani ut signo abstruso interni pectoris morbos detergendi). However, this method was introduced into practice only 50 years later by Jean Nicolas Corvisart, who translated Auenbrugger's book in 1808 into French. The famous Vinnese internist of Czech origin Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) set the teaching about percussion and auscultation on a firm physical basis. Skoda confronted the physical findings with dissection materials in close cooperation with the renowned Vinnese pathologist Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), who was born in Hradec Králové. The Medical School in Prague became famous for its excellent command of methods based on physical examination and surpassed even the Viennese School.

  14. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  16. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  17. Top drive drilling apparatus with improved wrench assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.A.; Smith, R. Jr.

    1986-05-20

    A top drive well drilling apparatus, is described which consists of: a drive unit for rotating a drill string about the longitudinal axis of the drill string; a guide track, which extends generally in a vertical direction; a carriage for connecting and guiding the drive unit along the guide track; a stem, extending downward from the drive unit, for transmitting torque from the drive unit to the drill string; a wrench assembly for making and breaking connections between the stem and the drilling string; and means for moving the wrench assembly between a working position along the stem and a retracted position away from the stem.

  18. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOEpatents

    Polsky, Yarom [Oak Ridge, TN; Grubelich, Mark C [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  19. [Percussion pacing of symptomatic bradycardia].

    PubMed

    Olesen, Mette Dam; Barnung, Steen Krøyer; Berlac, Peter Anthony

    2008-05-26

    Transvenous, transthoracic, and percussion pacing are well recognised treatments of bradycardia and asystole with residual p wave activity. We report two cases of severe bradycardia in which percussion pacing was applied and the procedure was found to be effective. This technique can be life-saving and it should be well-known by all doctors.

  20. Rotary ultrasonic bone drilling: Improved pullout strength and reduced damage.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Pandey, Pulak M; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-03-01

    Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool. Both techniques were used to drill holes in porcine bones in an in-vitro study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe microcracks and surface morphology. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the number and dimensions of microcracks generated on the inner surface of drilled holes with the RUBD process in comparison to CSBD. It was also observed that a higher rotational speed and a lower feed rate resulted in lower damage, i.e. fewer microcracks. Biomechanical axial pullout strength of a cortical bone screw inserted into a hole drilled with RUBD was found to be much higher (55-385%) than that for CSBD.

  1. COG1410, an Apolipoprotein E-based Peptide, Improves Cognitive Performance and Reduces Cortical Loss Following Moderate Fluid Percussion Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Nicholas A.; Beare, Jason E.; Tan, Arlene A.; Vitek, Michael P.; McKenna, Suzanne E.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    COG1410, a small, novel ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the receptor binding region of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), has been classified as anti-inflammatory in nature and improves motor, sensorimotor, and cognitive dysfunction following cortical contusion injury (CCI). In order to further examine COG1410’s preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery, the present study evaluated COG1410 following moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI). Animals were prepared with a moderate, unilateral FPI over the hippocampus. Following FPI, animals received a regimen of five doses of COG1410 or vehicle at 2 and 4 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) followed by additional doses administered 24, 48, and 72 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Prior to injury, animals were trained for four days (4 trials/day) in the Morris water maze (MWM) and then tested for retrograde amnesia on post-FPI day 11 and then on a working memory task on day 18. Testing for motor dysfunction on the tapered balanced beam began on day 2 post-FPI. Administration of this regimen of COG1410 significantly improved retention of memory in the retrograde amnesia test compared to vehicle post-FPI. However, COG1410 did not significantly improve acquisition of working memory in the MWM. Motor dysfunction on the tapered beam post-FPI was improved in the COG1410-treated group compared to vehicle treatment. Cortical lesion analysis revealed that the COG1410-treated animals demonstrated significantly less tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. The results of this study suggest that COG1410 significantly limited the behavioral dysfunction and tissue loss associated with FPI and demonstrated continued preclinical efficacy for TBI. PMID:20600347

  2. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  3. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  4. Using emergency obstetric drills in maternity units as a performance improvement tool.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hibah; Campbell, Oona M R; Nassar, Anwar H

    2009-03-01

    Obstetric drills are being used increasingly to test, improve, and maintain knowledge and skills related to obstetric emergencies as a means to improve proficiency and efficiency of practitioners. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and usefulness of conducting drills to evaluate the response to obstetric emergencies using a holistic approach that tested the hospital system. A prospective trial was conducted at three hospitals (two tertiary referral centers and one small community hospital) in Beirut, Lebanon. Two different emergency obstetric drills at two points in time were conducted between April and May 2006 either in the emergency room or on the labor floor. The drills included medical and paramedical staff, a female actor (simulating a pregnant woman), a research assistant (acting as her companion), and a physician trained in obstetrics (the drill leader). Responses were recorded and critically analyzed. Although overall quality of care was within standards of care, problems were identified related to hospital policies, supplies and equipment, communication, and clinical management. Some technical problems related to administration of the drills were identified. Most drill participants appreciated the exercise and found it beneficial. Obstetric drills provide a useful tool to identify and address deficiencies in the hospital system. This finding could have implications on improving quality of care provided to obstetric patients.

  5. Improved seal for geothermal drill bit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.F.

    1984-07-06

    Each of the two field test bits showed some promise though their performances were less than commercially acceptable. The Ohio test bit ran just over 3000 feet where about 4000 is considered a good run but it was noted that a Varel bit of the same type having a standard O ring seal was completely worn out after 8-1/2 hours (1750 feet drilled). The Texas test bit had good seal-bearing life but was the wrong cutting structure type for the formation being drilled and the penetration rate was low.

  6. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  7. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  8. The Auto-Gopher: A Wireline Rotary-Percussive Deep Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Zacny, Kris; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther

    2016-01-01

    Accessing regions on planetary bodies that potentially preserved biosignatures or are presently habitable is vital to meeting NASA solar system "Search for Life" exploration objectives. To address these objectives, a wireline deep rotary-percussive corer called Auto-Gopher was developed. The percussive action provides effective material fracturing and the rotation provides effective cuttings removal. To increase the drill's penetration rate, the percussive and rotary motions are operated simultaneously. Initially, the corer was designed as a percussive mechanism for sampling ice and was demonstrated in 2005 in Antarctica reaching about 2 m deep. The lessons learned suggested the need to use a combination of rotation and hammering to maximize the penetration rate. This lesson was implemented into the Auto-Gopher-I deep drill which was demonstrated to reach 3-meter deep in gypsum. The average drilling power that was used has been in the range of 100-150 Watt, while the penetration rate was approximately 2.4 m/hr. Recently, a task has started with the goal to develop Auto-Gopher-II that is equipped to execute all the necessary functions in a single drilling unit. These functions also include core breaking, retention and ejection in addition drilling. In this manuscript, the Auto-Gopher-II, its predecessors and their capability are described and discussed.

  9. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  10. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  11. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  12. Mixed metal hydroxide mud improves drilling in unstable shales

    SciTech Connect

    Sparling, D.P. ); Williamson, D. )

    1991-06-10

    A mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) mud reduced some of the hole problems common to offset wells in the Arkoma basin. By specially engineering the MMH rheology, cuttings removal efficiency increased, and well bore problems were minimized. Wells drilled in the Arkoma basin frequently have experienced problems associated with hole instability: excessive reaming, stuck pipe, packing off, and difficulty in obtaining open hole logs. These problems often occur in the massive shale intervals of Atokan age. The causes of such problems are generally thought to be related to the dissolution of the reactive shales and clays in the Atoka interval, particularly along microfractures created by the tectonic stresses associated with overthrust environment. There exist insufficient data regarding the borehole stress states, primarily the minimum and maximum horizontal stresses. It is also possible that shear failure at the borehole wall is a result of the stress imbalances. In this area, wells are frequently air-drilled to 5,000-8,000 ft, resulting in significant borehole enlargement, which compounds the problems. Operators typically approach the problem in two ways. Oil muds are used worldwide to reduce the trouble time associated with shales. They have been particularly successful in the Arkoma basin for over 25 years.

  13. Curiosity Drill in Place for Load Testing Before Drilling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-28

    The percussion drill in the turret of tools at the end of the robotic arm of NASA Mars rover Curiosity has been positioned in contact with the rock surface in this image from the rover front Hazard-Avoidance Camera Hazcam.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  15. Research and development of improved cavitating jets for deep-hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Lindenmuth, W.T.; Chahine, G.L.; Conn, A.F.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Improved cavitating nozzles have been developed as part of an on-going program to increase the rate of penetration of deep-hole drill bits. Based on the four criteria of: incipient cavitation number, amplitude of pressure fluctuation (and hence enhanced structuring of the jet flow), rock cutting, and cleaning chips from the hole bottom - these new, STRATOJET (STRuctured Acoustically Tuned Oscillating JET) cavitating nozzle systems have out-performed both conventional drill bit nozzles and the basic CAVIJET cavitating jets. Although nozzle designs which provide large amplitude pressure modulations are now available for the operation in water, additional research is needed to optimize self-resonating jets for use: (a) in mud, (b) in specific drill bit designs, and (c) at higher system pressures than now currently used for deep-hole drilling.

  16. Improved Screw Placement for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) using Robotically-Assisted Drill Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Koutenaei, Bamshad Azizi; Guler, Ozgur; Wilson, Emmanuel; Thoranaghatte, Ramesh U.; Oetgen, Matthew; Navab, Nassir; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip displacement condition in adolescents. In the standard treatment, the surgeon uses intra-operative fluoroscopic imaging to plan the screw placement and the drill trajectory. The accuracy, duration, and efficacy of this procedure are highly dependent on surgeon skill. Longer procedure times result in higher radiation dose, to both patient and surgeon. A robotic system to guide the drill trajectory might help to reduce screw placement errors and procedure time by reducing the number of passes and confirmatory fluoroscopic images needed to verify accurate positioning of the drill guide along a planned trajectory. Therefore, with the long-term goals of improving screw placement accuracy, reducing procedure time and intra-operative radiation dose, our group is developing an image-guided robotic surgical system to assist a surgeon with pre-operative path planning and intra-operative drill guide placement. PMID:25333154

  17. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  18. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D; Green, Sidney J; Robertson, Homer A; Bland, Ronald G; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  19. Improving the Welfare of a Zoo-Housed Male Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) Aggressive Toward Visitors.

    PubMed

    Martín, Olga; Vinyoles, Dolors; García-Galea, Eduardo; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Improving the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity and maintaining behavioral competence for future conservation purposes is of the highest priority for zoos. The behavior of an aggressive male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) was assessed in Barcelona Zoo. The 2-year study presented in this article examined the effects of introducing changes in the exhibit of the drill to improve his welfare by analyzing scan behaviors. First, a partial visual barrier was applied and proved to be insufficient to decrease the long-term stress indicators assessed. Next, a feeding enrichment program was implemented. The results supported the hypothesis that feeding and explorative activities would increase, whereas apathetic and stereotypic behaviors would decrease. However, visitor-directed aggression did not vary, indicating that more profound structural modifications were needed to reduce the negative impact of the agonistic interactions between the drill and the public. The study emphasized the usefulness of environmental enrichment evaluations in assessing captive animal welfare.

  20. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  1. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  2. World Percussion Approaches in Collegiate Percussion Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    As world percussion has grown in popularity in American colleges and universities, two main problems have emerged. The first problem is that no known source exists detailing how percussion instructors have incorporated world percussion into their collegiate teaching. A review of the literature has highlighted four main approaches to incorporating…

  3. World Percussion Approaches in Collegiate Percussion Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    As world percussion has grown in popularity in American colleges and universities, two main problems have emerged. The first problem is that no known source exists detailing how percussion instructors have incorporated world percussion into their collegiate teaching. A review of the literature has highlighted four main approaches to incorporating…

  4. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  5. Improvement of aluminum drilling efficiency and precision by shaped femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying; Qi, Hongxia; Chen, Anmin; Hu, Zhan

    2014-10-01

    Shaped femtosecond laser pulses with the plain phase (transform-limited pulse) and sine phase (A = 1.2566, T = 30, T = 10, and T = 5) were used to drill Al sheet in vacuum. Using different phase, the number of pulses required to drill through the sheet was different. With lower laser pulse energy, the ablation rate was the highest when plain phase (corresponding to transform limited pulse) was used. With higher laser energy, the optimized ablation rate can be achieved by increasing the time separation between the subpulses of pulse train produced from the sine phase function. And, with the shaped femtosecond laser, the diameter of ablation holes produced was smaller, the ablation precision was also improved. The results showed that shaped femtosecond laser pulse has great advantages in the context of femtosecond laser drilling.

  6. ORAL DRILLS AND WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN THE FOURTH GRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, BARBARA D.; NEY, JAMES W.

    BELIEVING FORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH TO BE A "FOREIGN LANGUAGE" TO MOST AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS, RESEARCHERS USED THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TO PROMOTE WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN FOURTH-GRADERS. TWO RANDOMLY-SELECTED CLASSES OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY COMPOSED THE STUDY POPULATION--ONE CLASS FOR THE EXPERIMENT,…

  7. HPC simulations of grain-scale spallation to improve thermal spallation drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. D.; Lomov, I.; Wideman, T. W.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal spallation drilling and related hard-rock hole opening techniques are transformative technologies with the potential to dramatically reduce the costs associated with EGS well drilling and improve the productivity of new and existing wells. In contrast to conventional drilling methods that employ mechanical means to penetrate rock, thermal spallation methods fragment rock into small pieces ("spalls") without contact via the rapid transmission of heat to the rock surface. State-of-the-art constitutive models of thermal spallation employ Weibull statistical failure theory to represent the relationship between rock heterogeneity and its propensity to produce spalls when heat is applied to the rock surface. These models have been successfully used to predict such factors as penetration rate, spall-size distribution and borehole radius from drilling jet velocity and applied heat flux. A properly calibrated Weibull model would permit design optimization of thermal spallation drilling under geothermal field conditions. However, although useful for predicting system response in a given context, Weibull models are by their nature empirically derived. In the past, the parameters used in these models were carefully determined from laboratory tests, and thus model applicability was limited by experimental scope. This becomes problematic, for example, if simulating spall production at depths relevant for geothermal energy production, or modeling thermal spallation drilling in new rock types. Nevertheless, with sufficient computational resources, Weibull models could be validated in the absence of experimental data by explicit small-scale simulations that fully resolve rock grains. This presentation will discuss how high-fidelity simulations can be used to inform Weibull models of thermal spallation, and what these simulations reveal about the processes driving spallation at the grain-scale - in particular, the role that inter-grain boundaries and micro-pores play in the

  8. Implementation of improved underbalanced drilling in AbuDhabi onshore field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhammadi, Adel Mohammed

    Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) is considering Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) as a means to develop lower permeability units in its fields. In addition to productivity and recovery gains, ADCO also expects reservoir characterization benefits from UBD. Reservoir screening studies were carried out on all of ADCO's reservoirs to determine their applicability for UBD. The primary business benefits of UBD were determined to be reservoir characterization, damage Mitigation, and rate of Penetration "ROP" Improvement. Apart from the primary benefits, some of the secondary benefits of UBD that were identified beforehand included rig performance. Since it's a trial wells, the challenge was to drill these wells safely, efficiently and of course meeting well objectives. Many operators worldwide drill these well in underbalanced mode but complete it overbalanced. In our case the plan was to drill and complete these wells in underbalanced condition. But we had to challenge most operators and come up with special and unique casing hanger design to ensure well control barriers exists while fishing the control line of the Downhole Deployment Valve "DDV". After intensive studies and planning, the hanger was designed as per our recommendations and found to be effective equipment that optimized the operational time and the cost as well. This report will provide better understanding of UBD technique in general and shade on the special designed casing hanger compared to conventional or what's most used worldwide. Even thought there were some issues while running the casing hanger prior drilling but managed to capture the learning's from each well and re-modified the hanger and come up with better deign for the future wells. Finally, the new design perform a good performance of saving the operation time and assisting the project to be done in a safe and an easy way without a major impact on the well cost. This design helped to drill and complete these wells safely with

  9. Auto-Gopher: A Wireline Deep Sampler Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Jae Lee, Hyeong; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  10. Auto-Gopher: a wireline deep sampler driven by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  11. Auto-Gopher: A Wireline Deep Sampler Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Jae Lee, Hyeong; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  12. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  13. The technology improvement and development of the new design-engineering principles of pilot bore directional drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.; Vasenin, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the effectiveness of impact energy use in pilot bore directional drilling at pipe driving. We establish and develop new design-engineering principles for this method. These principles are based on a drill string construction with a new nipple thread connection and a generator construction of strain waves transferred through the drill string. The experiment was conducted on a test bench. Strain measurement is used to estimate compression, tensile, shear and bending stresses in the drill string during the propagation of elastic waves. Finally, the main directions of pilot bore directional drilling improvement during pipe driving are determinated. The new engineering design, as components of the pilot bore directional drilling technology are presented.

  14. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  15. Extended reach drilling advancements dramatically improve performance on Bass Strait wells

    SciTech Connect

    Santostefano, V.; Krepp, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    Esso Australia Ltd. (EAL) has been drilling deviated wells in Bass Strait since 1968. Recent technological developments have been employed on the Mackerel Infill Drilling Project, that have significantly improved EAL`s ability to drill Long Reach (LR)/Extended Reach (ER) wells more economically and consistently. The more notable achievements have been: advancements in hole condition reporting, utilizing torque and drag monitoring; the successful use of non-rotating drillpipe rubbers to reduce surface torque to acceptable levels; deeper casing setting depths, to minimize torque and drag, and to reduce time-dependent hole problems; the use of inhibitive/encapsulating mud systems for control of reactive clays/shales; and use of wellbore stability modeling. These advancements have helped EAL to drill 50% greater meterage than was expected in 1993, at 16% lower cost per meter. This paper chronicles the engineering decisions behind these advancements, their applications in the field, the success/failure story on Mackerel to date, and how these developments have been incorporated in EAL`s future well planning.

  16. Preparatory Test for First Rock Drilling by Mars Rover Curiosity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-04

    The bit in the rotary-percussion drill of NASA Mars rover Curiosity left its mark in a target patch of rock called John Klein during a test on Feb. 2, 2013, in preparation for the first drilling of a rock by the rover.

  17. Improved slant drilling well for in situ remediation of groundwater and soil at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yasuhide; Mukai, Kazuhiro; Ohmura, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores. In this study, we investigated an improved technique for slant drilling that can be used around existing structures to treat contaminated soil and groundwater. A key to this novel approach was the use of water-swelling materials as sealants. Research at a test site investigated the accuracy of drilling. Tracer tests were also conducted using sodium chloride and urea. The improved slant borings showed a deviation of less than 2% from the target bore. The spread of the two tracers at different depths was demonstrated. The proposed technique provides a useful approach to the treatment of brownfield sites in countries where in situ remediation has not yet been undertaken.

  18. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  19. Theoretical percussion force of the periotest diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T

    1998-01-01

    The Periotest percussion force acting on a dental implant was estimated by assuming a mass-spring-dashpot model of the implant-bone system constructed on the basis of a clinical experiment. A theoretical value of about 10 N, comparable to hitherto reported experimental values, was obtained for an osseointegrated implant of about 1 g. The percussion force would probably be smaller for a heavier implant.

  20. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  1. Percussion of the chest re-visited: a comparison of the diagnostic value of ausculatory and conventional chest percussion.

    PubMed

    Bourke, S; Nunes, D; Stafford, F; Hurley, G; Graham, I

    1989-04-01

    Percussion of the chest is thought to be insensitive in detecting small or deeply situated chest lesions. A newer technique, ausculatory percussion, has been reported as having a far higher sensitivity. In a controlled blind study the diagnostic value of conventional chest percussion compared with ausculatory percussion was defined using the chest x-ray as a gold standard. The prevalence of disease in 100 lung fields was 26%. The majority of lesions were not detected by either technique resulting in very low sensitivities of 15.4% for conventional percussion and 19.2% for ausculatory percussion. A positive result with ausculatory percussion was twice as likely to be false as true (positive predictive value 31.2%). The technique did not add to the diagnostic value of conventional percussion. Both techniques have major limitations. Patients with suspected lung disease still require chest x-ray examination if percussion is normal.

  2. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  3. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  4. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  5. Analytical model of the contact interaction between the components of a special percussive mechanism for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Luis J.; Malla, Ramesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Special percussive mechanisms, e.g. Auto Gopher and UltraSonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) have been developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms, Corp. to address some of the limitations of current drilling techniques for planetary exploration. The percussive mechanism consists of an ultrasonic horn, a free mass (hammer) and the drill rod. This paper presents the analysis of the interaction between these three components. The impact between the components (i.e. ultrasonic horn and free mass, and free mass and drill rod) is analyzed using solid body collision analysis applying the principle of conservation of momentum. The drill rod is modeled for both undamped and damped cases with equivalent generalized single degree of freedom system. Various values are used for the coefficient of restitution to account for energy loss during impact. The energy transferred to the drill rod by the free mass is obtained determining the change in kinetic energy due to impact. It is observed that the free mass converts the high frequency of oscillation of the ultrasonic horn into lower frequency impacts on the drill rod. A decrease in the coefficient of restitution results in a decrease in the number of impacts, impulse imparted to the drill rod and energy transferred to the drill rod by the impact of the free mass.

  6. Improve your solids control. [Management of solids during oil and gas well drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.S. ); Love, W.W. )

    1993-10-01

    With today's emphasis on the environmental impact of drilling operations, minimization of drilling fluid and drill cuttings waste is critical. This can be achieved using proper solids removal equipment -- such as high performance shale shakers, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges -- and proper pre-well planning. The method described here is founded in decision matrix theory and focuses on several key variables. These include well parameters, the drilling program, logistics, environmental issues, rig selection, expert advice and cost.

  7. Consistency of sternal percussion performed manually and with mechanical thumper.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, A B; Kraman, S S

    1992-09-01

    Auscultatory percussion is a technique that is potentially useful to study the acoustic behaviour of the chest. However, finger percussion, as used in this technique, has not been previously assessed for consistency. We calculated the intrasubject variability and short-term reproducibility of this technique in 10 healthy subjects. We examined several indices of the output sound of two series of sternal percussion manoeuvres performed one hour apart by the same examiner. The results were compared to those obtained during sternal percussion performed by a mechanical thumper. Consistency for both finger and thumper percussion varied from 4.8-20.6 (coefficients of variation) for various acoustic indices. For thumper percussion, the average results were not significantly different from those of finger percussion. We conclude that finger percussion of the sternum is sufficiently consistent to be used as a tool to investigate the acoustic behaviour of the chest.

  8. Improved efficiency and cost savings: Horizontal drilling, South Florence Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.A.; Gillham, T.H.; Kutch, A.T.

    1995-10-01

    Significant cost savings and improved recovery efficiency was demonstrated by the successful completion of a horizontal well in the South Louisiana middle Miocene trend of Vermilion Parish. This completion also represents the first gravel-packed horizontal well completion in the Gulf Coast. The Amoco No. 104 Watkins well was drilled in South Florence Field to a total depth of 6878 feet MD (5686 feet TVD) as a horizontal well to minimize coning. The well was completed in November, 1994 from an open hole completion over a 600 feet horizontal section (6278-6878 feet MD). The well tested as high as 1079 BOPD, 769 MCFG, and 27 BW. The completed well cost of $1.1MM represents $600M savings over the cost of two vertical wells that would have been necessary to effectively drain the reservoir. The horizontal target interval was the upper 8 feet of a 148 foot sand with a 30 foot hydrocarbon column. A well was drilled before the No. 104 to serve as both a pilot hole and to test deeper objectives. The No. 104 was then drilled and encountered the top of the objective reservoir within 150 feet of the pilot hole. The trap is an upthrown fault closure on a down-to-the-east fault associated with the South Florence graben system, the result of deep-seated salt movement. Structural control is provided by numerous wells and a 3-D seismic data set. An oil-water contact defines the downdip limit of this 63 acre reservoir. The completed reservoir, the {open_quotes}5400 foot Sand-lower lobe{close_quotes} is a very fine-grained, silty deltaic sand with sidewall core porosities of 28.9-32.3% and permeabilities of 1100-1050 md.

  9. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  10. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  11. The replacement of alkyl-phenol ethoxylates to improve the environment acceptability of drilling fluid additives

    SciTech Connect

    Getliff, J.M.; James, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Alkyl-phenol ethoxylates (APEO) are a class of surfactants which have been used widely in the drilling fluid industry. The popularity of these surfactants is based on their cost effectiveness, availability and the range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values obtainable. Studies have shown that APEOs exhibit oestrogenic effects, and can cause sterility in some male aquatic species. This may have subsequent human consequences and such problems have lead to a banning of their use in some countries and agreements to phase out their use e.g. PARCOM recommendation 92/8. The use of APEOs as additives in detergents, lubricants and stuck-pipe release agents for drilling fluid applications is discussed. The effectiveness of products formulated with APEOs are directly compared with alternative products which are non-persistent and less damaging to aquatic species. Lubricity measurements using standard and in-house designed equipment and washing tests to compare the efficiency of surfactants are explained and product performance results presented. The results show that alternatives to products containing APEOs are available and that in some cases they show a better technical performance. In addition to the improved environmental acceptability of the base chemicals, the better performance enables lower concentrations to be used, hence reducing the environmental impact even further.

  12. Successful management of severe respiratory failure combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Pascal; Scalfaro, Pietro; de Halleux, Quentin; Vermeulen, François; Rappaz, Isabelle; Cotting, Jacques

    2002-03-01

    Heliox has been shown to be beneficial in the management of different obstructive pulmonary disorders. High-frequency percussive ventilation has recently been advocated to treat lung injury in children with reduced lung compliance. We report our experience of combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation in a 5-yr-old boy with severe acute respiratory failure resulting from advanced cystic fibrosis lung disease. The dramatic improvement allowed stabilization and withholding of endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that this approach improved gas exchange by enhancing molecular diffusion and by favoring laminar flow throughout the upper and lower airways. Further investigations should study the mechanisms of this noninvasive bimodal therapy.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  14. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  15. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  16. Percussion use and training: a survey of music therapy clinicians.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Stephanie; Matney, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Percussion instruments are commonly used in music therapy practice; however, the body of published literature regarding music therapy-related percussion training and practice is limited. The purpose of our survey study was to describe: (a) clinician perspectives of their academic percussion training; (b) use of percussion testing during academic training; (c) clinician perspectives on relevance, adequacy, and importance of academic percussion training; (d) clinician perspectives of their nonacademic percussion training; and (e) current use of percussion in clinical practice. Through comparisons of these parameters, we sought to provide information that may inform future percussion use and training. Participants were selected using an email list from the Certification Board for Music Therapists. Board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) were provided with a researcher-created survey about academic percussion training, nonacademic percussion training, and use of percussion in clinical practice. Survey response rate was 14.4% (611/4234). We used demographic data to address potential nonresponse error and ensure population representation for region of residence and region of academic training. Results revealed concerns about perceived adequacy of percussion training received during music therapy education (14.6% reported receiving no academic percussion training; 40.6% reported training was not adequate), and absence of percussion-specific proficiency exams. Of the training received, 62.8% indicated that training was relevant; however, a majority (76.5%) recommended current music therapy students receive more percussion training on instruments and skills most relevant to clinical practice. Comparisons between academic training, perceived needs in academic training, and clinical usage may inform future training and clinical competency. We provide suggestions for developing future training, as well as for furthering clinical implementation and research. © the American

  17. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  18. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  19. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  20. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  1. Energy-saving compression valve of the rock drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, A. N.; Efanov, A. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2015-11-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the necessity to create pneumatic rock drills with low air consumption. The article analyzes the reasons for low efficiency of percussive machines. The authors state that applying a single distribution body in the percussive mechanism does not allow carrying out a low-energy operating cycle of the mechanism. Using the studied device as an example, it is substantiated that applying a compression valve with two distribution bodies separately operating the working chambers makes it possible to significantly reduce the airflow. The authors describe the construction of a core drill percussive mechanism and the operation of a compression valve. It is shown that in the new percussive mechanism working chambers are cut off the circuit by the time when exhaust windows are opened by the piston and air is not supplied into the cylinder up to 20% of the cycle time. The air flow rate of the new mechanism was 3.8 m3/min. In comparison with the drill PK-75, the overall noise level of the new machine is lower by 8-10 dB, while the percussive mechanism efficiency is 2.3 times higher.

  2. Use of High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation to Expand Organ Donor Pool.

    PubMed

    Benn, Francis; Afzal, Ashwad; Worku, Berhane; Khusid, Felix; Fahoum, Bashar H; Gulkarov, Iosif

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was brought in to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident. She had signs of traumatic head injury with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3, and her neurological examination was consistent with brain death. She was persistently hypoxic on conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency percussive ventilation was initiated. The patient's oxygenation improved and was sustained long enough to provide time for organ procurement. This is the first case portraying high-frequency percussive ventilation as a bridge for donors failing on conventional mechanical ventilation.

  3. Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

  4. Mars Technology Rover with Arm-Mounted Percussive Coring Tool, Microimager, and Sample-Handling Encapsulation Containerization Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo J.; Dicicco, Matthew A.; Morgan, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes the PLuto (programmable logic) Mars Technology Rover, a mid-sized FIDO (field integrated design and operations) class rover with six fully drivable and steerable cleated wheels, a rocker-bogey suspension, a pan-tilt mast with panorama and navigation stereo camera pairs, forward and rear stereo hazcam pairs, internal avionics with motor drivers and CPU, and a 5-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. The technology rover was integrated with an arm-mounted percussive coring tool, microimager, and sample handling encapsulation containerization subsystem (SHEC). The turret of the arm contains a percussive coring drill and microimager. The SHEC sample caching system mounted to the rover body contains coring bits, sample tubes, and sample plugs. The coring activities performed in the field provide valuable data on drilling conditions for NASA tasks developing and studying coring technology. Caching of samples using the SHEC system provide insight to NASA tasks investigating techniques to store core samples in the future.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition grinding (EPDG) for improving the precision of microholes drilled via ECDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Biing-Hwa; Yang, Ching-Tang; Huang, Fuang-Yuan; Lu, Zhe-Hong

    2007-02-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is an alternative method to microdrill Pyrex glass for MEMS devices. However, the taper and the heat-affected zone of the microholes resulting from the thermal energy is a problem to which attention has to be paid. This study attempts to improve the ECDMed microhole quality by applying electrophoretic deposition grinding (EPDG). ECDM was first used to drill a microhole and was followed by EPDG to refine the hole. The experimental results demonstrated that selecting a suitable diameter of the tool in EPDG is important to improve the taper angle of microholes machined by ECDM. A step shape tool with phi210 µm diameter was designed as a critical factor for improving the taper. An excellent taper angle of 0.2° could be achieved. At the beginning of EPDG, the taper angle and wavy surface of the ECDMed hole were improved by the step shape tool. The subsequent EPDG further improved the surface roughness. Additionally, a sufficient grinding time was required to produce a fine surface. Improving surface roughness requires a higher tool rotation speed and a longer grinding time. However, the dislodging of abrasives in the entrance will worsen the roundness and increase the diameter difference of the hole. Suitable grinding parameters for use in the experiments include tool rotation speed: 1500 rpm, abrasive size: 0.3 µm and grinding time: 500 s. After EPDG, the surface roughness of the microholes achieved was 5 nm Ra. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using EPDG to improve the quality of the ECDMed hole.

  6. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  7. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  8. Program for the Improvement of Downhole Drilling-Motor Bearings and Seals. Phase III, Part 2: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Six months of activity to improve downhole drilling-motor bearings and seals for geothermal applications are reported. The following are covered: seal testing and evaluation, bearing-seal package testing and evaluation, lubricant testing and evaluation, and program status, plans and schedule. (MHR)

  9. Instrumental Music: Wind and Percussion. Arkansas Public School Course Content Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed by music teachers, curriculum specialists, and Arkansas Department of Education personnel, this course content guide is designed to provide a basis for improving student skills with wind and percussion instruments. Developed on six levels, each level corresponds to one year of instruction and consists of basic skills for developing…

  10. Instrumental Music: Wind and Percussion. Arkansas Public School Course Content Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed by music teachers, curriculum specialists, and Arkansas Department of Education personnel, this course content guide is designed to provide a basis for improving student skills with wind and percussion instruments. Developed on six levels, each level corresponds to one year of instruction and consists of basic skills for developing…

  11. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  12. Advances in drilling with fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    High brightness quasi- continuous wave (QCW) and continuous wave (CW) fiber lasers are routinely being used for cutting and welding for a range of industrial applications. However, to date very little work has been carried out or has been reported on laser drilling with these laser sources. This work describes laser drilling ((trepan and percussion) of nickel based superalloys (thermal barrier coated and uncoated) with a high power QCW fiber laser. This presentation will highlight some of the most significant aspect of laser drilling, i.e. SmartPierceTM, deep hole drilling and small hole drilling. These advances in processing also demonstrate the potential for fiber laser processing when an advanced interface between laser and an open architecture controller are used.

  13. Test drilling in basalts, Lalamilo area, South Kohala District, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, Warren E.

    1980-01-01

    Test drilling has determined that a downhole-percussion airhammer can be used effectively to drill basalts in Hawaii. When used in conjunction with a foam-type drilling fluid, the hammer-bit penetration rate was rapid. Continuous drill cuttings from the materials penetrated were obtained throughout the borehole except from extremely fractured or weathered basalt zones where circulation was lost or limited. Cementing of these zones as soon as encountered reduced problems of stuck tools, washouts, and loss of drill-cuttings. Supplies and logistics on the Hawaiian Islands, always a major concern, require that all anticipated drilling supplies, spare rig and tool parts, drilling muds and additives, foam, and miscellaneous hardware be on hand before starting to drill. If not, the resulting rig downtime is costly in both time and money. (USGS)

  14. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  15. Finite element analysis of a percussion device for pulmonary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Aneesh

    A pneumothorax is a medical condition where one or both lungs are unable to remain expanded due to air in the pleural space. Finite Element Analysis simulations were conducted on a Percussion Device, which is able to diagnose a pneumothorax using an automated percussion technique. The simulations helped determine the natural modes of vibration of the Percussion Device. These modes were then compared to the motion experimentally measured by an accelerometer on the Percussion Device. It was observed that the modes of the percussion head occurred in the range of 0 to 100 Hz, while the sensor membrane modes occurred in the range of 600 to 900 Hz. Most of these modes were found to match with peaks in the experimental spectra. The simulations performed are reliable and provide an understanding of the contribution of the normal modes to the complex signals measured using the Percussion Device.

  16. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions.

    PubMed

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Timmers, Renee; Sadakata, Makiko; Desain, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedback was based on the raw participant timing and dynamics data. Results indicated that neither form of feedback led to significantly smaller timing and dynamics errors. However, high-level feedback did lead to a higher proficiency in imitating the expressive style of the target performances, as indicated by a probabilistic measure of expressive style. We conclude that, while potentially disruptive to timing processes involved in music performance due to extraneous cognitive load, high-level visual feedback can improve participant imitations of expressive performance features.

  17. Interior Department Suggests Improvements for Offshore Arctic Oil and Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    Shell's "difficulties" during its 2012 program to drill offshore oil and natural gas exploration wells in the Alaskan Arctic Ocean "have raised serious questions regarding its ability to operate safely and responsibly in the challenging and unpredictable conditions offshore Alaska," according to the report "Review of Shell's 2012 Alaska Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration Program," issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) on 8 March. Noting the company's lack of adequate preparation for drilling in the Arctic, its failure to deploy a specialized Arctic Containment System, and the grounding of the Kulluk drilling rig near Kodiak Island last December, the report recommends that Shell develop a comprehensive and integrated plan describing its future drilling program and related operations and that it commission a third-party audit of its management systems, including its safety and environmental management systems program.

  18. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  19. Percussion and physical diagnosis: separating myth from science.

    PubMed

    McGee, S R

    1995-10-01

    There are three percussion sounds, which are easily distinguishable by objective measures: tympany (heard with percussion over the intestines), resonance (heard over the normal lung), and dullness (heard over the liver or thigh). The percussion sound that is produced reflects the ease with which the body wall vibrates, which in turn is influenced by many variables, including the strength of the stroke, the condition and state of the body wall, and the underlying organs. Underlying organs or disease may cause dullness to occur at distant sites. There is good interobserver agreement among clinicians with regard to calling a particular percussion sound dull, resonant, or hyperresonant. In contrast, there is very poor interobserver agreement among clinicians using percussion to measure the span of a particular organ. The use of comparative percussion can detect most large pleural effusions, but this method is able to detect only a few pneumonias. Shifting dullness is a reliable and fairly accurate sign for the detection of ascites. Both of these techniques can still be recommended after a review of the literature. Topographic percussion (e.g., using percussion to locate the heart, liver, and spleen borders or dimensions) has poor reproducibility, is significantly inaccurate in many patients, and has little clinical utility; it should be abandoned. Its fundamental principle--that sound waves penetrate only several centimeters of tissue, resulting in a note reflecting abnormalities only in this layer of tissue--is incorrect. Auscultatory percussion offers no advantage over conventional percussion, with the possible exception of auscultatory percussion of the shoulder. Auscultatory percussion should be abandoned as a bedside diagnostic technique.

  20. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  1. Integrating multi-scale geophysical and drill-core data to improve hydraulic characterization of continental sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Physical properties of rocks in the uppermost continental crust e.g. sedimentary basins are very heterogeneously distributed and anisotropic making it necessary to perform advanced post processing techniques on geophysical data. Whereas e.g. electrical resistivity or seismic tomography allow only for identifying physical properties' variability on a scale from roughly several tens of metres to several hundred metres, drill cores reveal physical heterogeneity on the cm-scale. To study the impact of small scale acoustic and hydraulic heterogeneity on fluid flow in a sedimentary basin we use combined data sets from the Thuringian Basin in Germany, a small southern extension of the North German Basin characterised by Permian to Triassic sediments. Our data sets consist of three reflection seismic lines acquired within the framework of the multidisciplinary project INFLUINS (INtegrated FLUid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins) and as site survey for deep drilling, geophysical logging data from a 1,179 m deep drill hole in the centre of the Thuringian Basin, and Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data of the cores recovered from this drill hole. Geophysical borehole logging was performed immediate after drilling on the highest vertical resolution (about 10 cm) possible using state of the art commercial logging tools. MSCL-data were acquired at an even higher resolution of about 1 to 2 cm , which enables both, calibrating logging data and zooming in the spatial heterogeneity of physical properties. These measurements are complemented with laboratory measurements of rock physical properties (e.g. thermal conductivity, permeability) using selected core samples. Here, we mainly focus on seismic (sonic velocity, density) and hydraulic (porosity, permeability) parameters. This multi-methodological approach allows us on the one hand to estimate improved local to regional average values for physical parameters but most importantly also to highlight the role of thin layers, the physical

  2. Indirect Fist Percussion of the Liver Is a More Sensitive Technique for Detecting Hepatobiliary Infections than Murphy's Sign

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Takeshi; Ishida, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Background. Murphy's sign and Charcot's triad are established clinical findings of acute cholecystitis and cholangitis, respectively, but both show low sensitivity and limited clinical application. We evaluated if indirect fist percussion of the liver improves the efficiency of diagnosing cholecystitis and cholangitis when used as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods. The presence/absence of right upper quadrant (RUQ) tenderness, Murphy's sign, and pain induced by indirect fist percussion of the liver was assessed, and the results were compared with the definite diagnosis based on ultrasound and additional examinations in patients aged over 18 who visited our outpatient clinic with suspected hepatobiliary diseases. Results. Four hundred and eight patients were investigated, and 40 had hepatobiliary infection (acute cholecystitis: 10, acute cholangitis: 28, liver abscess: 1, and hepatic cyst infection: 1). The sensitivity of indirect fist percussion of the liver for diagnosing hepatobiliary infection was 60%, being significantly higher than that of RUQ tenderness (33%) and Murphy's sign (30%), and its specificity was 85%. There was no significant improvement in sensitivity or diagnostic accuracy when Murphy's sign was combined with indirect fist percussion of the liver. Conclusion. Indirect fist percussion-induced liver pain is a useful clinical finding to diagnose hepatobiliary infection, with high-level sensitivity. PMID:26788057

  3. Indirect Fist Percussion of the Liver Is a More Sensitive Technique for Detecting Hepatobiliary Infections than Murphy's Sign.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takeshi; Ishida, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Background. Murphy's sign and Charcot's triad are established clinical findings of acute cholecystitis and cholangitis, respectively, but both show low sensitivity and limited clinical application. We evaluated if indirect fist percussion of the liver improves the efficiency of diagnosing cholecystitis and cholangitis when used as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods. The presence/absence of right upper quadrant (RUQ) tenderness, Murphy's sign, and pain induced by indirect fist percussion of the liver was assessed, and the results were compared with the definite diagnosis based on ultrasound and additional examinations in patients aged over 18 who visited our outpatient clinic with suspected hepatobiliary diseases. Results. Four hundred and eight patients were investigated, and 40 had hepatobiliary infection (acute cholecystitis: 10, acute cholangitis: 28, liver abscess: 1, and hepatic cyst infection: 1). The sensitivity of indirect fist percussion of the liver for diagnosing hepatobiliary infection was 60%, being significantly higher than that of RUQ tenderness (33%) and Murphy's sign (30%), and its specificity was 85%. There was no significant improvement in sensitivity or diagnostic accuracy when Murphy's sign was combined with indirect fist percussion of the liver. Conclusion. Indirect fist percussion-induced liver pain is a useful clinical finding to diagnose hepatobiliary infection, with high-level sensitivity.

  4. A Different Drum: Percussion Ensembles in General Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, J. David; Thompson, Keith P.

    1989-01-01

    Encourages the use of percussion ensembles in upper elementary and secondary general music classes because of their high motivational value, the ease of achieving performance, and the minimal need for music reading skills. Offers guidelines for introducing percussion ensemble music, including an annotated discography listing selections to…

  5. 10 Tips for Wind Players Who Teach Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Wind players who become school band directors often struggle with their percussion section. They are not always sure how to deal with the technical aspects of percussion, such as double-stroke rolls or flares. They may also wonder how to get their drummers to stop talking and be ready to play. These questions reveal common concerns among…

  6. 10 Tips for Wind Players Who Teach Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Wind players who become school band directors often struggle with their percussion section. They are not always sure how to deal with the technical aspects of percussion, such as double-stroke rolls or flares. They may also wonder how to get their drummers to stop talking and be ready to play. These questions reveal common concerns among…

  7. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  8. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  9. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A.; Gelfgat, M.; Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J.

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  10. [Diagnostic value of percussion of the veins].

    PubMed

    Fontanyi, S

    1978-01-01

    Despite the present development of instrument techniques for diagnosis, clinical procedures still remain valid. It is for this reason that, for the past fifteen years, we have continued to use an almost forgotten test: percussion of the veins. Opinions concerning this test and its technical description being contradictory in the literature, we sought to define the exact circumstances under which it should be used, and how to apply it. Our diagnostic results were favorable, the technique simple, and our study was aimed mainly at describing its merits.

  11. DRILL: An Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Interface for Improved Sensitivity via Inertial Droplet Sorting and Electrohydrodynamic Focusing in a Swirling Flow.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Peter A; Lee, Jung Y; Jonke, Alex P; Seneviratne, Chinthaka A; Hecht, Elizabeth S; Muddiman, David C; Torres, Matthew P; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2017-09-05

    We describe the DRILL (dry ion localization and locomotion) device, which is an interface for electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) that exploits a swirling flow to enable the use of inertial separation to prescribe different fates for electrosprayed droplets based on their size. This source adds a new approach to charged droplet trajectory manipulation which, when combined with hydrodynamic drag forces and electric field forces, provides a rich range of possible DRILL operational modes. Here, we experimentally demonstrate sensitivity improvement obtained via vortex-induced inertial sorting of electrosprayed droplets/ions: one possible mode of DRILL operation. In this mode, DRILL removes larger droplets while accelerating the remainder of the ESI plume, producing a high velocity stream of gas-enriched spray with small, highly charged droplets and ions and directing it toward the MS inlet. The improved signal-to-noise ratio (10-fold enhancement) in the detection of angiotensin I is demonstrated using the DRILL interface coupled to ESI-MS along with an improved limit of detection (10-fold enhancement, 100 picomole) in the detection of angiotensin II. The utility of DRILL has also been demonstrated by liquid chromatography (LC)-MS: a stable isotope labeled peptide cocktail was spiked into a complex native tissue extract and quantified by unscheduled multiple reaction monitoring on a TSQ Vantage. DRILL demonstrated improved signal strength (up to a 700-fold) for 8 out of 9 peptides and had no effects on the peak shape of the transitions.

  12. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  13. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  14. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  15. Application of the IGSN for improved data - sample - drill core linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnken, Andree; Wallrabe-Adams, Hans-Joachim; Röhl, Ursula; Krysiak, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The large number of samples resulting from geoscientific research creates a need for a system that has the ability to allocate unique identifiers for individual samples (cores, core sections, rock samples...). In this abstract we present a solution that utilises the IGSN (1) Registry Metadata Store (2) to automatically register unique IGSN's for samples and submit corresponding metadata. An automated workflow has been set up to register IGSN's and submit metadata for cores stored for example at the IODP (3) Bremen Core Repository (BCR) in Bremen and the BGR National Core Repository for Research Drilling in Berlin, and partly transfer the core information to the GESEP (4) Virtual Core Repository (5). Detailed metadata for these cores are stored in a DIS (6), from which xml files containing all necessary information for IGSN and metadata submission are automatically generated. These files are automatically processed to extract and register the unique IGSN as well as the corresponding metadata. After this parsing process, the IGSN registration and metadata submission processes are triggered by posting the appropriate IGSN API (7) service calls. 1. International Geo Sample Number 2. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/ 3. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program / International Ocean Discovery Program 4. German Scientific Earth Probing Consortium 5. http://www.gesep.org/infrastruktur/kernlager/portal/ 6. Drilling Information System 7. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/static/apidoc

  16. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  17. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  18. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  19. Percussion--a new way to diagnose a pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Smethurst, D

    1999-12-01

    We describe a new clinical sign in a case series of three patients who developed pneumothoraces during mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. All three patients were in the supine position. Two patients had x-rays that were inconclusive before insertion of chest drains and the third had a pneumothorax diagnosed on clinical findings alone. On each occasion we were able to diagnose pneumothorax using sternal percussion and simultaneous auscultation. The method relies on percussion of the sternum while simultaneously ausculating the anterior (superior) chest on the side of the suspected pneumothorax. The stethoscope is then placed on the other side of the chest. The percussion sound on the affected side has an exaggerated, resonant and booming quality. The percussion note is exaggerated partly because a stethoscope is used and partly because, in the supine patient, air localizes upwards to the anterior thorax.

  20. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  1. Effects of Working Angle on Pneumatic Down-the-hole Hammer Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Yongjie; Shi, Xiangchao; Xiang, Chengliao

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the wor king angle on pneumatic down-the-hole (DTH) hammer drilling was investigated since these hammers were developed for vertical drilling and their performances in inclined positions need to be tested. The investigation begins by establishing a calculation model with which to simulate the percussive drilling of the hammer. The model consists of two parts. The first gives the kinetic energy of the piston at impact by simulating the thermodynamic cycle of the DTH hammer, and the second simulates the percussive drilling process according to the analyses of stress-wave propagation. In the meantime, a laboratory-scale test device was made for multi-angle hammer drilling tests. This device is based on a small pneumatic DTH hammer used in deep well drilling. By analyzing the force acting on the rock during impact at different angles, the percussive drilling process is carefully examined. Theoretical predictions and experimental results appear in fairly good agreement. The hammer's working performance in inclined positions can be obtained directly using the proposed model. Furthermore, when detailed evaluation is required, the hammer can be tested using the method proposed in this paper.

  2. Accuracy of percussion of the left cardiac border.

    PubMed

    Karnegis, J N; Kadri, N

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of percussion of the left cardiac border. Sixty-six adult patients were studied. The left cardiac border as determined by percussion and marked with a calibrated lead marker was compared with that obtained by a chest X-ray. The error in locating the left cardiac border by percussion ranged from underestimating by 5.0 cm to overestimating by 5.5 cm. The mean absolute error was 1.6 cm (SD = 1.6 cm). In 74% (49/66) and 85% (56/66) of the patients the percussed border was within 1.0 and 2.0 cm, respectively, of that established by X-ray. In 24 of the 66 cases, a second examiner also independently percussed the left cardiac border. The differences between the location determined by the two observers ranged from 0 to 4 cm with a mean difference of 1.2 cm (SD = 1.0 cm). Percussion can accurately locate the left cardiac border in the adult patient and is a reproducible technique.

  3. Drilling head method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, V. R.

    1985-07-30

    A rotary drilling head wherein rotary friction between the rotary spindle assembly and the spindle housing is limited by improvements in bearing and seal lubrication and by seal structure such that the gripping action of a resiliently flexible packer on a drill string provides a rotary drive connection sufficient to impart rotation to the spindle assembly through rotation of the drill string.

  4. Underbalanced drilling: Issues of producing oil and gas while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Axford, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advances in engineering and technology have developed new blowout preventers, specialized surface fluids control equipment and well control techniques for under balanced drilling. The new technology makes under balanced drilling faster, safer and less expensive. These devices and techniques reduce the risk of blowouts, when drilling with air, gas or gas cut drilling fluids while producing the zone of interest. Improved penetration rates, increased bit life, drilling cost reduction and the prevention of formation damage are benefits of drilling under balanced and specially designed BOP stacks and well control products are necessary to ensure success. The following outlines the content of this paper: History and Development of Rotating Well Control for Under Balanced Drilling; Rotating BOP and Under Balanced Drilling BOP Stack, including Land Based Operations and Offshore Operations; Design and Technical Review; Safety; Operating Considerations; Field History, An Operator`s Perspective; and Advantages.

  5. Does Anteromedial Portal Drilling Improve Footprint Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher P; Alaia, Michael J; Singh, Brian C; Jazrawi, Laith M; Walker, Peter S; Bansal, Ankit; Garofolo, Garret; Sherman, Orrin H

    2016-07-01

    Considerable debate remains over which anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique can best restore knee stability. Traditionally, femoral tunnel drilling has been done through a previously drilled tibial tunnel; however, potential nonanatomic tunnel placement can produce a vertical graft, which although it would restore sagittal stability, it would not control rotational stability. To address this, some suggest that the femoral tunnel be created independently of the tibial tunnel through the use of an anteromedial (AM) portal, but whether this results in a more anatomic footprint or in stability comparable to that of the intact contralateral knee still remains controversial. (1) Does the AM technique achieve footprints closer to anatomic than the transtibial (TT) technique? (2) Does the AM technique result in stability equivalent to that of the intact contralateral knee? (3) Are there differences in patient-reported outcomes between the two techniques? Twenty male patients who underwent a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were recruited for this study, 10 in the TT group and 10 in the AM group. Patients in each group were randomly selected from four surgeons at our institution with both groups demonstrating similar demographics. The type of procedure chosen for each patient was based on the preferred technique of the surgeon. Some surgeons exclusively used the TT technique, whereas other surgeons specifically used the AM technique. Surgeons had no input on which patients were chosen to participate in this study. Mean postoperative time was 13 ± 2.8 and 15 ± 3.2 months for the TT and AM groups, respectively. Patients were identified retrospectively as having either the TT or AM Technique from our institutional database. At followup, clinical outcome scores were gathered as well as the footprint placement and knee stability assessed. To assess the footprint placement and knee stability, three-dimensional surface models of the femur, tibia, and ACL

  6. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Rotary-Hammer Auto-Gopher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Beegle, L. W.; Bao, X.

    2011-12-01

    Deep penetration and sample acquisition are critical capabilities for the NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including the missions to Mars. A rotary-hammering drilling and coring device called Auto-Gopher is being developed that addresses this need by producing a rotary-hammering drilling and coring device that It employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and electric motor generated rotation that removes the cuttings. The percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher are activated simultaneously to optimize the penetration rate. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that allows thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths in subsurfaces and it is intended to establish the capability to penetrate the subsurface of Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone and acquire pristine samples. The Auto-Gopher that is under development represents a lessons learned from the development of the Gopher drill that is percussive only and was demonstrated to penetrated about 2 meters deep ice at in Antarctica in 2005. The demonstration of the Auto-Gopher will include coring gypsum and limestone substrates and it will be field tested to reach as deep as 3 to 5 meters.

  7. Improved assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Govind; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An improved four-node quadrilateral assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom is presented. The formulation is based on Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and the shape functions are formulated directly for the four-node element. The element has 12 membrane degrees of freedom and 12 bending degrees of freedom. It has nine independent stress parameters to describe the membrane stress resultant field and 13 independent stress parameters to describe the moment and transverse shear stress resultant field. The formulation encompasses linear stress, linear buckling, and linear free vibration problems. The element is validated with standard tests cases and is shown to be robust. Numerical results are presented for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  9. Quantifying Traces of Tool Use: A Novel Morphometric Analysis of Damage Patterns on Percussive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Matthew V.; Carvalho, Susana; Braun, David R.; Presnyakova, Darya; Haslam, Michael; Archer, Will; Bobe, Rene; Harris, John W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches towards percussive tools have been obscured by a lack of standardized methodologies. Central to this issue have been the use of qualitative, non-diagnostic techniques to identify percussive tools from archaeological contexts. Here we describe a new morphometric method for distinguishing anthropogenically-generated damage patterns on percussive tools from naturally damaged river cobbles. We employ a geomatic approach through the use of three-dimensional scanning and geographical information systems software to statistically quantify the identification process in percussive technology research. This will strengthen current technological analyses of percussive tools in archaeological frameworks and open new avenues for translating behavioral inferences of early hominins from percussive damage patterns. PMID:25415303

  10. Lateral (Parasagittal) Fluid Percussion Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Van, Ken C; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Fluid percussion was first conceptualized in the 1940s and has evolved into one of the leading laboratory methods for studying experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over the decades, fluid percussion has been used in numerous species and today is predominantly applied to the rat. The fluid percussion technique rapidly injects a small volume of fluid, such as isotonic saline, through a circular craniotomy onto the intact dura overlying the brain cortex. In brief, the methods involve surgical production of a circular craniotomy, attachment of a fluid-filled conduit between the dura overlying the cortex and the outlet port of the fluid percussion device. A fluid pulse is then generated by the free-fall of a pendulum striking a piston on the fluid-filled cylinder of the device. The fluid enters the cranium, producing a compression and displacement of the brain parenchyma resulting in a sharp, high magnitude elevation of intracranial pressure that is propagated diffusely through the brain. This results in an immediate and transient period of traumatic unconsciousness as well as a combination of focal and diffuse damage to the brain, which is evident upon histological and behavioral analysis. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the rat fluid percussion model reproduces a wide range of pathological features associated with human TBI.

  11. Extracorporeal cardiac mechanical stimulation: precordial thump and precordial percussion.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Tommaso; Kohl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    External cardiac mechanical stimulation is one of the fastest resuscitative manoeuvres possible in the emergency setting. Precordial thump (PT), initially reported for treatment of atrio-ventricular block, has been subsequently described to cardiovert also ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF). PT efficacy, mechanics and mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Appropriate MESH and free terms were searched on PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Cross-referencing from articles and reviews, and forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar have also been performed. Pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retrieved references on PT, which were then reviewed, summarized and interpreted. PT is not effective in treating VF, and of limited use for VT, although it has a very good safety profile (97% no changed/improved rhythm). If delivered, PT should be applied as early as possible after cardiac arrest, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should begin with no delay if not effective. A relatively large fraction of reported positive outcomes (both for PT and the less forceful but serially applied precordial percussion) in witnessed asystole should be considered when critically reviewing present CPR recommendations. In addition, mechanisms, energy requirements and timing are analysed and discussed. The 2005 ALS guidelines recommend PT delivery only by healthcare professionals trained in the technique. The use of training aids should therefore be explored, regardless of whether they are based on stand-alone devices or integrated within resuscitation mannequins.

  12. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  13. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  14. The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures.

    PubMed

    Onenç, A; Kaya, A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of electrical and percussive captive bolt stunning both on initial and up to 14 days post mortem meat quality of Friesian young bulls were studied. The first group (NS; n=10) were slaughtered without stunning under Turkish slaughter procedure (these animals were slaughtered under conditions acceptable to the appropriate ethics committee) in a modern abattoir. In the second group (ES; n=10) animals were electrically stunned. In the third group (PS; n=10) animals were stunned with percussive captive bolt. Meat quality was assessed by examining muscle glycogen concentration, pH and WHC. Also cooking loss, texture parameters and consumer sensory properties were assessed at 24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days post mortem. Meat colour as L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗), h(∗) values were evaluated at 0, 48 h, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 days post mortem. Pre-slaughter handling affected muscle glycogen concentration (P<0.05). Animals in electrical and percussive captive bolt stunned groups had higher muscle glycogen concentrations compared to animals in the non-stunned group (P<0.05). Although pre-slaughter handling did not affect significantly pH(24 h) and WHC, differences were significant for cooking loss, colour coordinates and texture parameters at some storage times. For all sensory attributes (odour, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability) at all ageing periods (24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days) the percussive stunned (PS) group was significantly superior to the non-stunned (NS) group. The electrically-stunned (ES) group also tended to be superior to the NS group although not all differences were statistically significant. These results indicate that percussive captive bolt stunning of cattle improved meat quality compared with cattle electrically stunned using head only tongs and those non stunned under approved Turkish slaughter procedure.

  15. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  16. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Schuler, Jason M.; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Nick, Andrew J.; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  17. Reducing extra-terrestrial excavation forces with percussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.; Smith, J. D.; Lippitt, T.; Schuler, J.; Nick, A.

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached to a test stand simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 to 700 beats per minute (BPM) were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  19. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics For Evaluating Bond Integrity Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott Leonard

    Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was utilized based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Experimental results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting 'kiss' bonds (very low adhesive shear strength), caused by the application of release agents on the bonding surfaces, between flat composite laminates bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Specifically, the local value of the loss coefficient determined from quantitative percussion testing was found to be significantly greater for a release coated panel compared to that for a well bonded sample. Also, the local value of the probe force or force returned to the probe after impact was observed to be lower for the release coated panels. The increase in loss coefficient and decrease in probe force are thought to be due to greater internal friction during the percussion event for poorly bonded specimens. NDT standards were also fabricated by varying the cure parameters of an epoxy film adhesive. Results from QPD for the variable cure NDT standards and lap shear strength measurements taken of mechanical test specimens were compared and analyzed. Finally, experimental results have been compared to a finite element analysis to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. This comparison shows how a lower quality bond leads to a reduction in the percussion force by biasing strain in the percussion tested side of the panel.

  20. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, Jason; Mueller, Robert; Smith, Drew; Nick, Andrew; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. The goal of percussive excavation is to fluidize dry regolith in front of the leading edge of the tool by mechanically separating the microscopic interlocking grains resulting in a reduced force needed to shear the soil. There are several variables involved with this technique; this experiment varied: Impact energy, frequency, and excavation speed and held constant: impact direction, depth of cut, angle of tool, and soil bulk density. The test apparatus consisted of an aluminum truss bridge with a central pivoting arm. Attached to the arm was a winch with a load cell in line that recorded the tension in the cable and therefore the excavation load. The arm could be adjusted for excavation depth which was recorded along with the arm angle relative to the bridge. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of . movement. Internally the mechanism used a set of die springs and barrel cam to produce the percussive blow. By changing the springs and the speed of the motor the impact energy and frequency of percussion could be varied independently. Impact energies from 11.2J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 51% was achieved in this experimental investigation. Smaller percussive digging implements, tested by others, have achieved a

  1. Emergent precordial percussion revisited--pacing the heart in asystole.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Peter P; Alibertis, Kostas; Brady, William J

    2011-06-01

    Precordial percussion is a technique by which a manual force is applied repeatedly to the chest of a patient experiencing an unstable bradycardic or asystolic rhythm. The force is used not to defibrillate the myocardium as is the case with the "precordial thump" in pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation but rather to initiate a current through the myocardium in the form of an essentially mechanically paced beat. In this review, we discuss the physiology and utility of precordial percussion, or precordial thump, in the emergency setting as a very temporary bridge to more effective and permanent pacing techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  3. Drilling update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At its March 31 meeting the governing board of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), designated Texas A&M University to direct scientific operations for the new phase of scientific ocean drilling. William Merrell, associate dean of geosciences at Texas A&M, is leading an interim planning team in implementing the recommendations of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Crustal Studies (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). The ad hoc group, chaired by Charles Drake, recommended that scientific ocean drilling be pursued not with the Glomar Challenger or the Glomar Explorer, but with one of the roughly half-dozen commercial drilling ships that have become available with the slackening of the commercial drilling market.Foremost of the tasks facing the interim planning team is to write a request for proposals (RFP) for a drill ship and to define performance criteria for a commercial drilling platform. The RFP is expected to be issued by Texas A&M in 6-8 weeks, according to Philip Rabinowitz, acting project director and a professor in the university's oceanography department. Once those tasks are completed and a successful bidder is found, a formal proposal will be made to NSF through JOI. The proposal will be subject to the usual NSF peer review process. If the proposal is approved, Rabinowitz said that Texas A&M would expect actual drilling to begin in October 1984. In addition to Merrell and Rabinowitz, the interim planning team also includes acting chief scientist Stefan Gartner.

  4. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  5. Drilling bit

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, F. M.

    1985-07-09

    A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.

  6. Drilling speaking valves: a modification to improve vocalization in tracheostomy dependent children.

    PubMed

    Brigger, Matthew T; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric tracheostomy dependence is associated with a variety of sequelae. Vocalization delay is commonplace and may result in long-term communication disability. Passy-Muir speaking valves are routinely used to allow such children to vocalize. Unfortunately, not all tracheostomy dependent children can tolerate the placement of a speaking valve. Elevated transtracheal pressures are often associated with failure. We describe a method of modifying a standard Passy-Muir valve to decrease transtracheal pressures and thus improve tolerance of the valve. In our practice, the modification allows a broader range of children experience the benefit of speaking valve placement.

  7. Production drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

  8. Content Analysis of Students' Journals in a Percussion Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical investigation of music education students' journals within a percussion methods course at a Midwestern university in the United States. The findings of this investigation raise issues about music education students' sense of self-awareness, specificity within the journals, and the predominance of discussions…

  9. Historical Review of the Fluid-Percussion TBI Model

    PubMed Central

    Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce the concussive clinical syndrome in animals. The fluid-percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer-controlled systems. Of the many preclinical TBI models, the fluid-percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers who have led to today’s state of the art fluid-percussion animal models of TBI. PMID:27994570

  10. Historical Review of the Fluid-Percussion TBI Model.

    PubMed

    Lyeth, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce the concussive clinical syndrome in animals. The fluid-percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer-controlled systems. Of the many preclinical TBI models, the fluid-percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers who have led to today's state of the art fluid-percussion animal models of TBI.

  11. Ensemble Music for Wind and Percussion Instruments: A Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, George N.

    This catalog provides over 5,000 titles of music currently in print, together with indications of the composers, publishers, and degrees of difficulty. Sections include listings of ensembles for like woodwinds, mixed woodwinds, like brass, mixed brass, percussion, and miscellaneous instrumentation. (RA)

  12. Content Analysis of Students' Journals in a Percussion Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical investigation of music education students' journals within a percussion methods course at a Midwestern university in the United States. The findings of this investigation raise issues about music education students' sense of self-awareness, specificity within the journals, and the predominance of discussions…

  13. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  14. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D.B.; Lauzon, R.V.

    1981-11-17

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  15. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D. B.; Lauzon, R. V.

    1984-12-04

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  16. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.H.; Rubin, L.A.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low- pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) {open_quotes}Cableless{close_quotes} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  17. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  18. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  19. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  20. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  1. Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2013-01-01

    Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

  2. Underbalanced drilling solves difficult drilling problems and enhances production

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, R.L.; Vozniak, J.

    1997-02-01

    An alternate approach to drilling, completing and working over new and existing wells has dramatically improved the efficiency of these operations. This method is called underbalanced drilling (UBD). Improvements in both the equipment and technique during the past 5 years have made this process economical and necessary to solve many difficult drilling problems. Additionally, by reducing drilling or workover damage, dramatic improvements in oil and gas production rates and ultimate reserves are realized, resulting in extra profits for today`s operators. This article will detail the advantages of UBD and give specific examples of its applications, A series of related articles will follow, including: new UBD equipment, land and off-shore case histories, coiled tubing drilling, underbalanced workovers, software technology and subsea applications to examine the reality and future of this technology.

  3. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  4. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

  5. Center of percussion of hand-held implements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2004-05-01

    The center of percussion is commonly regarded as a sweet spot when referring to a baseball bat or a tennis racquet because it is assumed that there will be no sudden motion of the handle with respect to the hand if the corresponding axis of rotation passes through the hand. A problem with this interpretation is that the hand extends over a finite length of the handle and exerts an opposing reaction force on the handle. The hand also changes the total mass and moment of inertia of the system, while the arm restricts free motion of the hand. Experimental results are presented showing that the axis of rotation passes through the hand or the wrist for all the usual impact points on a hand-held implement. As a result, the impact point that feels best is usually the node of the fundamental vibration mode, not the center of percussion.

  6. Diagnosis of hip fracture by the auscultatory percussion technique.

    PubMed

    File, P; Wood, J P; Kreplick, L W

    1998-03-01

    Traumatic hip pain is a commonly encountered complaint in the emergency department. Occasionally, initial radiographs fail to show a fracture. A delayed diagnosis can result in significant patient morbidity. Diagnostic algorithms have been formulated to evaluate the patient with hip pain and negative initial radiographs. The auscultatory percussion technique can alert the physician of the presence or absence of an occult hip fracture. Consequently, the physician may order a more sophisticated imaging technique.

  7. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply by Peter T. Bartkowski ARL-TR-6987 July 2014... Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply Peter T. Bartkowski Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  8. Prediction and improvement of the solid particles transfer rate for the bulk handing system design of offshore drilling vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Mincheol; Jeon, Dong Soo; Kim, Yooil

    2015-11-01

    Numerous experiments with a scaled pilot facility were carried out to compare the relative bulk transfer performance of three special devices for applications to drilling systems. The pipe diameter for bulk transportation was 3 in., which corresponds to around half of the actual system dimensions. Two different pressures, 3 and 4 bar, were considered to check the relative performance under different pressure conditions at a bulk storage tank. And to make a practical estimation method of the bulk transfer rate at the early design stages of the bulk handling system, a series of experiments were conducted for real scaled bulk handing systems of two drilling vessels. The pressure drops at each pipe element as well as the bulk transfer rates were measured under different operating conditions. Using the measured results, the friction factor for each pipe element was calculated and a procedure for transfer rate estimation was developed. Compared to the measured transfer rate results for other drilling vessels, the estimated transfer rates were within a maximum 15% error bound.

  9. Western USA groundwater drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  10. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  11. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  12. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  13. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S S

    2013-03-01

    Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted.

  14. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  15. 49 CFR 178.318 - Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps. 178.318 Section 178.318 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....318 Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps....

  16. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  17. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  18. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  19. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  20. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  1. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-12-23

    The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a "skills and drills" intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for newborn skills: 58% vs. 48%, respectively; P

  2. Evaluation of chest percussion in the treatment of patients with copious sputum production.

    PubMed

    Gallon, A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of manual chest percussion was studied in nine patients with copious sputum production. Treatment consisting of postural drainage (PD) and the forced expiration technique (FET) produced sputum at the rate of 0.831 g min-1. When percussion was included in the treatment regimen, the rate of sputum production was significantly greater (P less than 0.05), being 1.231 g min-1 for fast percussion and 1.040 g min-1 for slow percussion. Pulmonary function and oxygen saturation were unaffected by any of the treatment regimens. This study demonstrates that manual chest percussion is a useful adjunct to PD and FET in the treatment of patients with copious sputum production.

  3. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to manual chest percussion in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Dallimore, Kate; Jenkins, Sue; Tucker, Beatrice

    1998-01-01

    The respiratory and cardiovascular responses to manual chest percussion were studied in seven naive healthy subjects. Percussion during quiet breathing, percussion with thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) and TEE alone were applied to subjects in side-lying. Inspired volume, oxygen consumption, oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, during and after each technique. Significant increases in inspired volume and heart rate occurred with all three techniques (p < 0.01). Oxygen consumption increased with all three techniques however only the increases during percussion with TEE, and TEE alone were significant (p < 0.01). Oxygen saturation increased with percussion with TEE and TEE alone (p < 0.01). No significant changes in blood pressure were observed.

  4. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    physiologic and clin- ical outcomes. Pediatric and adult inhalational injury studies have linked HFPV to an improvement in static lung compliance...sedation–analgesic combinations (usually fentanyl with the individual or combined use of midazolam and propofol and/or dexmedetomidine), patient...1998;84:1174–7. 34. Frantz ID III, Close RH. Alveolar pressure swings during high frequency ventilation in rabbits. Pediatr Res 1985;19:162–6. 35. Pillow

  5. Investigation of graded strengthened hyper-deformed surfaces by impact treatment: micro-percussion testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbajoy-Spinel, David; Descartes, Sylvie; Bergheau, Jean-Michel; Al-Baida, Halim; Langlade, Cécile; Kermouche, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    In the industry, mechanical surface treatments could improve the mechanical behaviour of materials by the means of local hyper-deformation and graded strengthening. Micro-percussion test represents an interesting case scenario to emulate these kinds of conventional treatments (shot-peening, SMAT, roller-burnishing, etc) and go further on microstructural and mechanical characterization at local and global scales. For this technique, every impact is made at the same position by a rigid conical indenter, controlling the number, angle and velocity of impacts. The main issue of this work is to establish a complete description of the transformed microstructures; to understand the mechanisms involved on the formation and growth of refined structures; to make a parametric sensitivity analysis of different impact conditions.

  6. Mars and Lunar Vacuum Chamber Testing Facilities and Vacuum Rated Drill Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Craft, J.; Maksymuk, M.; Santoro, C.; Wilson, J.

    2009-12-01

    Martian and Lunar low pressure and vacuum conditions, respectively, greatly affect the performance of the drilling mechanics and drill hardware. For this reason, it is imperative to test planetary sampling and coring drills under these specific environments. Honeybee Robotics acquired an 11ft vacuum chamber that is currently being used to test drills to 1m depth and more. A separate cooling system is used to maintain low temperature of planetary analog formations such as ice, soil, icy-soils, and rocks. The low temperature increases the strength of these formations and in turn reduces drilling efficiency. The chamber also has a numerous feed troughs that can be used to transfer thermal data from thermocouples embedded inside the drilled sample, and the drill bits. The thermal data is useful to determine the temperature the sample reaches during the drilling process. The drill systems include rotary, rotary-percussive, and rotary-sonic. The latter two, in particular, offer superior performance in hard formations due to impacts and/or vibrations that enhance penetration rate. All the drill systems are vacuum rated and hence can be used as test platforms for vacuum testing.

  7. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  8. Stacked rig refurbished for ultradeep gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Noevig, T.; Gutsche, W. )

    1995-01-09

    A heavy drilling rig, cold stacked for several years, recently underwent numerous structural, equipment, and computer upgrades for drilling ultradeep (8,000 m) gas wells in Germany. The technical improvements on the rig included supplementary installations and modifications to safety, quality, engineering, noise abatement, and environmental protection systems. With a maximal hook load of 700 tons, the drilling rig is one of the heaviest of its kind in Europe. The rig has a drilling depth range of 7,000--8,000 m, and the top drive system enables horizontal drilling. The paper describes the rig site, mast, top drive, substructure, draw works, power station, mud system, instrumentation, and other equipment.

  9. Direct investigation of the ablation rate evolution during laser drilling of high-aspect-ratio micro-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Sibillano, Teresa; Columbo, Lorenzo L.; Di Niso, Francesca; Ancona, Antonio; Dabbicco, Maurizio; De Lucia, Francesco; Lugarà, Pietro M.; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2012-03-01

    The recent development of ultrafast laser ablation technology in precision micromachining has dramatically increased the demand for reliable and real-time detection systems to characterize the material removal process. In particular, the laser percussion drilling of metals is lacking of non-invasive techniques able to monitor into the depth the spatial- and time-dependent evolution all through the ablation process. To understand the physical interaction between bulk material and high-energy light beam, accurate in-situ measurements of process parameters such as the penetration depth and the removal rate are crucial. We report on direct real time measurements of the ablation front displacement and the removal rate during ultrafast laser percussion drilling of metals by implementing a contactless sensing technique based on optical feedback interferometry. High aspect ratio micro-holes were drilled onto steel plates with different thermal properties (AISI 1095 and AISI 301) and Aluminum samples using 120-ps/110-kHz pulses delivered by a microchip laser fiber amplifier. Percussion drilling experiments have been performed by coaxially aligning the diode laser probe beam with the ablating laser. The displacement of the penetration front was instantaneously measured during the process with a resolution of 0.41 μm by analyzing the sawtooth-like induced modulation of the interferometric signal out of the detector system.

  10. Chuck for delicate drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of oil film technique to couple power between drive spindle and drill chuck for delicate drilling operations is discussed. Oil film permits application of sufficient pressure, but stops rotating when drill jams. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  11. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  12. Micro drilling using deformable mirror for beam shaping of ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarra, Marco; Strube, Anja; Dickmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Using ultra-short laser pulses for micro structuring or drilling applications reduces the thermal influence to the surrounding material. The best achievable beam profile equals a Gaussian beam. Drilling with this beam profile results in cylindrical holes. To vary the shape of the holes, the beam can either be scanned or - for single pulse and percussion drilling - manipulated by masks or lenses. A high flexible method for beam shaping can be realized by using a deformable mirror. This mirror contains a piezo-electric ceramic, which can be deformed by an electric potential. By separating the ceramic into independent controllable segments, the shape of the surface can be varied individually. Due to the closed surface of the mirror, there is no loss of intensity due to diffraction. The mirror deformation is controlled by Zernike polynomials and results e.g. in a lens behavior. In this study a deformable mirror was used to generate e.g. slits in thin steel foils by percussion drilling using ultra-short laser pulses. The influence of the cylindrical deformation to the laser beam and the resulting geometry of the generated holes was studied. It was demonstrated that due to the high update rate up to 150 Hz the mirror surface can be varied in each scan cycle, which results in a high flexible drilling process.

  13. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  14. Percussive and Proboscis Based Lunar Heat Flow Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumm, E.; Zacny, K.; Kumar, N.

    2009-12-01

    The subsurface temperature of the Moon is strongly influenced by the diurnal, annual, and precession fluctuations of the insolation. Therefore, to measure the heat flow, the probe has to be inserted to a depth of at least 3m. There are a number of ways the heat flow probe can be deployed. These methods differ in many ways such as simplicity and mass of the deployment system, power required to deploy it, extent of thermal isolation between temperature sensors and between sensors themselves and surface system (deployment system, lander, electronics box etc), thermal sensor placement within the hole (radiative as opposed to conducive coupling), and methods of deployment. The percussive based heat flow probe utilizes a percussive approach to drive a small diameter (20mm) cone penetrometer to >3 meter depths, deploying ring-like thermal sensors every 30 cm. It leaves only small sensors in the borehole, maximizing measurement sensitivity by minimizing thermal coupling from the lander to the electrical tether. The proboscis based heat flow probe utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach to lower the heat flow probe, a lenticular tape, to 3 meters. The system offers extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment.

  15. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hironaka, Ross; Stanley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A prototype low-force rotary-percussive rock coring tool for use in acquiring samples for geological surveys in future planetary missions was developed. The coring tool could eventually enable a lightweight robotic system to operate from a relatively small (less than 200 kg) mobile or fixed platform to acquire and cache Mars or other planetary rock samples for eventual return to Earth for analysis. To gain insight needed to design an integrated coring tool, the coring ability of commercially available coring bits was evaluated for effectiveness of varying key parameters: weight-on-bit, rotation speed, percussive rate and force. Trade studies were performed for different methods of breaking a core at its base and for retaining the core in a sleeve to facilitate sample transfer. This led to a custom coring tool design which incorporated coring, core breakage, core retention, and core extraction functions. The coring tool was tested on several types of rock and demonstrated the overall feasibility of this approach for robotic rock sample acquisition.

  16. IceBreaker: Mars Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellerowicz, B. L.; Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Dave, A.; Davila, A. F.; Marinova, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the development and testing of a one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sample delivery system. The IceBreaker drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sam-pling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. The drill is deployed from a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robotic arm. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground, ice, and rocks at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This cor-responds to an average energy of 100 Whr. The drill has been extensively tested in the Mars chamber to a depth of 1 meter, as well as in the Antarctic and the Arctic Mars analog sites. We also tested three sample delivery systems: 1) 4 DOF arm with a custom soil scoop at the end; 2) Pneumatic based, and 3) Drill based enabled by the 3 (DOF) drill deployment boom. In all approaches there is an air-gap between the sterilized drill (which penetrates subsurface) and the sample transfer hardware (which is not going to be sterilized). The air gap satisfies the planetary protection requirements. The scoop acquires cuttings sample once they are augered to the surface, and drops them into an in-strument inlet port. The system has been tested in the Mars chamber and in the Arctic. The pneumatic sample delivery system uses compressed gas to move the sample captured inside a small chamber inte-grated with the auger, directly into the instrument. The system was tested in the Mars chamber. In the third approach the drill auger captures the sample on its flutes, the 3 DOF boom positions the tip of the auger above the instrument, and then the auger discharges the sample into an instrument. This approach was tested in the labolatory (at STP). The above drilling and sample delivery tests have shown that drilling

  17. Acoustical properties of drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Drilling head assembly

    SciTech Connect

    De Wayne Wagoner, E.; Owen, E.D.

    1984-01-03

    An improved rotary drilling head assembly comprising a main housing having an axial bore therethrough; a stripper assembly disposed within the housing axial bore; and a stripper support assembly rotatingly supporting the stripper assembly. The stripper support assembly is removably attachable to the main housing and comprises an inner skirt member which is configured to extend about and to be supported on an exterior support surface of the main housing; an outer bearing housing configured to extend about and to be bearingly interconnected to the inner skirt member; a stripper clamp assembly clamping the stripper assembly to the outer bearing housing; and a clamping assembly removably attaching the inner skirt member to the exterior support surface such that the entire stripper support assembly of the drilling head assembly is removable from the housing as a unitary assembly by disengaging the clamping assembly.

  19. Experimental Study on Micro Hole Drilling Using Ultrashort Pulse Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Andreas; Schille, Joerg; Loeschner, Udo

    This paper discusses latest results obtained in micro hole percussion drilling in stainless steel. In the investigations a femtosecond laser source was used emitting 220 fs pulses at 1.03μm wavelength, whereas the spot size amounted to 31μm. Thereby, important process parameters like pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse number were varied over a wide range in order to evaluate their influence both on the micro hole geometry like hole diameter, roundness, taper angle, and on the drilling quality such as thermal modification and melting residues. First, the required number of pulses for through hole drilling was estimated for material thicknesses ranging between 25μm and 1mm. It was found, that the polarization state of the laser beam has a considerable impact on micro hole formation. Therefore, linear and circular polarized laser radiation was applied. Finally, optimum parameters for highest available drilling quality and speed were identified.

  20. Residual Stress Analysis of Laser-Drilled Thermal Barrier Coatings Involving Various Bond Coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinard, C.; Montay, G.; Guipont, V.; Jeandin, M.; Girardot, J.; Schneider, M.

    2015-01-01

    The gas turbine combustion chamber of aero-engines requires a thermal barrier coating (TBC) by thermal spraying. Further heat protection is achieved by laser drilling of cooling holes. The residual stresses play an important role in the mechanical behaviour of TBC. It could also affect the TBC response to delamination during laser drilling. In this work, studies of the cracking behaviour after laser drilling and residual stress distribution have been achieved for different bond coats by plasma spray or cold spray. From interface crack length measured pulse-by-pulse after laser percussion drilling at 20° angle, the role of the various bond coats on crack initiation and propagation are investigated. It is shown that the bond coat drastically influences the cracking behaviour. The residual stresses profiles were also determined by the incremental hole-drilling method involving speckle interferometry. An original method was also developed to measure the residual stress profiles around a pre-drilled zone with a laser beam at 90°. The results are discussed to highlight the influence of TBCs interfaces on the resulting residual stresses distribution before laser drilling, and also to investigate the modification around the hole after laser drilling. It is shown that laser drilling could affect the residual stress state.

  1. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  2. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  3. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  4. Solicitation - Geothermal Drilling Development and Well Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    Energy (DOE)-industry research and development (R and D) organization, sponsors near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling and well maintenance costs. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) administers DOE funds for GDO cost-shared projects and provides technical support. The GDO serves a very important function in fostering geothermal development. It encourages commercialization of emerging, cost-reducing drilling technologies, while fostering a spirit of cooperation among various segments of the geothermal industry. For Sandia, the GDO also serves as a means of identifying the geothermal industry's drilling fuel/or well maintenance problems, and provides an important forum for technology transfer. Successfully completed GDO projects include: the development of a high-temperature borehole televiewer, high-temperature rotating head rubbers, a retrievable whipstock, and a high-temperature/high-pressure valve-changing tool. Ongoing GDO projects include technology for stemming lost circulation; foam cement integrity log interpretation, insulated drill pipe, percussive mud hammers for geothermal drilling, a high-temperature/ high-pressure valve changing tool assembly (adding a milling capability), deformed casing remediation, high- temperature steering tools, diagnostic instrumentation for casing in geothermal wells, and elastomeric casing protectors.

  5. Human-based percussion and self-similarity detection in electroacoustic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John Anderson, III

    Electroacoustic music is music that uses electronic technology for the compositional manipulation of sound, and is a unique genre of music for many reasons. Analyzing electroacoustic music requires special measures, some of which are integrated into the design of a preliminary percussion analysis tool set for electroacoustic music. This tool set is designed to incorporate the human processing of music and sound. Models of the human auditory periphery are used as a front end to the analysis algorithms. The audio properties of percussivity and self-similarity are chosen as the focus because these properties are computable and informative. A collection of human judgments about percussion was undertaken to acquire clearly specified, sound-event dimensions that humans use as a percussive cue. A total of 29 participants was asked to make judgments about the percussivity of 360 pairs of synthesized snare-drum sounds. The grouped results indicate that of the dimensions tested rise time is the strongest cue for percussivity. String resonance also has a strong effect, but because of the complex nature of string resonance, it is not a fundamental dimension of a sound event. Gross spectral filtering also has an effect on the judgment of percussivity but the effect is weaker than for rise time and string resonance. Gross spectral filtering also has less effect when the stronger cue of rise time is modified simultaneously. A percussivity-profile algorithm (PPA) is designed to identify those instants in pieces of music that humans also would identify as percussive. The PPA is implemented using a time-domain, channel-based approach and psychoacoustic models. The input parameters are tuned to maximize performance at matching participants' choices in the percussion-judgment collection. After the PPA is tuned, the PPA then is used to analyze pieces of electroacoustic music. Real electroacoustic music introduces new challenges for the PPA, though those same challenges might affect

  6. Lateral Fluid Percussion: Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P.; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes 1,2. Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement 3,4. The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response 3,5, and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury 6-8. Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure 9. Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals 10-12, which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities 13,14. Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration 1. The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue 1,15. Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure 16,17. The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific mass on the closed

  7. Lateral fluid percussion: model of traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-08-22

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes (1,2). Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement (3,4). The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response (3,5), and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury (6-8). Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure (9). Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals (10-12), which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities (13,14). Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration (1). The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue (1,15). Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure (16,17). The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific

  8. Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance.

    PubMed

    Lipman, S S; Carvalho, B; Cohen, S E; Druzin, M L; Daniels, K

    2013-04-01

    We documented time to key milestones and determined reasons for transport-related delays during simulated emergency cesarean. Prospective, observational investigation of delivery of care processes by multidisciplinary teams of obstetric providers on the labor and delivery unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA, during 14 simulated uterine rupture scenarios. The primary outcome measure was the total time from recognition of the emergency (time zero) to that of surgical incision. The median (interquartile range) from time zero until incision was 9 min 27 s (8:55 to 10:27 min:s). In this series of emergency cesarean drills, our teams required approximately nine and a half minutes to move from the labor room to the nearby operating room (OR) and make the surgical incision. Multiple barriers to efficient transport were identified. This study demonstrates the utility of simulation to identify and correct institution-specific barriers that delay transport to the OR and initiation of emergency cesarean delivery.

  9. Auto Indexer Auto-Indexer for Percussive Hammers: Vane Motor Dynamometer Testing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Su, Jiann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Options associated with geothermal drilling operations are generally limited by factors such as formation temperature and rock strength. The objective of the research is to expand the "tool box" available to the geothermal driller by furthering the development of a high-temperature drilling motor that can be used in directional drilling applications for drilling high temperature geothermal formations. The motor is specifically designed to operate in conjunction with a pneumatic down-the-hole-hammer. It provides a more compact design compared to traditional drilling motors such as PDMs (positive displacement motors). The packaging can help to enhance directional drilling capabilities. It uses no elastomeric components, which enables it to operate in higher temperatures ( >250 °F). Current work on the motor has shown that is a capable of operating under pneumatic power with a down-the-hole-hammer. Further development work will include continued testing and refining motor components and evaluating motor capabilities. Targets/Milestones Complete testing current motor - 12/31/2010 Make final material and design decisions - 01/31/2011 Build and test final prototype - 04/31/2011 Final demonstration - 07/31/2011 Impacts The development of the motor will help to achieve program technical objectives by improving well construction capabilities. This includes enabling high-temperature drilling as well as enhancing directional drilling. A key component in the auto indexer is the drive motor. It is an air-driven vane motor that converts the energy stored in the compressed air to mechanical energy. The motor is attached to hammer-like components which impart an impulsive load onto the drive shaft. The impulsive force on the drive shaft in turn creates an indexing action. A controlled test was performed to characterize the performance of the the vane motor for a given pressure. The Sandia dynamometer test station was used to determine the performance of the motor for a

  10. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  11. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  12. Efficacy and safety of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation superimposed on conventional ventilation in obese patients with compression atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Kasaoka, Shunji; Okabayashi, Kiyoshi; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) in obese patients, we assessed their respiratory and hemodynamic functions during IPV superimposed on conventional ventilation. Ten obese patients with acute respiratory failure due to compression atelectasis who had not improved by conventional ventilation were treated with IPV. Hemodynamic parameters, ventilator settings, and intracranial pressure (n = 1) were recorded every hour. Arterial blood gas was analyzed every 3 hours. The efficacy and safety of IPV was assessed at the start of weaning. Before IPV, Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio remained low (189 +/- 63 mm Hg), which significantly increased to 243 +/- 67 mm Hg at 3 hours from the initiation of IPV (P < .01). Furthermore, it continuously increased to 280 +/- 50 mm Hg at 24 hours (P < .01). Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation induced significant increase in dynamic compliance from control value of 30 +/- 8 mL/cm H(2)O at 0 hours to 35 +/- 9 mL/cm H(2)O at 12 hours (P < .05) and to 38 +/- 8 mL/cm H(2)O at 24 hours (P < .01). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were not significantly changed during IPV. Improvement of compression atelectasis was confirmed by their chest computed tomographic scans. Adverse effects such as pneumothorax and intracranial hypertension were not seen. These results demonstrated that IPV was effective and safe in improving compression atelectasis without adverse effects in obese patients.

  13. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  14. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  15. Trepanning drilling of stainless steel using a high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber ultrafast laser: influence of pulse duration on hole geometry and processing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, John; Dijoux, Mathieu; Devillard, Raphael; Faucon, Marc; Kling, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Percussion drilling is a well-established technique for several applicative markets such as for aircraft and watch industries. Lamp pumped solid state lasers and more recently fiber lasers, operating in millisecond or nanosecond regimes, are classically used for these applications. However, due to their long pulse duration, these technologies are not suitable for emerging applicative market such as fuel injectors for automotive industry. Only the ultrashort laser technology, combined with special drilling optics like trepanning head, has the potential to fulfill the needs for this new market in terms of processing quality, custom-shape capabilities and short drilling time. Although numerous papers dealing with percussion drilling have been reported in the literature, only few papers are dedicated to trepanning drilling. In this context, we present some results on the influence of pulse duration on gas-assisted laser drilling of stainless steel using a trepanning head and a high power Ytterbium doped fiber ultrafast laser (20W). The influence of pulse energy (7- 64μJ), fluence (3-25 J/cm2), drilling time (1-20s), processing gas pressure and drilling strategy will be discussed as well.

  16. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  17. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  18. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  19. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities.

  20. Nut Cracking Tools Used by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Their Comparison with Early Stone Age Percussive Artefacts from Olduvai Gorge

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Adrián; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans. The approach used in this study may help to stablish a framework with which to interpret archaeological assemblages and improve understanding of use-wear formation processes on pounding tools used by chimpanzees. This study represents the first direct comparison of chimpanzee pounding tools and archaeological material, and thus may contribute to a better understanding of hominin percussive activities. PMID:27870877

  1. Comparative Study Between The Alternative Used By The IMP Type Pecussion Drills And The Version Using Fluid Elements Regarding The Supplying, Command And Automatic Adjustment Systems Of The Injection Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2015-12-01

    Starting from analyzing of an existing solution regarding the injection water feeding system for the pneumatic rotating and percussion drilling installations, which is included in the structure of the perforator installation (IMP-1or IMP-2), the paper presents part of a research regarding an original solution of the automatic command and regulate with monostable fluidic elements, with different physical nature jets. This solution is applicable to this drilling installations type, made in Romania.

  2. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  3. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  4. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors' sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one's own living breathing body.

  5. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  6. Use of percussion as a screening tool in the diagnosis of occult hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Tiru, Mohan; Goh, S H; Low, B Y

    2002-09-01

    Traumatic hip pain is a common clinical problem in the emergency department. There is significant morbidity in discharging a patient with an undiagnosed undisplaced hip fracture. The auscultatory percussion technique is a useful method to risk stratify patients who present with traumatic hip pain and with normal radiographs. We sought to study the sensitivity and specificity of the auscultatory percussion technique in a prospective study.

  7. Precision drilling of fused silica with 157-nm excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian; Meyer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    μFor drilling fused silica, mechanical techniques like with diamond drills, ultrasonic machining, sand blasting or water jet machining are used. Also chemical techniques like laser assisted wet etching or thermal drilling with CO2-lasers are established. As an extension of these technologies, the drilling of micro-holes in fused silica with VUV laser radiation is presented here. The high absorption of the 157 nm radiation emitted by the F2 excimer laser and the short pulse duration lead to a material ablation with minimised impact on the surrounding material. Contrary to CO2-laser drilling, a molten and solidified phase around the bore can thus be avoided. The high photon energy of 7.9 eV requires either high purity nitrogen flushing or operation in vacuum, which also effects the processing results. Depending on the required precision, the laser can be used for percussion drilling as well as for excimer laser trepanning, by applying rotating masks. Rotating masks are especially used for high aspect ratio drilling with well defined edges and minimised debris. The technology is suitable particularly for holes with a diameter below 200 μm down to some microns in substrates with less than 200 μm thickness, that can not be achieved with mechanical methods. Drilling times in 200 μm fused silica substrates are in the range of ten seconds, which is sufficient to compete with conventional methods while providing similar or even better accuracy.

  8. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable Contributions to Shear Strength Reduction for Percussive Excavation in Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A.; Zacny, K.; Lieu, D.; Pestana, J.; Johnson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Computer generated robotic mobility modeling is an essential tool for future design. A critical part of that design tool is the empirical data to be used to corroborate and validate numeric models. Recently, Honeybee Robotics performed extensive testing to document how different variables change the effectiveness of percussive excavation in lunar simulant JSC1A. This test data will be used in future work to help develop a physically based discrete element model (DEM). The DEM will in turn be means by which engineers can theoretically predict interaction forces associated with different excavation devices in lunar regolith. Earlier work has already shown that percussive excavation has a dramatic effect on reducing the shear strength of dry granular soils, including lunar regolith JSC 1A. The purpose of this current research is to thoroughly study the variables involved in percussive excavation and determine to what degree each of those variables contribute to the shear strength reduction. The variables studied in this work include: frequency of percussion, magnitude of percussive impact energy, angle of excavation and applied percussion, speed of excavation, depth of excavation, relative soil density, and environmental pressure during excavation.

  10. A physical approach to the automated classification of clinical percussion sounds.

    PubMed

    Pantea, M A; Maev, R Gr; Malyarenko, E V; Baylor, A E

    2012-01-01

    Chest percussion is a traditional technique used for the physical examination of pulmonary injuries and diseases. It is a method of tapping body parts with fingers or small instruments to evaluate the size, consistency, borders, and presence of fluid/air in the lungs and abdomen. Percussion has been successfully used for the diagnosis of such potentially lethal conditions as traumatic and tension pneumothorax. This technique, however, has certain shortcomings, including limitations of the human ear and the subjectivity of the administrator, that lead to overall low sensitivity. Automation of the method by using a standardized percussion source and computerized classification of digitized signals would remove the subjective factor and other limitations of the technique. It would also enable rapid on-site diagnostics of pulmonary traumas when thorough clinical examination is impossible. This paper lays the groundwork for an objective signal classification approach based on a general physical model of a damped harmonic oscillator. Using this concept, critical parameters that effectively subdivide percussion signals into three main groups, historically known as "tympanic," "resonant," and "dull," are identified, opening the possibility for automated diagnostics of air/liquid inclusions in the thorax and abdomen. The key role of damping in forming the character of the percussion signal is investigated using a 3D thorax phantom. The contribution of the abdominal component into the complex multimode spectrum of chest percussion signals is demonstrated. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  11. Estimating the parameters of audible clinical percussion signals by fitting exponentially damped harmonics.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Moinuddin; Malyarenko, Eugene V; Pantea, Mircea A; Maev, Roman Gr; Baylor, Alfred E

    2012-06-01

    Used for centuries in the clinical practice, audible percussion is a method of eliciting sounds by tapping various areas of the human body either by finger tips or by a percussion hammer. Despite its advantages, pulmonary diagnostics by percussion is still highly subjective, depends on the physician's skills, and requires quiet surroundings. Automation of this well-established technique could help amplify its existing merits while removing the above drawbacks. In this work, clinical percussion signals from normal volunteers are decomposed into a sum of exponentially damped sinusoids (EDS) whose parameters are determined using the Matrix Pencil Method. Some EDS represent transient oscillation modes of the thorax/abdomen excited by the percussion event, while others are associated with the noise. It is demonstrated that relatively few EDS are usually enough to accurately reconstruct the original signal. It is shown that combining the frequency and damping parameters of these most significant EDS allows for efficient classification of percussion signals into the two main types historically known as "resonant" and "tympanic." This classification ability can provide a basis for the automated objective diagnostics of various pulmonary pathologies including pneumothorax. The algorithm can be implemented on an embedded platform for the battlefield and other emergency applications.

  12. Automated Classification of Medical Percussion Signals for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md Moinuddin

    Used for centuries in the clinical practice, audible percussion is a method of eliciting sounds by areas of the human body either by finger tips or by a percussion hammer. Despite its advantages, pulmonary diagnostics by percussion is still highly subjective, depends on the physician's skills, and requires quiet surroundings. Automation of this well-established technique could help amplify its existing merits while removing the above drawbacks. In this study, an attempt is made to automatically decompose clinical percussion signals into a sum of Exponentially Damped Sinusoids (EDS) using Matrix Pencil Method, which in this case form a more natural basis than Fourier harmonics and thus allow for a more robust representation of the signal in the parametric space. It is found that some EDS represent transient oscillation modes of the thorax/abdomen excited by the percussion event, while others are associated with the noise. It is demonstrated that relatively few EDS are usually enough to accurately reconstruct the original signal. It is shown that combining the frequency and damping parameters of these most significant EDS allows for efficient classification of percussion signals into the two main types historically known as "resonant" and "tympanic". This classification ability can provide a basis for the automated objective diagnostics of various pulmonary pathologies including pneumothorax.

  13. Laser beam drilling of metal-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, H.; Merkel, M.; Ã-chsner, A.

    2014-02-01

    Laser drilling is a highly efficient technique to generate holes in almost any material. The relatively small amount of heat being involved during the process results in a small heat affected zone. This characteristic makes laser processing interesting for composite materials. The drilling process has to be adapted to the special characteristics of the composite material. In this paper investigations were performed with an advanced composite material, that is a metallic hollow sphere structure (MHSS). Numerical simulation was used to predict heat flux and temperature levels for different geometric parameters of the spheres (diameter, wall thickness) in order to optimize the drilling process. The numerical simulation allows a detailed analysis of the physical process in the zone that is influenced by the laser beam, which can hardly be analyzed by any measuring technique. The models for transient numerical analysis consider heat conduction and convection. The experimental work was done by a CO2-laser. The percussion drilling method has been used as drilling technique. The pulse duration was in the millisecond time regime. Investigations have been done with a mean power of 100 W, 200 W and 400 W. Two focal lenses have been used with focal lengths of 5.0´´ and 7.5´´. The laser beam melts the hollow sphere structure inside the beam leaving a hole in the structure as well as in individual hollow spheres. An image processing technique was developed to determine the circularity on the spheres and the drilled diameter in the structure. The circularity declines with increasing drill depth. The diameter as function of depth can be well described with lines of constant intensity of the focussed laser beam, the isophotes.

  14. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  15. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  16. Effective Dust Control Systems on Concrete Dowel Drilling Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Echt, Alan S.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Mead, Kenneth R.; Feng, H. Amy; Farwick, Daniel R.; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels. PMID:27074062

  17. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  18. Investigating Curiosity Drill Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-09

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity used its Mast Camera Mastcam to take the images combined into this mosaic of the drill area, called John Klein, where the rover ultimately performed its first sample drilling.

  19. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  20. Auscultatory percussion: a simple method to detect pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Guarino, J R; Guarino, J C

    1994-02-01

    To assess a new technique for the detection of free pleural fluid. 118 consecutive inpatients with radiologic evidence of free pleural fluid and a control group of 175 randomly selected inpatients were examined over a three-year period in a prospective blind study by auscultatory percussion (AP) for evidence of pleural effusion. The cutoff in the percussion note by AP is strikingly loud and sharp at the fluid level and allows precise delineation of even minimal amounts of pleural fluid. The fluid level was measured in reference to the last rib. The criterion for detection of pleural effusion by AP was a demonstrable horizontal fluid level at the sound cutoff across the posterior hemithorax above the last rib that shifted with lateral tilt. A general medical and surgical university-affiliated teaching Veterans Affairs hospital. All inpatients were eligible. Ready availability of examiners was essential. Rotating third- and fourth-year medical students, residents, and senior staff members participated. None. 113 of the 118 patients with radiologic evidence of pleural effusion had a distinct horizontal fluid level above the last rib that shifted with lateral tilt (sensitivity = 95.8%). None of the 175 control patients examined at random showed evidence of pleural effusion by AP examination, which was confirmed by chest radiography (specificity = 100%). Nine of the 175 patients without radiologic evidence of pleural effusion had elevated diaphragms that simulated a fluid level in the examination by AP. Each of the nine patients, however, had no shift in the level with lateral tilt. Subpulmonic effusions were readily displaced and identified by this method of AP. Examination by AP is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of free pleural fluid, even in the presence of obesity, thickened pleura, lung masses, pneumonia, and associated lung disease. The examination correlates closely with standard and lateral decubitus chest radiography. Pleural effusion

  1. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  2. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  3. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings 7304... Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX;...

  4. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drill pipe and drill... defined the subject merchandise as steel drill pipe, and steel drill collars, whether or not conforming...

  5. Using Flashcard Drill Methods and Self-Graphing Procedures to Improve the Reading Performance of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Hoffman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The increasing numbers of English language learners who are enrolled in schools across the nation, combined with the escalating academic demands placed on all students, warrant the evaluation of instructional strategies designed to improve English language learners' reading performance. In this study, the authors used a multiple baseline design…

  6. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  7. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  8. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  9. Evolution of hole shape and size during short and ultrashort pulse laser deep drilling.

    PubMed

    Döring, Sven; Szilagyi, John; Richter, Sören; Zimmermann, Felix; Richardson, Martin; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2012-11-19

    A detailed study of the influence of the pulse duration, from the femtosecond to the nanosecond regime, on the evolution of the hole shape and depth during percussion drilling in silicon is presented. Real-time backlight imaging of the hole development is obtained for holes up to 2 mm deep with aspect ratios extending to 25:1. For low pulse energies, the hole-shape and drilling characteristics are similar for femtosecond, picoseconds and nanosecond regimes. At higher pulse energies, ns-pulses exhibit slower average drilling rates but eventually reach greater final depths. The shape of these holes is however dominated by branching and large internal cavities. For ps-pulses, a cylindrical shape is maintained with frequent small bulges on the side-walls. In contrast, fs-pulses cause only a limited number of imperfections on a tapered hole shape.

  10. A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, L.; Fischer, F.; Kling, R.

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm to the drilling process of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyetheretherkethone (PEEK-CF) laminates. The combination of a modern UV-laser source with a scanning technology enabling speeds up to 4 m/s, suppresses heat affected zones (HAZ) and consequently detachment of fibers from the polymer matrix. A removal technique based on the ablation of superimposed layers of composite material is proposed and analyzed in detail as a function of energy density delivered to the surface, hatch strategy and thickness of the laminate to be drilled. The hatching technique discussed in the paper is compared with conventional laser trepanning and percussion drilling through holes for the realization of 2 mm and 0.1 mm diameter, respectively. In both the cases benefits were noticed in terms of extension of HAZ and quality of the cut edges.

  11. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter–gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates. PMID:26483526

  12. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-11-19

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter-gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates.

  13. Musique instrumentale 10-20-30: Instruments a vent et a percussion. (Instrumental Music 10-20-30: Wind and Percussion Instruments. Teaching Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The introduction for this Alberta (Canada) music education guide offers reasons for students to study the fine arts at the secondary school level. A philosophy of music education is presented along with 5 key outcomes and 11 music appreciation expectations for secondary students to attain. The volume features wind and percussion instruments. The…

  14. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

  15. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  16. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of

  17. Managing drilling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, K.; Peden, J.; Kenworth, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling operations requires the management of a great variety of operations, equipment, people, finances, legal aspects and safety procedures. A thorough understanding of the drilling process and the technologies involved is required to complete a project successfully, on time and within budget. This book presents guidance on the whole sequence of this process from field evaluation and well planning to drilling and optimization for both on- and off-shore projects. There are step-by-step guidelines and checklist which the practitioner can use directly, or with their own modifications. The author has refined these guidelines from his nineteen years of experience managing drilling operations around the world. Graduates in petroleum engineering and economic geology, as well as drilling engineers and drilling operations managers will welcome this handbook for its comprehensive and clear treatment of all the management issue and technologies required for a safe, efficient and economic drilling operation.

  18. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part II - drilling case history

    SciTech Connect

    Greener, J.M.; Trimble, G.E.; Singer, G.M.; Barnes, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Opon Gas Field development drilling case history in the Middle Magdalena Basin of north-central Colombia, South America. World class levels of drilling fluid and cementing densities in excess of 22.0 ppg were required to control the extreme pressures encountered. A continuous improvement process is detailed in regard to casing, drilling fluid, cement and related drilling mechanics programs in a severely pressured and environmentally sensitive operation.

  19. Advantages and limitations of using matrix pencil method for the modal analysis of medical percussion signals.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Moinuddin; Malyarenko, Eugene V; Pantea, Mircea A; Seviaryn, Fedar M; Maev, Roman Gr

    2013-02-01

    Although clinical percussion remains one of the most widespread traditional noninvasive methods for diagnosing pulmonary disease, the available analysis of physical characteristics of the percussion sound using modern signal processing techniques is still quite limited. The majority of existing literature on the subject reports either time-domain or spectral analysis methods. However, Fourier analysis, which represents the signal as a sum of infinite periodic harmonics, is not naturally suited for decomposition of short and aperiodic percussion signals. Broadening of the spectral peaks due to damping leads to their overlapping and masking of the lower amplitude peaks, which could be important for the fine-level signal classification. In this study, an attempt is made to automatically decompose percussion signals into a sum of exponentially damped harmonics, which in this case form a more natural basis than Fourier harmonics and thus allow for a more robust representation of the signal in the parametric space. The damped harmonic decomposition of percussion signals recorded on healthy volunteers in clinical setting is performed using the matrix pencil method, which proves to be quite robust in the presence of noise and well suited for the task.

  20. Hand-held percussion machines with low emission of hazardous vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. J.; Babitsky, V. I.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2007-09-01

    Vibration and impacts are essential features of many domestic and industrial hand-held machines. In many machines vibration cannot be avoided because of the vibro-impact nature of the working process. The only way to minimise an operator's exposure to harmful vibration in this case is to design the machine rationally. In this paper a percussion machine is considered as a multi-body vibro-impact system. The simplest structures have been found and investigated in which a strong vibro-impact process can be obtained with one body (casing/handle) being free of vibration. Computer simulations using Matlab-Simulink software and initial experiments validate the new approach. The main feature of the proposed new design is the use of a mechanism with zero differential stiffness. A hydro-pneumatic unit with zero stiffness was developed and tested. The new engineering solution was applied to a hydraulic breaker. Even a partial modification of the existing design and effective use of existing hydraulic power source demonstrated a significant improvement in performance.

  1. Optimizing an Internal Airway Percussion Device for Facilitating Exhalate Diagnostics of the Human Respiratory System.

    PubMed

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Silverman, Erin; Davenport, Paul; Hegde, Satyanarayan

    2015-03-31

    There is an urgent need for simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and repeatable technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage, which is the gold standard diagnostic method for pulmonary diseases, does not meet any of these criteria. This study seeks to develop and optimize a novel technique of Internal Airway Percussion (IAP) to facilitate the collection and characterization of human respiratory system exhalates. The IAP device transmits sound waves into the respiratory tract, thereby increasing the release of aerosolized particles within exhaled breath by vibrating both lungs. Nine combinations of sound wave frequencies and amplitudes were studied to determine optimal frequency and amplitude combination for maximum aerosol particle gain in healthy human subjects. Square-shaped sound waves generated at 15 Hz and 3 cm H2O resulted in 15 times greater total mass of collected particles in the first 2 min of sampling, and 1.2 to 1.5 times increase in count median diameter of the particles. IAP, optimized at the frequency of 15 Hz and the pressure amplitude of 3 cm H2O, increased the total mass of particles exhaled from the human respiratory system. IAP has a broad range of potential clinical applications for noninvasive diagnosis of lung diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer, along with improvement of mucus clearance.

  2. Efficacy of Precordial Percussion Pacing Assessed in a Cardiac Standstill Microminipig Model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji; Cao, Xin; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Nakazato, Yuji; Lurie, Keith G; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2017-07-25

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of precordial percussion pacing (PPP) during cardiac standstill are unknown.Methods and Results:A cardiac standstill model in amicrominipigwas created by inducing complete atrioventricular block with a catheter ablation technique (n=7). Next, the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by standard chest compressions (S-CPR), PPP and ventricular electrical pacing in this model were analyzed in series (n=4). To assess the mechanism of PPP, a non-selective, stretch-activated channel blocker, amiloride, was administered during PPP (n=3). Peak systolic and diastolic arterial pressures during S-CPR, PPP and ventricular electrical pacing were statistically similar. However, the duration of developed arterial pressure with PPP was comparable to that with ventricular electrical pacing, and significantly greater than that with S-CPR. Amiloride decreased the induction rate of ventricular electrical activity by PPP in a dose-related manner. Each animal survived without any neurological deficit at 24, 48 h and 1 week, even with up to 2 h of continuous PPP. In amicrominipigmodel of cardiac standstill, PPP can become a novel means to significantly improve physiological outcomes after cardiac standstill or symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the absence of cardiac pacing. Activation of the non-selective stretch-activated channels may mediate some of the mechanophysiological effects of PPP. Further study of PPP by itself and together with S-CPR is warranted using cardiac arrest models of atrioventricular block and asystole.

  3. Imipramine treatment increases cell proliferation following fluid percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Groff, R F; Dayawansa, S

    2013-04-01

    Researchers have observed unsustainable neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as well as cognitive improvements in short-term imipramine-treated mice following a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). But they have yet to investigate the effects of a longer-duration imipramine treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of a longer treatment regimen on rats following a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model, which creates a brain injury that more closely resembles those incurred by human patients. We administered imipramine to rats for 8 weeks following FPI. Brain histology was performed to measure neurogenesis and cognitive recovery was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM). The Injury+imipramine group demonstrated 172% neurogenesis relative to the injury alone group at 9+ weeks in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Neurogenesis observed here involved both the injured and the uninjured sides of the brain. All four groups (FPI+imipramine, FPI, sham, sham+imipramine) showed a similar performance in the MWM task. Longer duration of treatment with imipramine promotes sustained increase in hippocampal cell proliferation and survival. Global neurogenesis corresponds to the diffuse nature of FPI injury. Cognitive outcome can be due to a delay in our behavior testing as much as an absence of cognitive benefit of imipramine at this stage of neurogenesis. Nevertheless, exploring the potential benefits of prophylactic antidepressant treatment in human TBI patients is worthwhile.

  4. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: hearing the pitch of percussion.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Neil M; Marco, David J T; Wilson, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  5. Final Report, Contract F08606-79-C-0023.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-15

    NOTES fS. KCEY WORDS (Continue on ,everme side it necessary and Identify by block number) Drill rig, portable Hamer drilling Air percussion drill 20...describes the work performed to purchase, improve the transport- ability and evaluate a lightweight air percussion drill rig for use in pre- paring 50...field performance were also purchased or fabricated. A prelimin- ary evaluation of the equipment at the Teledyne Geotech plant showed that air percussion

  6. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  7. Evolution of coiled tubing drilling technology accelerates

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.; Adam, B.

    1993-09-01

    This paper reviews the status of coiled tubing technology in oil and gas drilling operations. The paper starts with a description of current coiled tubing technology and provides a cost comparison between conventional and coiled tubing drilling. The results show that offshore operations are already competitive while onshore operations will still lag behind conventional drilling methods. A list of known coiled tubing drilling operations is provided which gives the current borehole diameters and depths associated with this technology. The paper then goes on to provide the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. The advantages include improved well control, a continuous drillstring, reduced mobilization costs, simplified logging and measurement-while drilling measurements, and less tripping required. The disadvantages include high friction with the borehole wall, downhole motors required, limited drillhole size, and fatigued or damaged sections of the tubing cannot be removed. Finally, a review of the reliability of this technology is provided.

  8. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility.

  9. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  10. Automatic Quality Inspection of Percussion Cap Mass Production by Means of 3D Machine Vision and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellaeche, A.; Arana, R.; Ibarguren, A.; Martínez-Otzeta, J. M.

    The exhaustive quality control is becoming very important in the world's globalized market. One of these examples where quality control becomes critical is the percussion cap mass production. These elements must achieve a minimum tolerance deviation in their fabrication. This paper outlines a machine vision development using a 3D camera for the inspection of the whole production of percussion caps. This system presents multiple problems, such as metallic reflections in the percussion caps, high speed movement of the system and mechanical errors and irregularities in percussion cap placement. Due to these problems, it is impossible to solve the problem by traditional image processing methods, and hence, machine learning algorithms have been tested to provide a feasible classification of the possible errors present in the percussion caps.

  11. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics and Bone Density Analysis of the Implant-Bone Interface in a Pre- and Postmortem Human Subject

    PubMed Central

    Hui, DiDi; Bajaj, Vaibhav; Earthman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been hypothesized that a correlation exists between the density of surrounding cortical bone and the stability of an implant under percussion loading that can be used to quantify the implant's osseointegration. The purpose of the present research was to explore whether quantitative percussion testing of dental implants gives reasonable indications of the level of osseointegration that are consistent with bone configuration and its influence on osseointegration quality. Material and Methods Data from percussion testing of a live human subject, obtained using the Periometer®, were compared with corresponding bone density estimates from high-resolution computer tomography images and postmortem percussion probe data. Results The results confirm the hypothesis that the nature of an implant’s response to percussion is determined by its cortical bone support. Conclusions The findings suggest that the cortical bone supporting the crestal and apical regions of the implant is primarily responsible for structural stability. PMID:24278927

  12. Amantadine Ameliorates Dopamine-Releasing Deficits and Behavioral Deficits in Rats after Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Tsui, Pi-Fen; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Tsai, Jing-Jr.; Chou, Yu-Ching; Ma, Hsin-I; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Yuan-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. Materials and Methods In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group) or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Novel object recognition (NOR) and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR) behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. Results Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value) of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. Conclusion Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury. PMID:24497943

  13. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  14. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22, 7304.23... receipt of a petition filed with the Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX;...

  15. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phase investigation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on drill pipe and drill collars... remanding certain aspects of the Commission's affirmative threat determination in Drill Pipe and...

  16. Method of deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S. A.

    1984-11-20

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  17. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  18. Optimal Force Control of Vibro-Impact Systems for Autonomous Drilling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack B.; Okon, Avi B.

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain optimal energy efficiency is critical during the drilling operations performed on future and current planetary rover missions (see figure). Specifically, this innovation seeks to solve the following problem. Given a spring-loaded percussive drill driven by a voice-coil motor, one needs to determine the optimal input voltage waveform (periodic function) and the optimal hammering period that minimizes the dissipated energy, while ensuring that the hammer-to-rock impacts are made with sufficient (user-defined) impact velocity (or impact energy). To solve this problem, it was first observed that when voice-coil-actuated percussive drills are driven at high power, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the electrical current of the device remains in phase with the velocity of the hammer. Otherwise, negative work is performed and the drill experiences a loss of performance (i.e., reduced impact energy) and an increase in Joule heating (i.e., reduction in energy efficiency). This observation has motivated many drilling products to incorporate the standard bang-bang control approach for driving their percussive drills. However, the bang-bang control approach is significantly less efficient than the optimal energy-efficient control approach solved herein. To obtain this solution, the standard tools of classical optimal control theory were applied. It is worth noting that these tools inherently require the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), i.e., a system of differential equations where half the equations have unknown boundary conditions. Typically, the TPBVP is impossible to solve analytically for high-dimensional dynamic systems. However, for the case of the spring-loaded vibro-impactor, this approach yields the exact optimal control solution as the sum of four analytic functions whose coefficients are determined using a simple, easy-to-implement algorithm. Once the optimal control waveform is determined, it can be used

  19. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  20. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  1. Influence of ambient pressure on the hole formation process in ultrashort pulse laser deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Sven; Richter, Sören; Ullsperger, Tobias; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the influence of the ambient pressure on the hole formation process during percussion drilling of silicon by applying an in-situ imaging technique. In this study the pressure is varied from atmospheric conditions down to medium vacuum of 10 !bar. Drilling was performed using an ultrashort pulse system providing 8 ps pulses with up to 125 μJ at 1030 nm. At this wavelength, the ablation behavior of silicon is comparable to metals. At the beginning of the drilling process, we observe an increased drilling efficiency by 40% already for a moderate pressure decrease to 100 mbar. The formation of an ideally shaped hole lasts for approximately 200 pulses instead of only 100 as for atmospheric conditions and therefore leads to 3 times the depth at this point. The effect can be enhanced by increasing the pulse energy, but not by decreasing pressure further. However, the number of pulses till the end of the drilling process is extended by decreasing the pressure further. For a low ambient pressure of 10 μbar, this is accompanied by an increase of the maximum achievable depth of more than 100%. Simultaneously the hole shape changes from a few ends and bulges at atmospheric conditions to numerous branches over the complete lower part of the hole at low pressure. This drilling behavior can be attributed to a better removal of ablated particles from the hole capillary with decreasing pressure, which leads to lower scattering losses for the pulse propagation inside the hole.

  2. Nerve growth factor administration attenuates cognitive but not neurobehavioral motor dysfunction or hippocampal cell loss following fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinson, G; Voddi, M; McIntosh, T K

    1995-11-01

    Lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats results in cognitive deficits, motor dysfunction, and selective hippocampal cell loss. Neurotrophic factors have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases, and nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity. This study evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of intracerebral NGF infusion after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received lateral fluid-percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.3 atm). A miniosmotic pump was implanted 24 h after injury to infuse NGF (n = 34) or vehicle (n = 16) directly into the region of maximal cortical injury. Infusions of NGF continued until the animal was killed at 72 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks after injury. Animals were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction (Morris Water Maze) and regional neuronal cell loss (Nissl staining) at each of the three time points. Animals surviving for 1 or 2 weeks were also evaluated for neurobehavioral motor function. Although an improvement in memory scores was not observed at 72 h after injury, animals receiving NGF infusions showed significantly improved memory scores when tested at 1 or 2 weeks after injury compared with injured animals receiving vehicle infusions (p < 0.05). Motor scores and CA3 hippocampal cell loss were not significantly different in any group of NGF-treated animals when compared with controls. These data suggest that NGF administration, in the acute, posttraumatic period following fluid-percussion brain injury, may have potential in improving post-traumatic cognitive deficits.

  3. Improved cuttings analysis by thermal extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Segrest, C.; Sebian, J. )

    1992-04-01

    Thermal extraction chromatography (TEC) and relative hydrocarbon fluorescence (RHF) provide improved assessment of hydrocarbon productive potential from drill cuttings, full cores, and percussion or drilled sidewalls. Both rock quality and hydrocarbon content are evaluated by both techniques. RHF is used as a screening tool for TEC sample selection. Identification of productive intervals, oil-water and gas-oil contacts, type of production, maturity of oil, secondary contacts, and apparent gravity can be assessed. Fluorescence (RHF) is determined by use of a digital fluoroscope. Total fluorescence intensity and 'rate of cut' or rock quality are evaluated over large gross intervals. Zones of interest are identified and a more thorough investigation of these zones is done using TEC. In TEC analysis, the hydrocarbon content in the rock sample is pyrolyzed into an FID chromatograph using a megabore column. The characterization hydrocarbon fingerprint is developed and evaluated. TEC is more definitive than RHF, but both may provide comparable interpretations, in which case, future analysis can limit use of TEC and depend more on RHF for interpretation purposes, reducing the overall cost of analysis. The methods described are both cost effective and rapid, providing data in a completion time framework. Examples of past measurements are given and related to actual production. Discussions also focus on interpretation of the data.

  4. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  5. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bartlett, P. W.; Glaser, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments to, a target depth currently set at 2 m. Two drilling methods for lunar application have been investigated thus far. The first uses purely rotary drilling, and the second rotary-percussive drilling, similar to what was used by the Apollo astronauts. Both drilling methods utilize an auger for the removal of drilled cuttings. A breadboard drilling system able to function in rotary-drag and rotary-percussive modes was produced to develop and prove out the approach through testing. Spacecraft weight, power, soil properties, and environments are among the key design constraints. The drilling algorithm, rotation and penetration rates, drill bit designs, and auger designs are among the key design variables. The test results presented demonstrate the progress made in simulating the environment, designing an automated system to perform in it, and characterizing the performance of the system. During the initial phase of the research effort, drilling tests were performed in two different lunar soil simulants (FJS-1 and JSC-1, made in Japan and the USA respectively) that were prepared in the following manner. Each soil sample was first mixed with 10wt% distilled water, compacted to 2 g/cc using the Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557), and then frozen at 190K. Under these conditions, the soil became as hard as sandstone and served to simulate the water-rich soils that are theorized to exist in permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. The high bulk density, high water concentration, and binding nature of the water within the regolith were all chosen to serve as a worst case to

  6. Curiosity Drill After Drilling at Telegraph Peak

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-06

    This view from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows the rover's drill just after finishing a drilling operation at a target rock called "Telegraph Peak" on Feb. 24, 2015, the 908th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars. Three sols later, a fault-protection action by the rover halted a process of transferring sample powder that was collected during this drilling. The image is in raw color, as recorded directly by the camera, and has not been white-balanced. The fault-protection event, triggered by an irregularity in electrical current, led to engineering tests in subsequent days to diagnose the underlying cause. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19145

  7. Development of a TRL6 1 m class drill for acquisition and transfer of volatile rich samples on the Moon, Mars, and Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.

    2016-12-01

    For over a decade, Honeybee Robotics has been developing a 1 m class sample acquisition drill for acquisition of volatile rich samples from planetary surfaces. The latest drill system is at TRL6 and ready to be infused into future missions requiring acquisition of samples from approx. 10 cm to 2 m depth (the drill is scalable with respect to the depth). The technology for 1 m class drill started with the development of the TRL4 Icebreaker drill for the Mars Icebreaker mission. The drill has been extensively tested in the Arctic, Antarctica, and Mars chamber. The system demonstrated drilling in rocks, ice cemented ground, and ice with low power (100-200 Watt), low Weight on Bit (<100 N) and high penetration rate (1 m/hr). The next generation drill called the LITA drill (Life In The Atacama) achieved TRL 4/5 through significant reduction of mass (the Icebreaker drill weighed 40 kg while the LITA drill weighed 10 kg). The LITA drill has been deployed from a CMU rover in Atacama and in Greenland. A modified LITA drill was deployed from a Resource Prospector rover at NASA JSC and underwent thermal vacuum tests at NASA GRC. During these tests, the drill captured volatile rich samples (NU-LHT-3M with 5wt% water) at -100 °C and deposited them into cups. The latest drill, called the Resource Prospector drill (after the mission it was originally designed for), is at TRL 6. The drill has four actuators - two to drive rotary-percussive drill head and two to lower the deployment stage and the auger into the ground. The total rated power is approx. 500 Watt. The drill weighs approx. 15 kg. The drill uses a bite sampling approach whereby samples (nominally 10 cc in volume) are captured at the lowest section of the auger. The auger is then pulled out of the hole and sample is transferred to a cup or a funnel. The auger is lowered back into the same hole to drill another 10 cm and capture another 10 cc sample. This process continues all the way to 100 cm depth. The process can be

  8. Behavioral and Histopathological Alterations Resulting from Mild Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Zhao, Jing; Bockhorst, Kurt; Perez, Alec; Moore, Anthony N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of people who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have an injury that can be classified as mild (often referred to as concussion). Although head CT scans for most subjects who have sustained a mild TBI (mTBI) are negative, these persons may still suffer from neurocognitive and neurobehavioral deficits. In order to expedite pre-clinical research and develop therapies, there is a need for well-characterized animal models of mTBI that reflect the neurological, neurocognitive, and pathological changes seen in human patients. In the present study, we examined the motor, cognitive, and histopathological changes resulting from 1.0 and 1.5 atmosphere (atm) overpressure fluid percussion injury (FPI). Both 1.0 and 1.5 atm FPI injury caused transient suppression of acute neurological functions, but did not result in visible brain contusion. Animals injured with 1.0 atm FPI did not show significant motor, vestibulomotor, or learning and memory deficits. In contrast, 1.5 atm injury caused transient motor disturbances, and resulted in a significant impairment of spatial learning and short-term memory. In addition, 1.5 atm FPI caused a marked reduction in cerebral perfusion at the site of injury that lasted for several hours. Consistent with previous studies, 1.5 atm FPI did not cause visible neuronal loss in the hippocampus or in the neocortex. However, a robust inflammatory response (as indicated by enhanced GFAP and Iba1 immunoreactivity) in the corpus callosum and the thalamus was observed. Examination of fractional anisotropy color maps after diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a significant decrease of FA values in the cingulum, an area found to have increased silver impregnation, suggesting axonal injury. Increased silver impregnation was also observed in the corpus callosum, and internal and external capsules. These findings are consistent with the deficits and pathologies associated with mild TBI in humans, and support the use of mild FPI as

  9. Efficacy of short-term intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Testa, Amidio; Galeri, Silvia; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Corbellini, Camilo; Pillastrini, Paolo; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) compared to traditional standard chest physical therapy (CPT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and productive cough. We conducted a quasi-experimental clinical trial. Twenty patients, 40% female (mean ± SD age: 70 ± 8 years), with COPD and productive cough received a multimodal respiratory treatment including IPV and CPT or a control intervention CPT for 10 days. PImax, PEmax, heart rate, respiratory rate, SBP, DBP, Likert scale, Borg dyspnea scale and arterial blood gas analysis: PO2, PCO2, pH, HCO3 and SpO2 measurements. All measures were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. We used repeated ANOVA to examine the effects of interventions within groups, between-subjects and the within-subjects. A significant effect of time interaction (F = 7.27; p = 0.015, F = 6.16; p = 0.02 and F = 7.41; p = 0.014) existed for PO2, SpO2 and dyspnea over the moderate COPD and productive cough immediately after the intervention (all, p < 0.02). Both treatments are similarly effective in PImax and PEmax. No significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. This study provides evidence that a short-term combination of IPV and CPT improves PO2, SpO2 and perceived dyspnea than a traditional standard CPT in patients with COPD and productive cough.

  10. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  11. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  12. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  13. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  14. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  15. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  16. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  17. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  18. Percussion as an alternative scarification for New Mexico locust and black locust seeds

    Treesearch

    Nabil Khadduri; John T. Harrington; Lee S. Rosner; David R. Dreesen

    2002-01-01

    Hot water and sulfuric acid soaks are traditional treatments for seeds of many temperate woody legumes, including locusts. However, these scarification techniques often produce inconsistent germination. Percussion scarification, where seeds are repeatedly propelled against a hard surface, was compared with hot water scarification to evaluate treatment efficacy for New...

  19. Application of cochlear analysis techniques to percussion in electro-acoustic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John

    2005-04-01

    This presentation is focused upon the audio analysis involved in the creation of a ``pseudo-score'' for electro-acoustic music. This research was undertaken because the lack of an objective visual representation prevents music theorists from being able to easily discuss electro-acoustic music in written form. The ``holy grail'' of automatic computer music analysis has most often been the translation of a continuous pressure variation into traditional Western musical notation. Since electro-acoustic music is rarely able to be transcribed into this type of notation, the automatic analysis of electro-acoustic music confounds many previous algorithms. A top-down approach is suggested in order to extract acoustic and musical information from recordings of electro-acoustic music. Because humans are the best known system for translating a continuous pressure variation into useful acoustic information, a cochlear model, Patterson's Auditory Image Model (AIM), is used as a front end. The audio property of self-similarity of percussion has been chosen for initial study. This self-similarity property requires first that the audio property of percussion is quantified. The nuances of using AIM to determine percussion will be discussed. Models of self-similarity of percussion for varying time-scales will then be discussed.

  20. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  1. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  2. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  3. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  4. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  5. Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.H.; Money, R.C.; Palmer, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    Deep, hard or directional drilling imposes extraordinary stresses on drill string components. Because of the additional economic risks of deep drilling, the use of drill string components should be based upon their compliance with API or user acceptance standards. Inspection procedures which provide the highest probability of finding and eliminating unacceptable components should also be employed. Often, too much reliance is placed on a ''report'' or ''certification'' that the drill string components have been ''inspected''. The operator assumes that because the material has been inspected, it is suitable for the intended service. This report addresses three areas in which the above approach leads to trouble: Widespread, established practices have resulted in many applicable API guidelines being unintentionally ignored by users and inspection companies. API standards for used drill pipe do not address some items which should concern operators engaged in deep or critical drilling. Inspection companies frequently do not follow simple quality control steps that can markedly improve the results of their work. Examples of shortcomings in present industry practices are given. Corrective actions which have been implemented by several companies in the last 12-18 months are also given. A hand held calculator program which will aid in evaluating the wear limits on rotary shouldered connections is provided in the appendix to this paper.

  6. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    planned MDT usage. Alternatively, functional and operational tests were run with the MDT inside 4.5 inch tubing at depths of 800-950 ft. The MDT successfully demonstrated On-Off capability, pulled with up to 1465 lbs force, and verified its capability to transmit torque though it from the Orienter. Forces generated by the tractor were limited due to insufficient differential pressure because of the unloaded downhole motor, which is not typical during drilling conditions. Additionally, the Coefficient of Friction between the MDT grippers and the tubing was much less than the anticipated COF of the sandstone formation. Despite these minor limitations, to summarize the MDT operated as expected. Minor modifications to the MDT are being incorporated to improve gripping capability of the tractor. Additional demonstration wells are being arranged to expand on the project's goals of delivering a fully operational utilitarian tool for use throughout the US to improve reserves.

  7. Nicotinamide treatment provides acute neuroprotection and GFAP regulation following fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Holland, Michael A; Tan, Arlene A; Smith, Douglas C; Hoane, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the preclinical efficacy of nicotinamide (NAM; vitamin B3) treatment following fluid percussion injury (FPI). At a dose of 500 or 50 mg/kg, NAM significantly facilitated recovery of function on a variety of motor and sensorimotor tasks in rodents, and the 500 mg/kg dose improved cognitive performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute neuroprotective ability of NAM following FPI. Rats were given a moderate FPI (1.8 atm) or sham injury. NAM (500 or 50 mg/kg) or saline was administered 15 min and 20 h after FPI. Rats were sacrificed at 24 h or 7 days following injury and prepared for histological analysis. Systematic volumetric measurements were conducted to examine cortical loss in a series of cresyl violet stained slices to examine the development of the injury cavity. To assess the extent of astrocytic activity and neurodegeneration, triple labeling with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fluoro-Jade B (FJ), and DAPI was performed. GFAP(+) astrocytes and FJ(+) neurons in the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex, and ipsilateral hippocampus and thalamus were assessed. While not significant at 24 h, NAM significantly attenuated cortical tissue loss at 7 days. At 24 h, the number of GFAP(+) astrocytes was significantly reduced by NAM. However, the inverse was observed at 7 days where NAM treatment significantly increased the number of GFAP(+) astrocytes. Both doses of NAM also significantly reduced FJ expression at the 24-h and 7-day time intervals. The results of this study suggest that NAM has strong neuroprotective abilities in the injured brain and may have therapeutic potential for brain injury.

  8. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  9. Very large spot size effect in nanosecond laser drilling efficiency of silicon.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Fernando; Burdet, Nicolas; Carzino, Riccardo; Diaspro, Alberto

    2010-10-25

    The effect of the spot diameter in nanosecond excimer laser percussion drilling of through via in silicon wafer is presented. Experimental results show a ten fold increase of the ablation efficiency when decreasing the spot diameter from 220 μm to 9 μm at constant fluence in the range 7.5 J/cm(2) to 13.2 J/cm(2). Such effect is absent when using 60 ps deep-UV laser pulses. A model is developed that explain the findings in terms of plume shielding effect on the laser pulse. The model is successfully applied also on previously published data on deep-UV laser drilling of Polyamide and Alumina.

  10. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  11. Measurement Space Drill Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-30

    TRAC-M-TR-15-026 30 AUG 2015 Measurement Space Drill Support TRADOC Analysis Center 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943-0692 This study cost the...Space Drill Support LTC Michael D. Teter MAJ Adam Haupt TRADOC Analysis Center 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943-0692 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98)v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08-30-2015 Technical Report AUG 14 - MAY 15 Measurement Space Drill

  12. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  13. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 5 - System Evaluations. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    This project is aimed at decreasing the costs and increasing the efficiency of drilling gas wells in excess of 15,000 feet. This volume presents a summary of an evaluation of various drilling techniques. Drilling solutions were compared quantitatively against typical penetration rates derived from conventional systems. A qualitative analysis measured the impact of a proposed system on the drilling industry. The evaluations determined that the best candidates f o r improving the speed and efficiency of drilling deep gas wells include: PDC/TSD bits, slim-hole drilling, roller-cone bits, downhole motors, top-driven systems, and coiled-tubing drilling.

  14. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  15. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  16. Influence of ambient pressure on the hole formation in laser deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, S.; Richter, S.; Heisler, F.; Ullsperger, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the temporal evolution of the hole depth and shape for percussion drilling at different ambient pressure conditions. Deep drilling is performed in silicon as target material by ultrashort laser pulses at 1030 nm and a duration of 8 ps. Simultaneously, the backlit silhouette of the hole is imaged perpendicular to the drilling direction. While typical process phases like depth development and shape evolution are very similar for atmospheric pressure down to vacuum conditions (10-2 mbar), the ablation rate in the initial process phase is significantly increased for reduced pressure. The number of pulses till the stop of the drilling process also increases by a pressure reduction and exceeds drilling at atmospheric conditions by two orders of magnitude for a pressure of ca. 10-2 mbar. Accordingly, the maximum achievable hole depth is more than doubled. We attribute this behavior to an enlarged mean free path for ablation products at reduced pressure and therefore lower or no deposition of particles inside the hole capillary under vacuum conditions while debris fills the hole already after a few thousand pulses at atmospheric pressure. This is supported by scanning electron cross section images of the holes.

  17. Subsurface sediment contamination during borehole drilling with an air-actuated down-hole hammer.

    PubMed

    Malard, Florian; Datry, Thibault; Gibert, Janine

    2005-10-01

    Drilling methods can severely alter physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquifers, thereby influencing the reliability of water samples collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Because of their fast drilling rate, air-actuated hammers are increasingly used for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated sediments. However, oil entrained in the air stream to lubricate the hammer-actuating device can contaminate subsurface sediments. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons, heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd), and nutrients (particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) were measured in continuous sediment cores recovered during the completion of a 26-m deep borehole drilled with a down-hole hammer in glaciofluvial deposits. Total hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr and particulate organic carbon (POC) were all measured at concentrations far exceeding background levels in most sediment cores. Hydrocarbon concentration averaged 124 +/- 118 mg kg(-1) dry sediment (n = 78 samples) with peaks at depths of 8, 14, and 20 m below the soil surface (maximum concentration: 606 mg kg(-1)). The concentrations of hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr, and POC were positively correlated and exhibited a highly irregular vertical pattern, that probably reflected variations in air loss within glaciofluvial deposits during drilling. Because the penetration of contaminated air into the formation is unpreventable, the representativeness of groundwater samples collected may be questioned. It is concluded that air percussion drilling has strong limitations for well installation in groundwater quality monitoring surveys.

  18. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  19. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  20. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  1. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  2. Drilling into Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    This frame from an animation of NASA Curiosity rover shows the complicated suite of operations involved in conducting the rover first rock sample drilling on Mars and transferring the sample to the rover scoop for inspection.

  3. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  4. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  5. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  6. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  7. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  8. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  9. In Congress: Drilling resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following is the text of the resolution on continental scientific drilling passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives and signed into law by President Reagan on October 12.“…That to express the sense of the Congress that the Continental Scientific Drilling Program is an important national scientific endeavor, benefiting the commerce of the Nation, which should be vigorously pursued by government and the private sector.

  10. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  11. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  12. Alternatives to percussion and postural drainage. A review of mucus clearance therapies: percussion and postural drainage, autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure, flutter valve, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and high-frequency chest compression with the ThAIRapy Vest.

    PubMed

    Langenderfer, B

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review published studies on the efficacy of old and new mucus clearance techniques and to develop recommendations for different groups of patients. Mucus clearance is a problem in cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and many other pulmonary conditions. Percussion and postural drainage (P & PD) was the traditional method of facilitating mucus clearance, but the many hazards and contraindications along with the onerous nature and resultant poor patient compliance of this procedure have led to the development of alternative therapies. Research studies with cystic fibrosis patients support the efficacy of P & PD in patients who can tolerate it. However, equivalent sputum production can be accomplished with autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure, and Flutter valve therapy without the assistance of another caregiver, as long as the patient has the motivation, breath control, and neuromuscular function to perform these modalities. The Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation device and high-frequency chest compression with the ThAIRapy vest involve more elaborate and expensive equipment, yet these devices provide mucus clearance assistance to patients who lack the ability to perform the simpler techniques. Both mechanized modalities promote independence and self-care in the patient, and the effectiveness of both has been supported by the limited research published to date. Which alternative to recommend depends on the ability, motivation, preference, needs, and resources of each patient.

  13. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  14. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  15. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  16. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P; Jones, Julian D C

    2002-08-20

    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  17. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Mahlen D. T.; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2002-08-01

    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  18. Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. ); Jakobsen, J. )

    1991-08-26

    Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

  19. Temporal bone borehole accuracy for cochlear implantation influenced by drilling strategy: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Schoppe, Michael; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Minimally invasive cochlear implantation is a surgical technique which requires drilling a canal from the mastoid surface toward the basal turn of the cochlea. The choice of an appropriate drilling strategy is hypothesized to have significant influence on the achievable targeting accuracy. Therefore, a method is presented to analyze the contribution of the drilling process and drilling tool to the targeting error isolated from other error sources. The experimental setup to evaluate the borehole accuracy comprises a drill handpiece attached to a linear slide as well as a highly accurate coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Based on the specific requirements of the minimally invasive cochlear access, three drilling strategies, mainly characterized by different drill tools, are derived. The strategies are evaluated by drilling into synthetic temporal bone substitutes containing air-filled cavities to simulate mastoid cells. Deviations from the desired drill trajectories are determined based on measurements using the CMM. Using the experimental setup, a total of 144 holes were drilled for accuracy evaluation. Errors resulting from the drilling process depend on the specific geometry of the tool as well as the angle at which the drill contacts the bone surface. Furthermore, there is a risk of the drill bit deflecting due to synthetic mastoid cells. A single-flute gun drill combined with a pilot drill of the same diameter provided the best results for simulated minimally invasive cochlear implantation, based on an experimental method that may be used for testing further drilling process improvements.

  20. 3-Fluted orthopaedic drills exhibit superior bending stiffness to their 2-fluted rivals: clinical implications for targeting ability and the incidence of drill-bit failure.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, N; Gothelf, T K; Walsh, W R

    2008-07-01

    Non-perpendicular drilling of bone is commonplace in orthopaedic surgery. In the absence of drill-jigs and guides, the drill-tip is prone to skiving along the bone. Skiving can alter the position of the intended hole or result in damage to surrounding tissues. We hypothesised that the acute point-angle and increased flexural rigidity of 3-fluted drills - in certain clinical scenarios - can increase a surgeons' ability to accurately position a hole. This study examined differences in drill-tip geometry (point-angle) and mechanical properties (flexural rigidity) between 2.8mm diameter 2-fluted and 3-fluted surgical drills. Our results show that the 3-fluted design offers a significant improvement over the 2-fluted design not only in terms of accuracy; at 15 degrees and 30 degrees approach angles the 3-fluted drill skived significantly less than the 2-fluted drill in the hands of our surgeon, but also in the range of permissible approach angles; the 3-fluted drill was able to drill at a 45 degrees approach angle with skiving equivalent to that experienced by the 2-fluted drill at 15 degrees . Mechanical testing showed that bending stiffness (N/mm) of the 3-fluted drill (9.5+/-2.1N/mm) is more than double that of the 2-fluted drill (3.5+/-0.6N/mm) during operation. Computer modeling of the drills supported this finding and demonstrated that bending stiffness (I X) for the 2-fluted drill varies dynamically during operation whilst remaining constant for the 3-fluted drill. Our study confirms a correlation between mechanical properties, point-geometry and targeting capability for surgical drills. Increased I X of 3-fluted drills may account for the clinical prevalence of rotational bending failure amongst 2-fluted drills.

  1. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  2. Assessment of percussion, vibratory-shaking and breathing exercises in chest physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P P; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Pavia, D; Newman, S P; Clay, M M; Webber, B; Parker, R A; Clarke, S W

    1985-02-01

    While gravity-assisted positions (postural drainage) and the forced expiratory technique are known to promote sputum clearance, the additional value of percussion, vibratory-shaking and breathing exercises individually in chest physiotherapy is uncertain. These modalities have been evaluated in 8 patients with copious sputum production (mean: 44 g/day), using an inhaled radioaerosol technique. Tracheobronchial clearance was unaffected by the addition of either vibratory-shaking or percussion with and without breathing exercises to postural drainage. There was however a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in the dry weight of sputum produced during each of these treatments. The combination of postural drainage used in conjunction with the forced expiration technique is responsible for the majority of mucus mobilisation and should form the basis of routine chest physiotherapy programmes; the other modes appear to be of lesser value.

  3. Generalized Ultrasonic Percussion: Imaging of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Parameters and Its Medical and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takuso

    1994-05-01

    Imaging of parameters of nonlinearity in ultrasonic waves is considered as a generalization of doctor's percussion, where some kinds of perturbations are given and the responses are observed by means of ultrasonic detection. The concept and possibilities of its application are reviewed, and details of two examples of practical measuring systems are shown. One is a new medical diagnostic system and the other is a nondestructive testing system of characterizing the states of metal.

  4. The single steel drilling caisson: A new arctic drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hippman, A.; Kelly, W.; Merritt, C.

    1983-10-01

    Dome's experience with a new mobile drilling unit - the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC) - is described. The SSDC was designed to enable offshore drilling operations in the Beaufort Sea to continue beyond the short open-water season during which drillships are capable of working. The operator's requirements for storage facilities and rig equipment are discussed with reference to the SSDC, which proved to be well suited to offshore arctic operations. The drilling and testing of the first well are described to illustrate the successful operation of this innovative drilling unit. Problems associated with Beaufort Sea operations are discussed with specific reference to ice management and drilling problems.

  5. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  10. Directional drilling and equipment for hot granite wells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.; Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C.; Brittenham, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Directional drilling technology was extended and modified to drill the first well of a subsurface geothermal energy extraction system at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, hot dry rock (HDR) experimental site. Drilling equipment and techniques used in drilling wellbores for extraction of geothermal energy from hot granite were generally similar to those that are standard and common to hydrocarbon drilling practices. However, it was necessary to design some new equipment for this program; some equipment was modified especially for this program and some was operated beyond normal ratings. These tools and procedures met with various degrees of success. Two types of shock subs were developed and tested during this project. However, downhole time was limitsd, and formations were so varied that analysis of the capabilities of these items is not conclusive. Temperature limits of the tools were exceeded. Commercial drilling and fishing jars were improved during the drilling program. Three-cone, tungsten-carbide insert bit performance with downhole motors was limited by rapid gauge wear. Rotary drilling was optimized for wells EE-2 and EE-3 using softer (IADS 635 code) bits and provided a balance between gauge, cutting structure, and bearing life. Problems of extreme drill string drag, drill string twist-off, and corrosion control are discussed.

  11. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  12. Cerebral energy metabolism following fluid-percussion brain injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Unterberg, A W; Andersen, B J; Clarke, G D; Marmarou, A

    1988-04-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that head injury can cause alterations of cerebral energy metabolism. However, the etiology of this metabolic perturbation is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fluid-percussion trauma on cerebral energy metabolism. Seven ventilated, chloralose-anesthetized cats were subjected to a 3.2-atm fluid-percussion brain injury. Before and for 8 hours after trauma, continuous phosphorus-3 1 magnetic resonance spectrography was obtained to noninvasively monitor tissue pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the radioactive microsphere technique and calculation of oxygen and glucose consumption (CMRO2 and CMRG1) were also performed before trauma as well as 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after trauma. The data showed a moderate decrease in tissue pH from 7.04 to 6.89 at 30 minutes following trauma with return to control levels by 3 hours posttrauma. During the 8-hour observation period, CBF, CMRO2, and CMRG1 remained at control levels. Tissue PCr and Pi levels were also unchanged. Fluid-percussion trauma at the 3.2-atm level in ventilated cats causes a moderate and transient decrease in tissue pH that returns to control levels after trauma. No other metabolic changes are seen later than 30 minutes posttrauma. This indicates that a mild metabolic disturbance occurs after trauma in the ventilated animal and quickly returns to normal.

  13. A model of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kharatishvili, I; Nissinen, J P; McIntosh, T K; Pitkänen, A

    2006-06-30

    Although traumatic brain injury is a major cause of symptomatic epilepsy, the mechanism by which it leads to recurrent seizures is unknown. An animal model of posttraumatic epilepsy that reliably reproduces the clinical sequelae of human traumatic brain injury is essential to identify the molecular and cellular substrates of posttraumatic epileptogenesis, and perform preclinical screening of new antiepileptogenic compounds. We studied the electrophysiologic, behavioral, and structural features of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by severe, non-penetrating lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. Data from two independent experiments indicated that 43% to 50% of injured animals developed epilepsy, with a latency period between 7 weeks to 1 year. Mean seizure frequency was 0.3+/-0.2 seizures per day and mean seizure duration was 113+/-46 s. Behavioral seizure severity increased over time in the majority of animals. Secondarily-generalized seizures comprised an average of 66+/-37% of all seizures. Mossy fiber sprouting was increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus of animals with posttraumatic epilepsy compared with those subjected to traumatic brain injury without epilepsy. Stereologic cell counts indicated a loss of dentate hilar neurons ipsilaterally following traumatic brain injury. Our data suggest that posttraumatic epilepsy occurs with a frequency of 40% to 50% after severe non-penetrating fluid-percussion brain injury in rats, and that the lateral fluid percussion model can serve as a clinically-relevant tool for pathophysiologic and preclinical studies.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics for Evaluating the Strength of Bonds Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott; Malcolm, Doug; Earthman, James

    Conventional nondestructive (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was adopted based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting weak (`kiss') bonds between flat composite laminates. Specifically, the local value of the probe force determined from quantitative percussion testing was predicted to be significantly lower for a laminate that contained a `kiss' bond compared to that for a well-bonded sample, which is in agreement with experimental findings. Experimental results were compared to a finite element analysis (FEA) using MSC PATRAN/NASTRAN to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. The dynamic FEA models were used to directly predict changes in the probe force, as well as effective stress distributions across the bonded panels as a function of time.

  15. Oil base drilling fluid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.; Salandanan, C.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes an improved oil-base drilling fluid composition characterized by thixotropic properties resulting in a yield point of from about 10 to about 75 comprising an oil-base continuous phase and a gelling composition. The gelling composition includes a latex material copolymerized with one or more functional monomers selected from the group consisting of: amides, amines, sulfonates, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and combinations thereof and wherein at least one of the one or more functional monomers is an amide selected from the group consisting of: acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, N-alkyl-acrylamide, vinylacetamide, vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide, vinylformamide and combinations thereof.

  16. Design and performance study of an orthopaedic surgery robotized module for automatic bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Boiadjiev, George; Kastelov, Rumen; Boiadjiev, Tony; Kotev, Vladimir; Delchev, Kamen; Zagurski, Kazimir; Vitkov, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Many orthopaedic operations involve drilling and tapping before the insertion of screws into a bone. This drilling is usually performed manually, thus introducing many problems. These include attaining a specific drilling accuracy, preventing blood vessels from breaking, and minimizing drill oscillations that would widen the hole. Bone overheating is the most important problem. To avoid such problems and reduce the subjective factor, automated drilling is recommended. Because numerous parameters influence the drilling process, this study examined some experimental methods. These concerned the experimental identification of technical drilling parameters, including the bone resistance force and temperature in the drilling process. During the drilling process, the following parameters were monitored: time, linear velocity, angular velocity, resistance force, penetration depth, and temperature. Specific drilling effects were revealed during the experiments. The accuracy was improved at the starting point of the drilling, and the error for the entire process was less than 0.2 mm. The temperature deviations were kept within tolerable limits. The results of various experiments with different drilling velocities, drill bit diameters, and penetration depths are presented in tables, as well as the curves of the resistance force and temperature with respect to time. Real-time digital indications of the progress of the drilling process are shown. Automatic bone drilling could entirely solve the problems that usually arise during manual drilling. An experimental setup was designed to identify bone drilling parameters such as the resistance force arising from variable bone density, appropriate mechanical drilling torque, linear speed of the drill, and electromechanical characteristics of the motors, drives, and corresponding controllers. Automatic drilling guarantees greater safety for the patient. Moreover, the robot presented is user-friendly because it is simple to set robot

  17. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  18. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  19. New jack up designed for safe, efficient drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    A recently built jack up has incorporated the latest automated drilling technology for safe operation in the harsh North Sea environment. Santa Fe drilling Co.'s Magellan jack up rig, delivered in August 1992, was designed to improve drilling operations and operate with zero discharge while keeping the rig workers removed from much of the ordinary dangerous rig operations. The rig underwent sea trials in early 1992 and demonstrated a 310-ft water depth rating for the central North Sea. The rig has complete onboard control of all fluids for a minimum impact on the marine environment. It is designed to maximize collection, retention, treatment, and monitoring of all effluent streams. No environmentally unacceptable solids or fluids are discharged, even during adverse drilling and weather conditions. Additionally, the rig engines are designed to minimize air pollution through use of a lean fuel injection system. The paper describes the exploration drilling; production drilling; automation and safety; and the handling of blowout preventers.

  20. Downhole tools can increase deep drilling rig productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, D.A.; Doiron, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Explains how there is much to be gained by better utilization of current drilling equipment, particularly for the much more expensive deep drilling. Optimized mud weight, better hydraulics, and higher rpm offer the best opportunities with increased bit weight as a fourth possibility. Current RandD in such areas as shock absorbers, downhole motors, new materials and designs for bits, and improved instrumentation will decrease drilling costs. Concludes that a reasonable projection is that drilling time for deep wells can be halved within the next decade.

  1. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  2. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  3. Indian Ocean proposed drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curray, Joseph R.

    1984-04-01

    Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the Indian Ocean and any important problems, including tectonics, nature of the lithosphere, paleoceanography, and sedimentary processes will be considered.Please send proposals, with appropriate charts and copies of pertinent data, in triplicate to the Office of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES Office, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149) and, if possible, also send one copy to the chairman or to any other members of the panel. Proposals and letters received before September 1 will be reviewed at the panel meeting scheduled for the first week of September.

  4. Ocean drilling surveys planned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

  5. A new method for overhead drilling.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Gibbons, Billy; Janowitz, Ira

    2009-12-01

    In the construction sector, overhead drilling into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task associated with shoulder, neck and back musculoskeletal disorders due to the large applied forces and awkward arm postures. Two intervention devices, an inverted drill press and a foot lever design, were developed then compared to the usual method by construction workers performing their normal overhead drilling activities (n = 14). While the intervention devices were rated as less fatiguing than the usual method, their ratings on usability measures were worse than the usual method. The study demonstrates that the intervention devices can reduce fatigue; however, additional modifications are necessary in order to improve usability and productivity. Devices designed to improve workplace safety may need to undergo several rounds of field testing and modification prior to implementation.

  6. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  7. High-power slim-hole drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to implement new high-power slim-hole motors and bits into field gas well drilling applications. Development of improved motors and bits is critical because rotating time constitutes the major cost of drilling gas wells. Conventional motors drill most formations 2 to 3 times faster than rotary continuous coring systems due to greater power transfer to the drill bit. New high-power motors and large-cutter TSP bits being developed by Maurer Engineering, Inc. (MEI) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. These slim-hole high-power motors and bits, which are ready for field testing on this DOE project, should reduce drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent in many areas. The objective of Phase I is to design, manufacture and laboratory test improved high-power slim-hole motors and large-cutter TSP bits. This work will be done in preparation for Phase II field tests. The objective of Phase II will be to field test the high-power motors and bits in Amoco`s Catoosa shallow-test well near Tulsa, OK, and in deep gas wells. The goal will be to drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors and to reduce the drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent over the intervals drilled.

  8. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  9. Drill pipe corrosion control using an inert drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a geothermal drill pipe corrosion field test are presented. When a low-density drilling fluid was required for drilling a geothermal well because of an underpressured, fractured formation, two drilling fluids were alternately used to compare drill pipe corrosion rates. The first fluid was an air-water mist with corrosion control chemicals. The other fluid was a nitrogen-water mist without added chemicals. The test was conducted during November 1980 at the Baca Location in northern New Mexico. Data from corrosion rings, corrosion probes, fluid samples and flow line instrumentation are plotted for the ten day test period. It is shown that the inert drilling fluid, nitrogen, reduced corrosion rates by more than an order of magnitude. Test setup and procedures are also discussed. Development of an onsite inert gas generator could reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control chemical costs.

  10. Plans for ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The international ocean drilling community plans to meet in July 1987 to decide on some of the scientific goals of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) for the next 5 years. An all-day Union session is being held at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., “to organize and energize the U.S. marine science community” in preparation for that meeting, according to session chairman Garrett Brass, of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami (Miami, Fla.).

  11. Drilling mud proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, W.

    1981-12-01

    A discussion of the disposal of drilling fluids from Texas oil fields was presented. The most common is the transport of the drilling mud to approved landfills. This requires that the waste be fresh waste base mud only, contained in the pit, and be maintained oil free. Other approved methods of disposal include treatment with discharge of effluent to surface streams, land application on farm land (with owner's permission), and subsurface disposal. Some common illegal disposal methods included dumping on roadsides or private property (without owner's permission).

  12. Laser drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by picosecond laser pulses: comparative study of different drilling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, T.; Stolze, M.; L'huillier, J.

    2014-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a lightweight material with superior properties is increasingly being used in industrial manufacturing. Using ultrashort laser pulses can improve the quality in cutting or drilling applications, but at high power levels it is more complicated to maintain the accuracy and precision in CFRP drilling. According to the application requirements for the extent of the heat affected zone, the geometric precision and the productivity different drilling tools can be used. Therefore we report on the application of three different beam delivery systems to drilling processes of CFRP: Galvanometer scanner, trepanning head and diffractive optical elements.

  13. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. PTH(1-34) effects on repairing experimentally drilled holes in rat femur: novel aspects - qualitative vs. quantitative improvement of osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Smargiassi, Alberto; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The timetable of effects on bone repair of the active fraction-parathyroid hormone, PTH(1-34), was analytically investigated from the morphometric viewpoint in 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, whose femurs were drilled at mid-diaphyseal level (transcortical holes). The animals were divided into groups with/without PTH(1-34) administration, and sacrificed at different times (10, 28, 45 days after surgery). The observations reported here need to be framed in the context of our previous investigations regarding bone histogenesis (Ferretti et al. Anat Embryol. 2002; 206: 21-29) in which we demonstrated the occurrence of two successive bone-forming processes during both skeletal organogenesis and bone repair, i.e. static and dynamic osteogenesis: the former (due to stationary osteoblasts, haphazardly grouped in cords) producing preliminary bad quality trabecular bone, the latter (due to typical polarized osteoblasts organized in ordered movable laminae) producing mechanically valid bone tissue. The primary function of static osteogenesis is to provide a rigid scaffold containing osteocytes (i.e. mechano-sensors) for osteoblast laminae acting in dynamic osteogenesis. In the present work, histomorphometric analysis revealed that, already 10 days after drilling, despite the holes being temporarily filled by the same amount of newly formed trabecular bone by static osteogenesis independently of the treatment, the extent of the surface of movable osteoblast-laminae (covering the trabecular surface) was statistically higher in animals submitted to PTH(1-34) administration than in control ones; this datum strongly suggests the effect of PTH(1-34) alone in anticipating the occurrence of dynamic osteogenesis involved in the production of good quality bone (with more ordered collagen texture) more suitable for loading. This study could be crucial in further translational clinical research in humans for defining the best therapeutic strategies to be applied in recovering

  15. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  16. A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

  17. Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

  18. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  19. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  20. Reaching Water: Planetary Deep Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Davis, R.; Hoftun, C.; Lee, P.; Johansen, B.

    2017-02-01

    Deeper drilling to 100m depths is easy on Earth, but an extreme challenge on other solar system bodies. Deeper planetary subsurface access into ocean worlds or to the Mars cryosphere is possible with new drilling concepts.

  1. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  2. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  3. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  4. Emergency Simulation Drill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-04

    ISS038-E-011708 (4 Dec. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Zvezda Service Module, Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 38 flight engineer, reads a procedures checklist during an emergency simulation drill with participation from flight controllers on the ground. During the exercise, the crew practiced emergency communication and procedures in response to a predetermined scenario such as pressure leak.

  5. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  6. Additive for drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, A.E.

    1983-09-13

    A water-based gas or oil well drilling fluid is disclosed comprising an aqueous clay dispersion containing as a thinner and water loss control agent, the essentially water-soluble product obtained by heating together quebracho, lignite, gilsonite and sulfonating, methylating and causticizing agents.

  7. New generation drill rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

  8. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  9. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  10. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  11. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  12. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  13. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  14. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  15. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  16. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  17. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 West Drilling

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    President of Cascade Drilling, Bruce, talks about his contract with the Department of Energy and what his team is doing to improve water treatment and environmental cleanup. The small business owner hits on how the Recovery Act saved him from downsizing and helped him stay competitive and safe on site.

  18. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 West Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    President of Cascade Drilling, Bruce, talks about his contract with the Department of Energy and what his team is doing to improve water treatment and environmental cleanup. The small business owner hits on how the Recovery Act saved him from downsizing and helped him stay competitive and safe on site.

  19. Influence of Sex and ERK MAPK on the Pressure Reactivity Index in Newborn Piglets After Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kosty, Jennifer; Riley, John; Liang, Jiaming

    2013-01-01

    Greater impairment in autoregulation is seen in male versus female piglets following fluid percussion injury (FPI). This is partially mediated by a greater upregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK). We hypothesized that these trends would be reflected by the pressure reactivity index (PRx), a clinical measure of autoregulation. We further hypothesized that PRx values would correlate well with pial artery dilatory responses to hypotension. Male and female piglets were subjected to FPI and treated with a vehicle or ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 (1 mg/kg IV) 30 min post-injury. FPI led to upregulation of CSF ERK MAPK in untreated piglets of both sexes, however significantly higher PRx values were seen in male versus female piglets. Following administration of U 0126, elevation of ERK MAPK levels was blocked in both sexes and PRx values were significantly improved in the male. A strong correlation was seen between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity. These data support previous observations that male piglets demonstrate reversible ERK MAPK-mediated impairment in autoregulation following FPI, which is reflected by the PRx. The strong correlation between the PRx and pial artery vasomotor activity supports the practice of continuously monitoring cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients using this index. PMID:23525515

  20. Analysis of surface EMG activation in hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the tempo.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-08-01

    Although instrument playing-based training has been repeatedly reported to improve functional hand movements including grasping, the attempts to present quantitative information on physiological mechanism of grasping have been relatively insufficient to determine the type and the intensity of the exercises involved. This study aimed to examine the muscle activation during hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the playing tempo. A total of twelve healthy older adults with a mean age of 71.5 years participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on three grasping-related muscles: Flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, and flexor pollicis brevis. Participants were instructed to play with the egg shaker, paddle drum mallet and clave involving different types of grasp at three different tempi (i.e., 80, 100, and 120 bpm) and sEMG data were collected during each playing. Significantly greater muscle activation was generated with the small sphere type of egg shaker, compared to the handle type of paddle drum mallet and the small cylinder type of clave. Playing at faster tempo also elicited significantly greater muscle activation than at slower tempo. With regard to the rise time of muscle activation, while tempo significantly affected the rise time, the time to peak muscle did not significantly change depending on the grasping type. This study confirmed that grasping pattern and the tempo of movement significantly influence the muscular activation of grasping involved in instrument playing. Based on these results, clinical implication for instrument selection and structured instrument playing would be suggested.

  1. Enhanced alveolar clearance with chest percussion therapy and positional changes during whole-lung lavage for alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andrew; Rogers, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis has traditionally been treated with whole-lung lavage (WLL). The literature describes a variety of techniques used in performing the WLL, including mechanical vs manual chest percussion, use of prone positioning, and variances in lavage volume. We have quantified and compared the effective alveolar clearance for each component of the lavage by measuring the dry weight of material in the lavage effluent. We measured this in five patients who underwent six consecutive WLLs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We performed the lavage in the following three stages: stage I, passive drainage; stage II, assisted clearance; and stage III, positional clearance. Aliquots of lavage effluent were centrifuged to determine the dry weight of material present in sequentially recorded bottles within each stage. At the initiation of each augmentation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the clearance of material (stage II, p = 0.009; stage III, p = 0.012). Furthermore, we show that lipoproteinaceous material is present in the lavage effluent in all stages of latter portions of the lavage. The effective removal of material would be expected to have an impact on the physiologic and clinical response to WLL. This finding emphasizes the importance of performing an adequate and standardized lavage.

  2. Mixer for drill cuttings and drilling mud on a drilling location

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, J. G. J.; Entrop, W.

    1985-05-14

    A device for mixing of liquids and particulate solids, such as for instance a drilling liquid and drill cuttings on a drilling location. This drilling location can be a deep well drilled for gas and/or oil by means of a drilling tower on-or off-shore. The invention provides an elongated, rectangular open mixing tank on which a series of replacable agitating units having their axes in one vertical plane is mounted. The agitating devices each comprise a unit having a rotatably driven head carrying two support arms of unequal length which each support a mixing screw projecting into the mixture of liquids and particulate solids. This arrangement provides a thorough mixture of the drilling liquid, having a high viscosity and high specific gravity, with the drill cuttings frequently comprising heavy clay and/or rock particles.

  3. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  4. Drop pressure optimization in oil well drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellak, Abderrahmane; Benyounes, Khaled; Djeridi, Adel

    2014-10-01

    In this research work, we are interested in minimizing losses, existing when drilling an oil well. This would essentially improve the load losses by acting on the rheological parameters of the hydraulic and drilling mud. For this, rheological tests were performed using a six-speed rotary viscometer (FANN 35). We used several rheological models to accurately describe the actual rheological behavior of drilling mud oil-based, according to the Pearson's coefficient and to the standard deviation. To model the problem, we established a system of equations that describe the essential to highlight purpose and various constraints that allow for achieving this goal. To solve the problem, we developed a computer program that solves the obtained equations in Visual Basic language system. Hydraulic and rheological calculation was made for in situ application. This allowed us to estimate the distribution of losses in the well.

  5. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  10. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  11. Mechatronic assistant system for dental drill handling.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Simon, Jose Luis; Martinez, Arturo Minor; Espinoza, Daniel Lorias; Romero Velazquez, Jose Guadalupe

    2011-03-01

    Holding a dental tool for many hours of work is reflected in fatigue and manual tremor, which causes bad handling of rotatory instruments and consequently injuries within the buccal cavity. At present there exists no system to help the medical dentist in the support and handling of the dental drill. We propose the use of a mechatronic system to help the odontologist in handling the dental drill. The mechatronic system consists of an articulated arm with force sensors and actuators that are activated electronically. The mechanism was developed so that the handpiece is held simultaneously by the mechatronic arm and the hand of the dentist. Expert dentists and odontology students were asked to execute tasks to assess positioning accuracy and system resolution. Students performed positioning tasks to evaluate adaptation to the system. The subjects drew the contour of a circle with and without the mechatronic assistant to assess positioning accuracy. Similarly, they made cavities on acrylic typodonts to evaluate resolution and accuracy. Adaptation to the system was evaluated by inserting the drill burr into cavities previously made. The mechatronic system provides support and stability while handling the dental drill. The threshold of force required to move the mechanism prevents involuntary movements affecting the quality of work made on cavities. Positioning accuracy was improved by 53% (p < 0.017) using the system. Similarly, resolution of drilling was improved by 76% (p < 0.001). We have developed the first mechatronic system to assist dentists in handling the dental drill. The arm allows the dentist to manipulate the tool with smooth and precise movements during the preparation of dental cavities with the application of force. The mechatronic system minimizes manual tremor due to fatigue and reduces the risk of iatrogenic dental injuries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Congress asks for drilling plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robert S.

    The Interagency Coordinating Group on Continental Scientific Drilling develops policy to guide long-term drilling plans for the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey. ICG has already cooperated on several drilling projects, such as those at Salton Sea, Long Valley, and Cajon Pass in California, and Valles caldera in New Mexico.Congress will soon pass the Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act, S. 52 and H.R. 2737. The bill requires ICG to prepare a report that outlines a national program of scientific drilling.

  13. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  15. Usefulness of temporal bone prototype for drilling training: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Aussedat, C; Venail, F; Nguyen, Y; Lescanne, E; Marx, M; Bakhos, D

    2017-02-07

    Dissection of cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) is considered the gold standard for surgical training in otology. For many reasons, access to the anatomical laboratory and cadaveric TBs is difficult for some facilities. The aim of this prospective and comparative study was to evaluate the usefulness of a physical TB prototype for drilling training in residency. Prospective study. Tertiary referral centre. Thirty-four residents were included. Seventeen residents (mean age 26.7±1.6) drilled on only cadaveric TBs ("traditional" group), in the traditional training method, while seventeen residents (mean age 26.5±1.7) drilled first on a prototype and then on a cadaveric TB ("prototype" group). Drilling performance was assessed using a validated scale. Residents completed a mastoid image before and after each drilling to enable evaluation of mental representations of the mastoidectomy. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to age, drilling experience and level of residency. Regarding drilling performance, we found a significant difference across the groups, with a better score in the prototype group (P=.0007). For mental representation, the score was statistically improved (P=.0003) after drilling in both groups, suggesting that TB drilling improves the mental representation of the mastoidectomy whether prototype or cadaveric TB is used. The TB prototype improves the drilling performance and mental representation of the mastoidectomy in the young resident population. A drilling simulation with virtual or physical systems seems to be a beneficial tool to improve TB drilling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of small diameter pilot hole directional drilling for trenchless utility installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruev, A. L.; Saruev, L. A.; Vasenin, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper overviews trenchless utility installation techniques and prospects of further development of horizontal directional drilling technology to drill small diameter pilot holes. The improved design is suggested for the thread connection of drill pipes and hydraulic system to generate power pulses.

  17. Online drilling mud gas monitoring and sampling during drilling the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Almqvist, Bjarne; Klonowska, Iwona; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The COSC project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) drilled a 2496 m deep hole in Åre (Sweden) to deliver insights into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes from continent-continent collision, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state and geothermal gradient of the mountain belt and to study the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement. COSC was the first slimhole drilling project where online gasmonitoring of drilling mud was conducted during continuous wireline coring. Gas was continuously extracted at the surface from the circulating drilling mud with a gas-water separator, pumped in a nearby laboratory container and analysed in real-time with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for argon, methane, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and krypton. Gas samples were taken from the gas line for laboratory studies on chemical composition of hydrocarbons, noble gas isotopes and stable isotopes. Every drill core created a gas peak identified in the drilling mud ~20-30 min after core arrival at the surface. With known core depth and surface arrival time, these gas peaks could be attributed to depth. As a result, nearly complete gas depth profiles at three meter intervals were obtained from 662 m (installation of the gas-water separator) to 2490 m depth. Maximum concentrations of non-atmospheric gasses in drilling mud were ~200 ppmv helium, ~300 ppmv methane and ~2 vol-% hydrogen. Helium peaks between ~900 m and 1000 m and correlates with enhanced concentrations of methane. Methane and hydrogen exhibit maximum concentrations below 1630 m depth where helium concentrations remain low. Integration of the drilling mud gas monitoring dataset with data from geophysical downhole logging and core analysis is ongoing to help clarifying provenances and origin of gasses.

  18. Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles and Recordings. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 26th Annual Convention, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, William; Berndt, Arnold

    This catalogue lists over 350 phonograph records which feature solo and ensemble music by wind and percussion instruments. Instruments heard on the records include oboe/English horn, flute, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet/cornet, French horn, trombone, baritone, tuba, saxophone, percussion, woodwind ensembles, and brass ensembles. The catalogue is…

  19. Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles and Recordings. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 26th Annual Convention, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, William; Berndt, Arnold

    This catalogue lists over 350 phonograph records which feature solo and ensemble music by wind and percussion instruments. Instruments heard on the records include oboe/English horn, flute, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet/cornet, French horn, trombone, baritone, tuba, saxophone, percussion, woodwind ensembles, and brass ensembles. The catalogue is…

  20. Research drilling at Katmai, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John C.; Hildreth, Wes

    1986-10-01

    Drilling observations made in a young igneous system following a single, recent, well-described volcanic event can greatly improve our understanding of magmatic and hydrothermal processes and of the rates at which these processes operate. A group of geoscientists (Table 1) has been working since May 1985 to formulate and advance a plan for research at the site of the historically important 1912 eruption at Katmai, Alaska, as part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The plan was presented at the June 12-13, 1986, CSDP Workshop, held in Rapid City, S.Dak., and has now entered a more formal proposal development stage for consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey as an interagency effort. This report is provided to inform the geoscience community of the rationale for CSDP research at Katmai and of the forthcoming opportunities for participation in this multidisciplinary effort in the field of magmatic processes.

  1. Rock drill bit lubrication system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.

    1980-07-08

    A drill bit is described that includes a body part, a first chamber in said body part for containing a fluid lubricat under pressure higher than atmosphere during operation of the drill bit, at least one bit segment extending from said body part, a generally conical cutting element mounted on said bit segment and freely rotatable thereon thus forming a cutting element assembly, the improvement in combination therewith, wherein: said bit segment iclujdes an annular part having inner and outer circumferential bearing surfaces, said conical cutting element has corresponding bearing surfaces adjacent those of said annular part thereby forming two pairs of bearing surfaces defining first and second raceways, the second raceway being radially outward of the first raceway, said second raceway further includes a plurlaity of ball bearing elements distributed therein, this second raceway and ball bearing elements forming a locking bearing for retaining said conical cutting element coupled to said annular part of said bit segment, said cutting element assembly further comprising a plurality of rolling bearing elements distributed in said second raceway forming an inner bearing, and lubrication mens for lubricating said raceways and bearing elements therein.

  2. Reverse circulation air drilling can reduce well bore damage

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.M.; Amick, P.C.; Shaw, J.S. )

    1993-03-22

    Reverse circulation air drilling coupled with an air dryer at the surface helped eliminate formation damage in several gas wells. During reverse circulation drilling, the air flows down the annulus and up the drill pipe. The following were the three primary objectives of damage-free drilling (DFD): Reducing damage so the initial open flows would more accurately reflect natural permeability. Reducing damage for diagnostic tools (temperature logs, noise logs, mud [gas composition] logs, and borehole television) to better detect liquid and gas entry points. Improving sampling by returning larger cuttings with shorter and more precise lag times. The secondary objectives were to reduce drilling costs through the following: Lowering required circulating air volumes when cuttings are reversed up the drillstring. Reducing water influx from shallow water zones because of annular back pressure during circulation. Improving penetration rates for larger holes. This describes tests while drilling; the borehole television used in investigating air-drilled well bores; permeability tests; cuttings sample; drilling parameters; and operations and results from two field tests.

  3. Blind percutaneous liver biopsy in infants and children: Comparison of safety and efficacy of percussion technique and ultrasound assisted technique.

    PubMed

    Mogahed, Engy A; Mansy, Yasmeen A; Al Hawi, Yasmeen; El-Sayed, Rokaya; El-Raziky, Mona; El-Karaksy, Hanaa

    2016-12-01

    Liver biopsy remains the most reliable method to diagnose various hepatic disorders in children. We aimed to assess the technical success and complication rate of ultrasound (US) assisted percutaneous liver biopsy versus transthoracic percussion guided technique in paediatrics. This randomized controlled study included all cases performing liver biopsy at Paediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Paediatric Hospital over 12months. Patients were 102 cases; 62 were males, with age range 18days to 12years. Fifty seven procedures were done using the percussion guided technique and 45 cases were US assisted. The total number of complicated biopsies was 14 (13.7%), with more serious complications occurring in the percussion group. Complications were more frequent with younger age, lower platelet count, number of passes and occurrence of hypotension. US assisted percutaneous liver biopsy, although more costly, but may be safer to perform particularly in younger age. Copyright © 2016 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of manual to mechanical chest percussion for clearance of alveolar material in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (phospholipidosis).

    PubMed

    Hammon, W E; McCaffree, D R; Cucchiara, A J

    1993-05-01

    To our knowledge, there are no studies that compare the effectiveness of manual chest percussion (MN), mechanical chest percussion (MC), and no percussion (NP) for removing the proteinaceous material found in the alveoli of patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) while undergoing whole-lung bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL). We analyzed the optical densities (OD) of 27 bottles of effluent from three BPLs of a patient with PAP. One technique was used per bottle. The order of techniques was balanced within each nine-bottle series and among the three BPLs. The mean OD for MN (0.933 +/- 0.494) was significantly superior to MC (0.477 +/- 0.265) (p < 0.0005) and NP (0.318 +/- 0.242) (p < 0.0001). We conclude that MN is superior to MC and NP and increases the therapeutic results of BPL for PAP.

  5. Effect of ball geometry on endurance limit in bending of drilled balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Four designs of drilled (cylindrically hollow) balls were tested for resistance to bending fatigue. Bending fatigue has been demonstrated to be a limiting factor in previous evaluations of the drilled ball concept. A web reinforced drilled ball was most successful in resisting bending fatigue. Another design of through drilled design, involving a heavier wall than the standard reference ball, also showed significant improvement in resistance to bending fatigue.

  6. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time

  7. Mounted drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Manten, H.

    1982-07-20

    The drilling apparatus includes a mount in the form of a cylindrical member defining an elongated passageway and being provided with two opposite guiding rails each being formed with an elongated recessed channel communicating with the passageway; a rotary drive for holding a drill rod has a non-rotating casing provided with guiding elements movable in the recesses of the guiding rails; a feeding mechanism for advancing the rotary drive includes either tooth racks arranged in the recesses of the guiding rails and driving pinions mounted on the casing of the rotary drive or cylinder and piston units located in the recesses of the guide rails and cooperating with feed cables or chains. The mount is supported on a mobile undercarriage which is provided with two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting legs.

  8. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  9. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  10. Testing of the Prototype Mars Drill and Sample Acquisition System in the Mars Analog Site of the Antarctica's Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Marinova, M.; Davila, A. F.; Pollard, W. H.; Jackson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the testing of the one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sampling system, called the IceBreaker in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sampling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. In November/December of 2010, the IceBreaker drill was tested in the Uni-versity Valley (within the Beacon Valley region of the Antarctic Dry Valleys). University Valley is a good analog to the Northern Polar Regions of Mars because a layer of dry soil lies on top of either ice-cemeted ground or massive ice (depending on the location within the valley). That is exactly what the 2007 Phoenix mission discovered on Mars. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground and in massive ice at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This corresponds to an average energy of 100 Whr. At the same time, the bit temperature measured by the bit thermocouple did not exceed more than 10 °C above the formation temperature. The temperature also never exceeded freezing, which minimizes chances of getting stuck and also of altering the materials that are being sampled and analyzed. The samples in the forms of cuttings were acquired every 10 cm intervals into sterile bags. These tests have shown that drilling on Mars, in ice cemented ground with limited power, energy and Weight on Bit, and collecting samples in discrete depth intervals is possible within the given mass, power, and energy levels of a Phoenix-size lander and within the duration of a Phoenix-like mission.

  11. Evaluation of a new circuit configuration for the VDR-4 high-frequency percussive ventilator.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samuel W; Short, Kathy A; Hanson, William J; Hendrix, Laura; Charles, Anthony G; Cairns, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) by the VDR-4(R) has been a successful mode of ventilation in the management of inhalation injuries for nearly 20 years. A limitation of the standard VDR-4 ventilator circuit is that the sliding venturi manifold is heavy in weight and is normally connected directly to the patient's endotracheal tube (ETT), resulting in potentially hazardous torque on the ETT. In this study, we evaluate the mechanics of a new circuit for the VDR-4 that relocates the sliding venturi manifold portion of the circuit away from the ETT into the ventilator proper. This new VDR-4 circuit configuration may have an important impact on patient safety.

  12. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  13. Emergency Simulation Drill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-04

    ISS038-E-011718 (4 Dec. 2013) --- The Expedition 38 crew members participate in an emergency simulation drill with participation from flight controllers on the ground. During the exercise, the crew practiced emergency communication and procedures in response to a predetermined scenario such as pressure leak. Pictured in the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory are Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (center), commander; NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins (left), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, flight engineers.

  14. Emergency Simulation Drill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-04

    ISS038-E-011710 (4 Dec. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins (foreground) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, both Expedition 38 flight engineers, participate in an emergency simulation drill with participation from flight controllers on the ground. During the exercise, the crew practiced emergency communication and procedures in response to a predetermined scenario such as pressure leak.

  15. Plunging when drilling: effect of using blunt drill bits.

    PubMed

    Alajmo, Giuseppe; Schlegel, Urs; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Matthys, Romano; Gautier, Emanuel

    2012-08-01

    Plunging when drilling can be a detrimental factor in patient care. There is, although, a general lack of information regarding the surgeon's performance in this skill. The aim of this study was to determine the effect that using sharp or blunt instruments had on the drill bit's soft tissue penetration, using a simulator. Surgeons taking part in an International Trauma Course were invited to participate. Two groups were defined: experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Twelve holes were drilled in the following order: 3 holes with a sharp drill bit in normal bone (SNB), 3 holes with a sharp drill bit in osteoporotic bone (SOB), 3 holes with a blunt drill bit in normal bone, and 3 holes with a blunt drill bit in osteoporotic bone. Mean values and Student t tests were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven surgeons participated, 20 experienced and 17 inexperienced surgeons. Mean plunging depths for SNB, SOB, blunt drill bit in normal bone, and blunt drill bit in osteoporotic bone were, respectively, 5.1, 5.4, 21.1, and 13.9 mm for experienced surgeons and 7.6, 7.7, 22, and 15.9 mm for inexperienced surgeons. Drilling with SNB and with SOB was statistically different, with inexperienced surgeons plunging 2.5 mm (P = 0.31) and 2.6 mm (P = 0.042) deeper, respectively. There was a difference (P < 0.001) between sharp and blunt drill bits in all drilling conditions for both the groups. Our study showed a significant difference in plunging depth when sharp or bunt drill bit was being used. Surgeons, regardless of their experience level, penetrate over 20 mm in normal bone and over 10 mm in osteoporotic bone.

  16. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  17. Characterization of shallow geology based on direct borehole data and field reports and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling in Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Barry, Hamidou; Beavogui, Massaboye; Garzonio, Roberto; Keita, Alama; Patra, Lalit; Sartorelli, Massimo; Vogt, MarieLouise

    2013-04-01

    Based on previous experience carried out in other African countries by UNICEF, an improved methodology for the characterization of shallow geology and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling has been implemented in Guinea A sample of an approximately 2500 borehole logs distributed in the different regions of Guinea have been collected from SNAPE (National Water Authority of Guinea), after correction of unreliable data, 1540 borehole data have been obtained; for each point the following parameters have been estimated: - predominant lithology between 0 and 15 meters - predominant lithology between 15 and 30 meters - Depth of hard rock - Depth of static water level - Presence and thickness of lateritic crust An estimated category of hardness and permeability has been assigned to each lithology recorded in the database, as well as an estimate class of suitability for manual drilling. Finally a series of maps have been produced with the distribution of the above mentioned parameters. This information has been cross checked with direct field observation and meetings with drillers. Extrapolating these parameters the following output at country level have been produced: - map of suitability between 5-15 m - map of suitability between 15 and 30 m - map of general suitability - map of expected distribution and thickness of lateritic crust - map of specific techniques for manual drilling applicable The main procedure was a reclassification of the geological map: for each geological formation the predominant features for the parameters above mentioned were defined; this estimation was compared with the perception of those technicians who had direct experience of drilling in Guinea. In the map of suitability for manual drilling in Guinea the main factors considered to assign the "class of suitability" are: - thickness of unconsolidated layers - hardness and permeability of shallow layers - presence of hard lateritic crust - depth of water As the scale of the

  18. Comparative trial of manual and mechanical percussion technique with gravity-assisted bronchial drainage in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M; Redmond, A

    1979-01-01

    Chest physiotherapy still remains one of the most important aspects in the treatment of chest complications of cystic fibrosis. A mechanical device that allows the patient with cystic fibrosis to do his own chest physiotherapy will be of great benefit if it is as effective as manual percussion. 14 patients with cystic fibrosis using mechanical and manual percussion physiotherapy were studied by measuring sputum volumes, and FEV and FVC. Results with mechanical percussor were as good as with the manual percussor and, therefore, it would be reasonable for the older patient to use the former on his own. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:384920

  19. Comparative trial of manual and mechanical percussion technique with gravity-assisted bronchial drainage in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, M; Redmond, A

    1979-07-01

    Chest physiotherapy still remains one of the most important aspects in the treatment of chest complications of cystic fibrosis. A mechanical device that allows the patient with cystic fibrosis to do his own chest physiotherapy will be of great benefit if it is as effective as manual percussion. 14 patients with cystic fibrosis using mechanical and manual percussion physiotherapy were studied by measuring sputum volumes, and FEV and FVC. Results with mechanical percussor were as good as with the manual percussor and, therefore, it would be reasonable for the older patient to use the former on his own.

  20. Drill Pipe Corrosion Control Using an Inert Drilling Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B. C.; Copass, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a geothermal drill pipe corrosion field test are presented. When a low-density drilling fluid was required for drilling a geothermal well because of an underpressured, fractured formation, two drilling fluids were alternately used to compare drill pipe corrosion rates. The first fluid was an air-water mist with corrosion control chemicals. The other fluid was a nitrogen-water mist without added chemicals. The test was conducted during November 1980 at the Baca location in northern New Mexico. Data from corrosion rings, corrosion probes, fluid samples and flow line instrumentation are plotted for the ten day test period. it is shown that the inert drilling fluid, nitrogen, reduced corrosion rates by more than an order of magnitude. Test setup and procedures are also discussed.